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(1)Austenitic Manganese Steel: austenitic structure @ room T

due to high Mn level / high toughness, ductility, work hardening


capacity, abrasion & wear resistance / work hardens during use /
application in mining and earthmoving / large carbides on grain
boundaries (as cast) --- heat treat: solution treated to dissolve grain
boundary carbides, water quenched: to prevent or minimize carbide
precipitation on boundaries. (2)Marging Steel: v low c content
(0.03% max) / additions of substitutional alloying elements that
produce age hardening of Fe-Ni martensite / composition: 18 Ni, 7-
9 Co, 3-5 Mo, >1 Ti (minimize formation of TiC for incr. ductility &
toughness) / air cooled from annealing or hot working T ---- forms TOOL STEELS
soft M (easily machined/formed), then aged to high strength lvls. (1) TYPE W: WATER HARDENING: High C steels (0.7-1.5%) w/
(3)HSLA: = alloy steels + plain C steels / based on low C steels:
low hardenability / surface hardened by water quenching – incr. risk
0.03-0.08 C, <1.3 Mn, 0.15-0.4 Si, <0.1 all other / types: weathering of distortion / least expensive w/ lowest wear resistance / V added
steels, As rolled P steels, acicular F steels, dual phase steels, to minimize grain growth during austenitizing by stabilizing carbides
inclusion shape controlled steels, Hydrogen induced cracking steels / Cr added to incr. hardenability / application: low speeds, light depth
/ controlled rolling --- ultra fine F grain size / fine grain size --- of cuts of soft matl (wood, brass, aluminum, unhardened C steels
formation of carbide, carbonitrides, nitrides --- method: (1) pin A (2) TYPE S: SHOCK RESISTANT: application: repetitive impact
grain boundaries at high T; inhibit grain growth, (2) inhibit stresses (e.g. blades, chisels, rivet sets) / toughness most important
recrystallization of deformed A grains during cooling, (3) provide hardnese secondary / lower C content (~0.5%) / additions of Mo, Cr,
nucleation sites for new recrystallized F grains / main micro alloying Si,W, Mn for improved hardenability / S5, S7 popular (3) TYPE O:
additions: (1) Ti: stable formation of TiN; restricts A grain growth (2) COLD WORK, OIL HARDENED: widely used tool steels for cold
Nb: precipitates as NbCN; retards recrystallization kinetics (3) V: VC working applications (tool and die) / not suited for high speed cutting
and VN precipitates @ low T, during A-F transition, provides or hot working / high hardness and improved hardenability w.out
precipitation hardening / applications: structural beans, off shore oil quench cracks & distorition problems / application: punches,
and gas platforms. (4) DUAL PHASE: hard islands of M embedded blanking, trimming dies / O1 popular (4) TYPE A: COLD WORK,
in a F matrix / composition: C, Mn, Cr, Nb, Si / heat reatment: (1) AIR HARDENED: High C (1-2%) w. Cr, Mn, Mo, V, Ni / very tough,
Heat to alpha + gamma condition, A & F is produced, objective to w. high hardenability & wear resistance / application: blanking,
produce 15-20% A (2) Quench from alpha + gamma phase to forming, deep drawing die (which requires dimensional stability and
transform gamma into M, M or lower bainite (depends on alloy low distortion) / A2, A4 popular (5) TYPE D: COLD WORK, HIGH C
content and cooling condition), some retained A, *no need for & Cr: very high C (1.4-2.5%) w. up to 12% Cr / high wear resistance
tempering afterwards / continuous yielding during deformation --- no for use in die sets / good high T oxidation resistance / air cooled from
distinct yield pt, incr. uniform elongation when forming, matl also austenitizing T / application: blanking, forming thread rolling, deep
strain hardens during forming to gain strength (retained A drawing / D2 popular (6) TYPE H: HOT WORK: developed to
transforms to M during forming) / applications: automotive wheel withstand heat, pressure, abrasion involved in hot working / usually
rims. (5) TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity): composition:
have med. C content (0.35-0.45%) w. high amounts of carbide
0.25 C, 2 Mn, 2 Si, 10 Cr, 9 Ni, 5 Mo / Heat treatment: annealed to forming elements such as Cr, W, Mo, V (6-25%) / sub groups of hot
alpha + gamma phase region, isothermally treated @ intermediate work steels: Cr-based (H10-H19): low C and alloy content promotes
T before cooling to room T --- some A transforms to bainite, some high toughness / high Cr content give high oxidation resistance /
A retained on subsequent cooling / designed to retain A, A is addition of W and Mo incr. hot hardnes / excellent hardenability, can
converted to M during forming --- enhances formability by delaying be air hardened / W-based (H21-H26): higher alloy content makes
necking / combo of strength and ductility / incr. strain hardening more resistant to high T softening and erosive wear than Cr based /
capacity / good formability and drawability / high energy absorption prone to brittleness at normal T / more likely to scale at High T, can
and fatigue strength / applications: automotive structural and safety be air hardened buy typically oil quenched because of this / Low C-
parts. Mo Based (H42-H43): similar to W-based steels, w. similar
STAINLESS STEELS
applications / advantage is lower cost, but careful to heat treat as
(1) FERRITIC: 11.5-30% Cr, low C content / small amount of Ni more prone to decarburization (7) HIGH SPEED: application: cutting
reduces DBTT / corrosion resistance incr. w/ Cr content / less tools that machine metals, require high red hardness (hardness at
expensive than Austenitic SS / BCC structure – DBTT (avoid low T elevated T) and wear resistance / red hardness 1pprox.. 52 HRC at
and thick sections) / high C and long exposure to high T cause 540C or 48 HRC at 595C / suitable for cold work applications / during
embrittlement (2) MARTENSITIC: primary, secondary carbides in
austenitizing MC and M6C alloy carbides restrict A grain growth,
tempered martensitic matrix / good tensile strength, creep, fatigue while other carbides dissolve / cooling – there is a tendency for
properties / moderation corrosion and heat resistance / applications carbides to precipitate esp. at A grain boundaries, diffusion of Mo
(high C): cutlery and surgical instrumentation. (3) AUSTENITIC: Ni:
and W is slow enough to resist / Tempering – carbides precipitate in
strong A stabilizer / Mo + N added for better pitting corrosion M and retained A, retained A is covereted to M after cooling
resistance / Ni added for better Stress corrosion cracking / Ti, Nb (hardness incr. w. tempering, usually tempering repeated 2x,3x to
added for better resistance to sensitization / largest family of SS in eliminate retained A / Types (1) W-Based (Group T): original high
terms of alloys and usage / no phase change on cooling (not speed tool steels, developed in 20th century, deep hardening,
hardened by heat treatment) / non magnetic / FCC --- no DBTT / achieve max hardness of 65-67 HRC (2) Mo-Based (Group M):
excellent low T ductility, weldability, corrosion resistance. slightly tougher than Group T for equivalent hardness and lower
(4)DUPLEX: manufacturers design / good corrosion resistance and
cost, hardness of >65 HRC, excellent hardenability, may
strength / two phase alloy having a combo of A and F SS properties decarburize during heat treatment, due to high F stabilizers – must
/ low C (<0.03%) / 20-30% Cr / 5-8% Ni / resistant to SCC (better be heated with within 85C of solidus T (can lead to incipient heating
than A SS) --- F makes steel susceptible to embrittlement when long if over heated)
heating at high T / quench rapidly from annealing T above 1000C to
avoid carbide formation/ application: oil and gas (5) PH: (1)
Semiaustenitic: gamma in solution annealed conditions / forming
operations on gamma, then transformed to M, then precipitation
hardened (2) Martensitic: M in solution annealed conditions, formed
and then precipitation hardened / solution anneal = solutionizing /
cooling after solutionizong = air cooling or oil quenching (6) CAST:
(1) Corrosion Resistant (C-Type) for T <650C, gen. low C content
(<0.2%), >11% Cr, 1-30% Ni (2) Heat Resistant (H-Type) for T
>650C, high C content (0.3-0.6%) EMBRITTLEMENT: (1) 400-
450C, Cr rich precipitates through grains, remove by heating above
815C (2) 540-760C, aged for long times, sigma precipitates cause
embrittlement, remove by reheating to above 815C (3) High T,
>980C, Cr carbides/nitrides on grain boundaries, remove/solve by
reducing interstitial elements or adding sm. Amounts of alloying
CAST IRON element to scavenge the interstitial elements SENSITIZATION: A
White CI: C –> Fe3C | wear resistant, brittle / small C and Si SS suffers from inter granular corrosion (aka this) / @ 450-870C Cr
content (hypoeutectic) / application: grinding plates, crushing balls. carbides form @ grain boundaries --- depletes the surrounding Cr
Gray CI: C-> graphite flakes + matrix of P / most widely used / types matrix / Cr depleted area are susceptible to corrosion / common
of flakes influence properties / fine flake – lower CE composition, cause is heat of welds / reverse by heating to 1040-1150C to SURFACE TREATMENT
Higher cooling rates / small flakes – incr. strength, better surface dissolve carbides then rapid cool / Ti, Nb reduces sensitization by Surface Modifications: Regeneration of rough/damaged surface
finish / larger flakes – incr. thermal conductivity, incr. damping stabilizing carbides by polishing / adjusting surface microstructure by localized heat
capacity, incr. machinability. High Si content. Ductile CI: graphite - treatment / adjusting local composition of surface / adding a
> nodes or spheroids / high toughness & ductility / spheroids formed surface coating of a different material. SURFACE HARDENING:
due to presence of sm. Amounts of alloying elements or addition of base matl 0.35-0.75 C steel / steps: (1) part is heat treated to get
inoculants, minimize local stress conc. @ particles / heat treated to desired core hardness/toughness (2) localized heat is applied to
produce matrix of F, P, M / austempering incr. strength and surface to austenitize it (3) matl quenched to form M then
toughness. Malleable CI: Fe3C in white CI turned to graphite / tempered to reach desired hardness / bainite region separates
graphitization by heat treatment (1) heat above eutectoid temp. for hard surface and softer core – reduces cracking / dimensional
3-20 hr (2) cooling to form F, P, M / for fine featured castings with change of M transformation gen. leaves surface layer in
incr. toughness. Compacted CI: spheroidizing elements (Mg, Ca, compression – improves fatigue resistance and SCC (1) FLAME:
RE) + anti-spheroidizing elements (Al, Ti) / < 20% spheroidal only surface is heated with torch (oxyacetylene, propane, natl gas)
graphite / properties between gray and ductile CI / better castability, then quench w/ water to form M / gen. steels w. 0.4-0.75% C are
thermal conductivity, damping capacity / stronger & more ductile flame hardened / Must temper after to relieve stresses (can also
than Gray CI / good for high T applications and good thermal fatigue. be done with the torch) / used for lg parts or specific sm sections
Alloy CI: TYPES: (1) Abrasion Resistant – white CI to Cr to form of sm parts / heating T ~ 1500F / case depth of 6.3 mm possible –
carbides / full M matrix / crushing and grinding applications (2) hard to control case depth (2) INDUCTION: higher heat rates than
Corrosion Resistant – gray CI + Ni, Cr, Cu / Si > 3% forms protective flame / alternating magnetic field induces electric current w/in the
oxide surface films. (3) Heat Resistant - .3% Al, Cr, Ni, Mo, Si steel which resistively heats part before quenching to form M /
improves T properties / Cr & Si form oxide scale (protects from depth of heating is inversely proportional to freq. of AC current
heavy scaling) / Mo incr. T strength / Al incr. high T scaling @ used / freq. of 2-500 kHz used, higher for lower case depths /
expense of room T properties. produces case depth of <3.2 mm / gen. steel w. 0.4-0.75% C are
ALLOYING STEELS induction hardened / e.g. crankshaft, gears, camshaft / suited for
continuous operations – fast heating w. little distortion,
decarburization, oxidation (3) LASER: rapid local heating / no fine, fibrous Hypo eutectic mixture / without – has near eutectic Al (2.2) Cu-Si {Si BRONZE} ALLOYS: low cost alternative to Ti
external quench media req’d / laser can assist in application of composition since lower melting pt which makes cheaper to cast (4) Bronze / 1-4% Si / severe cold working produces high strengths
coatings / very fast, localized, expensive / produced harder, more Al-Mg ALLOYS 1-5% Mg, Low Fe, Si im purities, Mn (0.1-1%), Cr / Mn addition improve high T strength + wear resistance /
wear resistant surface due to faster cooling rates CASE (0.1-0.25%) / strengthening by solid solution, strain hardening / application: chemical processing plants (3) Cu-Ni-Zn {NICKEL
HARDENING: changes alloy composition, surface composition properties wide strength range, good forming, welding and corrosion SILVER} ALLOYS Does not contain silver, but named after its
changed by solid state diffusion of alloying elements into steel resistance / applications: finishing and decorations / susceptible to colour / SINGLE PHASE ALLOYS: 60-63% Cu, 7-30% Ni, Zn
(C,N) (A) CARBURIZING: high surface C conc. w. low C core SCC when MgAl particles form at grain boundaries when cooled balance – excellent cold working properties / TWO PHASE
provides hard surface but a tough core / parts can be quenched from high T HEAT TREATABLE (A) Al-Cu ALLOYS 4.5-6.3% Cu, ALLOYS: ~45% Cu, 45% Ni, 10% Zn – easily hot worked, not as
directly from carburizing T for less process time and cost – A grain 0.3-0.8% Mn / strengthening by: solid solution, age hardening (heat) good cold working properties / have med-high strength, excellent
size usually high though / to improve properties can cool to room / properties: good strength, weldability, resistance to SCC, good corrosion resistance / need to stress relieve to prevent SCC /
T to form P, then austenitized and quenched – finer A grain size, hight T properties / applications: aircraft structural components (B) application: base for silver plated pieces e.g. jewellery, tableware
more evenly distributed pro-eutectoid Fe3, retained A at surface / Al-Cu-Mg ALLOYS 4% Cu, Mg, Mn, Si additions / strengthening by Ni, Co ALLOYS & SUPER ALLOYS
methods: Pack, Gas, Liquid, Vacuum / depth of case depends on solid soltuon, age hardening (heat) / properties: good strength, SUPER ALLOYS: high performance alloys that exhibit excellent
degree to which C can diffuse into part / C(t,x)=Cs-(Cs- weldability, resistance to SCC, good high T properties / Mg additions strength, creep resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance even
Co)*erf{x/2*sqrt(D*t)}, where D=Do*exp(-Q/RT) (B) NITRIDING: improve strength by improving age hardening / applications: truck at high T / applications: aerospace, gas turbines, nuclear reactors
strength through solid solution strengthening and formation of hard frames, aircract engine PRECIPITATION HARDENING / composition: Ni, Fe-Ni, Co --- all have FCC *for Co, Fe structure
nitride particles / shallow case depth, <0.50mm / singe stage: may PROPERTIES need appreciable max solubility / solubility decr. w. T stabilized for all T by alloying elements / some are so highly
form brittle white layer of iron nitride – can be machined away, / quenchable / coherent or semi coherent precipitates / matrix is alloyed that must be produced by powder metallurgy or
second stage w. diff. atmospheric conditions can decompose ductile and soft (C) Al-Mg-Si-Cu ALLOYS Mg 0.6-1.2%, Si 0.4- mechanical alloying / strengthening mechanism: Solid solution,
white layer and dissolve N into the steel / methods: gas nitriding 1.3%, Cu added for strength, Mn, Cr added for grain refinement / precipitation hardening (Ni, Fe-Ni alloys), Grain boundary
(ammonia gas), Liquid nitriding (molten salt bath) / advantages: strengthening: solid solution, age hardening (heat) / properties: carbides or borides*also retard creep by grain boundary sliding /
can be done at T below A1(500-565C typically), excellent intermediate strength, fair formability, good corrosion resistance, protective oxide surface layer formed by Cr and Al oxides / (A)
dimensional stability / produce high hardness in case(70 HRC) / good surface appearance / applications: gen. purpose, auto body, Ni BASED common + complex, used for most demanding
no heat treatment required after hardening / improves corrosion conductors (D) Al-Zn-Mg ALLOYS 4-8% Zn, 1-3% Mg, Cu (1-2%) applications / lower T alloys are strengthened mainly by solid
resistance / disadvantages: long time, high cost, high hardness for incr. strength / strengthening: solid solution, Age hardening solution elements e.g. Hasteloy / highest strength, high T alloys
preclude final machining, formation of brittle white layer (C) (heat) / properties: very high strength / applications: structural load are precipitation hardened e.g. Inconel / also strengthened by
CARBONITRIDING: modified gas carburizing, or liquid method in bearing, air craft components (E) Al-Li ALLOYS ~2% Li, Cu and Mg mechanical alloying with oxide particle dispersion (B) Fe-Ni
liquid cyanide bath / Ammonia gas introduced into carburizing added improve strength / Strengthening: solid solution, age BASED can be precipitation hardened or solid solution
atmosphere to add nitrogen to carburized case / lower T and hardening / properties: high stiffness, low density, good fatigue strengthened / some with very low thermal expansion coeff. E.g.
shorter times than normal gas carburizing / shallow case produced resistance in tension, low ductility, low fracture toughness, Inconel (C) Co BASED hardening mostly by carbides / excellent
/ hard case produced with C and N enriched / N incr. hardenability, expensive / applications: aircraft, cryogenic hot corrosion resistance – useful for low stress, high T
slower quenches can be used / can be paired with carburizing to MAGNESIUM ALLOYS applications
get better depths and harder surfaces HARDFACING: applying Low density (lower than Al) @ 1.8 g/cm3 / HCP structure – poor
coating to reduce surface damage and incr. hardness / common ductility / good casting, machining properties / not resistant to
alloys Co, Ni, Fe-Mn, Cu, Fe-Cr / incr. wear resistance provided corrosion / oxidation and ignition issues / applications: transportation
by carbide particles in cating (Cr, W, carbide) / coating applied / Al, Zn strength + ductility + precipitation hardening / Mn removes
through melting powder by welding or thermal spray. CUTTING Fe impurities to improve corrosion resistance / Zr grain refiner,
TOOL COATINGS: hard, wear resistant coating, extends tool life should not add with Al or Mn or brittle intermetallics form / Rare Earth
/ applied to tool steel or cemented carbide tools / incr. surface (RE) incr. strength, ductility / Ag improves precipitation hardening /
hardness and reduce coeff. of friction / matl to be machined Ca oxidation, flammability, grain size, creep resistance / Fe, Ni, Cu
strongly affects the performance of coating – e.g. TiN coatings are reduce corrosion resistance Mg CASTING ALLOYS Mg-Al-Zn most
good for ferrous metals but break down when machinging Ti common casting alloys, solid solution strengthening, can be
alloys. / Method: CVD, PVD – coatings very thin, 5-20 precipitation hardened Mg WROUGHT ALLOYS limited formability
micrometers; CVD: applied at high T (700-1000C), primarily limits use of wrought alloys, Mg-Al-Zn common, alloy with RE incr.
chemical process, mixed source matl PVD: lower T (~500C), ductility and texture / Heat Treat – annealing at 290-455C, stress
physical process, pure source matl SURFACE TREATMENT OF relieve at 150-450C reduces resid stress, solution heat treat at 390-
ALUMINUM protected with standard paints and enamels / Al 525C
develops thick oxide coatings by making Al the anode in plating TITANIUM ALLOYS
type electrochemical cell / Anodizing: most commonly applied Heavier than Al or Mg, still light thoo @ 4.5 g/cm3 / high strengths
surface treatment for Al – conversion of surface of piece to Al to Al achievable at elevated T as well / good fatigue characteristics /
Oxide, oxide is porous, small surface dissolution during process / applications: cryogenics, no DBTT, biomed, aerospace / good
wear resistant and chemically inert / Al oxide film v hard – corrosion resistance due to stable oxide film / high cost / (1)
machining should be avoided / thick or thin coatings (2-50 um) / COMMERCIALLY PURE Ti good ductility but low strength / sm
thick film used for wear resistance, thin for decorative purpose / additions of O, Fe give solid solution strengthening / excellent
hardcoating is special type which produced thick black or gray corrosion resistance / applications: tanks, tubes, HX (2)
black anodized layers CLADDING metallurgically bound dissimilar ALLOTROPIES i: HCP (alpha) alpha stabilizers raise alpha to beta
alloys through deformation processing / e.g cladded Al sheets transition T (Al, Ga, Ge, C, O, N) / stronger phase / pure Ti is HCP
produced by rolling dissimilar sheet layers (roll bonding), Al at room T, @ 885C transforms to BCC ii: BCC (BETA) beta
cladded steel, Cu clad Al wired stabilizers lower transition T (Mo, V, Fe, Ni, Cr) / more ductile phase
ALUMINUM ALLOYS – STRENGTHENING METHODS FOUR MAIN CATEGORIES (A) ALPHA ALLOYS have natural
CAST ALLOYS: made by casting into shape, formulated for good alpha stabilizers / *similar to Near alpha (B) NEAR ALPHA ALLOYS
fluidity and flow, both heat treatable and non heatreatable. contain sm amount of ductile beta phase / stronger CP Ti / decr.
WROUGHT ALLOYS: made using forming technique (after an Corrosion resistance, medium formability / main alloying element is
initial casting), both heat treatable and non heat treatable Al – gives solid solution strengthening / used for strength and
STRENGTHENING METHODS FOR Al ALLOYS (1) SOLID ductility, high T strength and creep resistance / exceed 9% Al and
SOLUTION STRENGTHENING: strength due to strain field w. alloy can embrittle (C) ALPHA BETA ALLOYS microstructure of
dislocation movement / strength depends on atom size difference both alpha, beta / Al stabilizes alpha, provides strength to HCP
– interstitial or substitutional, & % of solute / solid solubility incr. w. phase / beta stabilizers provide extra strength by allowing heat
T / problem – natural aging, soln – keep @ -45 to -75 C (2) treatment / rapid quench transforms some beta to M – aging
DISPERSION STRENGTHENING: powder compactions (3) decomposes M to provide strength (D) BETA ALLOYS rich in beta
PRECIPITATION (AGE) HARDENING: precipitates in solid state stabilizers / retain Beta Ti to room T w.out forming M / can precipitate
rxn solutionizing > quenching > artificial aging / precipitates grow alpha phase to strengthen / incr. in fracture toughness / room T
& coarsen w. aging time / at high T, precipitation process formability + strength / Solute Lean: narrower processing windows
accelerated & various types might form also / typical sequence: to form preferred alpha beta microstructure, aging can lead to
SSSS > clustering > GP zones > theta’’ > theta’ > theta / effective forming undesirable omega phase / Solute Rich: wider processing
precipitates are small, hard, roung, lg quantity, coherent or ranges to obtain fine beta microstructure, control as to not form
incohererent / strength due to interaction between precipitates & alpha Ti along grain boundaries HEAT TREATMENTS (1) Solid
dislocations / drop in aging occurs (i) coarsening of precipitates (ii) Solution treatment + Aging--- produces alpha-beta and beta (2)
precipitates become non-shearable; noth happen to reduce free E Stress Relief + Annealing ---- alpha, near alpha, beta alloys / heat
of system (4) STRAIN/WORK/COLD HARDENING: plastic treated to incr. strength and optimize special properties like fracture
deformation – dislocation movements & generation w.in crystal toughness, fatigure strength, high T creep strength
structure / yield strength incr. w. # of tensile testing / dislocation COPPER ALLOYS
density incr. / grain size decr. / cold working done at T below Third in commercial applications – expensive / comes from Cu
recrystallization T – e.g. rolling, drawing / reduction in ductility, sulfide deposits / pure Cu – FCC structure / alloyed mostly with
hard to process / internal residual stress-energy ---- ANNEALING: Zn (brasses), Ti (bronzes), Ni (cupronickels, nickel silvers) /
high T but below solutionizaing T, removes interal stress and density 8.93 g/cm3 / excellent formability, castability / good
preferred orientation of grains, incr. ductility and forms new grain, strength when alloyed / good corrosion resistance / germicidal
recovert > recrystallization> grain growth ---- and antimicrobial / high electrical conductivity in pure form /
RECRYSTALLIZATION: replacement of deformed cold-worked applications: pure – wires, cables, conductors --- alloys – heat
graind by new strain-free grains, driving force is delta_H (stored E conduction (automobiles, HX), corrosion resistance (1) Cu-Zn
from work hardening, thermodynamically unstable, range of T, but BRASS ALLOYS good ductility, corrosion / Zn incr. strength,
finishes in 1 hr time reduces melting T and corrosion resistance / alpha brass – max
ALUMINUM ALLOYS 35% Zn / alpha + beta is 60:40 Cu:Zn / Cartridge brass (30% Zn)
NON HEAT TREATABLE (1) COMMERCIAL PURITY ALLOYS best combo of strength and ductility, can improve corrosion
min 99-99.7% Al (w. Si, Fe, Cu) / strengthening by: strain hardening, resistance by adding Sn / application: instruments, bearings,
dispersion hardening – from impurities / properties: soft, ductile, decoration / DO not overheat brass – can lead to excessive grain
excellent workability & weldability, good corrosion resistance / growth & orange peel texture / microstructure: can contain
common 1100, 1350 / applications: tubing, sheets, capacitors, twinning due to recrystallization or grain growth / TYPES OF
conductors (2) Al-Mn ALLOYS Mn added (max 1.2%) to incr. CORROSION: (1) SCC: brass w. 15% Zn is susceptible if contact
strength, plus 0.6% Fe, 0.2% Si / properties: good strength, w. trace amounts of ammonia w. oxygen and moisture, eliminate
formability, corrosion resistance / applications: cooking utensils, w. annealing (2) Dezincification: preferential corrosion of Zn
beverage cans, gutters / Mn rich precipitates nucleate @ cold work (>15%) which leave porous Cu surface, eliminate by adding
dislocation structures during annealing to help pin dislocations / 0.04% Arsenic, P, or Sn (2) Cu-Ti {BRONZE} ALLOYS trace
strengthening from strain hardening, dispersion hardening, solid amounts of phosphorous for deoxidation / high strength, wear
solution (3) Al-Si ALLOYS Si added (13.5% max), plus Cu, Mg, Ni, resistance, sea water corrosion resistance / wrought alloy w. <
Be / Properties: high fluidity, Si reduces liquidus T / applications: 10% Sn have good cold workability, above limit it will be
welding wire, brazing rods / problems: Si has coarse flakes, unworkable / casting alloys have up to 20% Sn, for high strength
promotes brittleness, solution: add sm amount of Na (0.01%) --- bearings or gear blanks / very hard, high tensile strength / 5-8%