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RULES

OF DESIGNING AND SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS


WORKING UNDER PRESSURE

PB 03-576-03

Moscow
PIO O
2003
PB 03-576-03
Page 2 of 105

Federal Mining and Industrial Supervising Authority of Russia


(Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia)

Approved by Resolution No. 91


dated June 11, 2003 of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Registered by the Ministry of Justice of Russia
on June 19, 2003
Registration No. 4776

RULES
OF DESIGNING AND SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS
WORKING UNDER PRESSURE
PB 03-576-03

Moscow
PIO O
2003
PB 03-576-03
Page 3 of 105

I. GENERAL
1.1. Scope and Purpose of These Rules
1.1.1. These Rules of Designing and Safe Operation of Vessels Working Under
Pressure (hereinafter referred to as the Rules) establish requirements to
engineering, design, manufacture, overhaul, set-up, assembly, repair, technical
diagnosis and operation of vessels, cisterns, barrels, bottles, pressure
1
chambers operating under overpressure .
Requirements to the assembly and repair are the same as those to the
manufacture of the vessels.
1.1.2. These Rules extend to:
• vessels operating under water pressure at the temperature higher than
0
115 C or any other non-toxic, non-explosive, not fire and explosive
dangerous liquids at the temperature higher than the boiling point
2
temperature at the pressure of 0.07 MPa (0.7 kgf/cm );
• vessels operating under the pressure of steam, gas or toxic fire and
2
explosive dangerous liquids higher than 0.07 MPa (0.7 kgf/cm );
• bottles designed for transportation and storage of compressed, liquefied
2
and solute gases under pressure higher than 0.07 MPa (0.7 kgf/cm );
• cisterns and barrels designed for transportation and storage of
compressed, liquefied gases, their vapour pressure at the temperature of
0 2
up to 50 C higher than 0.07 MPa (0.7 kgf/cm );
• cisterns and vessels designed for transportation or storage of compressed
and liquefied gases, liquids and granular materials, periodically pressurized
2
to more than 0.07 MPa (0.7 kgf/cm ) for emptying;
• pressure chambers.
1.1.3. These Rules do not extend to:
• vessels of nuclear power plants as well as vessels exposed to radioactive
environment;
• vessels of cubic capacity irrespective of pressure used for scientific
experiments. To determine the capacity, the volume occupied by lining,
piping and other internal devices should be subtracted from the overall
cubic capacity of the vessel. A vessel battery or vessels comprised of
separate cases connected to each other with pipes of internal diameter
greater than 100 mm should be regarded as a single vessel;
3
• vessels and bottles of cubic capacity not higher than 0.025m (25 l) where
2 2
the product of pressure in MPa (kgf/cm ) by the cubic capacity in m (litres)
does not exceed 0.02 (200);
• vessels operating under pressure created by an internal explosion as
required by the process or by combustion of self-propagating high-
temperature fusion;
• vessels operating in vacuum;
• vessels installed on sea and river-going ships and other floating craft
(except for dredging machines);
• vessels installed on fixed-wing aircraft and other airborne vehicles;

1
Hereinafter, “vessels” will be used throughout the text instead of “cisterns, barrels, bottles, pressure chambers”. Terms and
definitions used in these Rules are listed in Appendix 1.
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• brake equipment air bottles of railroad rolling stock, automobiles and other
means of transportation;
• special-purpose vessels of military applications;
• steam and water heating devices;
• pipe furnaces;
• vessels comprising pipes of internal diameter of less than 150 mm without
collector manifolds and with collector manifolds made from pipes with
internal diameter of less than 150 mm;
• machine components, which do not add up to self-contained vessels (pump
and turbine cases, engine cylinders of steam, hydraulic, air machines and
compressors).
1.2. Design Engineering
1.2.1. Design of vessels and components thereof (including spare parts thereto) as
well as their assembly and overhaul designs shall be done by specialized
organizations.
1.2.2. Leads and specialists engaged in design engineering, manufacture, overhaul,
assembly, set-up, repair, diagnostics and operation of vessels should be
certified for knowledge of the Rules in line with the Procedure of Training and
Certification of Personnel in the Field of Industrial Safety of Hazardous Industrial
Facilities Supervised by Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia, approved by
Gosgortekhnadzor Ordinance No. 21 of April 30,2002, and registered by the
Ministry of Justice of Russia on May 31, 2002, Reg. No. 1706.
1.2.3. Designs and specifications for manufacturing the vessels shall be coordinated in
accordance with the established procedure.
Modifications of the design and norms, which might be necessary during
manufacture, overhaul, assembly, set-up, repair or operation, shall be
coordinated with Project Designer and/or vessel normative documents. In case it
is impossible to fulfil this condition, it shall be allowed to coordinate design
modifications and normative documents with the specialized organization.
1.2.4. Under design engineering of vessels used in chemical branches of industry,
account should be taken of the requirements of the General rules of industrial
safety for organizations engaged in activities in the field of industrial safety of
hazardous industrial facilities, approved by Ordinance No. 61-A of Russia's
Gosgortekhnadzor dated 10/18/02 and registered by the Ministry of Justice of
Russia on 11/28/02, registration No. 3968.
1.2.5. A waiver from these Rules may be allowed only in exceptional circumstances by
approval of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia. In order to obtain the waiver, a
relevant rationale should be submitted to Gosgortekhnadzor and, if necessary, a
conclusion of the specialized or expert organization. A copy of the Rules’ waiver
shall be attached to the vessel certificate (Appendix 2).
1.3. Liability for Infringement of These Rules
These Rules shall be subject to compulsory implementation by all officials, specialists and
personnel engaged in design, manufacture, overhaul, assembly, set-up, repair, technical
diagnostics and operation of vessels. Persons who have committed infringement of these
Rules shall be liable in accordance with the current legislation of the Russian Federation.
PB 03-576-03
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1.4. Accident and Failure Investigation Procedure


1.4.1. Investigation of accidents and failures related to operation of pressurized
vessels shall be conducted in the manner specified by Gosgortekhnadzor of
Russia.
1.4.2. Vessel owner shall report each failure, fatal or group accident related to the
maintenance of pressurized vessels registered in Gosgortekhnadzor supervisory
bodies to the Gosgortekhnadzor supervisory body or other organization in
accordance with the procedure established by Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
1.4.3. Before the arrival of a Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia representative to investigate
the cause and circumstances of the failure or accident, Administration shall be
responsible for preservation of the entire failure (accident) scene if it does not
pose danger to life or lead to further development of the failure.
II. VESSEL DESIGN
2.1. General
2.1.1. Vessel design should ensure reliability and safety of operation throughout the
design service life and provide for a possibility of technical certification, cleaning,
flushing, complete depletion, purging, repair, field control of metal and
connections.
2.1.2. Design service life in terms of the service conditions should be defined for each
vessel and specified in the vessel’s certificate.
2.1.3. As a rule, hardware devices that hinder the exterior and interior inspections of
the vessels (agitators, coil pipes, jackets, trays, partitions and other fittings) shall
be made detachable.
In case of welded fittings, it shall be made possible to remove the fittings in
order to conduct the vessel exterior and interior inspections and to re-install
them after the inspection. Removal and reinstallation procedure for such fittings
shall be specified in the vessel operating manual.
2.1.4. In case the vessel design prohibits exterior and interior inspections or hydraulic
pressure tests stipulated by the requirements of these Rules, vessel Designer
shall specify in the vessel operating manual a method, intervals and scope of
checks, which would ensure a timely detection and removal of defects. In case
such directions are missing in the manual, checkout methods, intervals and
scope shall be defined by the specialized organization.
2.1.5. Design of internal devices shall provide for air bleeding during hydraulic
pressure tests and removal of water after the hydraulic pressure test.
2.1.6. Vessels shall have connection branches for filling up and draining water and
bleeding air during hydraulic pressure tests.
2.1.7. Each vessel shall be provided with a cock, tap or similar device to check if
pressure is available in the vessel prior to its opening; in so doing, media shall
be drained to a safe location.
2.1.8. Stress analysis of vessels and components thereof shall be done in terms of
normative documents approved by Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia. Vessels
designed to be exposed to cyclic or alternating loads shall be analysed in terms
of these loads.
In lack of a standard method the stress analysis shall be done in terms of the
method approved by the specialized research organization.
2.1.9. Vessels, which alter their three-dimensional position during operation, shall have
features preventing their self-dumping.
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2.1.10. Design of vessels heated by hot gases shall provide for a reliable cooling of
walls exposed to pressure to the design temperature.
2.1.11. To check the welding quality of ring collars reinforcing openings of hatches,
manholes, connecting branches, a threaded check hole shall be provided in the
ring, if it is welded outside, or in the wall, if the ring is welded from the inside of
the vessel.
This requirement also extends to faceplates and other reinforcing elements
welded outside the vessel body.
External blind-end elements (for example, faceplates), which are not exposed to
pressure, shall have drain holes in the lowermost areas.
2.1.12. Vessel grounding and electrical equipment shall comply with the regulations on
technical operation of consumer electrical installations and safety rules of
consumer electrical installations operation in line with the established procedure.
2.2. Manholes, Access Holes, Covers
2.2.1. Vessels shall be provided with necessary number of manholes and inspection
access holes facilitating inspection, cleaning and repair of vessels, as well as
installation and de-installation of detachable internal devices.
Vessels comprised of a cylindrical body and screens with attached piping (heat
exchangers), and vessels designed for transportation and storage of cryogenic
liquids as well as vessels designed for handling hazard class 1 and 2 materials
as per GOST 12.1.007-76, which do not provoke corrosion scale, may be made
without manholes and access holes provided the requirement of Item 2.1.4. of
these Rules is met.
2.2.2. Vessels with internal diameter greater than 800 mm shall have manholes, and
with internal diameter 800 mm and less – access holes.
2.2.3. Internal diameter of circular manholes shall be at least 400 mm. Dimensions of
oval manholes along the greatest and the least axes in the clear shall be at least
325x400 mm.
The internal diameter of circular or the least axis size of oval access holes shall
be at least 80 mm.
2.2.4. Manholes and access holes shall be located in areas accessible for
maintenance. Requirements to arrangement, location and maintenance of
pressure chambers peep holes shall be defined by Designer and specified in the
Manufacturer’s assembly and operating manual.
2.2.5. Manhole covers shall be made detachable. Welded covers shall be allowed on
vessels with vacuum insulation.
2.2.6. Covers heavier than 20 kg shall be provided with lift-and turn or other devices
for opening/closing.
2.2.7. Design of hinged dog-bolts, insert bolts, clamps and clamp mechanisms of
manholes, covers and flanges thereof shall prevent them from spontaneous
displacement.
2.2.8. In case vessels have connection branches, flange connectors, detachable
bottoms or covers with internal diameter of at least that specified for manholes
in Item 2.2.3 of these Rules, which provide for internal inspections, it shall be
allowed to omit manholes in the design.
PB 03-576-03
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2.3. Vessel Bottoms


2.3.1. The following bottoms shall be designed into the vessels: ellipsoid, egg-end,
toroidal, egg-head unbeaded, conical beaded, conical unbeaded, flat beaded,
flat unbeaded.
2.3.2. Ellipsoid bottoms shall have the height of the convex portion measured at the
internal surface of at least 0.2 of internal bottom diameter. It shall be allowed to
decrease this value on approval by the specialized research organization.
2.3.3. Torispherical bottoms shall have:
• height of the convex portion measured at the internal surface of at least 0.2
of the internal diameter;
• beading internal radius of at least 0.1 of the bottom internal diameter;
• internal radius of curvature of the central section not greater than the
bottom internal diameter.
2.3.4. Egg-end unbeaded bottoms may be used with welded flanges; in so doing:
• internal radius of the bottom sphere shall not be greater than the vessel
internal diameter;
• flange to bottom weld joint shall be done by penetration welding.
2.3.5. In welded convex bottoms, with the exception of hemispherical ones, which
consist of several sections where weld joints are located along the chords, the
distance from the axis of the weld joint to the bottom’s centre shall not exceed
1/5 of the bottom internal diameter.
Circular welds of the convex bottoms shall be offset from the bottom centre by
the distance not greater than 1/3 of the bottom internal diameter.
0
2.3.6. Conical unbeaded bottoms shall have the central angle of not greater than 45 .
The central angle of the conical bottom can be increased by conclusion of the
specialized research organization engaged in vessel building.
2.3.7. Flat bottoms with an annular groove and a cylinder section (rim) manufactured
by mechanical boring shall be made from a forged piece. It shall be allowed to
manufacture the beaded flat bottom from sheet, provided the beading is done by
0
stamping spinning the shit edge with a 90 bend.
2.3.8. For vessel beaded and transfer elements, with the exception of convex bottoms,
goose-necks, elongated throats for welding connection branches, distance from
the beginning of the beaded element curvature to the flanged edge, in terms of
the wall thickness s of the beaded element, shall not be less than that specified
in Table 1.
Table 1
Wall Thickness of Beaded
Min. Distance to Beaded Edge l, mm
Element, s, mm
Up to 5 15
From 5 to 10 2s + 5
From 10 to 20 s + 15
From 20 to 150 s/2 + 25
Higher than 150 100
2.4. Welded Joints and Disposition Thereof
2.4.1. Penetration welds shall be used when welding shell rings with pipes and
bottoms with shell rings.
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Penetration T-bar and corner welds shall be acceptable for welding flat bottoms,
plane flanges, tube plates, connecting branches, manholes, jackets.
Overlap welds shall be allowed for welding stiffening rings, bearing supports,
skid boards, platform plated, stairs, brackets, etc. to the vessel body.
2.4.2. Design gap clearance in corner and T-bar welds shall be allowed in cases
foreseen in normative documents approved in accordance with the established
procedure.
2.4.3. Weld joints shall be accessible for inspections anticipated by the requirements
of normative documents, relevant standards and specifications during
manufacture, assembly and operation of vessels.
2.4.4. Longitudinal welds of adjoining shell rings and welds on vessel bottoms shall be
displaced from each other by a triple thickness of the thickest element, but not
less than by 100 mm between weld axes.
The said welds may be not displaced from each other in vessels designed for
2
operating pressure not higher than 1.6 MPa (16 kgf/cm ) and wall temperature
0
not higher than 400 C, with nominal wall thickness not more than 300 mm,
provided that these welds are made by automatic or slag welding and that weld
crossover points are 100% checked by the radiographic or ultrasonic inspection
methods.
2.4.5. When internal and external devices are welded to the vessel body (bearing
supports, plates, jackets, partitions, etc.), it shall be allowed to cross these weld
joints with butt welds, provided the body areas covered by the weld were pre-
inspected by the radiographic or ultrasonic inspection methods
2.4.6. In case support or other elements are welded to the vessel body, the distance
between the edge of the body weld and the edge of the element weld shall not
be less than the vessel well thickness, but not less than 20 mm.
For vessels made from carbon and low-alloy manganese and manganese-
silicon steels (Appendix 3) subjected to thermal treatment after the welding,
irrespective of the wall thickness the spacing between the vessel weld and the
element weld shall be at least 20 mm.
2.4.7. In horizontal vessels, cradle supports shall be allowed to locally overlap annular
(transverse) welds along the overall length of not greater than 0.35, and in case
a skid board is available – not more than 0.5 ?D, where D is the vessel overall
diameter. In so doing, the overall length of the overlapping sections of the welds
shall be subjected to the radiographic or ultrasonic inspection. Overlapping of
the weld crossover points shall not be allowed.
2.4.8. A smooth transition from one element to another shall be provided for in butt
weld joints of vessel elements with different wall thickness by a gradual thinning
out of the thicker element edge. The transition surfaces shall be battered at an
0
angle not greater than 20 .
In case the thickness difference of the attached elements is not greater than
30% of the thinner element thickness and does not exceed 5 mm, weld joints
without pre-thinning of the thicker element may be allowed. Weld shape shall
provide for a smooth transition from the thicker element to the thinner one.
In case a cast part is attached to piping parts, rolled or forged metal pieces,
account shall be taken of the fact that the nominal design thickness of the cast
part is 25-40% more than the similar design wall thickness of a pipe element or
a rolled or forged metal piece; that is why the transition from the thicker to the
thinner element should be done so that the thickness of the cast part end is not
less than the design value.
PB 03-576-03
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2.5. Disposition of Holes and Openings in Vessel Walls


2.5.1. As a rule, openings for manholes, access holes and connecting branches shall
be located outside the weld joints.
The following disposition of openings shall be allowed:
• on longitudinal welds, if the hole nominal diameter does not exceed 150
mm;
• on annular welds of cylinder and conical vessel shell rings without
limitations of opening diameter;
• on welds of the convex bottom without limitations of opening diameter
provided that 100% of the bottom weld joints are subjected to radiographic
or ultrasonic inspection.
2.5.2. It shall be allowed to locate openings on torispherical bottoms only within the
central spherical segment. In so doing, the distance from the bottom centre to
the external edge of the opening measured along the chord shall be not greater
than 0.4 D (D is the bottom overall diameter).
III. MATERIALS
3.1. Materials used for manufacturing of vessels shall provide for their reliable operation
throughout the design service life in terms of the design operating conditions (design
pressure, minimum negative and maximum design temperature), composition and nature
of medium (corrosive activity, explosive risk, toxicity, etc.) and impact of the ambient
temperature.
3.2. Only basic materials specified in Appendix 4 shall be used for manufacturing, assembly
and overhaul of vessels and elements thereof.
Use of materials specified in Appendix 4 for manufacturing vessels and elements thereof
designed for operation with parameters falling outside the established limits or unspecified
in Appendix 4 shall be allowed by approval of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia, provided that
materials’ quality and properties are not below those established by the standard and
specification, and that a positive conclusion is obtained from the specialized body for
vessel building, physical metallurgy and welding.
Copies of the approvals shall be attached to the vessel specification.
3.3. Use of plated or fusion clad materials shall be allowed for vessel manufacture provided
the materials of the base and plated layers are specified in Appendix 4 and the clad
material – in the specification approved by the specialized organization.
3.4. Under material selection for vessels designed to be installed at an open or unheated site,
account shall be taken of the absolute minimum ambient temperature for the given region.
3.5. Quality and properties of materials and half-way products shall satisfy the requirements of
relevant standards and technical conditions and be evidenced by vendor certificates. In
lack or incompleteness of the certificate or marking, vessel manufacturer (repair or
assembly body) shall conduct all necessary tests documenting their results in a test log
supplementing or replacing the material vendor certificate. The certificate shall specify a
thermal treatment procedure used by manufacturer for treatment of half-way products.
3.6. Base materials’ checkout methods and scope shall be defined based on standards and
technical conditions approved in accordance with the established procedure.
3.7. Filler materials used in manufacturing the vessels and elements thereof shall satisfy the
requirements of relevant standards and specifications.
Specific brands of filler materials as well as fluxes and protective gases shall be used in
conjunction with the vessel manufacturing specification and the welding instruction.
3.8. Use of new filler materials, fluxes and protective gases shall be approved by the
enterprise management after their processability is confirmed by vessel welding
PB 03-576-03
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operations, inspection of the entire range of weld joint properties (including properties of
the weld joint metal) and a positive conclusion is obtained from a specialized welding
authority.
3.9. Use of electric-welded pipes with longitudinal or spiral welds shall be allowed in
accordance with standards and specifications approved by the specialized organization
provided the weld is all the way inspected by radiographic, ultrasonic or similar method.
Each seamless or welded pipe shall be subjected to the hydraulic pressure test. The
hydraulic test pressure value shall be specified in the pipe normative documents.
Seamless pipes may not be put to hydraulic pressure testing if the entire pipe surface was
inspected by a physical method (radiography, ultrasonic or equivalent inspection).
3.10. Clad and built-up layer plates and forged pieces with pad welds shall be put to ultrasonic
inspection or inspection by other methods, which ensure detection of the clad (built-up)
layer from the base metal layer, as well as discontinuity flaws and metal separations in
forged pieces. In so doing, the scope of quality inspection shall be established by
standards or specifications clad or built-up plates and forged pieces approved by the
specialized authority. Bimetallic plates thicker than 25 mm designed for manufacturing
2
vessels operating under pressure higher than 4 MPa (40 kgf/cm ) shall be subjected to an
overall inspection by the ultrasonic or equivalent method.
3.11. Carbon and low-alloy plate steel thicker than 60 mm designed for manufacturing vessels
2
operating under the pressure higher than 10 MPa (100 kgf/cm )
3.12. Forged pieces from carbon, law-alloy and alloy steel designed to operate under the
2
pressure higher than 6.3 MPa (63 kgf/cm ) and having one of the overall dimensions
greater than 200 mm and thickness higher than 50 mm, shall be put to per piece
inspection by the ultrasonic or equivalent inspection method.
At least 50% of the tested forged piece volume should be subjected to inspection.
Inspection method and norms shall fit the normative documents.
3.13. Nuts and bolts shall be manufactured from steel of various grades; if manufactured from
steel of the same grade, their hardness shall be different. In this case nut hardness shall
be less than the bolt hardness. The bolt length shall such that the threaded end extends
above the nut to a value specified in the normative documents.
3.14. Bolt material shall be selected to have the linear expansion coefficient near the value of
the flange material linear expansion coefficient. The difference in values of the linear
expansion coefficient shall not exceed 10%. Application of steels with different linear
expansion coefficients (more than 10%) shall be allowed in cases justified by the stress
analysis.
3.15. It shall be allowed to use nuts from pearlitic steels on bolts made from austenitic steels if
this is allowed by normative documents.
3.16. In case cold hammering is used for manufacturing fasteners, they shall be subjected to
heat treatment.
3.17. Steel castings shall be heat treated. Mechanical properties of the casting pieces shall be
checked after the heat treatment.
3.18. Non-metallic materials used for manufacturing vessels shall be compatible with working
medium in terms of corrosion resistance and indissolubility (modification of properties) in
the operating temperature range. Vessel design medium shall be specified in the vessel
certificate. Use of non-metallic material shall be approved by Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
based on the conclusion of the specialized authority.
3.19. Seal layer material (liner) for metal-plastic vessels shall be so selected that no inelastic
deformations would occur in the material when test pressure is applied to the vessel.
Methods of the vessel strain-stress and plastic yield analyses shall be approved by the
specialized authority.
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3.20. Filling and binding materials used for manufacturing vessels shall have a guarantee
application time shown in the material certificate.
3.21. Pieces from high-duty cast iron shall be used after heat treatment.
3.22. Normative documents shall specify whether it is necessary to subject rolled threads to
heat treatment.
IV. MANUFACTURE, OVERHAUL, ASSEMBLY, SET-UP, AND REPAIR
4.1. General
4.1.1. Manufacture (manufacture finishing), overhaul, assembly, set-up, and repair of
vessels and elements thereof shall be done by specialized organizations with
available engineering facilities necessary to do a quality job.
4.1.2. Manufacturing (remanufacturing), updating, assembly, adjustment and repair of
the vessels shall be carried out in compliance with the requirements of the
Regulations and Specifications approved in accordance with the established
order.
4.1.3. Manufacturing (remanufacturing), updating, assembly, adjustment and repair of
the vessels and their individual elements shall be carried out in compliance with
the technology, worked out by the organization, which performs the works, prior
to their commencement.
4.1.4. In the process of manufacturing (remanufacturing), updating, assembly,
adjustment and repair provision shall be made for employment of the quality
control system (inlet, processing and acceptance), which ensures the works
performance in compliance with the requirements of these Rules and applicable
regulations.
The inlet control procedure of non-metallic materials, the materials for load-
bearing elements of the vessel structures, shall be agreed with a specialized
organization.
4.2. Tolerances
4.2.1. Deviation of the external (internal) diameter of the shells, cylinder flanged
bottom elements, spherical bottoms, made of sheets and forgings, shall not
exceed ? 1% of the nominal size.
The relative ovality of any cross-section shall not exceed 1%. The value of the
relative ovality shall be calculated with the formulae:
of the cross-sections, where pipe connections and man-holes are not available:
2(Dmax Dmin )
a= 100% ;
Dmax + Dmin

of the cross-sections, which have pipe connections and man-holes:


2(Dmax Dmin 0.02d )
a= 100% ,
Dmax + Dmin

where:
Dmax, Dmin – respectively, the greatest and the least outside (inside) diameter
of the vessel, mm;
d – inside diameter of a pipe connection or a man-hole, mm.
The relative ovality value for the vessels with a thickness of the shell wall
relation to the inside diameter of 0.01 and less is allowed to be increased up to
1.5%.
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The relative ovality for the elements of the vessels, which operate under external
pressure, shall not exceed 0.5%.
4.2.2. Displacement (angularity) f of the edges of the welds shall not exceed f = 0.1s +3
mm, but not exceeding the values given in Table 2 for the vessels elements
(Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Displacement (Angularity) of the Edges of Welds


Table 2
Maximum Displacement (Angularity) of Edges of Butt Welds, mm
Spherical Reservoirs and Tab
Shells Cone Bottoms
Bottoms
*
D D ? 5000 D ? 5000 D ? 2000 D ? 2000
5 6 8 5 7
4.2.3. The displacement of edges b of the sheets (Fig. 2) measured along the median
surface, in butt joints, which dictate the vessel strength, shall not exceed b =
0.1s, but not more than 3 mm.
The edges displacement in circumferential welds, except for the electroslag
welds, shall not exceed the values given in Table 3. The edges displacement in
circumferential welds of the electroslag welding shall not exceed 5 mm.

Fig. 2. Displacement of Sheet Edges


Table 3
Maximum Allowable Displacements of Joint Edges in
Thickness of
Circumferential Welds , mm
Welded Sheets s,
mm Monometallic Bimetallic Vessels on the Side
Vessels of Corrosion Layer
to 20 0.1 s + 1 50% of the thickness of the
0.15 s, but not cladding layer
From 20 to 50
exceeding 5
**
From 50 to 100 0.04 s + 3.5 0.04s + 3, but not exceeding the

*
D – inside diameter, mm.
**
Provided that facing is made on the joined surfaces with an inclination of 1:3 for welded joints with edges displacement
exceeding 5 mm.
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Maximum Allowable Displacements of Joint Edges in


Thickness of
Circumferential Welds , mm
Welded Sheets s,
mm Monometallic Bimetallic Vessels on the Side
Vessels of Corrosion Layer
thickness of the cladding layer
** 0.025s + 5, but not exceeding 8
0.025 s + 5 , but not
From 100 and not exceeding the thickness
exceeding 10
of the cladding layer
4.2.4. Displacement of edges of the pipe butt welds shall not exceed the values, given
in Table 4.
Table 4
Maximum Allowable Displacements
Pipe Wall Thickness s, mm of Joined Edges, mm
Up to 3 0.2 s
From 3 to 6 0.1 s + 0.3
From 6 to 10 0.15 s
From 10 to 20 0.05 s + 1
From 20 0.1 s, but not exceeding 3
4.2.5. Tolerances, not given in the present section, shall comply with the requirements
of normative documents.
4.3. Welding
4.3.1. In the process of manufacturing (remanufacturing), assembly and vessels repair
a welding practice certified in accordance with the requirements of the present
Rules shall be applied.
4.3.2. The welding operations shall be conducted with serviceable plants, equipment
and devices, which ensure the observance of the normative documents
requirements.
4.3.3. The welding operations shall be conducted by the welders certified in
compliance with the Regulations of certification of welding operators and
welding production specialists (PB 03-273-99), approved by the resolution of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia as of 30.10.98 No. 63, registered by the Ministry of
Justice of the Russian Federation on 04.03.99, Reg. No. 1721, and issued
certificates of the established form.
The welders are allowed to conduct welding operations of those kinds, which are
specified in their certificates.
4.3.4. A welder, who is embarking in a given organization (assembly or repair bay) on
welding of the high pressure items, irrespective of the certificate availability,
before admission to work shall undergo a check by means of welding and
inspection of a test weld. The welding works manager shall specify the welded
joints structure, as well as the methods and the volume of the joints welding
quality control.
4.3.5. Management of works of the vessels and their elements assembly, welding and
control of welded joints shall be entrusted with a specialist, who has undergone
certification in accordance with the Provision of training and certification
procedure of organization workers, which is exercising activities in the field of
industrial safety of hazardous industrial projects supervised by
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia, approved by the resolution of Gosgortekhnadzor
PB 03-576-03
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of Russia as of 30.04.02 No. 21 and registered by the Ministry of Justice of the


Russian Federation on 31.05.02, Reg. No. 3489.
4.3.6. The welded joints of the high pressure elements with a wall thickness exceeding
6 mm shall bear a mark (stamp), which enables identification of welder’s name
who performed the welding. The marking system is given in production forms
and records.
The necessity and the method of welded joints marking, when their wall
thickness exceeds 6 mm, shall be specified by the requirements of production
forms and records. The method of marking shall exclude riveting, hardening or
inadmissible metal thinning and shall ensure the marking preservation for the
whole service life of an item.
When one welding operator makes all the welded joints of a certain item, every
welded joint marking may be disregarded. In this case the welders stamp shall
be made next to the nameplate or on some other open part of the item, and the
stamp shall be enframed with a washfast paint. The marking area shall be
specified in the item certificate.
When several welding operators make a welded joint, it shall be marked with the
stamps of all the welders participated in its performance.
4.3.7. Before the welding commencement the quality of assembly of the joined
elements shall be checked and the state of the joined edges and adjoining
surfaces as well. The edges driving on by impacts or local heating in the
process of assembly shall not be allowed.
4.3.8. The welding materials, used for the vessels welding, shall comply with
requirements of the standards and specifications, and it shall be confirmed with
a document of the manufacturing organization.
4.3.9. The brand, the assortment, the storage conditions and preparation of the
welding materials for employment shall meet the normative documents
requirements to welding.
4.3.10. The welding materials shall be tested:
• every batch of electrodes:
- for welding process properties;
- for correspondence of components of alloy composition with the
specified one by means of steeloscoping of the welding filler made with
alloyed electrodes (types M-09N1O, M-09N1OP, austenite and others);
• every batch of powdered wire - for welding process properties;
• every coil (bundle, bobbin) of alloyed welding wire – for the presence of the
main components of alloy by means of steeloscoping.
4.3.11. Preparation of edges and surfaces for welding shall be carried out with
mechanical working either by means of thermal cutting or gouging (oxygen, arc-
air, plasma-arc gouging) with subsequent mechanical working (cutting tool,
milling cutter, abrasive tool). The depth of the mechanical working after the
thermal cutting (gouging) shall be specified in normative documents in
accordance with susceptibility of a particular brand of steel to the thermal cycle
of cutting (gouging).
4.3.12. Aside from the part to be welded the adjoining them areas shall be cleaned from
scale, paint, oil and other contaminants in compliance with the normative
documents requirements.
4.3.13. Welding and removal of auxiliary elements (fit-up fixtures, temporary mountings
and etc.) shall be carried out in accordance with the drawing instructions and
PB 03-576-03
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normative documents. The welding of these elements shall be made by the


welder responsible for the item welding.
4.3.14. The tacks shall be made by the welder, responsible for the item welding, with
the use of the filler materials, provided in the instruction manuals for a given
vessel welding. In the process of further performance of the welding operations
the tacks shall be removed or remelted by the main weld.
The temporary mountings welding and their removal after the main item welding
shall be made in accordance with the procedure excluding formation of cracks
and hardening zones in the item metal.
4.3.15. All the welding operations of the vessels and their elements manufacturing shall
be made under positive temperatures in closed rooms.
During assembly, remanufacturing on the erection sites, as well as during repair
works of the vessels, which operate outside the buildings, the welding can be
made under negative ambient temperatures. In this case the welder and the
area of welding shall be protected from direct exposure to the wind and
atmospheric precipitation. Welding under ambient temperatures below 0 ?C
shall be made in compliance with normative documents agreed in accordance
with the established order.
4.3.16. All the welds shall be marked with a stamp ensuring identification of the welder,
who made the welds.
The stamp shall be placed at a distance of 20 – 50 mm from the weld edge on
the outside. If a weld from the outside and inside is made by different welders,
the stamps shall be placed on the outside only in the form of fraction: in the
numerator the stamp of the outside welder, in the denominator – the inside weld
operator. If the welds of a vessel are made by one welding operator, the
welder’s stamp can be places beside the nameplate or on some other open part.
If the welds were made by several operators the stamps of all the operators,
who took part in the work, shall be placed on the item.
The longitudinal welds shall be stamped at the beginning and at the end at a
distance of 100 mm from the circumferential weld. A shell with a longitudinal
weld shorter than 400 mm can be marked with one stamp. The circumferential
weld shall be stamped in the area of intersection of the circumferential weld with
the longitudinal one and further in every 2 m, but every weld shall have not less
than two stamps. The stamps shall be placed on the outside. The stamping of
the longitudinal and circumferential welds of the vessels with walls thickness
below 4 mm can be made with the electrograph or with washfast paints.
The stamping area is enclosed in a well-visible frame made with a washfast
paint or the electrograph and specified in the vessel certificate.
4.3.17. The welding procedure for manufacturing, erection and repair of the vessels
shall be allowed for application after its adaptability to manufacture confirmation
on real items, test of the entire set of the required properties of welded joints
and mastering of efficient methods of their quality control. The employed
welding practice shall be certified in accordance with the Rules.
4.3.18. Certification of the welding practice shall be divided into research and the
process certification.
The research certification shall be carried out by a specialized organization
during preparation for introduction of a new not certified before welding practice.
The process certification shall be carried out by every enterprise on the basis of
recommendations obtained from the results of the research certification.
4.3.19. The research certification of the welding practice shall be carried out with the
purpose of determination of welded joints characteristics required for the design
calculations and presentation of the process recommendations (the field of the
PB 03-576-03
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practice application, welding materials, conditions of heating, welding and heat


treatment, guarantied values of approval characteristics of a welded joint,
control methods and etc.).
The welded joint characteristics, determined during the research certification,
shall be selected in compliance with the kind and designation of the base metal
and the following conditions of the welded joints operation:
• mechanical properties at normal (20 ? 10 ?C) and operating temperature,
including ultimate rupture strength, yield point, elongation and percentage
reduction of area of the metal weld, impact strength of the metal weld and
the zones of thermal effect of the weld, ultimate rupture strength and the
bend angle of the welded joint;
• long-term strength, ductility and creepage;
• cyclic strength;
• critical temperature of brittleness of the weld metal and the zones of thermal
effect of the welding;
• stability of the properties of the welded joints after thermal aging under
operating temperature;
• intensity of oxidation in the working medium;
• absence of inadmissible defects;
• resistance to intercrystalline corrosion (for welded joints of the elements,
made of steels of austenitic class);
• other characteristics specific to performed welded joints.
By the results of the research certification the organization, which performed the
certification, shall issue recommendations required for its practical application.
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia shall issue authorization for application of the
proposed technology in the process on the basis of conclusion of the specialized
organization.
4.3.20. The process certification of the welding practice shall be carried out by every
organization before its application commencement with the purpose of the
compliance check of the welded joints, made in compliance with the certification
under real production conditions, with the requirements of the Rules and
normative documents.
The process certification shall be carried out for every group of single-type
*
welded joints , made at a given enterprise.
4.3.21. The process certification shall be carried out by the certification committee
created in the organization in compliance with the program worked out by this
organization and approved by the committee chairman.
The program shall provide for performance of non-destructive and destructive
testing of welded joints and assessment of the quality of welding by the control
results.
The procedure of the process certification, including certification used by the
organization before the Rules have been put into effect, shall be specified by the
normative documents or production forms and records.
If during the process certification of the welding practice negative results are
obtained in some kind of tests, the certification committee shall take steps to

*
The definition of single-type welded joints is given in Appendix 5.
PB 03-576-03
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find out the reason of nonconformity of the obtained results with the specified
requirements and arrive at a decision either to carry out duplicate tests or the
given technology cannot be used for process joints welding and needs a
modification.
Authorization for application of the welding practice, which has passed the
process certification at the enterprise, shall be issued by the bodies of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia on the basis of a conclusion of the specialized
organization.
4.3.22. In case of degradation of the properties or the quality of the welded joints with
respect to the level, specified by the research certification, the manufacturing
plant (assembly or repair organization) shall suspend the welding practice
application, find out and remove the cause leading to their degradation, and
carry out repeated process certification and, if necessary, the research
certification as well.
4.3.23. When manufacturing, assembling and repairing the vessels any certified welding
practices can be used.
Application of gas welding for pieces made of austenitic and high-chromium
steel of martensitic and martensitic-ferritic classes shall not be allowed.
4.3.24. Welding of the high-pressure elements shall be carried out under positive
ambient temperature. During assembly and repair the welding can be carried
out under conditions of negative temperature provided that the requirements of
normative documents (production forms and records) are met and required
conditions are provided for the welding operators (protection from wind, rain,
snowfall).
Under negative ambient temperature the metal in the welded joint area shall be
dried and warmed up before welding to raise the temperature to a positive value.
4.3.25. The necessity and the mode of preliminary and accompanying warming-up of
the welded parts shall be established by the welding practice and shall be
specified in production forms and records. The warming-up under negative
ambient temperature shall be made in the same cases as under positive
temperature, but the warming-up temperature shall be 50 ?C higher.
4.3.26. After welding termination the adjacent areas shall be cleaned from slag, metal
splashes and other contamination.
The internal flash in the pipe welded joints made by resistance welding shall be
removed to ensure a specified flow section.
4.4. Heat Treatment
4.4.1. Heat treatment of the vessel elements shall be carried out to ensure
correspondence of the properties of metal and welded joints with the values
adopted in normative documents for metal and welding, as well as to reduce
residual stresses, which occur in the process of production operations (welding,
bending, forming and etc.).
4.4.2. The heat treatment works shall be carried out by the heat-treating operators,
who underwent special training, appropriate tests and have certificates admitting
to the works performance.
4.4.3. Heat treatment shall be carried out on the vessels, in the walls of which after
manufacturing (forge-rolling, forming, welding and etc.) inadmissible residual
stresses may occur, as well as on the vessels, the strength of which is attained
by the heat treatment.
4.4.4. The vessels and their elements, made of carbon as well as of low-alloyed
manganese and manganese-silicon steels, manufactured with the use of
welding, forming or forge-rolling shall be subject to mandatory heat treatment, if:
PB 03-576-03
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• the thickness of the wall of a cylinder or cone element of the bottom, flange
or the vessel branch pipe in the area of their welded joint exceeds 36 mm
for carbon steels and 30 mm for low-alloyed manganese and manganese-
silicon steels;
• the rated thickness of the wall of cylinder or cone elements of the vessel
(branch pipe), made of sheet steel by the method of forge-rolling, exceeds
the value calculated with the following formula:
s = 0.009(D + 1200),
where:
D – minimum inside diameter, mm. These requirements do not apply to
the flanged shells;
• they are designed for operation in the media causing corrosion cracking;
• the bottoms and other elements shall be formed (forge-rolled) at a
temperature of forming (forge-rolling) completion below 700?C;
• the bottoms of the vessels and their elements irrespective of their thickness
have been manufactures by the method of cold forming or cold flanging.
4.4.5. The bent sections of pipes, made of carbon and low-alloyed steels, with an
outside diameter of more than 36 mm shall be subjected to heat treatment if the
relation of the average bending radius to the rated outside diameter of the pipes
accounts for less than 3.5, and the relation of the rated thickness of the pipe wall
to its rated diameter exceeds 0.05.
4.4.6. The vessels and their elements, made of low-alloyed chromium-molybdenum,
chromium-molybdenum-vanadium steels, martensitic class steels and two-layer
items with the base layer of this type and class of steels, performed by welding,
shall be heat treated irrespective of diameter and thickness of the wall.
4.4.7. The necessity of heat treatment of the vessel and their elements, made of
austenitic class and two-layer steels with the base layer of carbon and low-
alloyed manganese and manganese-silicon type with a corrosion-resistant layer
and austenitic class steels shall be specified in normative documents.
4.4.8. The vessel bottoms, made of austenitic steels by cold forming or flanging, shall
be heat treated.
4.4.9. The bottoms and the elements, made of austenitic chromium-nickel steels,
formed (forge-rolled) under a temperature of 850 ?C and higher, do not require
heat treatment.
The hot-deformed bottoms, made of austenitic steels, with a relation of the
inside diameter to the wall thickness not exceeding 28, are allowed not to be
subjected to the heat treatment if they are not designed for operation in the
media causing corrosion cracking.
4.4.10. The kind of heat treatment (tempering, normalizing or temper hardening,
austenization and etc.) and its modes (warming rate, temperature and holding
time, cooling conditions and etc.) shall be taken in accordance with normative
documents and specified in the detail design.
4.4.11. It is allowable to carry out the vessels heat treatment in parts with subsequent
local heat treatment of the completing weld. In case of local heat treatment
provision shall be made for uniform heating and cooling in accordance with the
manufacturing process agreed with a specialized organization.
When requirements for stability to corrosion cracking exist, the possibility of
application of local heat treatment of the vessel shall be coordinated with a
specialized organization.
PB 03-576-03
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4.4.12. In the process of heat treatment in a furnace the heating temperature in any
point of the vessel (element) shall not exceed the limits of the maximum and
minimum temperature specified by the mode of heat treatment.
The atmosphere in the furnace shall not exert a detrimental effect on the vessel
(element) being treated.
4.4.13. The metal properties of the vessels and their elements after all the cycles of
heat treatment shall comply with the requirements of the Rules, standards and
specifications.
4.4.14. Heat treatment shall be carried out in such a way, that uniform heating of the
items metal, their free thermal expansion and the absence of a plastic
deformation shall be provided for. The modes of heating, holding and cooling in
the process of the items heat treatment shall be recorded by recording
instruments.
4.4.15. To relieve residual stresses in compliance with the requirements of point 4.4.4 of
the Rules it is allowable to use other than heat treatment methods, specified in
the normative documents, coordinated in accordance with the established order.
4.5. Welded Joints Control
4.5.1. The manufacturing (remanufacturing), assembly or repair organization shall
employ such kinds and volumes of quality control, which would ensure detection
of inadmissible defects, its high quality and reliability in operation.
The quality control of welding and welded joints shall include:
• check of the personnel certification;
• test of assembly-welding, thermal and test equipment, instruments and
tools;
• quality control of the basic materials;
• quality control of welding materials and materials for non-destructive testing;
• operational control of welding practice;
• non-destructive control of welded joints quality;
• destructive control of welded joints quality;
• trouble shooting control.
The kinds of control shall be specified by the design organization in compliance
with the requirements of the Rules, normative documents for the items and
welding and shall be indicated in the design documentation of the vessels.
4.5.2. To assign the methods and the volume of control of welded joints it is necessary
to determine a vessel group with respect to design pressure, wall temperature
and medium nature from Table 5.
Table 5
Group
Design Pressure, MPa Wall
of 2 Working Medium
(kgf/cm ) Temperature, ?C
Vessels
Explosion-proof or fire-
1 Above 0.07 (0.7) Independently proof, or category I, II
hazard to GOST 12.1.007
Below -70, above Any, except for specified
2 Up to 2.5 (25)
400 for vessels of group 1
Below -70, above
Above 2.5 (25) to 4 (40)
200
PB 03-576-03
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Group
Design Pressure, MPa Wall
of 2 Working Medium
(kgf/cm ) Temperature, ?C
Vessels
Below -40, above
Above 4 (40) to 5 (50)
200
Above 5 (50) Independently
from -70 to -20
Up to 1.6 (16)
from 200 to 400
Above 1.6 (16) to 2.5 (25) from -70 to 400
3 Above 2.5(25) to 4 (40) from -70 to 200
Above 4 (40) to 5 (50) from -40 to 200
4 Up to 1.6 (16) from -20 to 200

In case Table 5 does not contain the given combinations of parameters of


pressure and temperature the maximum parameter values shall be followed to
determine the group.
The wall temperature shall be determined on the basis of the heat-engineering
calculations or results of measurements, and when both are absent it shall be
assumed equal to the temperature of the medium encased by the vessel wall.
4.5.3. The volume of the control shall not be less than the specified by the Rules one.
4.5.4. The process of the vessels manufacturing shall include the following control:
• compliance of the metal of the welded parts and the welding materials with
the requirements of normative documents;
• compliance of quality of edges preparation and mounting for welding with
the requirements of the standards and drawings in effect;
• observance of the process of welding and heat treatment worked out in
compliance with the normative documents requirements.
4.5.5. The main kinds of non-destructive test of metal and welded joints are:
• visual and measuring;
• X-ray test;
• ultrasonic test;
• radioscopic test (shall be applied only according to instructions approved by
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia);
• steeloscoping;
• hardness test;
• hydrostatic test;
• pneumatic test.
Besides that other methods can be used (acoustic emission, magnetic-tape,
colour testing, determination of ferrite phase in the weld metal and etc.) in
compliance with the specifications of the manufacturing organization in a
specified by normative documents volume.
4.5.6. To perform tests of mechanical properties, metallographic examination and
tests for resistance to intercrystalline corrosion the method of destructive testing
shall be used.
4.5.7. The acceptance testing of an item, assembly units and welded joints shall be
carried out after completion of all the process operations dealing with heat
treatment, deformation and cold-work hardening of metal.
PB 03-576-03
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The sequence of testing by individual methods shall comply with the normative
documents requirements. The visual and measurement test as well as
steeloscoping shall precede the other test methods.
4.5.8. The quality control of welded joints shall be carried out in compliance with
normative documents, coordinated in accordance with the established order.
4.5.9. In the process of works execution the manufacturing organization personnel
shall carry out operational monitoring of the processes of preparation and
mounting the elements for welding, the welding proper and heat treatment of
welded joints, correction of defects of welded joints.
The operational monitoring shall be intended for check of observance of the
requirements of the present Rules, normative documents and the drawings by
the performers. The volumes of the operational monitoring during preparation,
assembly, welding and heat treatment and correction of defects shall be
specified in normative documents.
4.5.10. The results of every kind of control (including the operational monitoring) shall
be recorded in the accounting documentation (registers, logbooks, protocols,
route certificates and etc.).
4.5.11. The means of control shall undergo metrological test.
4.5.12. Every lot of materials for non-destructive tests (penetrants, powder,
suspensions, radiographic film, chemical agents and etc.) before their
application shall be subjected to incoming control.
4.5.13. The volume of destructive and non-destructive control, specified by the Rules,
can be reduced in coordination with Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia in case of
mass production on condition that the process is unchanged, the welding
operators specialize on individual kinds of works and their high quality confirmed
by control results for a period of not less than 6 months. A copy of such a
permission shall be enclosed into the vessel certificate.
4.5.14. The methods and the volumes of control of welded joints of welded parts, which
do not operate under internal pressure, shall be prescribed by the normative
documentation for the vessel and welding.
4.5.15. An item shall be declared serviceable if in the process of control internal and
external defects, which go beyond the limits of allowable norms established by
the Rules and normative documents for the item and welding, were not
detected.
4.5.16. The data of control of welded joints of the basic elements of the high pressure
vessels shall be entered in the vessel certificate.
4.5.17. All the welded joints of the vessels and their elements are subject to visual and
measurement control with the purpose of detection in them the following
defects:
• cracks of all kinds and directions;
• blowholes and porosity in the outside surface of the weld;
• undercuts;
• rolls, burns-through, unfilled craters;
• displacement and joint run-off of edges of the welded elements above the
norms established by the Rules;
• nonlinearity of welded elements;
• non-compliance of form and dimensions of welds with the requirements of
the production forms and records.
PB 03-576-03
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4.5.18. Before the visual inspection the surface of the weld and adjacent parts of the
base metal with a width of not less than 20 mm to both sides from the weld shall
be cleaned from slag and other impurities, in case of electroslag welding this
distance shall not be less than 100 mm.
4.5.19. Inspection and measurements of welded joints shall be carried out both from
inside and outside along the entire length of welds.
4.5.20. Ultrasonic and radiographic tests shall be carried out with the purpose of
detection of internal defects (cracks, poor penetrations, pores, slag inclusions
and etc.) in welded joints.
4.5.21. The test of welded joints of the vessels by physical methods shall be allowed to
the specialists, who undertook a special theoretical training, practical training
and certification in accordance with the Rules of personnel certification in the
field of non-destructive testing (PB 03-440-02) approved by the resolution of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia as of 23.01.02 No. 3 and registered by the Ministry
of Justice of the Russian Federation on 17.04.02, Reg. No. 3378.
4.5.22. The ultrasonic and radiographic tests of welded joints shall be carried out in
compliance with the normative documents requirements.
4.5.23. The control method (ultrasonic or radiographic test, both tests in combination)
shall be selected proceeding from potentiality to provide for the most complete
and accurate detection of inadmissible defects with regard for the features of
physical properties of metal, as well as the given control method mastering for a
particular kind of welded joints.
4.5.24. The volume of ultrasonic or radiographic test of butt, corner, tee and other
welded joints of the vessels and their elements (bottoms, shells, pipe
connections, hatches, flanges and etc.), including joints of hatches and pipe
connections with the vessel body, shall comply with the values given in Table 6.
Table 6
Length of Tested Section of Welds
Group of Vessels (Ref. Table 5)
vs. Length of Every Weld, %
1 100
2 100
3 Not less than 50
4 Not less than 25
The given volume of control shall be applied to every welded joint. The areas of
junction (intersection) of welded joints shall be subject to mandatory control by
the method of ultrasonic or radiographic test.
The ultrasonic or radiographic test of welds of internal and external devices
welding to the vessel body shall be carried out when required by the technical
manuals.
4.5.25. The welded joints of the vessels equipped with easily detachable covers shall be
subjected to ultrasonic or radiographic test in a volume of 100%.
4.5.26. For the vessels of group 3 and 4 the areas of radiographic and ultrasonic test
shall be specified by the inspection department of the manufacturing
organization after welding operations completion by the results of external
inspection.
4.5.27. Before testing a certain section the welded joints shall be marked so, that they
could be easily found on the control plans and radiographs.
4.5.28. When inadmissible defects are detected in the welded joints subjected to
ultrasonic or radiographic test in the volume of 100% similar welds of the vessel,
PB 03-576-03
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performed by the same welder, shall be subjected to mandatory testing by the


same method along the entire length of the joint.
4.5.29. When ultrasonic or radiographic test is impracticable due to inaccessibility of
individual welded joints or when the methods are inefficient (specifically for
welds of pipe connections and pipes with inside diameter below 100 mm), the
quality control of these welded joints shall be carried out by other methods in
compliance with the instructions, coordinated in accordance with the established
procedure. The instructions for an applied control method shall be entered into
the vessel certificate.
4.5.30. The ultrasonic and radiographic test of welded joints by permission of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia can be substituted for other efficient method of
non-destructive testing.
4.5.31. Capillary and magnetic powder test of welded joints and items are
supplementary control methods specified by drawings and normative documents
with the purpose of detection of surface and subsurface defects.
4.5.32. The capillary test shall be carried out in accordance with control procedures
coordinated in accordance with the established order.
4.5.33. The class and the level of sensitivity of the capillary and magnetic powder test
shall be specified by drawings and normative documents.
4.5.34. The steeloscoping test shall be carried out with the purpose of confirmation of
correspondence of parts and welds metal alloying with the requirements of
drawings and normative documents.
4.5.35. The steeloscoping test shall apply to:
• all welded parts (structure elements), which, according to the drawing, shall
be made of alloyed steel;
• the weld metal of all the weld joints of the tubes, which, in compliance with
normative documents, shall be made with alloyed filling material;
• welding materials in compliance with point 4.3.10 of the Rules.
4.5.36. The steeloscoping test shall be carried out in compliance with the requirements
of methodical directions or instructions coordinated in accordance with the
established order.
4.5.37. The measurement of hardness of weld metal of welded joint shall be carried out
with the purpose of quality control of heat treatment execution of welded joints.
4.5.38. The hardness measurement shall be made of metal of a weld of welded joints
performed with alloyed heat-resistant steels of pearlitic and martensitic-ferritic
classes by the method and in the volume specified by normative documents.
4.5.39. The mechanical properties control, intercrystalline corrosion test and
metallographic examinations of welded joints shall be carried out on specimens
made from control welded joints.
The control welded joints shall reproduce one of the butt welded joints of the
vessel defining its strength (longitudinal welds of the shells, chord and meridian
welds of convex bottoms), as well as circumferential welds of the vessels, which
do not have longitudinal welds.
The control welded joints shall be identical with the performed welded joints
under control (in steel quality, thickness of sheet or pipes dimension, form of
edge preparation, method of welding, welding materials, position of the weld,
conditions and temperature of heating, heat treatment) and made by the same
welder and with the same welding equipment at the same time with the tested
production joint. Control welded joints for circumferential welds of multilayer
PB 03-576-03
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vessels shall be specified by normative documents for these vessels


manufacturing.
If welding practice has passed industrial certification in compliance with the
requirements of the Rules, it is allowable not to perform mechanical tests of
control welded joints when such a decision is coordinated with specialized
organizations.
4.5.40. When welding control joints (plates), intended for tests of mechanical properties,
resistance to crystalline corrosion and metallographic examination, the plates
shall be tacked to the welded elements so, that the weld of the control plates
would be a continuation of the weld of the item being welded.
The welding of the control plates for tests of the joints of the vessel elements
where plates tacking is impracticable, can be made separately, but with
mandatory observance of all the conditions of welding of subjected to test
welded joints.
4.5.41. In case of application of automatic (mechanized) welding of the vessels one
control joint shall be made for every vessel. If during the day shift several
identical vessels are welded in the same process, it is allowable to make one
control joint for the whole lot of the vessels welded during the shift. In case of
manual welding of the vessels, performed by several welding operators, every
operator shall make one control weld for every vessel.
4.5.42. In batch production of the vessels, when 100% of butt welded joints are
subjected to ultrasonic of radiation control, it is allowable to perform one control
joint for every kind of welding for the whole lot of the vessels. In this case a lot
may combine the vessels identical in duty and type, manufactured from the
same kind of metal products (sheet, pipes, forging and etc.), of the same metal
quality, having similar form of edge preparation, made in unified process and
subject to heat treatment under the same conditions, if the cycle of all the items
manufacture of assembly-welding works, heat treatment and control operations
does not exceed three months.
4.5.43. In case of quality control of welded joints in pipe elements with butt welds
simultaneously with their welding control joints shall be made under similar
production conditions to perform tests of mechanical properties of the joints. The
number of the control joints shall account for 1% of the total number of uniform
joints performed by one welding operator, but not less than one joint per a
welder.
4.5.44. Control joints welding in all the cases shall be made by the welding operators,
who performed the vessel welded joints to be tested.
4.5.45. Dimensions of the control joints shall be sufficient to cut from them a required
number of specimens of all the specified kinds of mechanical tests,
intercrystalline corrosion resistance test, metallographic examination, as well as
for recurrent tests.
4.5.46. The control welded joints shall be subject to ultrasonic or radiographic test along
the entire length.
If inadmissible defects are detected in a control joint all the production welded
joints of this kind, which have not been subjected to non-destructive testing
before, are liable to this method of test along the entire length.
4.5.47. Control butt welded joints shall be subjected to mechanical tests to check the
correspondence of their mechanical properties with the requirements of the
Rules and specifications for the vessels manufacturing.
The mandatory kinds of mechanical tests:
• static tensile test – for vessels of all the groups (ref. Table 5);
PB 03-576-03
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• static bending or flattening test - for vessels of all the groups;


• impact bending test – for the vessels intended for operation under a
2
pressure exceeding 5 MPa (50 kgf/cm ) or a temperature exceeding 450 ?C,
and the vessels made of steels prone to additional hardening at welding
(Appendix 4);
• impact bending test – for the vessels of group 1, 2, 3 intended for operation
under a temperature below –20 ?C.
The impact bending tests of welded joints shall be carried out for the vessels
with a wall thickness of 12 mm and more in accordance with point 3 under a
temperature of 20 ?C, and in accordance with point 4 – under working
temperature.
If welding practice has passed industrial certification in compliance with the
requirements of the Rules, it is allowable not to perform mechanical tests of
control welded joints when such a decision is coordinated with specialized
organizations.
4.5.48. Every control butt welded joint shall be sampled:
• two pieces for static tensile test;
• two pieces for static bending or flattening test;
• three pieces for impact bending test.
4.5.49. The static bending tests of control joints of tubular elements of the vessels with
a nominal bore below 100 mm and a wall thickness below 12 mm can be
substituted with flattening tests.
4.5.50. Mechanical tests of welded joints shall be carried out in compliance with the
requirements of the state standards.
4.5.51. The ultimate rupture strength of welded joints metal under a temperature of 20
?C shall comply with the values specified by normative documents for the base
metal. Reduction of the ultimate rupture strength is allowable if stipulated by the
normative documents coordinated in accordance with the established order.
4.5.52. The values obtained from the static bending tests of steel joints shall not be
below the values given in Table 7.
Table 7
Minimum Allowable Bend Angle, degrees
Type, Class of Steel (in Electric Arc, Resistance and
Gas Welding
Accordance with Electroslag Welding
Appendix 4) Where Thickness of Welded Elements (mm) is:
Not Exceeding 20 Above 20 Up to 4
Carbon 100 100 70
Low-alloyed 80 60 50
manganese,
manganese-silicon
Low-alloyed chromium- 50 40 30
molybdenum,
chromium-molybdenum-
vanadium
Martensite 50 40 -
Ferritic 50 40 -
Austenitic-ferritic 80 60 -
Austenitic 100 100 -
Alloys based on iron- 100 100 -
nickel and nickel
PB 03-576-03
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4.5.53. The impact bending tests of welded joints shall be carried out on the specimens
with a notch along the weld axis from the side of its opening, if the notch location
is not specified by the manufacturing specifications or welding and welded joints
control instructions.
The value of the impact elasticity of steel welded joints shall not be lower than
the values given in Table 8.
Table 8
Minimum Value of Impact Strength,
2 2
J/cm (kgf m/cm )
Test For all Steels, Except
For steels of Ferritic
Temperature Ferritic, Austenitic- and Austenitic-ferritic
For Steels of
ferritic and Austenitic Class
Class
Austenitic Class
KCU KCV KCU KCV KCU KCV
20 50 (5) 35 (3.5) 40 (4) 30 (3) 70 (7) 50 (5)
Below – 20 30 (3) 20 (2) 30 (3) 20 (2) 30 (3) 20 (2)

The impact elasticity tests shall be carried out on the specimens of KCU or KCV
type in accordance with the requirements of the standard or specifications for an
item manufacturing.
4.5.54. The values of flattening tests of welded joints of pipes shall not be lower than the
appropriate minimum allowable values specified by the standards or
specifications for the pipes of the same range of sizes or of the same material.
When performing the flattening tests of pipe specimens with a longitudinal weld
the latter shall be located in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the walls
convergence.
4.5.55. The indices of the mechanical properties of welded joints shall be determined as
arithmetical average of test results of individual specimens. The total result of
the tests is believed to be unsatisfactory even if one of the specimens of tensile
test, static bend or flattening test has shown a result different from the specified
norms to the side of decrease by more than 10%. On the impact bend tests the
results are believed to be unsatisfactory even if one of the specimens has
shown a result below the value given in Table 8. When test temperature is
below –40 ?C, it is allowable to reduce for one of the specimens the impact
2 2 2 2
elasticity KCU to 25 J/cm (2.5 kgf m/cm ) or KCV to 20 J/cm (2 kgf m/cm ).
4.5.56. If unsatisfactory results are obtained in one of the kinds of mechanical tests, this
kind of tests shall be repeated on a twofold number of specimens cut from the
same control joint. When specimens cannot be cut from the given butts,
duplicate mechanical tests shall be carried out on production welds, made by
the same welding operator, cut from the controlled item.
If on duplicate test even one of the specimens shows results, which do not
conform to the specified standards, the welded joint is believed to be
unserviceable.
4.5.57. The volume of the mechanical tests and metallographic examination of welded
joints, provided by the Rules, can be reduced in coordination with a body of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia in case of batch production of unified items in a
permanent process, welders specialization in certain kind of works and high
quality of welded joints confirmed by control results for a period of not less than
six months.
4.5.58. The necessity, the volume and the procedure of the mechanical tests of welded
joints of cast and forged elements, pipes with cast articles, elements of various
classes of steel as well as other individual welded joints shall be specified in
PB 03-576-03
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compliance with normative documents coordinated in accordance with the


established order.
For vessels, made of non-metallic and composite materials provision shall be
made for control specimens. Design, manufacturing method and kinds of their
test shall be prescribed by specifications for a given vessel.
4.5.59. Metallographic examination shall be carried out for control butt welded joints,
which govern the strength of the vessels and their elements, which are:
2
• intended for operation under a pressure exceeding 5 MPa (50 kgf/cm ) or a
temperature exceeding 450 ?C or a temperature below –40 ?C irrespective
of pressure;
• made of alloyed steel prone to additional hardening during welding; two-
layer steels; steels, prone to formation of hot cracks (specified by the author
of the detail design).
It is allowable not to perform the metallographic examination for vessels and
their elements with a thickness of up to 20 mm made of steels of austenitic
class.
4.5.60. The specimens (microsection metallographic specimen) for metallographic
examination of welded joints shall be cut across the weld and made in
compliance with the requirements of the state standards or normative
documents.
The specimens for metallographic examination of welded joints shall include all
the weld sections, both zones of the welding thermal effect, adjacent areas of
the base metal, as well as the lining ring if it was used for welding and is not
subject to removal. The specimens for metallographic examination of welded
joints with a wall thickness of 25 mm and more may include only a part of the
joint section. In this case the distance from the line of fusion to the specimen
edges shall not be less than 12 mm, and the area of the controlled section –
25x25 mm.
4.5.61. The quality of the welded joint in metallographic examinations shall comply with
the requirements of points 4.5.1 and 4.5.17 of the Rules.
4.5.62. When metallographic examinations show unsatisfactory results it is allowed to
carry out duplicate tests on two specimens cut from the same control joint.
If duplicate metallographic examinations show unsatisfactory results the welds
are considered unsatisfactory.
4.5.63. If metallographic examinations of the control welded joint, checked by ultrasonic
or radiographic testing and found fit for operation, reveal inadmissible internal
defects, which should have been detected by this non-destructive method, all
the production welded joints checked by this flaw detector operator shall be
subject to 100% check by the same non-destructive method. The new quality
control of all the production joints therewith shall be performed by another more
experienced and qualified flaw detector operator.
4.5.64. The necessity, the volume and the procedure of the metallographic
examinations of welded joints of cast and forged elements, pipes with cast
articles, elements of various classes of steel as well as other individual welded
joints shall be established by the manufacturing specifications or normative
documents.
4.5.65. The intercrystalline corrosion resistance test of welded joints shall be performed
for the vessels and their elements made of steels of austenitic, ferritic,
austenitic-ferritic classes and two-layer steels with a corrosion-resistant layer
from austenitic and ferritic steels, when required by the specifications or the
detail design.
PB 03-576-03
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4.5.66. The form, the dimensions, the number of specimens, the test methods and the
estimate criterion of the specimens’ tendency to intercrystalline corrosion shall
comply with the normative documents requirement.
4.6. Hydrostatic (Pneumatic) Test
4.6.1. All the vessels after manufacturing shall be subjected to hydrostatic test.
The vessel, the manufacture of which is completed on the erection site,
transported to the erection site in parts, shall be subjected to hydrostatic test in
situ.
4.6.2. The vessels with protective coating or insulation shall be subjected to
hydrostatic test prior to the coating or insulation application.
The vessels with external housing shall be subjected to hydrostatic test prior to
the housing mounting.
Enamelled vessels may be subjected to hydrostatic test with operating pressure
after their enamelling.
4.6.3. The vessels hydrostatic test, with the exception of cast items, shall be carried
out under test pressure, determined from the formula

[ ]20
P = 125
. P ,
[ ]t
where:
2
P – design pressure of the vessel, MPa (kgf/cm );
[?20], [?t] – allowable stresses for material of the vessel or its elements
2
respectively under 20 ?C and design temperature, MPa (kgf/cm ).

[ ]20
The ratio shall be taken for the material employed for the elements shells,
[ ]t
bottoms, flanges, fixtures, pipe connections and etc.) of a vessel, for which it is
the least.
4.6.4. The hydrostatic test of parts made of castings shall be carried out under test
pressure, determined from the formula

[ ]20
P = 15
. P ,
[ ]t
The castings test may be carried out after assembly and welding in an
assembled unit or in a ready vessel with test pressure specified for the vessels,
under condition of 100% castings control by non-destructive methods.
The hydrostatic test of vessels and parts, made of non-metal materials with
2 2
impact elasticity above 20 J/cm (2 kgf m/cm ), shall be carried out under test
pressure, determined from the formula

[ ]20
P = 13
. P .
[ ]t
The hydrostatic test of vessels and parts, made of non-metal materials with
2 2
impact elasticity of 20 J/cm (2 kgf m/cm ) and below, shall be carried out under
test pressure, determined from the formula

[ ]20
P = 16
. P .
[ ]t
PB 03-576-03
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4.6.5. The hydrostatic test of cryogenic vessels with vacuum in the insulation space
shall be carried out under test pressure, determined from the formula
PUV = 1.25P – 0.1, MPa
or
2
PUV = 1.25P – 1, kgf/cm .
The hydrostatic test of metal-plastic vessels shall be carried out under test
pressure, determined from the formula

[ ]
[. K m + a(1 K m ) P
P = 125 ] [ ]20 ,
t

where:
KM – relation of steelwork to the vessel total mass;
2
? = 1.3 – for non-metal materials with impact elasticity above 20 J/cm ;
2
? = 1.6 – for non-metal materials with impact elasticity of 20 J/cm and
below.
4.6.6. The hydrostatic test of vertical vessels may be carried out in horizontal position,
on condition that the vessel body strength is ensured. For this purpose the
strength analysis shall be performed by the project developer with due regard for
accepted method of support in the process of hydrostatic test.
In this case the test pressure shall be specified with regard for hydrostatic
pressure affecting the vessel in the process of its operation.
4.6.7. In combined vessels with two and more working chambers, designed for
different pressures, every chamber shall be subjected to hydrostatic test under
test pressure specified in accordance with design pressure of the chamber.
The procedure of the test running shall be provided for in the detail design and
specified in the vessel operation manual of the manufacturing organization.
4.6.8. In the process of vessel filling with water the air shall be completely removed.
4.6.9. Water temperature for the hydrostatic test shall not be lower than 5 ?C and not
exceeding 40 ?C, unless the specifications establish a particular temperature
value allowable in accordance with condition of prevention of brittle failure.
The temperature difference of the vessel wall and the ambient air during the test
shall not cause moisture condensation on the vessel walls surface.
As agreed with the vessel project developer water may be substituted with some
other liquid.
4.6.10. Pressure in the tested vessel shall be raised smoothly. The rate of pressure rise
shall be specified: for a vessel test at the manufacturing organization - in the
technical documentation, for the vessels test in the process of operation – in the
Operation Manual.
Compressed air or other gas shall not be used to raise pressure.
4.6.11. Pressure control during the test shall be performed with two pressure gauges.
Both the gages shall be of the same type, upper limit of the range, similar
accuracy rating, scale spacing.
4.6.12. Time of a vessel holding under test pressure shall be specified by the project
developer. When the project does not contain instructions the holding time shall
not be less than the values given in Table 9.
PB 03-576-03
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Table 9
Vessel Wall Thickness, mm Holding Time, min.
Up to 50 10
Above 50 to 100 20
Above 100 30
For cast, non-metal and multilayer
60
vessels, irrespective of wall thickness
4.6.13. Upon holding under the test pressure the pressure shall be reduced to the
design value, and inspection of the vessel external surface, of all its detachable
and welded joint shall be carried out under this pressure.
Tap test of the body walls, welded and detachable joints of the vessel shall not
be allowed.
4.6.14. A vessel is thought to pass the hydrostatic test if it has not shown:
• leak, cracks, water drips, perspiration in welded joints and on the base
metal;
• leak in detachable joints;
• visible residual deformation, gauge pressure drop.
4.6.15. The vessel and its elements, which have shown defects during the tests, after
the defects correction shall be subjected to duplicate hydrostatic test under the
test pressure specified by the Rules.
4.6.16. The hydrostatic test carried out at the manufacturing organization shall be
performed on a special test bench equipped with proper protection guard and
meeting safety requirements and instructions for hydrostatic tests running in
compliance with normative documents.
4.6.17. The hydrostatic test may be substituted with pneumatic one provided that the
test is controlled by the method of acoustic emission or some other method
coordinated in accordance with the established order.
The pneumatic test shall be carried out in accordance with the instructions
providing for appropriate safety measures and approved in accordance with the
established order.
The pneumatic test of a vessel shall be carried out with compressed air or other
inert gas.
4.6.18. The test pressure value and the test results shall be entered into the vessel
certificate by the person responsible for the test.
4.7. Assessment of Quality of Welded Joints
4.7.1. The following defects shall not be allowed in welded joints of the vessels:
• cracks of all kinds and directions located in the weld metal, along the line of
fusing and near the base metal seam zone, including microcracks detected
during microexamination of a test specimen;
• lack of penetration (faulty fusion) in welded joints located at the weld root or
over the cross-section of weld joint (between separate beads and joint
layers and between base metal and joint metal);
• presence of local incomplete penetration in the welded joints of vessels
shall be stipulated in the applicable normative documents coordinated in
accordance with the established order;
• undercutting of base metal, pores, slag and other inclusions whose size
exceed the values specified in the normative documents;
PB 03-576-03
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• cold laps (runs);


• unwelded craters and burn-throughs;
• blowholes;
• displacement of edges in excess of the standard envisaged by these Rules.

4.7.2. The quality of welded joints shall be considered unsatisfactory if any type of
inspection reveals internal or external effects, exceeding the specified standards
as established by these Rules and applicable technical specifications.
4.7.3. The defects detected during manufacture shall be removed with subsequent
inspection of the corrected sections. The methods and quality of correcting the
defects shall ensure the required reliability and operation safety of the vessel.
4.8. Correcting the Defects in Welded Joints
4.8.1. Intolerable defects detected in the process of manufacture (before
manufacture), reconstruction, installation, repair, set-up, testing, and operation
shall be removed with subsequent inspection of the corrected areas.
4.8.2. The practice for correcting defects and inspection procedure shall be
established by normative documents to be worked out in accordance with the
requirements of these Rules and applicable regulations.
4.8.3. Deviations from the practice adopted for correcting defects shall be coordinated
with its originator. Defects shall be removed by a mechanical method, with
smooth transitions being made at points of sampling. Maximum dimensions and
form of the points of sampling to be welded up shall be specified by the
normative documents.
For removing internal defects, methods of thermal cutting (gouging) may be
employed with subsequent surface machining and mechanical sampling.
Defects shall be checked for complete removal visually and by non-destructive
test (penetrant flaw detection, magnetic particle flaw detection, or etching) in
compliance with the normative documents requirements.
4.8.4. Correction of defects without welding up the points of their sampling is
acceptable in case the minimum allowable thickness of the wall of a part at the
point of maximum depth of sampling is maintained.
4.8.5. If during inspection of the corrected area some defects are detected, they may
be corrected in the same way as previously.
Correction of defects on one and the same area of a welded joint may be
performed not more than three times.
The joints cut along the weld, with the metal of weld and heat-affected area
having been removed, are not considered as corrected for the second time.
4.9. Documentation and Marking
4.9.1. Every vessel shall be delivered by manufacturer to customer with a certificate of
authorized form.
The certificate shall be enclosed with the operating manual.
The vessel certificate shall be drawn up in the Russian language and, if
requested by the customer, in another language.
The certificate may be supplemented with computer print-outs of calculations.
The elements of vessels (bodies, sidewalls, bottoms, covers, tube grids, body
flanges, large assembly units) intended for reconstruction or repair shall be
PB 03-576-03
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delivered by the manufacturer with a certificate on workmanship and data in the


scope corresponding to the requirements of respective sections of certificate.
4.9.2. Every vessel shall be provided with a nameplate. The vessels with an external
diameter of less than 325 mm may be delivered without nameplates. In this
case, all necessary data shall be marked on the vessel body by electrographic
method.
4.9.3. The nameplate shall carry the following information:
• manufacturer’s trademark or name;
• vessel name or designation;
• vessel sequential number according to the manufacturer’s numbering
system;
• year of manufacture;
• operating pressure, MPa;
• design pressure, MPa;
• test pressure, MPa;
• wall maximum allowable and/or minimum working temperature, °C;
• vessel mass, kg.
The vessels with independent cavities, having different design and test
pressures and wall temperature, shall be provided with data for each cavity.
V. VALVES, INSTRUMENTATION, SAFETY DEVICES
5.1. General
5.1.1. To ensure control and safe operations, the vessels shall be provided, in
accordance with their intended use, with the following:
• shut-off valves or shut-off-and-regulating valves;
• pressure meters;
• temperature meters;
• safety devices;
• liquid level indicators.
5.1.2. The vessels fitted with quick-detachable covers shall be provided with safety
devices to prevent placing a vessel under pressure while the cover is not
completely closed or opening the cover in presence of pressure in the vessel.
Such vessels shall be also furnished with locks and special keys.
5.2. Shut-off and Shut-off-and-Regulating Valves
5.2.1. Shut-off and shut-off-and-regulating valves shall be mounted on connecting
branches directly connected to a vessel, or on working medium inlet and outlet
pipelines of the vessel. With several vessels connected sequentially, the need
for installing such valves between the vessels is to be decided by the project
originator.
5.2.2. The marking of valves shall include:
• manufacturer’s name or trademark;
• nominal bore, mm;
• conventional pressure, MPa (operating pressure and permissible
temperature may be also indicated);
PB 03-576-03
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• medium stream direction;


• valve body material grade.
5.2.3. Quantity, types and location of valves shall be selected by the vessel design
developer based on specific operating conditions and requirements of these
Rules.
5.2.4. The handwheels of shut-down valves shall be provided with designations of
direction of rotation in opening and closing the valves.
5.2.5. The vessels for explosion-hazardous, fire-hazardous, hazard class 1 and 2
substances as per GOST 12.1.007-76, as well as evaporators with fire and gas
heating, shall be furnished with non-return valves to be installed on delivery lines
from pumps or compressors and closing automatically by the vessel pressure.
Non-return valve shall be installed between the pump (compressor) and the
vessel shut-down valve.
5.2.6. Valve with a nominal bore over 20 mm made from alloyed steel or non-ferrous
metals shall have a certificate of authorized form with information on chemical
composition, mechanical properties, heat treatment regimes, and results of
workmanship quality test performed by non-destructive methods.
Valves carrying the marking, but lacking certificates, may be employed only after
inspection, testing and check of the material grade. As this takes place, the
owner of such valves shall draw up certificates.
5.3. Pressure Gauges
5.3.1. Every vessel and independent cavities rated for different pressures shall be
fitted with direct-action pressure gauges. Pressure gauge shall be mounted on
the vessel connecting branch or on the pipeline between the vessel and the
shut-down valve.
5.3.2. Pressure gauges shall have accuracy class not below: 2.5 – at a vessel
2
operating pressure of up to 2.5 MPa (25 kgf/cm ), 1.5 – at a vessel operating
2
pressure over 2.5 MPa (25 kgf/cm ).
5.3.3. Pressure gauge shall be selected with such a dial when the operating pressure
measuring range will be found within the second triens of the dial.
5.3.4. On the pressure gauge dial, the vessel owner shall make a red line to indicate
the operating pressure in the vessel. Instead of the red line, it is permissible to
attach to the pressure gauge body a metal strip painted red and closely fitting
the dial glass.
5.3.5. Pressure gauge shall be mounted so that its readings would be clearly visible for
attending personnel.
5.3.6. The nominal diameter of bodies of pressure gauges mounted at a height up to 2
m from the observation platform level shall be not less than 100 mm , and at a
height of 2 to 3 m – not less than 160 mm.
Installation of pressure gauges at a height more than 3 m from the platform level
shall not be permitted.
5.3.7. Between pressure gauge and vessel, a three-way cock or equivalent shall be
put in, making it possible to check the pressure gauge periodically with the help
of a reference pressure gauge.
Whenever necessary, pressure gauge, depending on the operating conditions
and medium properties, shall be equipped with a siphon tube or oil dashpot, or
with other devices, to protect it from a direct effect of medium and temperature
and to ensure its reliable performance.
PB 03-576-03
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2
5.3.8. On vessels, operating at a pressure over 2.5 MPa (25 kgf/cm ) or at a
temperature of working medium over 250°C and also with hazard class 1 and 2
substances as per GOST 12.1.007-76, it is allowable to install, instead of a
three-way cock, a separate connecting branch with a shut-down element for
connection of a second pressure gauge.
On stationary vessels, where pressure gauges can be checked within the
periods fixed in these Rules by dismounting them from the vessels, installation
of a three-way cock or equivalent is not mandatory.
On mobile vessels, the need for installation of a three-way cock shall be
determined by the vessel design developer.
5.3.9. Pressure gauges and pipelines connecting them with vessels shall be protected
from freezing.
5.3.10. Pressure gauge shall not be accepted for use in the cases as follows:
• absence of seal or stamp testifying to the calibrated performed;
• overdue calibration date;
• the pointer does not return, upon the pressure gauge cut-off, to the scale
zero mark by a value, exceeding the one half of the permissible error
specified for the given instrument;
• broken glass or other damages that may affect the accuracy of the pressure
gauge indication.
5.3.11. The check of pressure gauges with affixing of seals or stamping shall be
performed not less than once every 12 months. Besides, not less than once
every 6 months, the vessel owner shall perform an additional check of
operational pressure gauges with the help of a reference pressure gauge to be
followed by making appropriate entries in the test check log. In absence of a
reference pressure gauge, a pressure gauge known to be good may be used
that shall have the identical dial and accuracy class as a pressure gauge to be
checked.
The procedure and intervals for checking the pressure gauges for serviceability
by attending personnel during operation of vessels shall be outlined in the
instructions on operating conditions and safe servicing of vessels to be
approved by the management of the organization - vessel owner.
5.4. Temperature Meters
5.4.1. The vessels operating at changing temperature of walls shall be provided with
instruments for monitoring the rate and uniformity of heat penetration and with
check points for monitoring the heat transfer.
The need for outfitting the vessels with the above-said instruments and check
points, as well as the permissible rate of heat penetration and cooling of the
vessels, shall be determined by the project developer and indicated by the
manufacturer in the vessel certificate or in its operating manual.
5.5. Pressure Rise Protective Devices
5.5.1. Every vessel (cavity of a combination vessel) shall be provided with safety
devices to protect it against pressure rise in excess of permissible values.
5.5.2. The function of safety devices is performed by:
• spring-loaded safety valves;
• lever-and-weigh safety valves;
• pulse safety devices, consisting of a main safety valve and a direct-action
control pulse valve;
PB 03-576-03
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• safety devices with collapsing diaphragms (diaphragm safety devices).


• other devices the application of which has been coordinated with
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
Installation of lever-and-weight valves on mobile vessels shall not be permitted.
5.5.3. The design of spring-loaded valve shall exclude the spring tightening beyond the
set value and the spring shall be protected against intolerable heating (cooling)
and direct action of working medium if it produces a harmful effect on spring
material.
5.5.4. Provision shall be made in the spring-loaded valve design for a device to be
used for serviceability check of the valve in the working state by forcing it to
open during operation.
Safety valves may be installed without a device for forced valve opening if this is
hampered by medium properties (explosion- or fire-hazardous, hazard class 1 or
2 as per GOST 12.1.007-76) or by process conditions. In such instances, valves
shall be checked for functioning on test rigs.
5.5.5. If the operating pressure of a vessel is equal to or greater than that of the supply
source and there is no chance for pressure build-up in the vessel due to
chemical reaction of heating, then safety valve and pressure gauge need not be
installed.
5.5.6. The vessel designed for a pressure less than that of the supply source shall
have on its supply pipeline a reducing device with pressure gauge and safety
valve installed on a smaller pressure side downstream of the reducing device.
In case of installation of a bypass line, it shall be also fitted with a reducing
device.
5.5.7. For a group of vessels, operating at one and the same pressure, it is allowed to
install one reducing device with pressure gauge and safety valve on the
common supply pipeline upstream of the first tapping to one of the vessels.
In this case, safety devices may not be installed on the vessels proper in
absence of any cause for a pressure built-up.
5.5.8. When due to the physical properties of working medium the functioning of
automatic reducing device is not reliable, it is allowed to employ a flow-rate
regulator. As this takes place, protection against pressure rise shall be foreseen.
5.5.9. The number of safety valves, their dimensions and throughput capacity shall be
selected so as to avoid build-up of pressure in a vessel exceeding the design
2
value by more than 0.05 MPa (0.5 kgf/cm ) for vessels with a pressure of up to
2
0.3 MPa (3 kgf/cm ), by 15% - for vessels with a pressure from 0.3 to 6.0 MPa
2
(from 3 to 60 kgf/cm ), and by 10% - for vessels with a pressure over 6.0 MPa
2
(60 kgf/cm ).
With safety valves being operable, pressure in a vessel may exceed the working
one by not more than 25% on condition that such an increase is stipulated in the
project and stated in the vessel certificate.
5.5.10. Throughput capacity of a safety valve shall be determined in accordance with
the applicable normative documents.
5.5.11. Manufacturer shall deliver safety devices complete with certificates and
operating manual.
The certificate shall cover, in addition to other information, the valve discharge
coefficient for compressible and non-compressible media, as well as the cross-
section area to which it is referred.
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5.5.12. Safety devices shall be installed on connecting branches or on pipelines


directed attached to vessels.
The connecting pipelines of safety devices (inlet, outlet, and drain) shall be
protected against freezing of working medium in them.
In installation on one connecting branch (pipeline) of several safety devices, the
cross-section area of the connecting branch (pipeline) shall be not less than
1.25 of the total cross-section area of the valves mounted on it.
In determining the cross-section area of connecting pipelines with a length over
1000 mm, their resistance shall be also taken into account.
Take-off of working medium from the connecting branches (and from
connecting pipelines on sections between vessel and valves) on which safety
devices are mounted, shall not be permitted.
5.5.13. Safety devices shall be installed in places accessible for their servicing.
5.5.14. Installation of a shut-down valve between a vessel and a safety device and
downstream of it shall not be permitted.
5.5.15. A shut-down valve may be installed upstream/downstream of a safety device in
case of installation of two safety devices and interlock that will preclude their
simultaneous cut-off. In this case, either of them shall have throughput capacity
as stipulated by Para 5.5.9 of these Rules.
In installation of a group of safety devices upstream/downstream of valves,
interlock shall be so designed that upon any variant of cut-off of the valves
stipulated by the project, the remaining operable safety devices would have a
total throughput capacity as stipulated in Para 5.5.9 of these Rules.
5.5.16. Outlet pipelines of safety devices and pulse lines of pulse safety devices shall
be furnished, in places of possible accumulation of condensate, with drain
devices for removal of condensate.
Installation of shut-down or other valves on drain lines shall not be permitted.
The medium discharged from safety and drain devices shall be taken out to a
safe place.
The discharged toxic, explosion-and-fire-hazardous media shall be forwarded to
closed systems for further disposal or to incineration systems.
It is prohibited to combine discharges that contain substances capable of
forming, upon mixing, explosion-hazardous mixtures or non-stable compounds.
5.5.17. Diaphragm safety devices shall be installed:
• instead of lever-and-weight and spring-loaded safety valves when these
valves cannot be employed for certain working media because of their
sluggishness or for other reasons
• upstream of safety valves in cases when these safety valves cannot
function properly because of harmful effect of working medium (corrosion,
erosion, polymerisation, crystallization, sticking, freezing-in) or potential
leaks through closed valves of explosion-and-fire-hazardous, toxic,
ecologically harmful, etc. substances. In such instances, provision shall be
made for a device capable of monitoring the diaphragm serviceability;
• in parallel with safety valves to increase the throughput capacity of pressure
release systems;
• downstream of safety valves to preclude harmful effect of working medium
from the discharge system and back pressure variations in this system on
the accuracy of safety valve actuation;
PB 03-576-03
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The need for and location of diaphragm safety devices and their configuration
shall be determined by the design organization.
5.5.18. Safety diaphragms shall be marked, with marking having no effect on the
actuation accuracy of the diaphragms.
The marking shall include:
• manufacturer’s name (designation) or trademark;
• diaphragm lot number;
• diaphragm type;
• nominal diameter;
• working diameter;
• material;
• minimum and maximum operation pressure of diaphragms in the lot at the
assigned temperature and at a temperature of 20°C.
The marking shall be applied along the outer circular section of diaphragms, or
diaphragms shall be provided with marking tags attached to them.
5.5.19. Every lot of diaphragms shall be provided with a certificate to be drawn up by the
manufacturer.
The certificate shall include:
• manufacturer’s name and address;
• diaphragm lot number;
• diaphragm type;
• nominal diameter;
• working diameter;
• material;
• minimum and maximum operation pressure of diaphragms in the lot at the
assigned temperature and at a temperature of 20°C;
• number of diaphragms in the lot;
• name of the normative document used as authority for fabrication of
diaphragms;
• name of the organization to technical assignment (order) of which the
diaphragms have been made;
• manufacturer’s guarantee obligations;
• procedure of diaphragm acceptance for use;
• sample of the diaphragm operation log.
The certificate shall be signed and authenticated by the manufacturer’s
representative.
The certificate shall be supplemented with technical documentation on anti-
vacuum supports, clamping and other elements to be used in assembling the
diaphragms of the given lot prior to operation. The technical documentation
is not supplied if diaphragms have been manufactured for the attachment
fittings available at the consumer.
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5.5.20. Safety diaphragms shall be installed into proprietary attachment fittings only.
Works on assembling, installation and operation of diaphragms shall be
performed by specially trained personnel.
5.5.21. Safety diaphragms produced abroad by organizations not supervised by
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia may be admitted for operation only in presence of
special permits for application of such diaphragms issued by Gosgortekhnadzor
of Russia according to the procedure established by it.
5.5.22. Diaphragm safety devices shall be arranged in places open and accessible for
inspection and installation/removal; connecting pipelines shall be protected
against freezing of working medium inside them, while the safety devices shall
be mounted on connecting branches and pipelines directly connected to
vessels.
5.5.23. On installation of a diaphragm safety device in series with a safety valve
(upstream or downstream), the cavity between diaphragm and valve shall
communicate over extension pipe with alarm pressure gauge (to monitor the
serviceability of diaphragms).
5.5.24. It is allowed to install a change-over device upstream of diaphragm safety
devices in presence of a double number of diaphragm devices, with adequate
measures being taken to protect the vessel against excessive pressure at any
position of the change-over device.
5.5.25. The procedure and intervals of checking the safety devices for serviceability
depending on process conditions shall be indicated in applicable operating
manual approved by the vessel owner in due order.
The results of serviceability check of safety devices and information on their
adjustment shall be entered into the vessel performance shift log by persons
responsible for the above operations.
PB 03-576-03
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5.6. Liquid Level Indicators


5.6.1. To monitor the level of liquid in vessels with a media boundary line, level
indicators shall be used.
In addition to level indicators, vessels may be furnished with audio, light and
other level annunciators and interlocks.
5.6.2. Liquid level indicators shall be mounted in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions so that the level would be clearly visible.
5.6.3. Vessels heated with flame or hot gases, where the level of liquid can drop below
the permissible limit, shall be provided with at least two direct-action level
indicators.
5.6.4. Configuration, number, and location of level indicators shall be determined by
the vessel design developer.
5.6.5. Each liquid level indicator shall carry the marks of permissible upper and lower
levels .
5.6.6. The upper and lower permissible levels of liquid in the vessel shall be
determined by the design developer. The height of transparent liquid level
indicator shall be by at least 25 mm lower than the bottom and higher than the
top permissible levels of liquid.
If need be to install several indicators in height, they shall be arranged so as to
ensure a continuity of liquid level indication.
5.6.7. Level indicators shall be provided with cocks or valves to permit their cutting-off
from the vessel and blowing out with diversion of working medium to a
safe place.
5.6.8. On application of glass or mica in level indicators as transparent elements,
adequate safeguard shall be provided to protect personnel against injury if glass
or mica burst out.
VI. INSTALLATION, REGISTRATION AND TECHNICAL INSPECTION OF VESSELS,
OPERATION PERMIT
6.1. Installation of Vessels
6.1.1. Vessels shall be installed on open sites, excluding the crowding of people, or in
detached buildings.
6.1.2. Vessels may be installed:
• in rooms adjoining the production buildings, provided that they are
separated from them by a main wall;
• in production rooms in accordance with applicable branch safety
regulations;
• by deepening into ground on condition of providing access to valves and
protection of the vessel walls against underground corrosion and leakage-
current corrosion.
6.1.3. It is not allowed to install vessels registered at the bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor
of Russia in living quarters, public and amenity buildings, and in adjoining
spaces.
6.1.4. Mounting of vessels shall exclude any turning over.
6.1.5. Vessels shall be installed in position facilitating their inspection, repair, and
cleaning on the inside and outside.
To assist in servicing, vessels shall be furnished with platforms and ladders. For
inspection and repair of vessels, hanging stages and other accessories may be
PB 03-576-03
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employed. The above-said arrangements shall not degrade the strength and
stability of vessels and welding them to vessels shall be made by reference to
the project and in compliance with the requirements of these Rules. The
materials and configuration of ladders and platforms shall comply with the acting
normative documents.
6.2. Registration of Vessels
6.2.1. Prior to commissioning, the vessels covered by these Rules shall be registered
at the bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
6.2.2. Not subject to registration at the bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia:
st
• 1 group vessels operating at a wall temperature not over 200°C, whose
2 3
product of pressure in terms of MPa (kgf/cm ) by capacity in terms of m
(litres) does not exceed 0.05 (500), and also the vessels referred to groups
2, 3, 4 and operating at the above temperature, with the product of pressure
2 3
in terms of MPa (kgf/cm ) by capacity in terms of m (litres) not exceeding
1.0 (10,000). The group of vessels shall be determined by reference to
Table 5;
• apparatuses of air-separation and gas-separation installations located
inside a heat-insulating enclosure (regenerators, columns, heat-exchanges,
condensers, adsorbers, separators, evaporators, filters, supercoolers, and
heaters);
• electric air switches;
• liquefied gas transportation barrels, bottles with a capacity of 100 litres
inclusive installed permanently and also intended for transportation and/or
storage of compressed, liquefied and dissolved gases;
• generators (reactors) for obtaining hydrogen employed by the
hydrometeorological service;
• vessels incorporated into closed oil and gas production systems (from well
to trunk pipeline) and vessels involved in the process of preparing gas and
gas condensate for transportation and disposition: separators of all
separating stages; knockout drums (on gas lines on flares); absorbers and
adsorbers; containers for degassing of condensate, absorbent and inhibitor;
condensate gathering tanks; oil, gas and condensate monitoring and
measuring vessels;
• vessels for storage and transportation of liquefied gases, liquids and
granular materials exposed periodically to pressure during their emptying;
• vessels with compressed and liquefied gases intended for supplying with
fuel the engines of transport facilities on which they are mounted;
• vessels installed in underground mine workings.
6.2.3. Vessel shall be registered at the vessel owner’s application submitted in written
form. Other documents to be enclosed with the application:
• vessel certificate of authorized form;
• certificate confirming the proper installation of vessel;
• vessel connection diagram, showing the pressure sources, parameters,
working medium, instrumentation, automatic control equipment, safety and
blocking devices. The diagram shall be approved by organization
management;
• certificate of safety valve with calculation of its throughput capacity.
PB 03-576-03
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The certificate on quality of the vessel installation shall be drawn up by the


organization that has performed the installation and signed by the manager of
this organization and by the manager of the organization that owns the vessel
and authenticated with seals.
The above certificate shall include the following data:
• installation organization’s name;
• name of organization – vessel owner;
• name of organization-manufacturer and vessel serial number.;
• information of materials used by the installation organization in addition to
those indicated in the certificate;
• information on welding: type of welding, electrode type and brand, teat
treatment, heat treatment conditions and diagrams;
• names of welders and heat treaters and numbers of their certificates;
• check results of test joints (samples), and results of non-destruction flaw
detection of welded joints;
• conclusion on compliance of the vessel installation work performed with
these Rules, project, technical specifications, and operating manual and its
adequacy for operation under the parameters as stated in the certificate.
6.2.4. A body of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia shall consider the submitted documents
within 5 days. If the vessel documents comply with the requirements of these
Rules, the body of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia shall put a stamp on
registration, seal the documents and return them to the vessel owner. The
refusal to register shall be sent to the vessel owner in writing with explanation of
reasons and references to respective paragraphs of these Rules.
6.2.5. With the vessel being transferred to another place or handed over to another
owner, and also after making changing in the vessel connection diagram, prior
to placing in operation the vessel shall be reregistered at the office of local body
of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
6.2.6. To take the registered vessel off the books, the vessel owner shall submit to the
body of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia an application stating the reason for
striking off the register and the vessel certificate.
6.2.7. To register vessels not provided with technical documentation, the vessel
certificate can be drawn up by a specialized organization that has a license of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia for conduct of expertise of technical devices
(vessels) for industrial safety.
6.2.8. Hazardous production facilities, operating vessels that work under pressure,
shall be registered in the State Register of Hazardous Production Facilities
according to the procedure established by the Rules for registration of facilities
in the State Register of Hazardous Production Facilities approved by the
Enactment of the Government of the Russian Federation on December 24,
*
1998, No. 1371 .
6.3. Technical Inspection
6.3.1. The vessels covered by these Rules shall undergo technical inspection after
installation, prior to placing in operation, periodically during service and,
whenever necessary, off-schedule examination.

*
Statutes at Large of the Russian Federation. 1998. No. 48. Clause 5939.
PB 03-576-03
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6.3.2. Scope, methods and periodicity of technical inspections of vessels (except for
bottles) shall be determined by the manufacturer and stated in the operating
manual.
In absence of such directions, technical inspections shall be performed in
accordance with the requirements outlined in Tables 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 of these
Rules.
Table 10
Regularity of Technical Inspections of Operated Vessels not Subject to
Registration by Bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Internal and Hydraulic
No. Description External Testing at
Examinations Test Pressure
Vessels working with medium that causes
destruction and physical-chemical
1 2 years 8 years
transformation of material (corrosion, etc. at a
rate not over 0.1 mm/year
Vessels working with medium that causes
destruction and physical-chemical
2 12 months 8 years
transformation of material (corrosion, etc. at a
rate over 0.1 mm/year

Table 11
Regularity of Technical Inspections of Vessels Registered by Bodies of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Person Specialist of Organization
Responsible That Has License of
for Production Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Supervision (Para 6.3.3)
No. Description
External and External and Hydraulic
Internal Internal Testing at
Examinations Examinations Test Pressure

Vessels working with


medium that causes
destruction and physical-
1 2 years 4 years 8 years
chemical transformation of
material (corrosion, etc.) at
a rate not over 0.1 mm/year
Vessels working with
medium that causes
destruction and physical-
2 12 months 4 years 8 years
chemical transformation of
material (corrosion, etc.) at
a rate over 0.1 mm/year
Vessels buried in ground
and intended for storage of
liquefied petroleum gas with
content of hydrogen
sulphide not over 5 g per
3
100 m and vessels isolated
3 - 10 years 10 years
on the basis of vacuum and
intended for transportation
and storage of liquefied
oxygen, nitrogen, and other
non-corrosive cryogenic
liquids
Sulphite boiling tanks and
4 12 months 5 years 10 years
hydrolyse apparatuses with
PB 03-576-03
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Person Specialist of Organization


Responsible That Has License of
for Production Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Supervision (Para 6.3.3)
No. Description
External and External and Hydraulic
Internal Internal Testing at
Examinations Examinations Test Pressure

internal acid-proof coating


Multi-layer vessels for gas
accumulation installed on
5 10 years 10 years 10 years
truck-mounted gas-filling
compressor stations
High- and low-pressure
After every
regenerative heaters, Internal inspection and hydraulic
overhaul, but
boilers, deaerators, testing after two overhauls, but
6 not less than
receivers and blow-out not less than once every 12
once every 6
expanders of electric power years
years
plants
Vessels working with
ammonia and methanol that
cause destruction and
7 physical-chemical 12 months 8 years 8 years
transformation of material
(corrosion, etc.) at a rate
not over 0.5 mm/year
Heat exchangers with
retractable piped system of
petrochemical enterprises
working at pressure over
2
0.7 kgf/cm up to 1000 After every
2
8 kgf/cm with medium that removal of 12 years 12 years
causes destruction and piped system
physical-chemical
transformation of material
(corrosion, etc.) at a rate
not over 0.1 mm/year
Heat exchangers with
retractable piped system of
petrochemical enterprises
working at pressure over
2
0.7 kgf/cm up to 1000
2 After every
kgf/cm with medium that
9 removal of 8 years 8 years
causes destruction and
piped system
physical-chemical
transformation of material
(corrosion, etc.) at a rate
over 0.1 mm/year up to 0.3
mm/year
Vessels of petrochemical
enterprises working with
medium that causes
10 destruction and physical- 6 years 6 years 12 years
chemical transformation of
material (corrosion, etc.) at
a rate not over 0.1 mm/year
Vessels of petrochemical
enterprises working with
medium that causes
destruction and physical-
11 2 years 4 years 8 years
chemical transformation of
material (corrosion, etc.) at
a rate over 0.1 mm/year up
to 0.3 mm/year
PB 03-576-03
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Person Specialist of Organization


Responsible That Has License of
for Production Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Supervision (Para 6.3.3)
No. Description
External and External and Hydraulic
Internal Internal Testing at
Examinations Examinations Test Pressure

Vessels of petrochemical
enterprises working with
medium that causes
12 destruction and physical- 12 months 4 years 8 years
chemical transformation of
material (corrosion, etc.) at
a rate over 0.3 mm/year
Notes:
1. Technical inspection of buried vessels with non-corrosive medium and also with liquefied
petroleum gas with hydrogen sulphide content not over 5 g/100 m may be performed
without ground and external insulation, provided that non-destructive testing is used for
measuring the vessel wall thickness. The measurements of wall thickness shall be taken
according to special instructions drawn up for this purpose.
2. Hydraulic testing of sulphite boiling vessels and hydrolyse apparatuses with internal acid-
proof coating may not be performed, provided that the metal walls of these boilers and
apparatuses are checked by ultrasonic flaw detection. The ultrasonic flaw detection shall be
performed during overhaul, but not less than once every five years according to the
applicable instructions in the scope of not less than 50% of the body metal surface and not
less than 50% of the length of seams so that a 100-% ultrasonic inspection would be
performed not less than every 10 years.
3. The buried vessels made with the use of composite materials shall be inspected and tested
according to a special program indicated in the vessel certificate.

Table 12
Regularity of Technical Inspections of Tanks and Barrels Being in Service
and not Subject to Registration by Bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia

Internal and Hydraulic


No. Description External Testing at Test
Examinations Pressure
Tanks and barrels in which pressure
2
1 over 0.07 MPa (0.7 kgf/cm ) is built up 2 years 8 years
periodically for depletion
Barrels for liquefied gases that cause
destruction and physical-chemical
2 4 years 4 years
transformation of material (corrosion,
etc.) at a rate not over 0.1 mm/year
Barrels for liquefied gases that cause
destruction and physical-chemical
3 2 years 2 years
transformation of material (corrosion,
etc.) at a rate over 0.1 mm/year
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Table 13
Regularity of Technical Inspections of Tanks and Barrels Being in Service
and Registered by Bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Person Specialist of Organization
Responsible That Has License of
for Production Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Supervision (Para 6.3.3)
No. Description
Hydraulic
External and External and
Testing at
Internal Internal
Test
Examinations Examinations
Pressure
Rail car tanks for
1 transportation of propane- 10 years 10 years
butane and pentane
2 Tanks isolated by vacuum - 10 years 10 years
Rail car tanks made of
steels 09X2C and 10X2YZ
3 heat-treated in assembly 8 years 8 years
and intended for
transportation of ammonia
Tanks for liquefied gases
that cause destruction and
physical-chemical
4 12 months 4 years 8 years
transformation of material
(corrosion, etc.) at a rate
over 0.1 mm/year
5 All other tanks 2 years 4 years 8 years

Table 14
Regularity of Technical Inspections of Tanks and Barrels Being in Service
and not Subject to Registration by Bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia

Hydraulic
External and
Testing at
No. Description Internal
Test
Examinations
Pressure

Bottles being in service and used for gases


that cause destruction and physical-chemical
transformation of material (corrosion, etc.) at
1 a rate of:
• not over 0.1 mm/year 5 years 5 years
• over 0.1 mm/year 2 years 2 years
Bottles used for fuel supply of engines of
transport facilities on which they are installed:
a) for compressed gas:
• made of alloyed steels and metal-
2 composite materials;
• made of carbon steels and metal- 5 years 5 years
composite materials;
• made of non-metal materials; 3 years 3 years
b) for liquefied gas 2 years 2 years
2 years 2 years
Bottles with medium that causes destruction
and physical-chemical transformation of
material (corrosion, etc.) at a rate of less than
3 10 years 10 years
0.1 mm/year in which pressure over 0.07 MPa
2
(0.7 kgf/cm ) is built up periodically for
depletion
4 Bottles installed permanently and those fixed 10 years 10 years
PB 03-576-03
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Hydraulic
External and
Testing at
No. Description Internal
Test
Examinations
Pressure

on mobile facilities and used for storage of


compressed air, oxygen, argon, nitrogen,
helium with due point temperature of -35 °C
and less as measured at a pressure of 15
2
MPa (150 kgf/cm ) and more, and also bottles
with dehydrated carbonic acid

Table 15
Regularity of Technical Inspections of Bottles Registered by Bodies of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
Person Specialist of Organization
Responsible That Has License of
for Production Gosgortekhnadzor of
Supervision Russia (Para 6.3.3)
No. Description
Hydraulic
External and External and
Testing at
Internal Internal
Test
Examinations Examinations
Pressure
Bottles installed
permanently and those
fixed on mobile facilities and
used for storage of
compressed air, oxygen,
argon, nitrogen, helium with
1 10 years 10 years
due point temperature of -
35 °C and less as
measured at a pressure of
2
15 MPa (150 kgf/cm ) and
more, and also bottles with
dehydrated carbonic acid
All other bottles:
• with medium that
causes destruction and
physical-chemical
transformation of
materials (corrosion,
etc.) at a rate not over
2 0.1 mm/year; 2 years 4 years 8 years
• with medium that
causes destruction and
physical-chemical
transformation of
materials (corrosion,
etc.) at a rate over 0.1
mm/year 12 months 4 years 8 years

If due to the conditions existing at the production facility a vessel cannot be


turned in for inspection at the proper time, the owner shall bring it in for
inspection ahead of time.
Bottles shall be inspected according to the procedure approved by the bottle
design developer, in which the inspection intervals and rejection standards shall
be specified.
During technical inspection, it is allowed to employ all methods of non-
destructive testing, including acoustic emission.
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6.3.3. Technical inspection of vessels not registered by Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia


shall be performed by a person responsible for production supervision over
compliance with the requirements of industrial safety in handling the vessels
working under pressure.
Initial, periodic and off-schedule technical inspection of vessels registered by
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia shall be performed by a specialist of the
organization that has a license of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia for conduct of
expertise of technical devices (vessels) for industrial safety.
6.3.4. The purpose of external and internal examinations:
• during initial examination, to check that the vessel has been installed and
equipped in accordance with these Rules and the documents submitted
during registration and that the vessel and its components are not
damaged;
• during periodic and off-schedule examinations, to check that the vessel is
serviceable and is fit for further operation.
Hydraulic testing shall be performed to check the vessel components for
strength and tightness of joints. Vessels shall be turned in for hydraulic testing
with valves installed.
6.3.5. Prior to internal inspection and hydraulic testing, a vessel shall be shut down,
cooled (warmed up), emptied from working medium, cut off by use of blanks
from all pipelines, connecting the vessel with pressure source or other vessels.
Metal vessels shall be cleaned of metal.
Prior to performance of any internal works and before internal inspection, the
vessels working with harmful substances of hazard classes 1 and 2 as per
GOST 12.1.007-76 shall be subjected to thorough treatment (neutralization,
decontamination, in accordance with instructions for safe conduct of works
approved by the vessel owner in accordance with established order.
Coating, insulation and other types of protection against corrosion shall be
partially or completely removed if there are symptoms of defects of vessel load-
bearing element material (loose coating, swelling of rubber lining, traces of
insulation soaking, etc.). The vessel electric heating and drive shall be cut off.
The requirements of Paragraphs 7.4.4, 7.4.5, 7.4.6 of these Rules shall be
complied with.
6.3.6. Off-schedule examination of operational vessels shall be performed in cases as
follows:
• if a vessel has not been used for more than 12 months;
• if a vessel was dismounted and installed in the new place;
• after straightening out bulges and dents and also after reconstruction or
repair of vessel components working under pressure by use of welding or
soldering;
• prior to application of protective coating to the vessel walls;
• after a failure of the vessel or its components working under pressure, or
when the scope of work to be performed calls for off-schedule examination;
• at the request of inspector of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia or person
responsible for production supervision over compliance with the
requirements of industrial safety in operation of vessels working under
pressure.
6.3.7. Technical inspection of vessels, tanks, bottles, and barrels may be performed at
special repair-testing centres, at organizations-manufacturers, filling stations,
PB 03-576-03
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and also at organizations-owners that have necessary resources and equipment


for conduct of examination in compliance with the requirements of these Rules.
6.3.8. The results of technical inspection shall be entered into the vessel certificate by
the person who has carried out examination with indication of vessel permissible
operating parameters and dates of next inspections.
During performance of off-schedule examination, it is necessary to point out the
reason responsible for this examination.
If during examination additional tests and investigations have been performed,
the types and results of these tests and investigations shall be entered into the
vessel certificate with indication of the points of sampling or areas subjected to
testing, as well as the reasons responsible for conduct of additional tests.
6.3.9. On vessels, that have been found fit for further service during technical
inspection, respective data shall be marked in accordance with Para 6.4.4 of
these Rules.
6.3.10. If during examination, some defects have been found degrading the vessel
strength, its operation may be allowed at lower parameters (pressure and
temperature).
Possibility of vessel operation at lower parameters shall be confirmed by the
strength calculations to be submitted by the owner, provided that a checking
calculation of throughput capacity of safety valves have been performed and the
requirements of Para 5.5.6 of these Rules have been met.
The above decision shall be entered into the vessel certificate by person who
has performed the examination.
6.3.11. On appearance of defects, the causes and consequences of which are difficult
for determination, the person who has performed technical inspection shall
demand that the vessel owner perform special investigations and, whenever
necessary, submit a conclusion of specialized organization about causes of
defects and also about possibility and conditions of further operation of the
vessel.
6.3.12. If during technical inspection it turns out that the vessel, because of detected
defects and violations of these Rules, is in the condition hazardous for further
operation, the operation of such a vessel must be prohibited.
6.3.13. Vessels delivered fully assembled shall be subjected to preservation and
respective entries shall be made in the operating manual on storage conditions
and terms. With the above requirements fulfilled, only external and internal
inspections of vessels shall be performed prior to placing them in service and
hydraulic testing is not needed. In this case, the date of hydraulic testing shall be
assigned based on the date of issuing the vessel operation permit.
Prior to application of insulation, the vessels for liquefied gas shall be subjected
to external and internal inspection only, provided that the manufacturer’s storage
conditions and terms have been observed.
After installation in place of operation and prior to backfilling with ground, the
above vessels may be subjected to external inspection only if the period since
insulation application does not exceed 12 months and welding was not used for
their assembling.
6.3.14. Vessels, operating under pressure of harmful substances (liquids and gasses)
of hazard classes 1 and 2 as per GOST 12.1.007-76, shall be tested by their
owners for tightness by application of air or inert gas under pressure equal to the
operating one. This test shall be performed by vessel owners in accordance with
instructions approved in due order.
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6.3.15. During external and internal examinations, all defects shall be detected that
decrease the strength of vessels, with special attention being paid to detection
of the following defects:
• on surfaces of vessels – cracks, surface rupture, wall corrosion (especially
in places of beading and cut-outs, bulging, swelling (mainly on vessels with
jackets and also on vessels with fire or electric heating), pockets (in cast
vessels);
• on welded joints – welding defects as stated in Para 4.5.17 of these Rules,
surface rupture, erosion;
• on riveted joints – cracks between rivets, broken rivet heads, signs of blank
spaces, surface rupture in edges of riveted sheets, corrosive damage of
riveted joints, gaps under edges of riveted sheets and rivet heads especially
on vessels working with corrosive media (acids, oxygen, alkalis, etc.);
• on vessels with surfaces protected against corrosion – damage of lining,
including looseness of lining tile layers, cracks in rubber lining, lead or any
other coating, chipped enamel, cracks and swelling in clad layer, damage of
metal on vessel walls in places of external protective coating;
• on metal-plastic and non-metal vessels – lamination and breaks of
reinforcing fibres in excess of standards specified by specialized
organization.
6.3.16. The person, carrying out examination, may demand that the protective coating
be removed (completely or partially).
6.3.17. Prior to inspection, vessels with a height over 2 m shall be equipped with
requisite appliances to facilitate access to all vessel components.
6.3.18. Hydraulic testing of vessels shall be performed, provided that the results of
external and internal inspections are satisfactory.
6.3.19. Hydraulic testing shall be performed in accordance with the requirements
outlined in Section 4.6 of these Rules, except for Para 4.6.12. The value of test
pressure may be determined based on the vessel authorized pressure. The
vessel shall be exposed to test pressure for 5 min, unless otherwise specified by
the vessel manufacturer.
In hydraulic testing of vertically-erected vessels, test pressure shall be
monitored by pressure gauge installed on the upper cover (bottom) of the
vessel.
6.3.20. In cases, when hydraulic testing is not feasible (large stress from weight of
water on foundation, intermediate floors or on vessel proper; difficulties with
water removal; presence of lining inside vessel hampering the vessel filling with
water), it is allowed to replace it with pneumatic testing (by use of air or inert
gas). This method of testing is allowed, provided that it will be monitored by
acoustic emission (or by other method concurred with Gosgortekhnadzor of
Russia).
During pneumatic testing, adequate safety precautions shall be taken: valve on
the delivery pipeline from pressure source and pressure gauges shall be located
outside the room housing the vessel under test, and personnel shall be removed
to a safe place for the period of testing.
6.3.21. The date of vessel technical inspection shall be fixed by its owner and concurred
in advance with the person who will carry out the inspection. The vessel shall be
shut down not later than the time assigned for its inspection as indicated in the
vessel certificate. The vessel owner shall notify the person responsible for
inspection not less than 5 days in advance.
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If inspector does not come on the fixed date, the management has a right to
carry out examination with assistance of a commission appointed by the order of
organization manager.
The result of performed examination and the due date of next examination shall
be entered into the vessel certificate and signed by the commission members.
The copies of these entries shall be forwarded to the local body of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia not later than in 5 days after examination.
The time fixed by the commission for next examination shall not exceed the
period specified by the present Rules.
6.3.22. The owner is responsible for a timely and proper preparation of his vessel for
examination.
6.3.23. Vessels, in which the action of medium can cause deterioration of chemical
composition and mechanical properties of metal, as well as vessels with wall
temperature exceeding 450°C during operation, shall be subjected to additional
examination in accordance with the instructions approved by the organization in
due order. The results of additional examinations shall be entered into the
vessel certificate.
6.3.24. For vessels with expired design service life fixed by the project, manufacturer or
other normative documents, or whose design (permissible) service life has been
extended on the basis of technical conclusion, the scope, methods and intervals
of technical inspections shall be determined by the results of technical diagnosis
and determination of remaining capacity performed by a specialized
organization or by organizations that have licenses of Gosgortekhnadzor of
Russia for carrying out expertise of technical devices (vessels) for industrial
safety.
6.3.25. If the analysis of defects, that have been detected in technical inspection of
vessels, shows that their appearance is connected with operating conditions of
the vessels in the given organization or is inherent to the vessels of certain
design, then the person performing the inspection shall demand that off-
schedule examination to be performed of all the vessels installed in the given
organization that have been operated under the same conditions or of the
vessels of the same design with notification of the local body of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
6.3.26. Bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia have a right, in exceptional cases, to
extend the periods fixed for technical inspection of vessels by not more than 3
months, provided that a justified written request has been submitted by the
vessel owner.
6.4. Permit for Placing Vessel in Operation
6.4.1. Permit for commissioning a vessel subject to registration by Gosgortekhnadzor
of Russia shall be issued by inspector after the vessel registration and according
to the results of technical inspection and check for:
• presence and serviceability of valves, instrumentation, and safety devices in
accordance with the requirements of these Rules;
• proper installation of the vessel in compliance with safety requirements;
• correct connection of the vessel;
• availability of certified personnel and specialists;
• presence of duty regulations for persons responsible for execution of
production supervision over observance of industrial safety requirements in
operation of vessels working under pressure, and also responsible for
serviceable condition and safe operation of vessels;
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• presence of instructions on operating modes and safe servicing, shift logs


and other documents stipulated by these Rules.
6.4.2. Permit for commissioning of a vessel not subject to registration by
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia shall be issued by a person appointed by the
administrative order for exercising production supervision over observance of
the industrial safety requirements in operation of vessels working under
pressure on the basis of manufacturer’s documentation and after technical
inspection and check for proper servicing.
6.4.3. Permission on placing the vessel in operation shall be entered in the vessel
certificate.
6.4.4. After issuing the permit for operation, on every vessel in conspicuous place or
on a special plate, measuring 200x150 mm, the following data shall be marked:
• registration number;
• authorized pressure;
• date, month and year of next external and internal inspections, and
hydraulic test.
6.4.5. Vessel (group of vessels engaged in installation) may be placed in operation by
a written administrative order of the organization after fulfillment of the
requirements stated in 6.4.3, 6.4.4 of these Rules.
VII. SUPERVISION, UPKEEP, SERVICING, AND REPAIR
7.1. Organization of Supervision
7.1.1. The owner shall provide for upkeep and safe operation of vessels. To ensure
this, it is necessary:
• to assign from the specialists, who have passed examination in the
knowledge of these Rules, a person to be responsible for upkeep and safe
operation of vessels and also other persons to be responsible for execution
of production supervision over the observance of industrial safety
requirements in operation of vessels working under pressure.
The number of responsible persons for execution of production supervision
shall be determined based on the time required for timely and proper
performance of duties entrusted to the above persons in accordance with
applicable duty regulations. Specialists responsible for serviceable condition
of vessels and for their safe operation may be assigned by administrative
order;
• to assign the required number of attending personnel properly trained and
certified in servicing the vessels and to establish such procedures when the
attending personnel will thoroughly supervise the entrusted equipment by
inspecting, checking the functioning of valves, instrumentation, safety and
interlocking devices and maintaining the vessels in good condition. The
results of inspections and checks shall be entered in the shift log;
• to ensure the fulfillment of technical inspections and diagnostics of vessels
within the fixed intervals;
• to ensure the procedure and periodicity of examination of administrators
and specialists in the knowledge of these Rules;
• to organize a periodic examination of personnel in the knowledge of
instructions on operating modes and safe servicing of vessels;
• to supply specialists with these Rules and guiding regulations on safe
operation of vessels and personnel – with applicable instructions;
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• to make specialists comply with these Rules and attending personnel – with
applicable instructions.
7.1.2. The organization, that operates vessels working under pressure, shall work out
and approve the instructions of persons responsible for serviceable condition
and safe operation of vessels and for execution of production supervision over
the observance of industrial safety requirements in operation of vessels.
In operation of vessels, one shall be guided by normative documents covered by
the List of acting normative documents approved every year by
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
7.2. Upkeep and Servicing of Vessels
7.2.1. Servicing of vessels shall be entrusted to personnel properly trained and
qualified for work on vessels.
7.2.2. Training and examination of personnel to be engaged in servicing the vessels
shall be performed at educational institutions and at special courses set up at
organizations.
7.2.3. The persons, who have passed examinations, shall be issued certificates
covering the name and parameters of working medium of vessels to servicing of
which these persons have been admitted.
The certificates shall be signed by the chairman of examination board.
Qualification test of personnel engaged in servicing the vessels with quick-
detachable covers and also vessels operating under pressure of harmful
substances referred to hazards classes 1, 2, 3, 4 as per GOST 12.1.007-76
shall be performed by the board with participation of a Gosgortekhnadzor of
Russia inspector; in other cases, the participation of this inspector in the board
activities is not necessary.
The body of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia shall be notified about the date of
examination not later than 5 days.
7.2.4. Examination of the personnel servicing the vessels shall be performed not less
than once every 12 months. Off-schedule examination shall be performed:
• upon transfer to another organization;
• when amendments have been made in the instructions on operating modes
and safe operation of vessel;
• on request of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia inspector.
In case of interruptions in work over 12 months, personnel servicing the vessels
shall be examined and undergo a period of probation prior to being admitted to
self-dependent work in order to recover practical skills.
The results of examination of attending personnel shall be documented with a
protocol signed by the chairman and members of examination board with
respective marks put in the trainees’ certificates.
7.2.5. Permit of personnel to self-dependent servicing of vessels shall be documented
with an administrative order or shop order.
7.2.6. Organization shall work out and approve in due order the instruction on routine
of work and safe servicing of vessels. For vessels (autoclaves) with quick-
detachable covers, this instruction shall outline the procedure of storage and
application of key-mark. The instruction shall be kept at the workplace and
issued to attending personnel against receipt.
Vessel cut-in diagrams shall be posted at workplaces.
7.3. Vessel Emergency Shut-Down
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7.3.1. Vessel shall be immediately shut down in cases stipulated in the instructions on
operating conditions and safe servicing as follows:
• if pressure in the vessel rises above the authorized one and does not
decrease in spite of the measures taken by the personnel;
• on detection of fault in pressure rise protective devices;
• on detection of loose joints, bulges, broken gaskets in the vessel and its
components operating under pressure;
• when pressure gauge is out of order and pressure cannot be determined
with other instruments;
• when the level of liquid in the vessels with fire heating drops below
permissible one;
• in case of failure of all liquid level indicators;
• when safety interlocking devices are out of order;
• in case of fire that poses a direct threat to the vessel working under
pressure.
The procedure of vessel emergency shut-down and subsequent putting into
operation shall be outlined in the instructions.
7.3.2. The cause of vessel emergency shut-down shall be entered in the shift log.
7.4. Vessel Repair
7.4.1. To maintain a vessel in serviceable condition, its owner shall carry out repair
according to schedule. During repair, safety requirements shall be observed in
accordance with applicable branch regulations and instructions.
7.4.2. Repair of vessels and their components working under pressure by means of
welding (soldering) shall be performed according to the procedure worked out by
manufacturer, design or repair organization prior to performance of work, with
the results of repair being entered into the vessel certificate.
7.4.3. Repair of vessels and their components with pressure applied shall not be
permitted.
7.4.4. Prior to conduct of work inside a vessel connected with other operable vessels
by a common pipeline, such vessel must be separated from them by use of
blanks or disconnected. The disconnected pipelines shall be blanked off.
7.4.5. Blanks used for isolating the vessel and installed between flanges shall have
adequate strength and be provided with a protruding part (tail) to show the
presence of blank.
Gaskets placed between flanges shall have no tails.
7.4.6. When working inside a vessel (internal inspection, repair, cleaning, etc.), safe
lighting fixtures shall be used rated for a voltage not over 12 V, and in explosion-
hazardous media – lighting fixtures must of explosion-proof design. If need be,
air medium shall be analysed for absence of harmful or other substances,
exceeding the maximum allowable concentration. Works inside vessels shall be
performed on order-permit.
VIII. VESSELS AND SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS PURCHASED ABROAD
8.1. Vessels and their elements, as well as semi-finished products for their fabrication
purchased abroad, shall comply with the requirements of these Rules and may be
employed on permit of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia in accordance with the Rules for
application of technical devices at hazardous production facilities approved by the
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Enactment of the Government of the Russian federation on December 25, 1998, No.
*
1540 .
8.2. Technical documentation and certificate of vessel shall be drawn up in the Russian
language.
IX. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO TANKS AND BARRELS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF
LIQUEFIED GASES
9.1. General Requirements
9.1.1. Rail car tanks shall be designed in accordance with the standards concurred in
due order.
9.1.2. Tanks and barrels for liquefied gas, except for cryogenic liquids, shall be
designed for a pressure that may develop in them at a temperature of 50°C.
Tanks for liquefied oxygen and other cryogenic liquids shall be designed for a
pressure at which they shall be depleted.
Tanks shall be designed with consideration for stresses caused by dynamic load
during their transportation.
9.1.3. Tanks filled with liquefied ammonia at a temperature not exceeding -25°C at the
moment of filling termination may be provided with thermal insulation or shade
protection.
Thermal insulation enclosure of tank for cryogenic liquids must be provided with
a blowout diaphragm.
9.1.4. Rail car tank shall be have at top a manhole with a diameter of not less than 450
mm and a platform at the manhole with metal ladders on both sides of the tank
fitted with railing.
On rail car tanks for liquefied oxygen, nitrogen and other cryogenic liquids,
arrangement of a platform at manhole is not mandatory.
9.1.5. Every truck tank shall be provided with a manhole of oval shape with dimensions
along axes not less than 400x450 mm, or a round manhole with a diameter not
less than 450 mm. For truck tank with a capacity of up to 3000 litres, oval
manhole may have dimensions along axes not less than 300x400 mm, and
round manhole – diameter not less than 400 mm.
Tanks with a capacity of up to 1000 litres may have oval inspection holes with a
size along the smaller axis not less than 80 mm or round inspection holes with a
diameter not below 80 mm.
9.1.6. On tanks and barrels, the manufacturer shall stamp the following certificate
data:
• manufacturer’s name or trademark;
• tank (barrel) number;
• year of manufacturer and date of inspection;
3
• capacity (for tanks in m for barrels in litres);
• mass of empty tank without running gear (t) and barrel mass (kg);
• working and test pressure values;
• manufacturer's Quality Control Department stamp;

*
Statutes at Large of the Russian federation. 1999. No. 1.C.191.
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• dates of performed and next inspections.


On tanks, stamps shall be applied along the circumference of the flange
receiving the hatch, on barrels – on bottoms where fittings are located.
9.1.7. For barrels with wall thickness up to 6 mm inclusive, certificate data can be
applied to a metal plate soldered or welded to the bottom where fittings are
located.
On tanks with vacuum isolation, all stamps pertaining to vessel shall be also
applied to the flange of vacuum envelope hatch neck, with the tank mass
including the mass of insulation with envelope.
9.1.8. On tanks and barrels intended for transportation of liquefied gases causing
corrosion, the places of stamps shall be coated, after application of stamps, with
anti-corrosion colourless varnish.
9.1.9. To the frames of tanks, metal plates shall be attached with certificate data:
• manufacturer’s name or trademark;
• serial number;
• year of manufacturer;
• mass of tank with running gear in empty condition (t);
• tank registration number (to be stamped by tank owner after its registration
at Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia);
• date of next inspection.
9.1.10. Painting of tanks and barrels, as well as making stripes and inscriptions, shall be
performed according to applicable state standards, technical specifications for
fabrication of new tanks and barrels by manufacturer, for tanks and barrels
found in operation – by filling enterprises.
Painting of rail car propane-butane and pentane tanks found in operation, and
making of stripes and inscriptions on them shall be performed by tank owner.
9.1.11. Tanks shall be equipped with:
• valves and siphon pipes for medium filling and discharging;
• valve for vapour discharge from the tank upper part;
• spring-loaded safety valve;
• branch pipe for connecting a pressure gauge;
• liquid level indicator.
9.1.12. Safety valve installed on a tank shall communicate with gas phase of the tank
and be fitted with a bonnet to release gas as the valve opens. The area of holes
in the bonnet shall be not less than 1.5 of the safety valve cross-section area.
9.1.13. Every filling and discharge valve of tank and barrel for liquefied gas shall be
provided with a blank.
9.1.14. Every barrel, except barrels for chlorine and phosgene, shall be fitted, on either
bottom, with a valve for medium filling in and discharging. The valve installed on
barrel concave bottom shall be closed with a bonnet; the valve installed on
barrel convex bottom shall be fitted, to addition to a bonnet, with an enclosing
band (skirt).
The barrels of chlorine and phosgene shall have with filling and discharging
valves fitted with siphons.
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9.1.15. Side branch pipes for filling in and discharging combustible gases shall have
left-hand thread.
9.1.16. Tanks intended for transportation of explosion-hazardous combustible
substances, harmful substances of hazard classes 1 and 2 as per GOST
12.1.007-76 shall have discharge siphon pipes fitted with a fast-acting valve to
prevent gas emission in case the pipeline blows out.
9.1.17. Throughput capacity of safety valves installed on tanks for liquefied oxygen,
nitrogen and other cryogenic liquids shall be determined by the sum of design
potential evaporation of liquids and maximum capacity of a device used for
building up pressure in the tank during its depletion.
Under the potential evaporation is meant the amount of liquid oxygen, nitrogen
(cryogenic liquid) in kilograms that can be evaporated within one hour under the
action of heat received by the tank from environment at a temperature of outside
air equal to 50°C.
Under the maximum capacity of the device used for building up pressure in the
tank during its depletion is meant the amount of gas in kilograms that can be
introduced into the tank within one hour, with an evaporator or other source of
pressure working at full load.
9.1.18. Organizations, that carry out filling, and filling stations shall keep a filling log
according to the authorized form where the following data shall be put down:
• date of filling;
• name of tank and barrel manufacturer;
• factory and registration numbers of tanks, and factory number of barrels;
• signature of person who carried out filling.
When the filling station fills tanks and barrels with different gases, the
management shall keep a separate filling log for every gas.
9.1.19. Tanks and barrels may be filled only with those gases, for transportation and
storage of which they are intended.
9.1.20. Prior to filling the tanks and barrels with gases, the person assigned by
management shall carry out a thorough inspection of external surface, check
serviceability and tightness of valves, presence of residual pressure, and
compliance of gas present in them with the purpose of tanks or barrels. The
results of inspection of tanks and barrels and conclusion on feasibility of their
filling shall be entered in the log.
9.1.21. It is prohibited to fill with gas defective tanks or barrels and also when:
• the date of scheduled inspection expired;
• valves and instrumentation are missing or faulty;
• requisite paining or inscriptions are missing;
• tanks or barrels contain gas other than that they are intended for.
The consumer shall, while emptying the tanks and barrels, leave in them an
2
excessive pressure of gas not less than 0.05 MPa (0.5 kgf/cm ).
For liquefied gases, vapour pressure of which in wintertime may be below 0.05
2
MPa (0.5 kgf/cm ), the residual pressure shall be fixed by production
instructions of the organization that carries out filling.
9.1.22. Filling of tanks and barrels with gas and discharging shall be performed
according to the applicable instructions drawn up and approved in due order.
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Filling of tanks and barrels with gases shall comply with the norms as listed in
Table 16 below.
Table 16
Description of Gas Mass of Gas per 1 l of Storage Capacity of
Storage Capacity of Tank or Barrel per 1 kg
Tank or Barrel, kg, max. of Gas, litres, min.
Nitrogen 0.770 1.30
Ammonia 0.570 1.76
Butane 0.488 2.05
Butylene 0.526 1.90
Propane 0.425 2.35
Propylene 0.445 2.25
Phosgene, chlorine 1.250 0.80
Oxygen 1.080 0.926

For gases not indicated in the given table, the norm of filling shall be fixed by
production instructions of organizations-manufacturers based on assumption
that upon filling with liquefied gases, whose critical temperature is above 50°C,
tanks and barrels have a sufficient volume of gas cushion, and upon filling with
liquefied gases, whose critical temperature is below 50°C, the pressure in tanks
and barrels at a temperature of 50°C does not exceed the design value fixed for
them.
During storage and transportation, the filled barrels shall be protected against
the effect of run rays and local heating.
9.1.23. The amount of filling the tanks and barrels with liquefied gases shall be
determined by weighing or another reliable method of control.
9.1.24. In case a gas leak is detected during the filling up of cisterns or barrels, the
filling operation shall be stopped and the gas removed from the cistern or barrel;
the filling may be resumed only after all faults have been removed.
9.1.25. After the cisterns or barrels have been filled with gas, plugs shall be installed on
tap side connecting branches; cistern valving shall be covered with a protective
shroud, which should be sealed closed.
9.1.26. Transportation of cisterns and barrels shall be done in line with the relevant
procedures of ministries and authorities.
X. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO CYLINDERS
10.1. General
10.1.1. Cylinders shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with properly
approved normative documents.
10.1.2. Cylinders shall have taps screwed home into cylinder necks or filling and
discharge valves of cylinders without necks.
10.1.3. Cylinders for compressed, liquefied or solute gases of capacity greater than 100
l shall be provided with certificates as per the form specified in Appendix 2.
10.1.4. Cylinders of capacity higher than 100 l shall be provided with safety valves. If
cylinders are installed in batteries, it shall be allowed to have one safety valve for
the entire cylinder battery.
10.1.5. Cylinders of capacity higher than 100 l installed as service tanks for liquefied
gases used for fuelling automobiles and other vehicles shall be provided, along
with taps and safety valves, with maximum level indicators. Such cylinders may
also be provided with a special filling valve, a valve to tap off vaporized gas, a
liquefied gas level indicator and a drain plug.
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10.1.6. Tap side connecting branches of cylinders filled with hydrogen or other
combustible gases shall have a left hand threading, and cylinders filled with
oxygen and other non-combustible gases – a right hand threading.
10.1.7. Each tap of cylinders designed for handling explosive combustible agents,
hazardous materials of hazard class 1 and 2 as per GOST 12.1.007-76 shall be
provided with a plug screwed on the side connection branch.
10.1.8. Taps on oxygen cylinders shall be screwed home applying sealants, which
exclude ignition thereof in the oxygen environment.
10.1.9. Following information shall be punched and clearly visible the spherical section
of each cylinder:
• Manufacturer’s trade mark;
• cylinder number;
• actual cylinder empty weight (kg): for cylinders of capacity up to and
including 12 l – with an accuracy of up to 0.1 kg; higher than 12 through 55 l
– with an accuracy of up to 0.2 kg; weight of cylinders of capacity higher
than 55 l shall be specified in accordance with the manufacturing GOST or
specification thereof;
• date (month, year) of manufacture and year of the next certification;
2
• operating pressure P, MPa (kgf/cm );
2
• hydraulic test pressure Pht, MPa (kgf/cm );
• cylinder capacity, l: for cylinders of capacity up to and including 12 l –
nominal; higher than 12 through 55 l – actual with an accuracy of up to 0.3 l;
for cylinders of capacity higher than 55 l - in accordance with the
manufacturing normative documents thereof;
• Manufacturer’s quality control department stamp of a circular 10 mm
diameter shape (except for standard cylinders of capacity higher than 55 l);
• standard number for cylinders of capacity higher than 55 l.
Height of characters stencilled on cylinders shall be at least 6 mm; on cylinders
of capacity greater than 55 l – at least 8 mm.
Cylinder weight, except for acetylene cylinders, shall be specified inclusive of the
pigment applied, cylinder cap ring and shoe if the above parts are foreseen by
the manual, but less the weight of the tap and cap.
Cylinders of capacity less than 5 l or with wall thickness less than 5 mm may
have specification data punched on a plate soldered to the cylinder, or stencilled
with enamel or oil paint.
10.1.10. Cylinders for dissolved acetylene shall be filled with an appropriate quantity of a
porous substance and dissolvent. Organization, which performed cylinder filling
with the porous substance, shall be made liable for the porous substance quality
and validity of the filling procedure. Organization, which performed cylinder filling
with the dissolvent, shall be made liable for the quality of the dissolvent and the
correct dosage thereof.
After the cylinder is filled with the porous substance and the dissolvent, its empty
weight (weight of the cylinder less the cap with the porous substance and
dissolvent, shoe, ring, and tap) shall be punched on its neck.
10.1.11. Outside surface of the cylinders shall be painted in accordance with Table 17.
PB 03-576-03
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Table 17
Cylinder Caption Strip
Gas Caption Text
Colour Colour Colour
Nitrogen Black Nitrogen Yellow Brown
Ammonia Yellow Ammonia Black Ditto
Wet argon Black Wet argon White White
Industrial argon Ditto Industrial argon Navy blue Navy blue
Pure argon Grey Pure argon Green Green
Acetylene White Acetylene Red Ditto
Butylene Red Butylene Yellow Black
Oil gas Grey Oil gas Red Ditto
Butane Red Butane White Ditto
Hydrogen Dark green Hydrogen Red Ditto
Air Black Compressed air White Ditto
Helium Brown Helium Ditto Ditto
Nitrogen
Nitrogen monoxide Grey Black Ditto
monoxide
Oxygen Navy blue Oxygen Ditto Ditto
Medically pure Medically pure
Ditto Ditto Ditto
oxygen oxygen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen sulphide White Red Red
sulphide
Sulphur dioxide Black Sulphur dioxide White Yellow
Carbon dioxide Ditto Carbon dioxide Yellow Ditto
Phosgene Khaki Ditto Ditto Red
Freon-11 Aluminium Freon-11 Black Navy blue
Freon-12 Same Freon-12 Ditto Ditto
Freon-13 Ditto Freon-13 Ditto 2 red
Freon-22 Ditto Freon-22 Ditto 2 yellow
Chlorine Khaki Ditto Ditto Green
Cyclopropane Orange Cyclopropane Black Green
Ethylene Violet Ethylene Red Ditto
All other flammable
Red Gas name White Ditto
gases
All other non-
Black Gas name Yellow Ditto
flammable gases

Cylinders may be painted and captions stencilled with oil, enamel nitrocellulose
paints.
Painting and stencilling of newly manufactured cylinders shall be done by the
manufacturer. The same shall be done on cylinders in use by filling and test
stations.
Paint colour and caption text of cylinders operated in special installations and
designed to handle special gasses shall be approved in accordance with the
existing procedure.
10.1.12. Captions shall be stencilled on the cylinder circumference taking at least 1/3 of
the circumference length, and strips shall be pained full-circle with the character
height to be 60 mm and the strip width 25 mm on cylinders of capacity greater
than 12 l. Caption and strip size on cylinders less than 12 l shall be selected in
terms of the available cylinder side space.
10.2. Cylinder Certification
10.2.1. Cylinder certification may be done by filling stations and test centres, provided
the following is available in situ:
• work areas and technical means ensuring a quality certification process;
• administrative order appointing qualified personnel responsible for
certification;
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• regulation on cylinder technical examination.


When issuing certification permits, supervisory bodies shall keep record of the
identification mark with corresponding characters assigned to the certification
organization (filling station).
10.2.2. Examination of the manufacturing quality, certification and acceptance of the
newly-made cylinders shall be done by manufacturer’s quality control
department in conjunction with the normative documents requirements to the
cylinders.
The value of test pressure and test exposure duration shall be defined by the
manufacturer for standard cylinders in accordance with state standards, for non-
standard cylinders – in accordance with specifications, in so doing, the test
pressure shall be at least 1.5 times higher than the working pressure.
10.2.3. Test pressure for cylinders made from the material wherein the ratio between
the tensile ultimate strength and the yield pressure is more than 2, may be
decreased to 1.25 of the working pressure.
10.2.4. After the hydraulic pressure test, the manufacturer shall also subject the
cylinders, with the exception of the acetylene cylinders, to the pneumatic
pressure test, the test pressure being equal to the operating pressure.
For the pneumatic pressure test, the cylinders shall be submerged in a water
bath. Acetylene cylinders shall be pneumatically tested by organizations that fill
cylinders with the porous substance. Seamless cylinders with two open necks
shall not be subjected to the leakage test by the manufacturer, except for the
cylinders designed to handle hazard class 1, 2, 3, & 4 media as per GOST
12.1.007-76.
10.2.5. Cylinders of novel design or cylinders made from materials, which have not
been used before, shall be tested by a special program, which foresees, in
particular, a destruction test; in so doing the stress margin in terms of the metal
0
minimum tensile strength at break at 20 C shall be at least 2.4 with the
reference made to the least wall thickness without the corrosion margin.
10.2.6. Manufacturer’s quality control department shall document the manufactured
cylinders’ certification results a log book, which should reflect the following data:
• cylinder number;
• date (month and year) of cylinder manufacture (test) and the subsequent
certification;
• cylinder weight, kg;
• cylinder capacity, l;
2
• operating pressure, MPa (kgf/cm );
2
• test pressure, MPa (kgf/cm );
• signature of manufacturer’s quality control department representative.
All completed log books shall be numbered, lace up and filed in the quality
control department archives.
10.2.7. Cylinder certification, except for the acetylene cylinders, shall comprise:
• inspection of the internal, except for the cylinders of up to 55 l capacity
designed for handling liquefied hydrocarbon gas (propane-butane), and the
internal surfaces of the cylinders;
• checkout of weight and capacity;
• hydraulic pressure test.
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Checkout of weight and capacity of cylinders less and including 12 l and greater
than 55 l as well as welded cylinders irrespective of their capacity, shall not be
conducted.
10.2.8. In case the certification results are satisfactory, the organization that conducted
the certification shall punch its 12 mm circular mark of identification and dates of
the passed and pending certifications (in the same line with the mark of
identification) on the cylinder. The mark of identification shall contain a code
assigned by a Gosgortekhnadzor authority to the organization that conducted
the certification.
Results of certification of cylinders with capacity higher than 100 l shall be
written into the cylinder certificate. In this case, no mark of identification shall be
punched on the cylinder.
10.2.9. A person who conducted the cylinder certification shall write the certification
results into a test log, which shall have, in particular, the following columns:
1. Manufacturer’s trade mark.
2. Cylinder number.
3. Date (month, year) of cylinder manufacture.
4. Date of done and pending certification.
5. Weight punched on the cylinder, kg.
6. Cylinder weight measured during the certification, kg.
7. Cylinder capacity punched on the cylinder, l.
8. Cylinder capacity measured during the certification, l.
2
9. Operating pressure P, MPa (kgf/cm ).
10. Note on the cylinder fitness for work.
11. Signature of the person who conducted the certification.
10.2.10. Certification of cylinders designed for handling acetylene shall be done at the
acetylene filling stations at least every 5 years to comprise:
• inspection of the external surface;
• checkout of the porous substance;
• pneumatic pressure test.
10.2.11. Condition of the porous substance inside the acetylene cylinders shall be
checked by the filling stations at least every 24 months.
In case the porous substance condition is satisfactory, the following data shall
be punched on every cylinder:
• year and month of the porous substance checkout;
• mark of identification of the filling station;
• mark of identification 12 mm in diameter with a rendition of letters “Pm” to
certify that the porous substance has been checked.
10.2.12. During certification, acetylene cylinders filled with a porous substance shall be
2
tested on nitrogen under the pressure of 3.5 MPa (35 kgf/cm ).
Purity of nitrogen used for cylinder testing shall be at least 97% by volume.
10.2.13. Results of the acetylene cylinder certification shall be documented in a test log
having, in particular, the following columns:
1. Cylinder number.
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2. Manufacturer’s trade mark.


3. Date (month, year) of cylinder manufacture.
4. Signature of person who conducted cylinder certification.
5. Date of done and pending cylinder certification.
10.2.14. Cylinder inspection shall be done in order to detect wall corrosion, cracks, laps,
dents and other faults (in order to establish the cylinder fitness for further
operation). Before the inspection, cylinders shall be thoroughly cleaned and
flushed with water and, if necessary, washed with appropriate solvent and
degassed.
10.2.15. Cylinders, wherein the external and internal inspection revealed cracks, laps,
dents, buckles, cavities and notches deeper than 10% of the nominal wall
thickness, surface ruptures, catfaces, neck thread galling, missing certificate
data, shall be discarded.
Weakening of the ring on cylinder neck may not be a reason for discarding the
cylinder. In this case the cylinder may be accepted for further certification after
fastening or replacing the ring with a new one.
Cylinders with loose or skewed shoe shall not be accepted for certification until
the shoe is re-fastened.
10.2.16. Cylinder capacity is determined as a difference between the weight of the
cylinder filled with water and the weight of the empty cylinder or by means of
measuring boxes.
10.2.17. Rejection of cylinders based on the results of the external and internal
inspections shall be done in accordance with the manufacturing normative
documents.
Use of cylinders whereon not all of the data specified in Item 10.1.9 of the Rules
has been punched shall be forbidden.
Fastening or replacing the loose ring on the cylinder neck or shoe shall be done
prior to the cylinder certification.
10.2.18. Standard seamless cylinders with depletion of weight in cylinders with capacity
12 to 55 l by 7.5% and more, as well as increase in their capacity by more than
1%, shall be discarded and taken out of operation.
10.2.19. Cylinders downrated to a lower pressure may be used for filling with gases, which
operating pressure would not exceed the permissible pressure for these
cylinders; in this case the cylinders should have the following data punched on
2
them: weight; operating pressure P, MPa (kgf/cm ); test pressure Ptp, MPa
2
(kgf/cm ); date of conducted and pending certification and test centre’s mark of
identification.
Information inscribed on a cylinder at an earlier date, except for the
manufacturer’s trade mark and date of manufacture, shall be stricken over.
10.2.20. Irrespective of their purpose, rejected cylinders shall be vitiated (by knurling the
neck threads or wimbling the body) to exclude a possibility of their further use.
10.2.21. Cylinder certification shall be conducted in detached and specially equipped
0
premises. The air temperature in these premises shall not be below 12 C.
Use of electric lightning of not higher than 12 V shall be allowed for internal
inspection of cylinders.
When inspecting cylinders filled with explosive gases hand lamp fittings and
plug connection shall of explosion-proof design.
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10.2.22. When gas-filled cylinders in long-term storage reach the date of a regular
periodic certification, they shall be randomly inspected by an administration
official based on the following: 5 pieces from a batch of up to 100 cylinders, 10
pieces from a batch of up to 500 cylinders, and 20 pieces from a batch of more
than 500 cylinders.
In case the certification results are satisfactory, the cylinder storage life duration
not to exceed 2 years will be specified by the person who conducted the
certification. Results of the random certification shall be documented in a
respective inspection report.
In case the certification results are unsatisfactory, a recertification of the same
number of cylinders shall be conducted.
In case the recertification results are still unsatisfactory, further storage of the
entire cylinder batch shall not be permitted, gas shall be removed from the
cylinder by a deadline assigned by the person (administrative official) who
conducted the certification, after which the cylinders shall be subjected to the
individual certification.
10.3. Cylinder Maintenance
10.3.1. Maintenance, storage and transportation of cylinders shall be done in
accordance with a properly approved procedure.
10.3.2. Personnel engaged in cylinder maintenance shall be trained and instructed in
accordance with Item 7.2.2 of these Rules.
10.3.3. Cylinders filled with gases may be stored both in special premises and in the
open air; in the latter case they should be protected from precipitation and
sunrays.
Storage of cylinders with oxygen and flammable gases in the same premises
shall be forbidden.
10.3.4. Cylinders with gas installed in premises shall be placed at least 1 m away from
heating radiators and other heating devices and stoves and at least 5 m away
from open flame heat sources.
10.3.5. Gas contained in the cylinders shall not be fully exhausted. Residual pressure of
2
at least 0.05 MPa (0.5 kgf/cm ) shall be maintained in the cylinder.
10.3.6. Blowdown of gas to reservoirs with lesser operating pressure shall be done via a
pressure-reducing valve designed for the given type of gas and painted in the
corresponding colour.
Low pressure chamber of the pressure-reducing valve shall have a pressure
gage and a spring pressure relieve valve set up to the corresponding allowed
pressure in the reservoir whereto the gas is being bled off.
10.3.7. In case defective taps make it impossible to bleed gas from the cylinders, the
latter shall be returned to the filling station. Bleeding gas from such cylinders
shall be performed in accordance with the properly approved procedure.
10.3.8. Filling stations that perform filling of cylinders with compressed, liquefied and
dissolved gases shall keep the cylinder filling log to record, in particular, the
following data:
• date of filling;
• cylinder number;
• date of certification;
• weight of (liquefied) gas in cylinder, kg;
• signature of person who did the filling of the cylinder.
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If one and the same station fills cylinders with different gases, a separate filling
log book shall be maintained for each gas.
10.3.9. Gas filling of cylinders shall be done in accordance with the procedure properly
developed and approved by the organization in terms of the gas properties, local
conditions and requirements of the general gas filling procedure for cylinders.
Filling of cylinders with liquefied gases shall be done in accordance with the
requirements specified in Table 18.
Filling norms for gases, which are not shown in said table, shall be established
in process procedures of the filling stations.
10.3.10. Cylinders, which are being filled with gas, shall be properly secured and tightly
connected to the filling manifold.
10.3.11. It shall be forbidden to fill up cylinders with
• overdue certification date;
• overdue date of the porous substance examination;
• defected cylinder body.
• defected taps;
• lacking painting and inscriptions;
• lacking gas gage pressure;
• lacking standard marks of identification.
Table 18
Gas Weight per 1 l of Cylinder Capacity
Gas Cylinder Capacity, kg, per 1 kg of Gas, l,
max. min.
Ammonia 0.570 1.76
Butane 0.488 2.05
Butylene, isobutylene 0.526 1.90
Ethylene epoxide 0.716 1.40
Propane 0.425 2.35
Propylene 0.445 2.25
Hydrogen sulphide, phosgene,
1.250 0.80
chlorine
Carbon dioxide 0.720 1.34
Freon-11 1.200 0.83
Freon-12 1.100 0.90
Freon-13 0.600 1.67
Freon-22 1.800 1.00
Chloromethane, chloroethane 0.800 1.25
Ethylene 0.286 3.50

Filling of cylinders with no gage pressure available shall be done after a


preliminary examination in accordance with a respective procedure established
by the organization that performs the filling operation (filling station).
10.3.12. Refitting of shoes, cap rings, replacement of taps shall be done at cylinder
certification facilities.
After a repair that entailed tap disassembly, the tap shall be checked for leaks
under the operating pressure.
10.3.13. It shall be allowed to set shoes on the cylinders only after the gas is bled out, the
taps are screwed out and the cylinders are properly degassed.
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Cleaning and painting of cylinders filled with gas as well as fitting of rings on
cylinder necks shall be forbidden.
10.3.14. Cylinders with poisonous gases shall be stored in special premises maintained in
accordance with corresponding norms and standards.
10.3.15. Filled cylinders with shoes attached shall be stored in the vertical position. In
order to protect cylinders from falling down, the shall be stored in special seats
or cages or fenced off.
10.3.16. Cylinders without shoes may be stored in horizontally on wooded frames or in
racks. In open storage areas, it shall be allowed to pile up cylinders with shoes
using pads from ropes, studs or rubber in between the horizontal rows.
Cylinder piles shall not be higher than 1.5 m. Cylinder taps shall be looking in
the same direction.
10.3.17. Storehouses for cylinders filled with gases shall be made single-story with light
roofing and no garrets. Walls, partitions, decking of the gas storehouses shall be
made from at least Fire Resistance Grade II incombustible materials; windows
and door shall open to the weather. Window and door glass panes shall be
matted or painted white. Height of cylinder storehouses shall be at least 3.25 m
from the floor level to the roofing bottom protuberances.
Storehouse floor shall be level with non-slip surface; floor of flammable gas
cylinder storehouses shall be made from materials, which exclude impact spark
formation.
10.3.18. Outfitting of storehouses of cylinders with flammable gases shall meet the
standards for premises posing explosion hazard.
10.3.19. Instructions, regulations and wall charts illustrating cylinder handling procedures
shall posted inside the storehouses.
10.3.20. Storehouses for cylinders filled with gas shall be provided with free or forced
ventilation as required by the design sanitary standards.
10.3.21. Storehouses for cylinders filled with explosion and fire hazardous gases shall be
located inside the lightning protection area.
10.3.22. Cylinder storage area shell be divided to compartments by means of fireproof
walls, each compartment to store not more than 500 cylinders (40 l) with
flammable or toxic gases and not more than 1000 cylinders (40 l) with non-
flammable non-toxic gases.
Cylinder storage compartments for non-flammable and non-toxic gases may be
separated by fireproof walls at least 2.5 m high with openings for the passage of
personnel and mechanisms. Each compartment shall have an independent exit
outside.
10.3.23. Open spaces between storehouses of gas-filled cylinders, between storehouses
and adjacent process buildings, community premises and living quarters shall
satisfy the requirements of normative documents.
10.3.24. Cylinders shall be moved around the gas filling or consumption premises on
specially adapted carts or by means of other widgets.
10.3.25. Cylinders filled with gas shall be transported in spring vehicles or motor trucks in
a level position with mandatory pads between the cylinders. Blocking lumber
with seats cut in for cylinders as well as rope or rubber rings at least 25 mm
thick (two rings per cylinder) or any other pads protecting cylinders from
bumping each other
10.3.26. Cylinders shall be transported and stored with caps screwed home.
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Transportation of hydrocarbon gas cylinders shall be done in accordance with


the gas industry safety rules approved by Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia. Before
the cylinders are issued to consumers, the may be stored without the caps
attached.
10.3.27. Transportation of cylinders in motor vehicles, by rail, air or water shall be done in
line with the rules of respective ministries and authorities.
10.3.28. Regulation compliance control in organizations engaged in cylinder filling
operations, filling and test stations shall be performed by an inspector of
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.
XI. CONTROL OF COMPLIANCE WITH THESE RULES
11.1. The control of compliance with these Rules shall be performed by Gosgortekhnadzor of
Russia through periodic audits of organizations engaged in maintenance of pressurized
cylinders, as well as organizations engaged in cylinder manufacture, design, set-up,
installation, repair and diagnostics in accordance with Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia
guidelines, procedures and other instruction materials.
11.2. If an audit of organizations engaged in cylinder manufacture, design, set-up, installation,
repair and diagnostics reveals any violations of these Rules in line of their activities, then
depending on the nature of violations a deadline will be set for corrective actions or any
further activities will be discontinued.
11.3. If an examination of operational cylinders working under pressure reveals:
• defects of violations of the Rules, which compromise safety;
• expiration of the service life or date of the next certification;
• personnel in charge of the cylinder usable condition and safe operation and of the
supervision of its status and operation have not been appointed and examined as
prescribed by the Rules;
• defective automatic safety and warning system, – further use of the cylinder shall be
prohibited.
In so doing, an entry shall be made in the cylinder certificate specifying the reason of the
prohibition with references made to the Rules clauses in force.
11.4. With the introduction of these Rules, the terms and the need of bringing the cylinders in
service in compliance with these Rules shall be coordinated by the cylinder owner with the
Gosgortekhnadzor authorities.
Organization executives and specialists as well as entrepreneurs engaged in design,
manufacture, installation, set-up, repair, overhaul, diagnostics, and maintenance of
cylinders operating under pressure shall be tested for knowledge of the Rules within the
period approved by the Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia authorities.
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Appendix 1
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS APPLIED TO THESE RULES
1. Reinforced plastics are a non-homogeneous composition material consisting of a plastic
(binder) and a filler.
2. Decompression chamber is a vessel equipped with the instruments and equipment and
designed for accommodation of people.
3. Cylinder is a vessel having one or two filler necks to receive the valves, flanges or connections
designed for transportation, storage and usage of compressed, condensed gases or gases
dissolved under pressure.
4. Barrel is a vessel of cylindrical or other shape that can be rolled over from one place to the other
and be placed at the end faces without extra supports. It is designed for storage and
transportation of liquid and other substances.
5. Storage capacity is a volume of the inner space of the vessel defined as to the nominal
dimensions assigned in the drawings.
6. Vessel-owner is an organisation, individual businessman who possesses the vessel.
7. Internal (external) pressure is pressure acting on the inner (outer) surface of the vessel wall.
8. Test pressure is a pressure at which the vessel is tested.
9. Operating pressure is a maximum internal excessive or external pressure developing under
the normal work process.
10. Calculated pressure is pressure as to which the strength is calculated.
0
11. Nominal pressure is a calculated pressure at a temperature of 20 C used for the strength
calculation of the standard vessels (assemblies, parts, accessories).
12. Maximum (minimum) permissible wall temperature is a maximum (minimum) temperature of
the wall at which the vessel may be operated.
13. Bottom is an integral part of the vessel body limiting the inner space from the end face.
14. Plug is a 3-D part making it possible to seal the holes of connection or boss assembly.
15. Coil pipe is a heat exchanger made as a curved pipe.
16. Gauge pressure is a difference between the absolute pressure and ambient pressure indicated
by the barometer.
17. Body is a major assembly unit consisting of shells and bottoms.
18. Composite material (composite) is a material of the heterogeneous structure including several
homogeneous materials (components).
19. Cover is a detachable part closing the inner space of the vessel or hatch hole.
20. Hatch is a facility providing an access to the inner space of the vessel.
21. Liner is an inner sealing layer of the vessel made of the reinforced plastics bearing part of load.
22. Plastic-to-metal vessels are multi-layer vessels whose inner layer (shell structure) is made of
metal; the remaining layers are made of reinforced plastics. The inner layer shares part of load.
23. Multi-chamber vessel is a vessel having two or more working cavities used under different or
similar conditions (pressure, temperature, medium).
24. Non-metallic vessels are vessels made of homogeneous or composite non-metallic materials.
25. Filler is a material reinforcing the plastic; fibbers, woven and non-woven materials may be used
as the reinforcing material.
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26. Normative documents are regulations, branch and state standards, specifications, authorising
documents for designing, manufacture, repair, reconstruction, installation, adjustment, diagnosis
(inspection), operation.
27. Shell is s cylindrical shell structure of closed section open at the end faces.
28. Peephole is a device making it possible to monitor the working environment.
29. Homogeneous material is a material comprising one substance, alloy or solid solution, for
instance: glass, steel, ceramics, etc.
30. Reference specimen is a specimen made of the same material and in compliance with the
same technology as the vessel used to determine the state of material in the process of
operation.
31. Remaining service life is an accumulated operating time of a facility since the moment of its
technical state check till transfer to the marginal state.
32. Support is an apparatus for installation of the vessel in the operating condition and transmission
of loads from the vessel to the foundation or load carrying structure.
33. Saddle support is a horizontal vessel support enveloping the lower part of a shell annulus
cross-section.
34. Authorised pressure of vessel (element) is a maximum permissible gauge pressure of the
vessel (element) based on the technical inspection results or diagnosis.
35. Reconstruction is a vessel construction modification resulting in correction of the certificate for
the vessel, for example, construction of additional elements and the others causing the changes
in the operational parameters of the vessel.
36. Reservoir is a stationary vessel designed for storage of gaseous, liquid and other substances.
37. Vessel jacket is a heat exchanger including a shell structure enveloping the vessel body or its
part and forming, together with the vessel body wall, a space filled in with a heat-transfer agent.
38. Estimated service life of vessel is a service life since putting the vessel into operation.
39. Estimated operating lifetime of vessel (element) is a running time of the vessel (element)
over a period of which the manufacturer guarantees its reliable operation provided the operating
conditions, specified in the manufacturer’s instructions and calculated number of starts from cold
starts or hot starts, are observed.
40. Vessel service life is a running time of he vessel in calendar years till transfer to the marginal
state.
41. Flange connection is a fixed detachable connection of he vessel parts whose air tightness is
provided by compression of sealing surfaces directly with each other or by means of gaskets
made of more material located between them and compressed by fasteners.
42. Vessel is a hermetically closed capacity deigned to carry out chemical, heat and other
technological processes and to store and transport the gaseous, liquid and other substances.
The boundary of the vessel is input and output connections.
43. Portable vessel is a vessel designed for temporary usage at various places or during it
displacement.
44. Stationary vessel is a permanently installed vessel designed for operation at one place.
45. Binder is a material providing the density of a composite.
46. Butt joints are joints where the welded elements adjoin each other with end faces and include a
seam and zone of thermal effect.
47. Specialised agency is an agency having the permit of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia to carry the
research and development to produce, repair and modify the vessels as well as manufacture,
installation, repair, modification of the vessels and (or) their adjustment, diagnostics.
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48. Repair is a restoration of damaged vessel components or components become unfit for use for
any reason in order to bring them to serviceable condition.
49. Operating environment temperature (min, max) is a minimum (maximum) temperature of the
environment in the vessel under the normal running of the production process.
50. Calculated wall temperature is a temperature used to determine the physical and chemical
properties, permissible stresses of material and to carry out the calculation for strength of the
vessel components.
51. Technical diagnosis is determination of a technical state of the facility. The objectives of the
technical diagnosis are checkout of the technical state, locate the place and reason for failure
(fault), technical state prediction.
52. Technical diagnostics is theory. procedures and means used to determine the technical state
of the facility.
53. Tank van is a mobile vessel permanently installed on the van frame, on the truck- (trailer-)
mounted chassis or at other means of movement designed for transportation and storage of
gaseous, liquid and other substances.
54. Connection is a component designed for connection of the pipelines, pipeline accessories, tests
equipment, etc to the vessel.
55. Vessel element is a vessel assembly unit designed to perform one of the main functions of the
vessel.
56. Expert technical diagnosis is a technical diagnosis of the vessel carried out upon expiry of its
estimated service life or estimated operating lifetime of safe operation as well as after a failure
or location of damaged elements operating under pressure in order to define the possible
parameters and conditions of its further serviceability.
57. Self-propagating temperature synthesis is a physical and chemical synthesis process of
materials (powders, articles, coatings, etc.) based on the exothermic interaction of two or several
components taking place under conditions of burning. The process takes place in a thin layer of
a mixture of the initial reagents after local initiation of reaction and self-propagates over the
entire system owing to heat- and mass transfer from the hot products to unheated initial
substances.
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Appendix 2
(Specimen)
CERTIFICATE
OF A VESSEL WORKING UNDER PRESSURE

Registration No. _________________


The Certificate is a companion document of the vessel when the latter is handed over to other owner.
CONTENTS
Description of Section (Table) and Appendix Number of Pages
Vessel quality certificate
Basic specifications
Record of basic vessel components
Data on connections, flanges, covers and fasteners
Data on safety devices, basic accessories, test equipment
Data on basic materials used manufacture of vessels
Vessel body measurement card
Welded joints test and analysis results
Welded joints non-destructive check record
Other test and analysis record
Thermal treatment record
Hydraulic (pneumatic) testing record
Conclusion
Vessel location record
Individuals responsible for serviceable state and safe operation of vessel
Vessel location record
Individuals responsible for serviceable state and safe operation of vessel
Record of accessories installed
Other data on vessel installation
Record of replacements and repair of basic elements of vessel and
accessories
Inspection results
Vessel registration
Appendices:
Vessel drawings indicating main dimensions
Vessel strength calculation
Instructions for installation and operation
Schedule for winter start (stop) of vessel

Application Permit No._____________________


as of _____________________ 20 ____ issued by
_________________________________________
(agency of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia)

Vessel Quality Certificate


This ______________________________________________________________________________
(description of vessel)
Serial No. ________________ was manufactured _________________________________________
(date of manufacture)
__________________________________________________________________________________
(name and address of manufacturer)
__________________________________________________________________________________
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1. BASIC SPECIFICATIONS

Description of vessel parts


2
Operating pressure, MPa (kgf/cm )
2
Calculated pressure, MPa (kgf/cm )

hydraulic testing
2
Test pressure, MPa (kgf/cm ), for
pneumatic testing
0
Operating medium temperature, C
0
Calculated wall temperature, C
0
Minimum permissible negative temperature of wall, C

Description of operating medium

Hazard class
Characteristic of operating
Explosion hazard
medium
Fire hazard

Allowance for corrosion (erosion) compensation, mm


3
Storage capacity, m
*
Mass of empty vessel 1, kg
*
Maximum mass of filled medium 1, kg

Estimated vessel service life, years

2. RECORD OF VESSEL BASIC COMPONENTS

Dimensions, mm Basic Metal Welding (Brazing) Details


Description of Vessel

Bottom. Grid, Pipes,


Components (Shell,

Method of Connection
Diameter (Internal or

Electrodes, Welding

Grade, GOST or TU)


Wire, Solder (Type,
(Welding, Brazing)
Quantity, pcs

Type of Welding
Length (Height)
Wall Thickness
Jacket)

GOST (TU)

(Brazing)
External)

Grade

*
1 For vessels with condensed gases
PB 03-576-03
Page 72 of 105

3. DATA OF CONNECTIONS, FLANGES, COVERS AND FASTENERS


Dimensions (mm) Material
Description Quantity, pcs or Number per
Grade GOST (TU)
Specification

4. DATA OF SAFETY DEVICES, BASIC ACCESSORIES, TEST EQUIPMENT, SAFETY


INSTRUMENTS
Nominal Body Material:
Quantity, Installed Nominal Pressure, Grade GOST
Description
pcs at Bore, mm MPa
2
(kgf/cm )
6.
Description of Element 5.
Description of
Element Grade

Standard (TU)
Number of Sketch Number of Smelting (lot)
Material

Certificate (Record) Number and Date


Number of Cross
Section 2
Yield Point Re, MPa (kgf/cm )

Ultimate Resistance (Ultimate Strength


Nominal 2
Limit) Rm, MPa (kgf/cm )
External or
Internal
Relative Elongation A5, %

VESSEL BODY MEASUREMENT CARD


Relative Reduction of Area K, %
0

Permissible
At T = 20 C

2 2
Before Ageing, J/cm (kgf m/cm )

Diameter, mm
2 2
After Ageing, J/cm (kgf m/cm )

Deviation
Measured
Type of Specimen
Impact Strength
Manufacturing Plant Test Record

2 2
Impact Strength, J/cm (kgf m/cm )
DATA OF BASIC MATERIALS USED FOR MANUFACTURE OF VESSEL

Permissible 0
Temperature, C
Results of Mechanical Testing as per Certificate or
0
At T < 0 C

Type of Specimen
Ovality, %

Measured
Additional Data (Ultrasonic Inspection, Hardness
Testing, Condition of Initial Thermal Treatment,
etc.)
C

Permissible
Mn

mm
Si

Measured
Straightness Error,
Cr
Ni

Permissible
Mo

Measured
Longitudinal
Cu
Ti

Edges, mm

Permissible
Manufacturing Plant Test Record

V
Chemical Composition as per Certificate or

Circular
S P

Measured
Displacement of Butt Welded Joint

Other Elements
Page 73 of 105
PB 03-576-03
7.
Description of Element and No. of Drawing
(Sketch) Indicating Joints for Which Test
Joint Was Made

Document Authorising Testing

Ultimate Resistance Rm, MPa


2
(kgf/cm )

2 2
Value, J/cm (kgf m/cm )

0
Temperature, C
Welded Joint
Impact strength

Type of Specimen

Diameter of Straitening and


WELDED JOINTS TEST AND ANALYSIS RESULTS

Angle of Bending

Ultimate Resistance Rm, MPa


2
(kgf/cm )

Relative Elongation A5, %


Seam Metal

Hardness HB
Mechanical Tests

2 2
Value, J/cm (kgf m/cm )

0
Temperature, C
Impact Strength

Type of Specimen
Seam Zone)

Hardness HB
Thermal Effect Zone (Near

Estimation

Macro- and Micro Analysis Document


Date and No.
Examination

Estimation
Metallographic

Welder Stamp
Page 74 of 105
PB 03-576-03
8. WELDED JOINT NON-DESTRUCTIVE CHECK RECORD
Number and
Designation Date of
Method of Scope of Description
of Welded Document Estimation
Testing Testing of Defects
Joint Authorising
Testing

9. OTHER TESTS AND ANALYSIS RECORD

10. THERMAL TREATMENT RECORD


0
Velocity, C/h

Soaking Time, h

Refrigeration
Number Thermal

Method
Type of
Description and Date Treatment
Thermal
of Element of Temperature, Heating Refrigeration
Treatment 0
Document C

11. HYDRAULIC (PNEUMATIC) TESTING RECORD


Type and Conditions of Testing Vessel Part Under Test
2
Test pressure, MPa (kgf/cm )
Hydraulic Test medium
0
testing Test medium temperature, C
Soaking time, h (min)
2
Pneumatic Test pressure, MPa (kgf/cm )
testing Soaking time, h (min)
*
Position of vessel during testing 1 horizontal vertical

*
1 Write down “Yes” in the required column
PB 03-576-03
Page 76 of 105

12. CONCLUSION
This vessel is been manufactured in full compliance with the Rules of Designing and Safe Operation of
Vessels Working Under Pressure and the specifications __________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________
(name, designation and approval date of document)

This vessel was subjected to external and internal inspection and hydraulic (pneumatic) testing at a
test pressure as per Section 11 of this Certificate.
The vessel is found fit for operation with the parameters specified in this Certificate.

Chief Engineer ________________________ ____________________________


(signature) (identify)

L.S.

Head of Quality Control Department _________________ _____________________________


(signature) (identify)

______________ _____ , 19____


(date)

13. VESSEL LOCATION RECORD

Name of Agency - Owner Vessel Location Date of Installation

14. INDIVIDUALS RESPONSIBLE FOR SERVICEABLE CONDITION AND SAFE OPERATION OF


VESSEL
Position, Surname, Name,
Number and Date of Order
Patronymic of Individual in Signature
on Appointment
Charge

15. RECORD OF ACCESSORIES INSTALLED


Signature of
Person in
Nominal Material
Charge of
Quantity, Nominal Pressure, (Grade, Installed
Date Description Serviceabili
pcs Bore, mm MPa GOST or at
2 ty and Safe
(kgf/cm ) TU)
Operation
of Vessel
PB 03-576-03
Page 77 of 105

16. OTHER DATA ON VESSEL INSTALLATION


(a) medium corrodibility _______________________________________________________
(b) corrosion-resistant coating __________________________________________________
(c) thermal insulation _________________________________________________________
(d) lining ___________________________________________________________________
(e) connection diagram of vessel to installation (line)________________________________

17. RECORD OF REPLACEMENTS AND REPAIR OF BASIC ELEMENTS OF VESSEL AND


ACCESSORIES
Inspection Authorised Pressure,
2 Next Certification on:
Date Results MPa (kgf/cm )

18. CERTIFICATION RESULTS


Record of Replacement and
Date Signature of Person in Charge
Repair

19. REGISTRATION OF VESSEL

This vessel is registered under No. _____________________________________________________

by _______________________________________________________________________________
(registration agency)

This Certificate contains ___________ numbered and stitched pages and _____ drawings.

_________________________________ ________________ _________________


(position of registration agency representative) (signature) (identify)

L.S.

______________ _____ , 20____


(date)

Note. The following documents shall be enclosed to the Certificate:


• the vessel drawings indicating the basis dimensions;
• calculation for strength;
• instructions for installation and operation including the schedule for winter start (stop) of the vessel.
If a need arises, other documents may be enclosed too (for instance, summary list of the Manufacturer’s
modifications, list of standard equipment, specification indicating the main dimensions of units and parts, etc.).
PB 03-576-03
Page 78 of 105

CERTIFICATE KEEPING RULES


1. GENERAL
1.1. The Certificate for the vessel shall be published in the printing house. The format of the
Certificate measures 210x297 mm. The cover of the Certificate shall be rigid. The sheets
of the Certificate shall be of a heavy paper of the same quality.
1.2. The sections (tables) of the Certificate shall be filled in black ink (drawing ink, paste) by
lettering having the height of letters and figures of 3.5 mm, minimum, or be typewritten.
1.3. Presentation of the subject matter of the sections (tables) shall be concise and clear in
order to exclude the different understanding.
1.4. The designations, definitions and terms shall be in full compliance with those accepted in
the standard documents, but in case of their absence, with ones general-accepted in the
scientific and technical literature.
1.5. The measuring units of the physical magnitudes shall be expressed in the “IS” system or
2
in the “CGS” system (for example, 4.0 MPa or 40.0 kgf/cm ).
1.6. Typing errors, slips and graphical inaccuracy made in the process of keeping the
Certificate may be corrected by erasure or by painting with white paint followed with
subsequent application of the revised text (graphics) to this place. Damaged sheets, blots
or traces of the text (graphics) not fully removed are not allowed. The authority (legality) of
correction shall be confirmed by the “Corrected valid” inscription certified with the stamp.
1.7. No abbreviations are allowed in the text except those stipulated by the Russian
orthography or standard and technical documents.
The “minus” letter shall be written in front of the negative magnitudes. Never put a
mathematical sign (for example, “+”, “-“, “,< “, “ > “, “=”, etc.) without a figure as well as the
minus “-“ mathematical sign in front of the negative magnitude.
1.8. All lines and graphs of the sections (tables) shall be filled in.
Never put quotation marks instead of repeated figures, steel grades, signs, mathematical
and chemical symbols.
If there is no need to write the numerical or other data in the lines or graphs of the
sections (tables), the dash shall be put.
1.9. The “Vessel quality certificate”, Sections 1 through 12 and appendices shall be filled in by
the manufacturer of the vessel, but Sections 13 through 19, by the owner of the vessel.
II. KEEPING RULES FOR SECTIONS OF CERTIFICATE
2.1. Section “Contents”
2.1.1. The section shall be filled in on drawing-up and completion of the Certificate.
2.1.2. All Certificate sections containing the data on the given construction and also
the documents enclosed to the Certificate shall be listed in the “Description of
section (table) and appendices” column.
2.1.3. Listed in the “Number of sheets” column is a total number of sheets in the
document of the given description. The “Absent” entry shall be made in the
given column in case there are no separate sections for a concrete vessel.
2.2. Section “Vessel quality certificate”
2.2.1. The serial number of the vessel shall be put in the “Serial No.” line in
compliance with the numbering system of the Manufacturer.
2.3. Section “1. Basic Specifications”
2.3.1. Description of hermetically separated spaces (parts) of the vessel, namely:
body, jacket, pipe space and etc., shall be listed in the graphs of the “Description
of vessel components” table heading.
PB 03-576-03
Page 79 of 105

2.3.2 The operating pressure specified in the design documentation (in the general
view drawing or in the assembly drawing) or nominal pressure for standard
vessels shall be indicated in the “Operating pressure” line. In the event, the
nominal pressure is indicated, the data on the usage limits of the vessel shall be
given depending on the pressure and temperature.
2.3.3. The calculated pressure specified in the design documentation (in the general
view drawing or in the assembly drawing) shall be indicated in the “Calculated
pressure” line.
2.3.4. The pressure used for the hydraulic (pneumatic) testing of the vessel shall be
indicated in the “Test pressure” line. In case the hydraulic (pneumatic) tests are
replaced with other type of testing, an entry shall be made in this line: “See
Section 9”.
2.3.5. The temperature specified in the design documentation (in the general view
drawing or in the assembly drawing) shall be indicated in the “Medium operating
temperature” and the “Calculated wall temperature” lines.
2.3.6. One of the following temperatures shall be indicated in the “Minimum
permissible negative temperature of wall” line for the vessels installed at the
open site or in the unheated room:
• an absolute minimum ambient air temperature at the vessel installation
area if the temperature of the wall can become negative being exposed to
the ambient air when the vessel is under pressure;
• a negative temperature of the wall of the vessel, being under pressure, if it
is below the absolute minimum temperature of the ambient air at the vessel
installation area;
• an average ambient air temperature of the most cold five days at the vessel
installation area if the wall temperature is always positive when the vessel is
under pressure.
For the vessels installed in the heated room, the “Minimum permissible negative
temperature” line is not filled.
2.3.7. The “Description of operating medium” line shall be filled in full compliance with
the design documentation (general view drawing or assembly drawing), but if
there are no data on the medium in the drawing, the given line is filled in by the
owner of the vessel.
2.3.8. The hazard class as per GOST 12.1.007, explosion hazard (“Yes” or “No”), fire
hazard (“Yes” or “No”) of the medium shall be indicated in the “Characteristic of
operating medium” line.
2.3.9. The “Allowance for corrosion (erosion) compensation” line shall be filled in
compliance with the technical characteristic in the assembly drawing.
2.3.10. The nominal volume of the operating space (parts) of the vessel shall be
indicated in the “Storage capacity” line. The storage capacity is indicated
whenever necessary, for example, for tanks, reactors.
2.3.11. The data on the vessels with condensed gases only whose filling degree with
the medium is defined by weighing or by means of other reliable check method
shall be indicated in the “Mass of empty vessel” and “Maximum mass of filled
medium” lines.
2.3.12. The estimate (assigned) service life of the vessel based on the data of the
agency-designer of the vessel shall be indicated in the “Estimated service life of
vessel” line.
2.4. Section “2. Record of Basic Vessel Components”
PB 03-576-03
Page 80 of 105

2.4.1. The “Description of vessel components” shall be filled in as per the assembly
drawing.
2.4.2. The total number of the like components of the vessel shall be indicated in the
“Quantity” column.
2.4.3. The nominal dimensions (diameter, wall thickness, length or height) of the
vessel components after manufacture shall be indicated in the “Dimensions”
column.
2.4.4. The steel grade and standard number (TU) for the chemical composition of
metal shall be indicated in the “Basic metal” column.
2.4.5. The method of connection (welding or brazing), type of welding (automatic,
manual, etc.), grade and standard (TU) of the filler materials shall be indicated in
the “Data on welding (brazing)” column.
2.5. Section “3. Data of Connections, Flanges, Covers and Fasteners”
2.5.1. The designation of connection and all parts included into the given assembly
(pipe branch, flange, cover, strengthening ring, gasket, fasteners) and
designation of the flange and vessel cover as well shall be indicated in the
“Description” column.
2.5.2. The total number of the like parts shall be indicated in the “Quantity” column.
2.5.3. The following shall be indicated in the “Dimensions” column:
• for branch pipe – external diameter and wall thickness;
• for flange – number as per the specification or designation as per the
standard and standard number;
• for cover – number as per the specification or designation as per the
standard and standard number or external diameter and thickness;
• for strengthening ring – external diameter and thickness or number as per
the specification;
• for gasket – external diameter and thickness or number as per the
specification or standard number;
• for fasteners – nominal thread diameter.
2.5.4. The grade of steel and standard number (TU) for the chemical composition and
technical requirements shall be indicated in the “Material” column.
2.6. Section “4. Data on Safety Devices, Basic Accessories, Test Equipment, Safety
Instruments”
2.6.1. The Section shall be filled by the Manufacturer of the vessel only in case of
delivery of the safety devices, accessories and instruments together with the
vessel, otherwise, the Manufacturer shall make the entry “Not included into
delivery set”
2.6.2. The following shall be indicted in the “Description” column:
• for safety valve – description or reference designation as per the Certificate;
• for diaphragm safety device – description or type as per the Certificate;
• for shut-off and shut-off and adjusting accessories as well as the devices
for measuring the pressure, temperature, liquid level indicators, etc. -–
description or reference designation in compliance with the standard
documentation (TU).
When the audible, light and other alarms and interlocks are installed, their
detailed characteristic shall be described.
PB 03-576-03
Page 81 of 105

2.6.3. The total number of apparatuses, accessories, instruments of the same type
shall be indicated in the “Quantity” column.
2.6.4. The description of the unit, where the apparatus, accessories or instruments are
installed, shall be indicated in the “Installed at” column.
2.6.5. The nominal diameter of the diaphragm shall be indicated in the “Nominal bore”
column for the safety diaphragm devices.
2.6.6. The minimum and maximum operating pressure for the diaphragm safety
devices shall be indicated in the “Nominal pressure” column.
2.6.7. The steel grade and standard number for the chemical composition and
technical requirements shall be indicated in the “Body material” column.
2.7. Section “5. Data on Basic Materials Used for Manufacture of Vessel”
2.7.1. The description of the elements being under pressure (shell, bottom, cover,
pipe grid, jacket, connection, flanges, etc.) shall be indicated in the “Description
of element” column.
2.7.2. Indicated in the “Material” column is a grade of material, standard number (TU)
for the chemical composition and technical requirements, number of heat (lot)
as per the certificate for the material, number and date of the Certificate of the
Manufacturer producing the metal products or from the testing record; in case
there is no certificate, the number and date of the testing record of the plant
manufacturing the vessel.
2.7.3. Indicated in the remaining columns are data as per the Certificate the
Manufacturer, manufacturing the metal products, but there are no certificates,
data from the testing record of the plant manufacturing the vessel.
2.8. Section “6. Vessel Body Measurement Card”
2.8.1. The elements of the vessel used for respective measurements in full
compliance with the requirements set forth in the standard and technical
documentation shall be indicated in the “Description of element” column.
2.82. The respective sketch number enclosed by the Manufacturer of the vessel to
this section of the certificate shall be indicated in the “Sketch number” column.
The sketch may be made as sketch No. 1 is made.
2.8.3. The designation of the element cross-section as per the sketch enclosed shall
be indicated in the “Cross-section number” column.
2.8.4. The following shall be indicated in the “Diameter” column:
the nominal internal or external diameter in compliance with the general view
drawing or assembly drawing;
2.8.5. Indicated in the “Ovality” and “Straightness error” are:
• permissible values of the relative ovulate an straightness error stipulated by
the requirements set forth in the Rules of Designing and Safe Operation of
Vessels Working Under Pressure, or in the standard and technical
documentation agreed upon with Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia;
• the actual values of the relative ovulate and straightness error.
The number of cross-sections where these parameters are measured shall be
specified by the Quality Control Department of the Manufacturer depending
upon the construction, overall dimensions, results of the visual inspection of the
vessel.
2.8.6. Indicated in the “Displacement of welded butt joints edges” for the longitudinal
and circular seams are:
PB 03-576-03
Page 82 of 105

• permissible values stipulated by the requirements set forth in the Rules of


Designing and Safe Operation of Vessels Working Under Pressure, or in
the standard and technical documentation agreed upon with
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia;
• actual results of measurements.
2.9. Section “7. Welded Joints Test and Analysis Results”
2.9.1. The description of a part or unit with the numbers (designations) of welded joints
of the same type for which the test welded joint is produced shall be indicated in
the “Description of element” column.
The description of the part or unit, indicating the number (designation) of the
welded joint, shall be in compliance with the check scheme of the welded
seams. The check scheme is a part of the vessel project, or with the sketch
enclosed by the Manufacturer of the vessel to this section of the certificate that
indicates the type of welded joints, their number and layout. The sketch may be
made as sketch No. 2 is made.
2.9.2. The description, number and date of the document authorising the testing shall
be indicated in the “Document authorising testing” column.
2.9.3. The following information shall be indicated in the “Mechanical testing” for the
welded joint:
• an ultimate resistance (strength limit) of the welded joint at a temperature of
0
20 C’
• a value of the impact strength, temperature of testing and type of specimen;
• diameter of a mandrel and angle of bending when testing for bending at a
0
temperature of 20 C.
The “Mechanical testing” columns for the seam metal and thermal effect zone
shall be filled in the cases specified in the technical documentation.
The following is indicated in the “Mechanical testing” column or the seam metal:
0
• ultimate resistance (strength limit) at a temperature of 20 C;
• relative elongation in case of rupture;
• hardness.
The value of the impact strength, temperature of testing, type of specimen and
Brinell hardness shall be indicated in the “Mechanical testing” column for the
thermal effect zone (near seam zone) where a temperature and deformation
effect of welding is developed.
2.9.4. Indicated in the “metallographic examinations” are:
• number and date of the document authorising the macro- and micro-
examinations;
• estimation of the results of the metallographic examinations and reference
to the standard and technical document (for example, In compliance with
the regulations of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia).
2.9.5. The stamp of the welder who performed the welded seams of the element and
test welded joints shall be indicated in the “Stamp of welder” column.
If several welders performed the welded seams of the element, the stamps of all
welders shall be indicated.
2.10. Section “8. Welded Joint Non-destructive Check Record”
PB 03-576-03
Page 83 of 105

2.10.1. The description or designation of the welded seam shall be indicated in


compliance with the check scheme of the welded seams. The check scheme is
a part of the vessel project, or with the sketch enclosed by the Manufacturer of
the vessel to this section of the certificate. The sketch may be made as sketch
No. 3 is made. The description of the welded assembly (for example, “body”,
“jacket”, “distribution chamber”, etc.) and joints (for example, “seam: shell +
shell”; “lateral seam”; “flange + bottom”, etc) may be indicated in this column.
2.10.2. The number and date of the document (record, report or statement) authorising
the non-destructive check shall be indicated in the “Number and date of
document authorising non-destructive check” column.
2.10.3. The used method of non-destructive check (radiographic, ultrasonic) shall be
indicated in the “Method of check” column.
2.10.4. The scope of check performed shall be indicated in the “Scope of check”
column.
2.10.5. The revealed defects (nature, number and size of defects) shall be indicated in
the “Description of defects” column or the “No defects” entry shall be made.
2.10.6. The estimation of the check results and reference to the standard and technical
document (for example, “Complies with the regulations of Gosgortekhnadzor of
Russia” shall be indicated in the “Estimation” column.
2.11. Section “9. Other Tests and Analysis Record”
2.11.1. Indicated in this section are methods of testing and analysis not stipulated in the
previous sections of this Certificate (tests for resistibility to intercrystalline attack,
steeloscoping, etc.).
2.12. Section “10. Thermal Treatment Record”
2.12.1. The description of the unit, part or element subjected to thermal treatment shall
be indicated in the “Description of element” column.
2.12.2. The number and date of the document (record, statement) authorising the
thermal treatment shall be indicated in the “Number and date of document”
column.
2.12.3. The Section may be replaced with a thermal treatment diagram including all
data of this Section.
2.13. Section “11. Hydraulic (Pneumatic) Testing Record”
2.13.1. The Section is filled by the Manufacturer of the vessel if the tests have been
carried out at the manufacturing plant or by the agency carried out the testing at
place of erection (installation).
2.13.2. The working space (body, jacket, pipe space, etc.) subjected to testing shall be
indicated the “Vessel part under test” column.
2.13.3. “Water” or other liquid used, its description shall be indicated in the “Test
medium” column.
2.13.4. Depending upon the position (horizontal or vertical) of the vessel in the process
of testing, indicate “Yes” in the respective column.
2.14. Section “12. Conclusion”
2.14.1. The number and description of the standard (TU) based on which the vessel
has been manufactured shall be indicated in the first indentation.
2.14.2. The signatures of the chief engineer and head of the Quality Control Department
shall be certified by the stamp.
2.15. Sections 13 through 19
PB 03-576-03
Page 84 of 105

2.15.1. Sections 13 through 19 shall be filled by the owner of the vessel.


2.15.2. Provision shall be made by the Manufacturer of the vessel for not less than two
pages in Section 17 of the Certificate and not less than 10 pages in Section 18.
2.16. Appendices
2.16.1. The drawings of the vessel shall make it possible to check the accepted
dimensions and conformity of the vessel with the requirements described in the
technical documentation.
2.16.2. The strength calculation shall be made for the elements operating under
pressure in compliance with the standard documentation agreed upon with
Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia. The strength calculation for the elements taken as
per the standards specifying the operating conditions (pressure, temperature)
may not be enclosed, but in this case, the reference shall be made to the
respective standard. The calculation for low-cycle fatigue shall be made if the
number f loading cycles exceeds 103.
2.16.3. The Operation Manual shall be compiled by the developer of the vessel and
shall include the schedule for the winter start (stop) of the vessel installed at the
open site or unheated room.
Example:
Sketch No. 1 to Section “6. Vessel Body Measurement Card”
PB 03-576-03
Page 85 of 105

Sketch No. 2 to Section “7. Welded Joints Tests and Analysis Results”

1 – central shell, test plate No. ______

Sketch No. 3 to Section “8. Welded Joint Non-destructive Check Record”

Note. All sections of welded seams subjected to check, including the intersection points of seams shall be shown in the
diagram.
PB 03-576-03
Page 86 of 105

Appendix 3
SUB-CLASSIFICATION OF STEELS BY TYPE, CLASS
Type, Class of Steel Grade of Steel
Carbon Y`3, 10, 20, 15a, 16a, 18a, 20a, 22a, 20bc
Low-alloyed manganese, 16XY, 17XY, 17X1Y, 09X2Y, 10X2YP, 09X2, 10X2Y1, 10X2,
manganese-silicon 10X2Y1Z, 09X2Ybc, 16XObc, 09X2YPd
*
Martensite 15N5, 15N5O, 15N5eP, 12N8eP, 20N13, N9O, 12N13
Ferritic 08N13, 08N1 7f, 15N25f
Austenite-ferritic 08N22g6f, 12N21g5f, 08N18X8g2f, 15N18g12Y4fb
10N14X14g4f, 08N18g10f, 08N18g12d, 10N17g13O2f,
08N17g15Ohf, 037g14Oh, 12N18g12f, 02N18g11, 02N8g22Y6,
Austenite
039iXhg10f, 07NXhiX20, 12N18g10f, 12N18g9f,
jhN21g21O4Xd
Iron-nickel- and nickel-base
06N28OZf, 03OZf, Ng32f
alloys

*
Steel of the type and class is inclined to heating.
PB 03-576-03
Page 87 of 105

Appendix 4
LIST OF MATERIALS USED FOR MANUFACTURING OF VESSELS WORKING UNDER
PRESSURE
Table 1
Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
Y`3kl, Y`3lk, Y`3ml2
GOST 380 GOST 14637 From 10 to 200 1.6 (16) GOST 14637 Item 1
GOST 14637
Y`3kl, Y`3lk, Y`3Xlk
Categories 3, 4, 5,
GOST 14637
depending on operating GOST 14637 Items 2, 4,
TU 14-1-3023 From 0 to 425 5 (50)
temperature TU 14-1-3023 5, 7, 8
Groups 1, 2
GOST 380
GOST 14637
16a, 18a, 20a, 22a
Categories 3, 5, 11, 17,
Items 4, 5,
18, depending on GOST 5520 From (-)20 to 475 Not restricted GOST 5520
8
operating temperature
GOST 5520
22a TU 108.11-543 GU 108.11-543 From (-)20 to 350 Not restricted TU 108.11-543 Items 7, 8
15, 20 Items 3, 7,
GOST 1577 From (-)20 to 425 5 (50) GOST 1577
GOST 1050 8
09X2Y, 10X2Y1
Categories 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
GOST 5520 From (-)70 to 475 Not restricted GOST 5520 Items 4, 8
18 depending on operating
temperature
GOST 5520
17XY, 17X1Y, 16XY
Categories 3, 4, 5, 6, 12,
18 depending on operating GOST 5520 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted GOST 5520 Items 4, 8
temperature
GOST 5520
09X2Y-n
TU 14-1-2072 From (-)60 to 475 Not restricted TU 14-1-2072 Item 7
TU 14-1 2072
09X2Ybc, 09NX2Ybc
TU 14-1-5065 From (-)70 to 475 Not restricted TU 14-1-5065 Item 7
TU 14-1-5065
17XY, 17X1Y, 16XY, 14X2,
09X2Y
Categories 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 Items 6, 7,
GOST 19281 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted GOST 19281
depending on operating 12
temperature
GOST 19281
14X2iP, 16X2iP From (-)60 to 475 5 (50) Items 6, 7,
GOST 19281 GOST 19281
GOST 19281 From (-)50 to 400 Not restricted 12
09X2Pd, 10X2Pd
TU 14-1-4083 From (-)60 to 420 10(100) TU 14-1-4083 Item 7
TU 14-1-4083
09X2df, 10X2df, 07XPd-
o TU 14-1-4083 From (-)70 to 200 Not restricted TU 14-1-4083 Item 7
TU 14-1-4083
p40, p32
GOST 5521 From (-)40 to 200 Not restricted GOST 5521 Item 7
GOST 5521
10XYgZ, 15NYgZ Items 6, 7,
GOST 19281 From (-)40 to 400 Not restricted GOST 19281
GOST 19281 12
i, e Items 2, 7,
GOST 5521 From 0 to 200 Not restricted GOST5521
GOST 5521 8
Z32, Z40 Items 2, 7,
GOST 5521 From (-)20 to 200 Not restricted GOST 5521
GOST 5521 8
12NO
TU 14-1-642 From (-)40 to 540 Not restricted TU 14-1-642
GOST 20072
12NO
TU 24-10-003 TU 24-10-003
TU 14-1-642 From (-)40 to 560 Not restricted
TU 108.1263 TU 108.1263
TU 24-10-003
12NO GOST 5520 From (-)40 to 560 Not restricted GOST 5520
PB 03-576-03
Page 88 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
Category 3
GOST 5520
12NO
TU 14-1-2304 From (-)40 to 560 Not restricted TU 14-1-2304
TU 14-1-2304
12NO, 15NO TU
From (-)40 to 550 Not restricted TU 302.02.031
TU 302.02.031 302.02.031
20bc
TU 14-1-4853 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted TU 14-1-4853
TU 14-1-4853
09NX2gidc
TU 14-1-3333 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted TU 14-1-3333
TU 14-1-3333
15X2YP
TU 14-1-4502 From (-)60 to 350 Not restricted TU 14-1-4502
TU 14-1-4502
15X2YP
Categories 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
12, 13, 14 depending on GOST 19281 From (-)60 to 350 Not restricted GOST 19281 Items 6, 7
operating temperature
GOST 19281
10N2XgO
TU 108.11-928 From (-)40 to 550 Not restricted TU 108.11-928
TU 108.11-928
16XgOi OST
From (-)20 to 350 Not restricted OST 108.030.118
OST 108.030.118 108.030.118
10N2O1i-i
TU 302.02.121 From (-)40 to 560 Not restricted TU 302.02.121
TU 302.02.121
TU 14-1-3409
10N2O, 10N2O1Pd
disregard Note 4 to From (-)40 to 510 Not restricted TU 14-1-3409
TU 14-1-3409
Table 2
16XObc
TU 14-1-4824 From (-)40 to 520 Not restricted TU 14-1-4824
TU 14-1-4824
Group O 26
15N5O GOST 7350
GOST 7350 From (-)40 to 650 Not restricted
GOST 20072 TU 14-1-2657
TU 14-1-2657
12X2OPi
TU 108.131 From (-)40 to 500 Not restricted TU 108.134
TU 108.131
15N2OPi-i From (-)40 to 510 Not restricted
TU 302.02.014 TU 302.02.014
TU 302.02.014 Above 510 to 560 10 (100)
15N2OPi
TU 108.131 From 0 to 500 Not restricted TU 108.131
TU 108.131
18N2OPi,
25N2OPi, TU 108.131
TU 108.131
25N3OPi TU 5.961-11060 From 0 to 500 Not restricted
TU 5.961-11060
TU 108.131 disregard Item 2.13f
TU 5.961-11060
38Ng3OPi
TU 108.11.906 From 0 to 500 Not restricted TU 108.11.906
GOST 4543
Group O2q
10N14X14g4f GOST 7350 From (-)196 to GOST 7350
Not restricted Item 10
GOST 5632 Groups O2r and O3r 500 GOST 5582
GOST 5582
Group O2q
08N22g6f,
GOST 7350 GOST 7350
08N21g6O2f From (-)40 to 300 Not restricted Item 10
Groups O2r and O3r GOST 5582
GOST 5632
GOST 5582
03N19iXhg10 From (-)196 to
TU 14-1-2261 Not restricted TU 14-1-2261
TU 14-1-2261 450
03N21g21O4Xd Group O2q
From (-)70 to 450 Not restricted GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 5632 GOST 7350
08N18X8g2f Group O2q
From (-)20 to 300 5(50) GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 7350 GOST 7350
07N13iX20
TU 14-1-2640 TU 14-1-2640
TU 14-1-2640, From (-)70 to 300 5(50)
TU 14-1-3342 TU 14-1-3342
TU 14-1-3342
08N18g10f Group O2q From (-)253 to
Not restricted GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 5632 GOST 7350 610
08N18g12d Group O2q From (-)196 to
Not restricted GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 5632 GOST 7350 610
PB 03-576-03
Page 89 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
TU 14-1-3071
TU 14-1-3071
03N18g11 TU 14-1-2144 From (-)253 to
Not restricted TU 14-1-2144 Item 10
GOST 5632 Groups O2r and O3r 450
GOST 5582
GOST 5582
04N18g10 Group O2q From (-)270 to
5(50) GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 5632 GOST 7350 600
02N18g11 From (-)253 to
TU 14-1-3071 5(50) TU 14-1-3071
TU 14-1-3071 450
Group O2q
08N17g13O2f GOST 7350
From (-)253 to GOST 7350
10N17g13O2f Groups O2r and Not restricted Item 10
700 GOST 5582
GOST 5632 O3r
GOST 5582
Group O2q
GOST 7350
Groups O2r and O3r GOST 7350
N17g13Ohf From (-)196 to
GOST 5582 Not restricted GOST 5582 Item 10
GOST 5632 600
TU 14-1-394, TU 14-1-394
Group i

08N17g15Ohf Group O2q From (-)196 to


Not restricted GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 5632 GOST 7350 600
Group O2q
03Ng28OZf GOST 7350
From (-)196 to GOST 7350
06N28OZf Groups O2r and Not restricted Item 10
400 GOST 5582
GOST 5632 O3r
GOST 5582
TU 14-1-5071 TU 14-1-5071
03N17g14Oh TU 14-1-5056 From (-)196 to TU 14-1-5056
Not restricted Item 10
GOST 5632 TU 14-1-5073 450 TU 14-1-5073
TU 14-1-5054 TU 14-1-5054
Group 2
08N18g10 GOST 5582 From (-)270 to GOST 5582
Not restricted Item 10
GOST5632 Group O2q 600 GOST 7350
GOST 7350
12N18g9f Group O2q
From (-)270 to
12N18g10f GOST 7350 Not restricted GOST 7350 Item 10
610
GOST 5632 GOST 5582
Group O2q
08N13
GOST 7350 From (-)40 to 550 Not restricted GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 5632
GOST 5582
08N18g10f
Group O2q
08N18g12d
GOST 7350 From 610 to 700 5(50) GOST 7350 Item 10
12N18g10f
GOST 5582
GOST 5632
20N13, 12N13 Group O2q
From (-)40 to 550 Not restricted GOST 7350 Item 10
GOST 5632 GOST 7350
Ng32f
TU 14-1-625 From (-)70 to 900 Not restricted TU 14-1-625 Item 10
TU 14-1-625
15N18g12Y4fb
TU 14-1-1337 From (-)20 to 200 2.5(25) TU 14-1-1337 Item 10
GOST 5632
From (-)70 to 500 5(50) GOST 7350, Group
Ng65Oeo, N70OPes A, GOST 5582 and
TU 14-1-4253
TU 14-1-4253 Item 3.2 of
From (-)70 to 300 1(10) OST 26-01-858
08kl, 08f
TU 14-1-3172 From (-)20 to 300 2.5(25) TU 14-1-3172 Item 11
TU 14-1-3172
08Xf
TU 14-1-3899 From (-)20 to 300 2.5(25) TU 14-1-3899 Item 11
TU 14-1-3899

Notes:
1. Maximum sheet thickness: 16 mm.
2. Use of the following steel grades shall be tolerable: Y`3kl, Y`3lk, Category 3 sheet products of max. 40 mm
thickness; Y`3kl, Y`3lk Categories 4 and 5 sheet products of max. 25 mm thickness; Y`3Xlk sheet products of max.
30 mm thickness.
PB 03-576-03
Page 90 of 105

3. The scope and types of testing procedures for steel grades 15 and 20 as per GOST 1577 shall conform to GOST 5520
and fall within the scope of tests applicable to steel grades 15K, 16K, 18K and 20K of corresponding categories.
4. The mechanical properties of steel sheets thinner than 12 mm shall be verified on sheets sampled from a batch.
5. Mechanical strain ageing tests shall apply where the steel is subject to cold strain (e.g., forge rolling, bending, beading,
etc.) during manufacturing of vessels or any parts thereof operating at temperatures above 200oC.
6. The supply of steel sheets relevant to GOST 19281 shall involve mandatory implementation of Items 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.3,
2.2.7, 2.2.9, 2.2.12 of the above GOST, with macrostructure verification by sampling from a sheet batch as required by
GOST 5520.
7. Testing shall be conducted on each sheet at operating temperatures below (-)30oC, above 200oC or under pressure
above 5 MPa (50 kgf/cm2) where the tested sheet thickness is 12 mm or greater.
8. A reduction of the temperature limitation by 20oC (though not below (-)70oC) shall be allowed for carbon steel and low-
alloy steel where the vessel’s wall is thinner than, or 36 mm thick, provided the allowable stress values were reduced at
least 1.35 times during strength calculation and the vessel was subject to thermal treatment.
Where the allowable stress values were reduced at least 2.85 times during strength calculation, the temperature
limitation applicable to the above steel grades may be lowered by 20oC (though no below (-)70oC) without thermal
treatment of the vessel.
9. Ageing test shall be required for the steel grades supplied under GOST 5521 whenever the operating temperature is
above 200oC.
10. Steel sheet conformant to GOST 7350 with the surface finish relevant to Groups M3q and O4q may be used provided
the surface defect depth is taken into account during strength calculation.
11. Applies to enamelled vessels.
12. GOST 19281 shall apply to improved-strength rolled steel used in vessels that are not subject to thermal treatment.
Possibility of applying rolled steel of grades specified in GOST 19281 for vessels subject to thermal treatment needs
approval of a special R&D institution.
13. For manufacturing the parts not subject to welding.

Table 2
Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
Y`3kl3, Y`3lk3 Water- or gas-pipes
GOST 380 (reinforced) as per From 0 to 200 1.6 (16)
GOST 1463 7 GOST
Y`3ml Arc-welded pipes as
GOST 10706,
GOST 380 per GOST 10706, From 10 to 200 1.6 (16) Item 8
Group B
GOST 14637 Group B
Y`3kl, Y`3lk
Categories 4, 5,
Arc-welded pipes as
depending on the GOST 10706,
per GOST 10706, From (-)20 to 400 5 (50) Item 1
operating temperature Group B
Group B
GOST 380
GOST 1463 7
Y`3kl3, Y`3lk3 Arc-welded pipes as
GOST 10706,
GOST 380 per GOST 10706, From 0 to 200 5 (50) Item 8
Group B
GOST 14637 Group B
Arc-welded pipes TU
From (-)30 to 400 4 (40) TU 14-3-624
14-3-624
GOST 550
GOST 550
10, 20 GOST 1050 Group i, d
GOST 8733
GOST 8 733, Items 2, 3,
From (-)30 to 475 5 (50) Group B
Group B 4
GOST 8731
GOST 8731,
Group B
Group B
GOST 550
GOST 550
10, 20 Group i, d
From (-)30 to 475 16 (160) GOST 8733 Item 5
GOST 1050 GOST 8733,
Group B
Group B
GOST 550
GOST 550
Group i, d
10, 20 From (-)30 to 475 16 (160) GOST 8731 Item 6
GOST 8731
GOST 1050 Group B
Group B
TU 14-3-190 From (-)30 to 425 6.4 (64) TU 14-3-190
PB 03-576-03
Page 91 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
20 TU 14-3-460 TU 14-3-460 From (-)30 to 475 Not restricted TU 14-3-460 Item 3
20bc
TU 14-1-4853 TU 14-1-4853
TU 14-1-4853
TU 14-3-1652 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted TU 14-3-1652
TU 14-3-1652
TU 14-3-1745 TU 14-3-1745
TU 14-3-1745
15XY
TU 14-3-460 From (-)40 to 400 Not restricted TU 14-3-460 Item 3
TU 14-3-460
09X2Y TU 14-3-500 TU 14-3-500
From (-)60 to 475 Not restricted
GOST 19281 TU 14-3-1128 TU 14-3-1128
10X2Pd
TU 14-3-1464 From (-)60 to 420 10 (100) TU 14-3-1464
TU 14-3-1464
13XY, 13X1Y-o
TU 14-3-1464 From (-)40 to 300 5.5 (55) TU 14-3-1464
TU 14-3-1464
GOST 550 From (-)70 to 31 GOST 550
10X2 Group A, B GOST 550
Not restricted Item 7
GOST 4543 GOST 8731 From (-)30 to 475 GOST 8733
Group B GOST 8731
12NO, 15NO
TU 302.02.031 From 0 to 550 Not restricted TU 302.02.031
TU 302.02.031
15NO
TU 14-3-460 From (-)40 to 560 Not restricted TU 14-3-460
TU 14-3-460
12N1OP
TU 14-3-460 From (-)20 to 560 Not restricted TU 14-3-460
GOST 20072
15N5 GOST 550
From (-)40 to 425 Not restricted GOST 550
GOST 20072 Group i, d
15N5O-o, 15N5eP GOST 550,
From (-)40 to 650 Not restricted GOST 550
GOST 20072 Group i, d
15N5O-o
TU 14-3-1080 From (-)40 to 650 Not restricted TU 14-3-1080
GOST 20072
12N8eP
GOST 550 From (-)40 to 650 Not restricted GOST 550
GOST 20072
N9O
TU 14-3-457 From (-)40 to 650 Not restricted TU 14-3-457
TU 14-3-457
N8
GOST 550 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted GOST 550
GOST 550
10N14X14g4f From (-)196 to
TU 14-3-1905 Not restricted TU 14-3-1905
TU 14-3-1905 500
GOST 9 940 GOST 9940
08N22g6f
GOST 9 941 From (-)40 to 300 Not restricted GOST 9941
GOST 5632
TU 14-3-1905 TU 14-3-1905
08N21g6O2f
TU 14-3-1905 From (-)40 to 300 Not restricted TU 14-3-1905
GOST 5632
08N18X8g2f
TU 14-3-1596 From (-)20 to 300 2.5 (25) TU 14-3-1596
TU 14-3-1596
03N19iXhg10
TU 14-3-415 TU 14-3-415
TU 14-3-415 From (-)196 to
Not restricted
03N17g14Oh 450
TU 14-3-396 TU 14-3-396
TU 14-3-396
08N18g10f,
Arc-welded pipes TU From (-)273 to
10N18g10f 5 (50) TU 14-3-1391
14-3-1391 610
GOST 5632
12N18g10f GOST 9940 From (-)270 to GOST 9940
Not restricted
GOST 5632 GOST 9941 610 GOST 9941
12N18g12f From (-)270 to
TU 14-3-460 Not restricted TU 14-3-460
TU 14-3-460 610
02N18g11 From (-)196 to
TU 14-3-1401 Not restricted TU 14-3-1401
TU 14-3-1401 450
08N18g10f GOST 9940 From (-)270 to GOST 9940
Not restricted
GOST 5632 GOST 9941 610 GOST 9941
03N18g11 From (-)196 to
TU 14-3-1401 Not restricted TU 14-3-1401
GOST 5632 450
08N18g12d GOST 9940 From (-)196 to GOST 9940
Not restricted
GOST 5632 GOST 9941 610 GOST 9941
10N17g13O2f GOST 9 940 From (-)270 to GOST 9940
Not restricted
GOST 5 632 GOST 9 941 700 GOST 9941
PB 03-576-03
Page 92 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
08N17g15Ohf GOST 9 940 From (-)196 to GOST 9940
Not restricted
GOST 5 632 GOST 9 941 600 GOST 9941
08N18g10f,
08N18g12d, GOST 9 940
From 610 to 700 5 (50)
12N18g10f GOST 9 941
GOST 5632
03Ng28OZf From (-)196 to
TU 14-3-694 5 (50) TU 14-3-694
GOST 5632 400
08N13, 12N13
GOST 9 941 From (-)40 to 550 Not restricted GOST 9941
GOST 5632
Ng32f
TU 14-3-489 From (-)70 to 900 Not restricted TU 14-3-489
TU 14-3-489
14NXY
TU 14-3-433 From (-)50 to 370 Not restricted TU 14-3-433
TU 14-3-433
30NOi
TU 14-3-433 From (-)50 to 450 Not restricted TU 14-3-433
TU 14-3-433
15N18g19Y4fb TU 14-3-310 From (-)50 to 500 Not restricted TU 14-3-310
TU 14-3-310 From (-)70 to 500 GOST 9941
g70OP-es GOST 11068 and
From (-)70 to 300
TU 14-3-1227 Items
1 (10) 2.3.2,
Ng65Oeo, TU 14-3-1227
5 (50) 2.3.3 of
Ng65Oe From (-)70 to 500
OST 26-01-858
TU 14-3-1227
TU 14-3-1227

Notes:
1. Pipes for heat supply mains should be demanded in procurement orders.
2. Where pipes per GOST 550 are being ordered for fabricating heat exchangers, Group A shall be stipulated.
3. Max. 12 mm wall pipes may be utilised for operating temperatures from (-)40oC.
4. Manufacturer shall conduct notched-bar impact-test of 12 mm or thicker wall pipes per GOST 8731 at 20oC.
5. Conditional to performance of flattening test.
6. Conditional to performance of flattening test and macrostructural verification.
7. Conditional to performance of notched-bar impact-test at operating temperature.
8. The mechanical properties of welded joints on each 10th pipe within a batch shall be verified by radiation method or
ultrasonic flaw examination of the welded joint of each shell fabricated out of pipes in compliance with the requirements
of these Rules.
9. Steel grade 15XY pipes for wall temperature below (-)30oC shall be impact bending-tested at (-)40oC, whereas the
impact viscosity shall not be less than 3-J/cm2 (3.0 kgf m/cm2).
10. For pipe banks not to be welded.

Table 3
Forgings
Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
Y`qkl GOST 84 79, Group From (-)20 to 400
GOST 380 GOST 8479, Group
1o-aU.245 5 (50) Item 1
Y`3kl From (-)20 to 450 IV
(aU.25)
GOST 380
GOST 84 79,
Group IV- aU.195
20a (aU.20) GOST 8479, Group
From (-)30 to 475 Not restricted Item 2
GOST 1050 Group IV IV
aU.215
(aU.22)
20a GOST 84 79, From (-)30 to 475 Not restricted GOST 8479, Group
PB 03-576-03
Page 93 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
GOST 5520 Group IV-aU.195 IV
(aU.20)
20,22a
OST 108.030.113 From (-)30 to 450 Not restricted OST 108.030.113
OST 108.030.113
22a, 22a-n,22a-eZ, 22a-
>From (-)30 to
eVe fo 108.11-543 Not restricted fo 108.11-543
475
fo 108.11-543
GOST 84 79,
20bc GOST 8479, Group
Group IV-aU.215 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted Items 2, 3
fo 14-1-4853 IV
(aU.22)
GOST 8479,
16XY GOST 8479, Group
Group IV-aU.245 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted Items 2, 3
GOST 19281 IV
(aU.25)
15XYZ6XY
OST 108.030.113 From (-)20 to 450 Not restricted OST 108.030.113
OST 108.030.113
15XY
OST 26-01-135 From (-)40 to 400 Not restricted OST 26-01-135
OST 108.030.113
14NXY
OST 26-01-135 From (-)50 to 380 Not restricted OST 26-01-135
GOST 19281
GOST 8479,
10X2 GOST 8479, Group
Group IV-aU.215 From (-)70 to 475 Not restricted Item 2
GOST 4543 IV
(aU.22)
GOST 8479,
09X2Y GOST 8479, Group
Group IV-aU.245 From (-)70 to 475 Not restricted Items 2, 3
GOST 19281 IV
(aU.25)
GOST 8479
20X GOST 8479, Group
Group IV-aU.395 From (-)40 to 450 Not restricted
GOST 4543 IV
(aU.40)
GOST 8479
15NO Group IV-aU.275 GOST 8479, Group
From (-)40 to 560 Not restricted Item 3
GOST 4543 ?e ? 440 IV
MPa
GOST 8479,
Group IV-aU.395Y;
15N5eP, 15N5O GOST 8479, Group
? ? 13%, From (-)40 to 600 Not restricted Item 3
GOST 20072 IV
? ? 35%,
KCU ? 50 J/cm2
12N1OP
OST 108.030.113 From (-)20 to 450 Not restricted OST 108.030.113
OST 108.030.113
12NO GOST 8479, GOST 8479, Group
From (-)40 to 450 Not restricted
GOST 20072 Group IV-aU.235 IV
12NO, 15NO >From (-)40 to
fo 302.02.031 Not restricted fo 302.02.031
fo 302.02.031 560
>From (-)40 to
15N2OPi-i Not restricted fo 302.02-014,
fo 302.02-014 510
fo 302.02-014 Group II
Over 510 to 560 10 (100)
08N22g6f,
GOST 25054, Group GOST 25054,
08N21g6O2f From (-)40 to 300 Not restricted
IV Group IV
GOST 5632
12N18g9f, From (-)270 to
12N18g10f, GOST 25054, Group 610 GOST 25054,
Not restricted
08N18g10f IV Group IV
GOST 5632 From 610 to 700

10N17g13O2f GOST 25054, Group From (-)253 to GOST 25054,


Not restricted
GOST 5632 IV 600 Group IV
04N18g10,
GOST 25054, Group From (-)270 to GOST 25054,
03N18g11 Not restricted
IV 450 Group IV
GOST 5632
03N17g14O3 GOST 25054, Group From (-)196 to GOST 25054,
Not restricted
GOST 5632 IV 450 Group IV
10N17g13O3f GOST 25054, Group From (-)196 to GOST 25054,
Not restricted
GOST 5632 IV 600 Group IV
08N17g15O3f GOST 25054, Group From (-)196 to GOST 25054,
Not restricted
GOST 5632 IV 600 Group IV
PB 03-576-03
Page 94 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Index of Testing
Applicable Medium
Standard or Wall Procedure and Notes
Regulation or Code Pressure, max.
Specification Temperature, 0C Requirements
MPa (kgf/cm3)
06Ng28OZf GOST 25054, Group From (-)196 to GOST 25054,
5 (50)
GOST 5632 IV 400 Group IV
08N13, 12N13 GOST 25054, Group GOST 25054,
From 0 to 550 6.4 (64)
GOST 5632 IV Group IV
08N13, 12N13, 20N13,
30N13 OST 26-01-135 From (-)40 to 420 Not restricted OST 26-01-135
GOST 5 632
20N13, 20N17g2 GOST 25054, Group
From (-)40 to 550 Not restricted GOST 25054
GOST 5632 IV
07N16g6 GOST 25054, Group
From (-)40 to 325 Not restricted GOST 25054
GOST 5632 IV
15N18g12Y4fb GOST 25054, Group
From (-)50 to 500 Not restricted GOST 25054
GOST 5632 IV
03N21g21O4Xd GOST 25054, Group From (-)196 to
Not restricted GOST 25054
GOST 5632 IV 400
GOST 8479,
30NOi GOST 8479
Group IV From (-)50 to 420 Not restricted
GOST 4543 OST 26-01-135
OST 26-01-135
20N2Oi
OST 26-01-135 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted OST 26-01-135
OST 26-01-135
22NhO
OST 26-01-135 From (-)40 to 510 Not restricted OST 26-01-135
OST 26-01-135
15N2OPi,
18N2OPi,
25N2OPi, fo 108-131 From 0 to 510 Not restricted fo 108-131
25NhOPi
fo 108-131
18NhOe,
20NhOdP OST 26-01-135 From (-)50 to 510 Not restricted OST 26-01-135
GOST 20072
38NghOPi
OST 26-01-135 From (-)40 to 420 Not restricted OST 26-01-135
GOST 4543

Notes:
1. For fabrication of parts not to be welded.
2. Forgings made of steel grades 16XY, 09X2Y, 10X2 shall be impact viscosity-tested at operating temperatures below (-
)30oC. The resulting impact viscosity may not be less than 30 J/cm2 (3 kgf m/cm2).
3. Use of steel hot-rolled rings for manufacturing flanges of steel grade 20 to TU 14-1-1431, or steel grades 16XY, 12NO,
15N5O, 09X2Y5 to TU 14-3-375 Specification shall be allowed.

Table 4
Commercial Steel (Rounds, Strip Steel, Shaped Sections)
Grade of Steel, Index Operating Conditions
Applicable Regulation Testing Procedure
of Standard or Medium Pressure,
or Code Wall Temperature, 0C and Requirements
Specification max. MPa (kgf/cm3)
Y`3ml2
GOST 535 From 10 to 200 1.6 (16) GOST 535
GOST 535
Y`3lk4, Y`3kl4
GOST 535 From (-)20 to 200 5 (50) GOST 535
GOST 535
Y`3kl3, Y`3lk3
GOST 535 From 0 to 425 5 (50) GOST 535
GOST 535
Y`5kl2
GOST 535 From 0 to 425 5 (50) GOST 535
GOST 535
10, 15, 20
GOST 1050 From (-)20 to 475 Not restricted GOST 1050
GOST 1050
09X2Y-7, 09X2-7
GOST 19281 From (-)70 to 200 Not restricted GOST 19281
GOST 19281
09X2Y-4, 09X2-4
GOST 19281 From (-)40 to 200 Not restricted GOST 19281
GOST 19281
09X2Y-12, 09X2-12
GOST 19281 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted GOST 19281
GOST 19281
10X2 GOST 4543 From (-)70 to 475 Not restricted GOST 4543
PB 03-576-03
Page 95 of 105

Grade of Steel, Index Operating Conditions


Applicable Regulation Testing Procedure
of Standard or Medium Pressure,
or Code Wall Temperature, 0C and Requirements
Specification max. MPa (kgf/cm3)
GOST 4543
10N14X14g4f
GOST 5949 From (-)196 to 500 Not restricted GOST 5949
GOST 5632
20bc GOST 4543
fo 14-1-4853 From (-)40 to 475 Not restricted
fo 14-1-4853 fo 14-1-4853
08N22g6f,
08N21g6O2f GOST 5949 From (-)40 to 300 Not restricted GOST 5949
GOST 5632
12N18g10f, From (-)270 to 610 Not restricted
08N18g10f GOST 5949 GOST 5949
GOST 5632 610 to 700 5( 50)
15N5O
GOST 20072 From (-)40 to 650 Not restricted GOST 20072
GOST 20072
08N18g12d From (-)196 to 610 Not restricted
GOST 5949 GOST 5949
GOST 5632
610 to 700 5 (50)
15N18g12Y4fbn fo 14-1-915
fo 14-1-915 From (-)20 to 120 2.5 (25)
GOST 5632 GOST 5949
10N17g13O2f,
10N17g13O3f GOST 5949 From (-)253 to 600 Not restricted GOST 5949
GOST 5632
08N17g15O3f
GOST 5949 From (-)196 to 600 Not restricted GOST 5949
GOST 5632
06Ng28OZf
GOST 5949 From (-)196 to 400 Not restricted GOST 5949
GOST 5632
08N13, 12N13
GOST 5949 From (-)40 to 550 6.4 (64) GOST 5949
GOST 5632
03N18g11
fo 14-1-1160 From (-)196 to 450 5 (50) fo 14-1-1160
GOST 5632
03N17g14O3
fo 14-1-3303 From (-)196 to 450 5 (50) fo 14-1-3303
GOST 5632
g70OP GOST 5949
fo 14-1-2260 From (-)70 to 300 1 (10)
fo 14-1-2260 OST 2 6-01-858
Ng65Oe GOST 5949
Xo 14-1-3239 From (-)70 to 500 5 (50)
fo 14-1-3239 OST 2 6-01-858
Ng78f From (-)70 to 700 Not restricted GOST 5949
Xo 14-1-3957
fo 14-1-3957 >From 700 to 900 1.5 (15) OST 2 6-01-858
Ng32f
fo 14-1-284 From (-)70 to 900 Not restricted fo 14-1-284
fo 14-1-284

Table 5
Cast Steel
Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Applicable Testing
Index of Standard Regulation or Medium Pressure, Procedure and Notes
Wall
max. MPa
or Specification Code Temperature, 0C Requirements
(kgf/cm3)
GOST 977,
20t, 25t GOST 977,
From (-)30 to 450 Not restricted Group 3 Items 1, 2
GOST 977 Group 3
fo 26-02-19
GOST 977,
35t, 45t GOST 977,
From (-)30 to 450 Not restricted Group 3 Item 3
GOST 977 Group 3
fo 26-02-19
GOST 977,
20NOt GOST 977,
From (-)40 to 540 Not restricted Group 3
GOST 977 Group 3
fo 26-02-19
GOST 977,
20N5Ot GOST 977,
From (-)40 to 600 Not restricted Group 3
GOST 977 Group 3
fo 26-02-19
20XOt
OST 26-07-402 From (-)40 to 450 Not restricted OST 26-07-402
OST 26-07-402
20N5ft
fo 26-02-19 From (-)40 to 425 Not restricted fo 26-02-19
fo 26-02-19
20N5et fo 26-02-19 From (-)40 to 550 Not restricted fo 26-02-19
PB 03-576-03
Page 96 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Steel, Applicable Testing
Index of Standard Regulation or Medium Pressure, Procedure and Notes
Wall
max. MPa
or Specification Code Temperature, 0C Requirements
(kgf/cm3)
fo 26-02-19
GOST 977,
20N8et GOST 977,
From (-)40 to 600 Not restricted Group 3
GOST 977 Group 3
fo 26-02-19
20Ng3t
fo 26-02-19 From (-)70 to 450 Not restricted fo 26-02-19 Item 4
fo 26-02-19
12N18g9ft, GOST 977,
GOST 977,
10N18g9t From (-)253 to 600 Group 3
Group 3 Not restricted
GOST 977 fo 26-02-19
GOST 977,
12N18g12O3-ft GOST 977,
From (-)253 to 600 Not restricted Group 3
GOST 977 Group 3
fo 26-02-19
10N21g6O2t
fo 26-02-19 From (-)40 to 300 Not restricted fo 26-02-19
fo 26-02-19

Notes:
1. Welded elements: the contents of carbon may not exceed 0.25 percent.
2. Cast carbon steel of grades 20t, 25t may be used up to the operating temperature of (-)40oC provided thermal
treatment was implemented in normalization regime plus drawing, or hardening plus drawing.
3. Cast steel of grades 35t, 45t shall be supplied only for structural elements not to be welded.
4. Where the operating temperature is below (-)30oC, the impact viscosity shall be tested at (-)70oC.

Table 6
Fastenings
Grade of Steel, Index Operating Conditions
Applicable Regulation
of Standard or Medium Pressure, Purpose
or Code Wall Temperature, 0C
Specification max. MPa (kgf/cm3)
Strength grade 5.6, 6.6,
8.8, 21, 22 GOST 1759 From (-)30 to 300 2.5 (25) Pins, bolts, nuts
GOST 1 759
2.5 (25) Pins, bolts, nuts
GOST 535 From (-)20 to 300
Y`3klq 10 (100) Washers
GOST 380 1.6 (16) Bolts, pins
GOST 535 GOST 20700 From 0 to 350 2.5 (25) Nuts
10 (100) Washers
Y`3kl4, Y`3kl3
GOST 380 GOST 12.2.073 From 0 to 300 2.5 (25) Pins, bolts, nuts
GOST 535
OST 26-2043 From 0 to 300 2.5 (25) Nuts
10 From (-)40 to 450 10 (100) Washers
GOST 1050 GOST 20700 From 0 to 350 2.5 (25) Nuts
From 0 to 450 10 (100) Washers
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 425 2.5 (25) Pins, bolts
10 (100) Nuts
20 From (-)40 to 450 10 (100) Washers
GOST 1050 GOST 20700 From 0 to 400 1.6 (16) Bolts, pins
10 (100) Nuts
OST 26-2043 From 0 to 425 2.5 (25) Pins, bolts
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 425 2.5 (25) Pins, bolts
25
GOST 1050 10 (100) Nuts
GOST 20700 From 0 to 400 1.6 (16) Bolts, pins
GOST 10702
OST 26-2043 10 (100) Nuts
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 425 10 (100) Pins, bolts
30, 40, 45, 35 16(160) Nuts
GOST 1050 From (-)40 to 450 16 (160) Washers
GOST 10702 GOST 20700 From 0 to 425 10 (100) Bolts, pins
20 (200) Nuts
35N, 38Ni From (-)50 to 425 Pins, bolts
OST 26-2043 16 (160)
GOST 4543 From (-)40 to 450 Nuts, washers
35N, 40N From 0 to 425 Bolts, pins
GOST 20700 20 (200)
GOST 10702 From 0 to 450 Nuts
PB 03-576-03
Page 97 of 105

Grade of Steel, Index Operating Conditions


Applicable Regulation
of Standard or Medium Pressure, Purpose
or Code Wall Temperature, 0C
Specification max. MPa (kgf/cm3)
40N From (-)50 to 425 16 (160) Pins, bolts
OST 26-2043
GOST 4543 From (-)40 to 450 Nuts, washers
30N GOST 4543 GOST 10495 From (-)50 to 200 63 (630) Nuts
35N, 38Ni, 40N GOST 10494 From (-)50 to 200 63 (630) Pins
GOST 4543 GOST 10495 From (-)50 to 400 80 (800) Nuts
09X2Y From (-)70 to 425 Pins, bolts, nuts
OST 26-2043 16 (160)
GOST 19281 From (-)70 to 450 Washers
18N2g4Oi From (-)70 to 400 Pins, bolts, nuts
OST 26-2043 16 (160)
GOST 4543 From (-)70 to 450 Washers
12N13, 20N13, 30N13 Pins, bolts, nuts,
OST 26-2043 From (-)30 to 475 10 (100)
GOST 5632 washers
20N13 From 0 to 450 Bolts, pins, washers
GOST 20700 Not restricted
GOST 18968 From 0 to 510 Nuts
10N17g13O2f,
10N17g13O3f,
Pins, bolts, nuts,
08N17g15O3f OST 26-2043 From (-)70 to 600 16 (160)
washers
31N19g9Oedf
GOST 5632
31N19g9Oedf GOST 23304
From 0 to 625 Not restricted Bolts, pins, nuts
GOST 5949 GOST 20700
06Ng28OZf Pins, bolts, nuts,
OST 26-2043 From (-)70 to 400 16 (160)
GOST 5632 washers
10N14X14g4f Pins, bolts, nuts,
OST 26-2043 From (-)200 to 500 16 (160)
GOST 5632 washers
07N21X7ig5 OST 26-2043 Pins, bolts, nuts,
From (-)196 to 400 Not restricted
GOST 5632 fo 14-1-1141 washers
08N15g24e4fV Pins, bolts, nuts,
OST 26-2043 From (-)270 to 600 Not restricted
GOST 5632 washers
07N16g6 Pins, bolts, nuts,
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 325 10 (100)
GOST 5949 washers
10N11g22f3OV
GOST 20700 From 0 to 650 Not restricted Bolts, pins, nuts
GOST 5949
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 450 16 (160) Pins, bolts
From (-)40 to 510 Nuts
30NOi, 35NO
From (-)70 to 450 Washers
GOST 4543
GOST 20700 From 0 to 450 Not restricted Bolts, pins, washers
From 0 to 510 Nuts
30NOi, 35NO GOST 10494 From (-)50 to 400 80 (800) Pins
GOST 4543 GOST 10495 From (-)50 to 510 100 (1000) Nuts
40NPi
GOST 10494 From (-)50 to 400 80 (800) Pins
GOST 4543
From (-)40 to 450 16 (160) Pins, bolts
30NO
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 510 Nuts
GOST 4543
From (-)70 to 450 Washers
From (-)40 to 510 16 (160) Pins, bolts
25N1OP
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 540 Nuts
GOST 20072
From (-)70 to 540 Washers
From 0 to 510 Not restricted Bolts, pins
GOST 20700
25N1OP From 0 to 540 Nuts
GOST 20072 GOST 10494
From (-)50 to 510 100 (1000) Pins, nuts
GOST 10495
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 540 16 (160) Pins, bolts, nuts
From (-)70 to 540 Washers
25N2O1P GOST 20700 From 0 to 535 Not restricted Bolts, pins
GOST 20072 GOST 10494 From 0 to 565 Nuts
From (-)50 to 510 100 (1000) Pins
20N1O1P1V From (-)40 to 565 16 (160) Pins, bolts, nuts
OST 26-2043
GOST 20072 From (-)70 to 565 Washers
20N1O1P1fV OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 565 16 (160) Pins, bolts, nuts
20N1O1P1dV From (-)70 to 565 Washers
GOST 20072 GOST 20700 From 0 to 580 Not restricted Bolts, pins, nuts
15NO OST 26-2043 From (-)70 to 565 16 (160) Washers
GOST 4543 GOST 20700 From 0 to 545 Not restricted Washers
20Nghi, 10X2 From (-)70 to 425 Pins, bolts, nuts
OST 26-2043 16 (160)
GOST 4543 From (-)70 to 450 Washers
PB 03-576-03
Page 98 of 105

Grade of Steel, Index Operating Conditions


Applicable Regulation
of Standard or Medium Pressure, Purpose
or Code Wall Temperature, 0C
Specification max. MPa (kgf/cm3)
37N12g8X8OPd From (-)40 to 450 Pins, bolts, nuts
OST 26-2043 16 (160)
GOST 5632 From (-)70 to 600 Washers
12N18g10f OST 26-2043 From (-)70 to 600 16 (160) Pins, bolts, nuts,
GOST 5632 washers
GOST 5949 GOST 20700 From 0 to 650 Not restricted Washers
08N18g10f
GOST 20700 From 0 to 650 Not restricted Washers
GOST 5632
45N14g14e2O OST 26-2043
16 (160) Pins, bolts, nuts
GOST 5632 GOST 5949
OST 26-2043 From (-)40 to 580 16 (160) Pins, bolts, nuts,
18N12eOdPV
washers
GOST 5632
GOST 20700 From 0 to 560 Not restricted Bolts, pins, nuts
GOST 5949
From 0 to 580 Washers
12N1OP
GOST 20700 From 0 to 570 Not restricted Washers
GOST 20072
08N16g13O2d From 0 to 625 Bolts, pins, nuts
GOST 20700 Not restricted
GOST 5632 From 0 to 650 Washers
Ng35ef
GOST 20700 From 0 to 650 Not restricted Bolts, pins, nuts
GOST 5632

Notes:
1. Fastenings to GOST 207000 shall be used for vessels in power engineering.
2. Use of fastenings made of steel grades 35N, 38Ni, 40N, 30N, 30NOi, 35NO shall be allowed at temperatures below (-
)40oC to (-)60oC, provided impact viscosity test is conducted at sample’s subzero operating temperatures with Type V
Concentrator (Type II to GOST 9454). Each sample shall show impact viscosity at least equal or greater than 20 J/cm2
(3 kgf m/cm2).

Table 7
Non-ferrous Metals & Alloys
Operating Conditions
Grade of Material, Applicable Testing
Index of Standard Regulation or Medium Pressure, Procedure and Notes
Wall
max. MPa
or Specification Code Temperature, 0C Requirements
(kgf/cm3)
1. Sheets & Plates
O1, O2, O3, O1u,
GOST 495
O2u, O3u From (-)270 to 360 Not restricted GOST 495 Items 1, 2
GOST 859
GOST 859
t63, t68, tY59-1,
tj62-1 GOST 931 From (-)270 to 250 Not restricted GOST 931 Item 3
GOST 15527
tvOw59-1-1
OST 48-24 From (-)270 to 250 Not restricted fo 48-21-897
GOST 15527
gU2
GOST 6235 From (-)70 to 360 2.5 (25) GOST 6235 Items 1, 4, 5
GOST 492
gOvOw28-2.5-1.5
GOST 5063 From (-)70 to 360 2.5 (25) GOST 5063 Item 1
GOST 492
dud2
GOST 1789 From (-)270 to 250 4 (40) GOST 1789 Item 6
GOST 18175
i5, i6, iZj, iZ1,
iOw, iOx3, iOx5 GOST 21631 From (-)270 to 150 6 (60) GOST 21631 Items 1, 7
GOST 4784
iZj, iZ1, i5, i6,
iyw GOST 17232 From (-)70 to 150 6 (60) GOST 17232 Item 8
GOST 4784
iyx3, iOx5, iOx6
GOST 17232 From (-)210 to 150 6 (60) GOST 17232 Item 8
GOST 4784
ef1-0, ef1-00
GOST 22178 From (-)270 to 300 Not restricted GOST 22178
GOST 19807
jf4-0
GOST 22178 From (-)196 to 400 Not restricted GOST 22178
GOST 19807
ef1-0
GOST 23755 From (-)196 to 300 Not restricted GOST 23755 Item 9
GOST 19807
PB 03-576-03
Page 99 of 105

Operating Conditions
Grade of Material, Applicable Testing
Index of Standard Regulation or Medium Pressure, Procedure and Notes
Wall
max. MPa
or Specification Code Temperature, 0C Requirements
(kgf/cm3)
jf4-0
GOST 23755 From (-)196 to 400 Not restricted GOST 23755 Item 9
GOST 19807
2. Pipes
t68, tj70-1,
tjOz70-1-0.05,
GOST 21646 From (-)196 to 250 Not restricted GOST 21646 Item 11
tiOz77-2-0.05
GOST 15527
t63, t68, tY59-1,
tvOw59-1-1 GOST 494 From (-)253 to 250 Not restricted GOST 494 Items 12, 13, 14
GOST 15527
Ogv5-1
GOST 17217 From (-)196 to 200 Not restricted GOST 17217 Item 15
GOST 492
OgvOw30-1-1
GOST 10092 From 0 to 250 Not restricted GOST 10092 Item 1
GOST 4 92
iZj, iZ1, iyw
GOST 18475 From (-)270 to 150 6 (60) GOST 18475 Item 16
GOST 4784
iOx2, iOx3, iOx5
GOST 18482 From (-)270 to 150 6 (60) GOST 18482
GOST 4784
ef1-0, ef1-00
GOST 21945 From (-)270 to 300 Not restricted GOST 21945
GOST 19807
Uf-1O
GOST 21945 From (-)270 to 300 Not restricted GOST 21945
GOST 19807
O1, O2, O3, O1u,
O2u, O3u GOST 6 17 From (-)270 to 250 Not restricted GOST 617 Items 1, 10
GOST 859
3. Bars & Castings
gOvOw28-2.5-1.5
GOST 1525 From (-)70 to 250 2.5 (25) GOST 1525 Item 1
GOST 492
t{23i6v3-Ow2
(tivOw66-6-3-2) GOST 17711 From (-)70 to 250 Not restricted GOST 17711
GOST 17711
iZj, iOx2, iyw
GOST 21488 From (-)70 to 150 6 (60) GOST 21488
GOST 4784
ef1-0, ef1-00
GOST 26492 From (-)270 to 300 Not restricted GOST 26492
GOST 19807
jf4-0
GOST 26492 From (-)196 to 400 Not restricted GOST 26492
GOST 19807

Notes.
1. Tensile test to be performed in soft condition.
2. Deoxidised copper sheets to be bend-tested upon Customer request (to be stipulated in the requisition order).
3. Tensile test to be performed: grades t63, t68, tY59-1 - in soft condition; grade tj62-1 – in hot-rolled condition.
4. Soft 1 mm, 1.2 mm thick strips shall be extrusion depth-tested upon Customer request.
5. Bend test shall be performed upon Customer request.
6. Tensile test, extrusion depth test, bend-over test and post-aging test to be performed in soft condition (after quenching).
7. The mechanical properties of non-thermal-treated and annealed sheets (except alloy grades iOx3, iOx5, iOx6) shall
not be verified by Manufacturer as properties assured by the manufacturing process (Item 4.6 of GOST 21631).
8. The mechanical properties shall be assured by the manufacturing process and shall be verified upon request of the
Customer (Item 4.4 of GOST 17232).
9. Bend testing applies to alloy grade ef1-0 only.
10. By agreement between the parties, the Manufacturer shall perform hydraulic test at a pressure above 70 kgf/cm2.
11. Tensile test of brass grade t68 to be performed in soft condition.
12. Pipe grades t63, t68 to be tensile-tested in soft condition; pipe grades tY69-1q tvOw59-1-1 to be tested in pressed
condition.
13. Upon Customer request the 3 mm (or less) wall drawn and cold-rolled pipes shall be flattening-tested.
14. By agreement between the Manufacturer and the Customer, grade t63, t68 pipes shall be high-plasticity products.
15. Tensile test to be performed in annealed condition.
PB 03-576-03
Page 100 of 105

16. Manufacturer shall not verify the mechanical properties of annealed pipes.
17. Drift test to be performed upon Customer request.

Table 8
Iron Castings
Grade of Material, Operating Conditions
Applicable Regulation Testing Procedure
Index of Standard or Medium Pressure,
or Code Wall Temperature, 0C and Requirements
Specification max. MPa (kgf/cm3)
Yc15, Yc20, Yc25,
GOST 1412 From (-)15 to 300 1.0 (10) GOST 26358
Yc30
ac30-6, achh-8, ac35-
GOST 1215 From (-)20 to 300 2.0 (20) GOST 26358
10, ac37-12
ec35-17, ec40-12 GOST 7293 From (-)15 to 350 5.0 (50) GOST 26358
Yc-15O4, Yc-17Oh,
GOST 7769 From 0 to 700 0.25 (2.5) GOST 26358
Yc-15, Yc-17
cgNf GOST 7769 From (-)15 to 300 1.0 (10) GOST 26358

Notes.
1. For high-alloy steel grades the numerator specifies data related to cylinders (bottles) manufactured of hot-rolled pipes,
the denominator specifies data related to cold-rolled and warm-worked pipes.
2. g – Normalisation; h – Hardening; j – Drawback; A – Austenization; U – no thermal treatment.
PB 03-576-03
Page 101 of 105

Table 9
List of Steel, Alloy Grades Used for Cylinder (Bottle) Manufacturing
Max.
Analysis Ultimate Strength, MPa Operating Temperature, Medium Thickness
2 Yield Point, o
(Regulating (kgf/cm ) Thermal C Pressure, of Bottle’s
No. Steel Grade min. MPa
GOST, TU or 2 Treatment max. MPa Cylindrical
(kgf/cm ) 2
OST) (kgf/cm ) Section,
Min. Max. Min. Max. mm
1275 1521 Not
1 20Ng4Pi GOST 4543 1079 (110) h+j -80 150 15
(130) (155) restricted
35Ng3OPi fo 14-3-883 1128 1373 Not
2 981 (100) h+j -80 150 30
38Ng3OPi GOST 4543 (115) (140) restricted
1177
981
(120) 834 (85) h+j -50 150 Not 15
3 40Ng2Oi GOST 4543 (100)
1177 785 (80) h+j -50 150 restricted 25
932 (95)
(120)
1275
1030
(130) 883 (90) h+j -50 150 15
(105) Not
4 30NOi GOST 4543 1177 736 (75) h+j -60 150 21
932 (95) restricted
(120) 589 (60) h+j -50 150 21
785 (80)
981 (100)
883 (90) 1226 (125) 687 (70) h+j -50 150 15
Not
5 30NXYi GOST 4543 Not Not
687 (70) 412 (42) g+j -50 150 restricted
restricted restricted
40N, 38Ni,
6 GOST 4543 883 (90) 1177 (120) 687 (70) h+j -50 150 40 (400) 30
35NXOP, 38NXV
Not Not
7 45 GOST 1050 598 (61) 353 (36) g -50 150 25 (250)
restricted restricted
Not Not
8 40 GOST 1050 569 (58) 334 (34) g -50 150 25 (250)
restricted restricted
Not Not
9 35 GOST 1050 530 (54) 314 (32) g -50 150 25 (250)
restricted restricted
Not Not
10 30 GOST 1050 491 (50) 294 (30) g -50 150 25 (250)
restricted restricted
PB 03-576-03
Page 102 of 105

Max.
Analysis Ultimate Strength, MPa Operating Temperature, Medium Thickness
2 Yield Point, o
(Regulating (kgf/cm ) Thermal C Pressure, of Bottle’s
No. Steel Grade min. MPa
GOST, TU or 2 Treatment max. MPa Cylindrical
(kgf/cm ) 2
OST) (kgf/cm ) Section,
Min. Max. Min. Max. mm
Not Not
11 25 GOST 1050 451 (46) 275 (28) g -50 150 25 (250)
restricted restricted
GOST 1050 412 (42) g -60 350 25 (250) Not
3 Not restricted
12 20 245 (25)
GOST 1577 373 (38) restricted U -40 475 50.0 (50) 12
g -50
Y`3kl Not U -40
13 GOST 380 373 (38) - 425 5.0 (50) 12
Y`3lk* restricted U -50
12N18g9
Not Not Not
14 12N18g10f GOST 5632 255 (26) i -196 150
restricted restricted restricted
12N18g12f
08N18g10f Not Not Not
15 GOST 5632 255 (26) i -196 150
08N18g12f restricted restricted restricted
08N18g12f Not Not Not
16 GOST 5632 491 (50) 255 (26) i -196 150
centrifugal-cast restricted restricted restricted
Not Not Not
17 Alloy 14 GOST 19807 687 (70) 491 (50) g -50 60
restricted restricted restricted
3
For welded cylinders (bottles)
PB 03-576-03
Page 103 of 105

Appendix 5
DEFINITION OF SINGLE-TYPE WELDED JOINT CONCEPT
Single-type welded joints shall be defined as the groups of welded joints featuring the following
common attributes:
a) welding technique;
b) grade (combination of grades) of the base metal.
Integrated into a group shall be the welded joints of parts made of differing steel grades that are
to be welded (according to the technology applied) by welding materials of the same grades
(combinations of grades);
c) welding material grade (combination of grades). Integrated into a group shall be the welded
joints made by means of differing welding materials, grades that are allowed for use (according
to the technology applied) in welding parts made of the same steel grade; the electrodes shall
have the same type of coating stipulated by GOST 9466 (basic, rutile, cellulose acidiferous);
d) nominal thickness of the parts being welded in the welding area. Integrated into a group shall be
the joints in which the nominal thickness (in the welding area) of the parts being welded falls
within one of the following thickness intervals:
• up to 3 mm, inclusive;
• from 3 to 10 mm, inclusive;
• from 10 to 50 mm, inclusive;
• more than 50 mm.
As regards corner welds, T-joints and lap joints, the above thickness intervals shall apply to the
parts being welded on, whereas the thickness of the base parts may be disregarded;
e) curvature radius in the welding area. Integrated into a group shall be the welded joints of parts
featuring the welded area curvature radius that falls within one of the following radius intervals
(NB: for pipes the value is one-half the external nominal diameter):
• up to 12.5 mm, inclusive;
• from 12.5 to 50 mm, inclusive;
• from 50 to 250 mm, inclusive;
• more than 250 mm.
As regards corner welds, T-joints and lap joints, the above radii intervals shall apply to the parts
being welded on, whereas the thickness of the base parts may be disregarded;
f) type of welded joint (butt joint, corner joint, T-joint, lap joint). Integrated into a group shall be the
corner, T- and lap joints, with the exception of pipe connections (pipes) welded on vessel
elements;
g) pre-welding edge working. Integrated into a group shall be the welded joints featuring one of the
following pre-welding edge working forms:
• single-sided grooving with 8+o angle of bevel edges;
• single-sided grooving with up to 8o (inclusive) angle of bevel edges (narrow grooving);
• double-sided grooving of edges;
• non-grooved;
h) root layer welding technique: on permanent backing (backing ring), on melt backing, without
backing (free formation of backing bead) with root backing;
i) thermal conditions of welding: pre-heating and additional heating, without heating, by-layer
cooling;
PB 03-576-03
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j) welded joint thermal treatment conditions.


PB 03-576-03
Page 105 of 105

Contents
I. GENERAL ..................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1. Scope and Purpose of These Rules ..................................................................................... 3
1.2. Design Engineering ............................................................................................................. 4
1.3. Liability for Infringement of These Rules .............................................................................. 4
1.4. Accident and Failure Investigation Procedure ...................................................................... 5
II. VESSEL DESIGN .......................................................................................................................... 5
2.1. General ............................................................................................................................... 5
2.2. Manholes, Access Holes, Covers ........................................................................................ 6
2.3. Vessel Bottoms ................................................................................................................... 7
2.4. Welded Joints and Disposition Thereof ................................................................................ 7
2.5. Disposition of Holes and Openings in Vessel Walls ............................................................. 9
III. MATERIALS .................................................................................................................................. 9
IV. MANUFACTURE, OVERHAUL, ASSEMBLY, SET-UP, AND REPAIR ............................................. 11
4.1. General ............................................................................................................................... 11
4.2. Tolerances .......................................................................................................................... 11
4.3. Welding .............................................................................................................................. 13
4.4. Heat Treatment ................................................................................................................... 17
4.5. Welded Joints Control ......................................................................................................... 19
4.6. Hydrostatic (Pneumatic) Test .............................................................................................. 28
4.7. Assessment of Quality of Welded Joints .............................................................................. 31
4.8. Correcting the Defects in Welded Joints .............................................................................. 31
4.9. Documentation and Marking ................................................................................................ 32
V. VALVES, INSTRUMENTATION, SAFETY DEVICES ...................................................................... 32
5.1. General ............................................................................................................................... 32
5.2. Shut-off and Shut-off-and-Regulating Valves ....................................................................... 33
5.3. Pressure Gauges ................................................................................................................ 33
5.4. Temperature Meters ............................................................................................................ 35
5.5. Pressure Rise Protective Devices ........................................................................................ 35
5.6. Liquid Level Indicators ........................................................................................................ 39
VI. INSTALLATION, REGISTRATION AND TECHNICAL INSPECTION OF VESSELS, OPERATION
PERMIT ......................................................................................................................................... 39
6.1. Installation of Vessels ......................................................................................................... 39
6.2. Registration of Vessels ........................................................................................................ 40
6.3. Technical Inspection ........................................................................................................... 41
6.4. Permit for Placing Vessel in Operation ................................................................................ 50
VII. SUPERVISION, UPKEEP, SERVICING, AND REPAIR .................................................................. 51
7.1. Organization of Supervision ................................................................................................ 51
7.2. Upkeep and Servicing of Vessels ........................................................................................ 52
7.3. Vessel Emergency Shut-Down ............................................................................................ 53
7.4. Vessel Repair ...................................................................................................................... 53
VIII. VESSELS AND SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS PURCHASED ABROAD ......................................... 54
IX. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO TANKS AND BARRELS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF
LIQUEFIED GASES ....................................................................................................................... 54
9.1. General Requirements ........................................................................................................ 54
X. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS TO CYLINDERS .......................................................................... 57
10.1. General ............................................................................................................................... 57
10.2. Cylinder Certification ........................................................................................................... 60
10.3. Cylinder Maintenance .......................................................................................................... 63
XI. CONTROL OF COMPLIANCE WITH THESE RULES ..................................................................... 66
Appendix 1 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS APPLIED TO THESE RULES ................................................. 68
Appendix 2 CERTIFICATE OF A VESSEL WORKING UNDER PRESSURE .......................................... 71
Appendix 3 SUB-CLASSIFICATION OF STEELS BY TYPE, CLASS ...................................................... 87
Appendix 4 LIST OF MATERIALS USED FOR MANUFACTURING OF VESSELS WORKING UNDER
PRESSURE ........................................................................................................................ 88
Appendix 5 DEFINITION OF SINGLE-TYPE WELDED JOINT CONCEPT ............................................. 104