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Chapter 3

1. Biomechanics is the study of mechanics related to the functional and anatomical analysis of biological systems.
Ans: True

2. Statics is the study of systems that are in a constant state of motion.


Ans: True

3. A constant state of motion accurately describes a system when no motion is occurring.


Ans: True

4. Dynamics is the study of systems in mo


17. Friction is the force that results from the resistance between the surfaces of two objects from moving one
moving upon another.
Ans: True

18. Muscles are the main source of force that produces or changes movement of a body segment or the entire body.
Ans: True

19. During rapid running movement where inertia is high the center of gravity of the body must be raised in order to
maintain balance when stopping or changing direction.
Ans: False

20. Some circumstances exist where movement is improved when the body tends to be unbalanced.
Ans: True

21. Velocity is how fast an object is moving, or the distance an object travels in a specific amount of
time
Ans: False

22. A person riding a bicycle in straight line at 7.5 miles an hour would be more balanced than the same person
riding the bicycle 4.8 miles an hour in a straight line.
Ans: True

23. A football player in a four-point stance has more balance than the same football player in a three-point stance.
Ans: True

24. Assuming that the bat speed and pitched ball velocity were the same, the ball hit with the middle of the bat
would travel further than the ball hit with the larger end of the bat.
Ans: False

25. Which of the types of muscle contraction is usually utilized in causing an object’s deceleration?
a. concentric
b. eccentric
c. isokinetic
d. isometric
Ans: b

26. Kinematics is the description of motion and includes consideration of each of the following except?
a. time
b. displacement
c. velocity
d. forces
Ans: d

27. Which of the following does not describe a way in which machines function?
a. balance of multiple forces
b. enhances force in an attempt to increase total force needed to overcome a resistance
c. enhance range of motion & speed of movement so that resistance may be moved further or faster than applied
force
d. alter resulting direction of the applied force
Ans: b

28. Which of the following types of machine is most common in the musculoskeletal system arrangements of the
human body?
a. pulleys
b. wheel-axles
c. levers
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: c

29. Elbow extension where the triceps applies force to olecranon process in extending the non-supported forearm at
the elbow is an example of which type of lever arrangement?
a. first class
b. second class
c. third class
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: a

30. Which of the following is not true regarding the force arm of a lever?
a. is determined by multiplying the distance from the axis by the force
b. also known as the moment arm or torque arm
c. is the shortest distance from the axis of rotation to the line of action of the force
d. the greater the distance of the force arm then the more torque produced by the force
Ans: a

31. Which of the following pairs of variables exhibits an inverse relationship?


a. the force and the force arm
b. the resistance and the resistance arm
c. both of the above statements exhibit an inverse relationship
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: c

32. Which of the following statements is false regarding the proportional relationship between force components
and resistance components?
a. the closer the force application is to the axis of rotation the greater the amount of resistance that can be moved
b. if either of the resistance components increase, there must be an increase in one or both of force components
c. the greater resistance or resistance arm requires greater force or longer force arm
d. the greater the force or force arm allows a greater amount of resistance to be moved or a longer resistance arm
to be used
Ans: a

33. Which of the following is a possible advantage of a wheel axle mechanical arrangement?
a. increased force
b. increased range of motion
c. decreased speed of movement
d. decreased range of motion
Ans: b

34. Which of the following is not considered to be a law of motion and physical activity?
a. body motion is produced or started by some action of muscular system
b. motion cannot occur without a force
c. the muscular system is source of force in humans
d. there are three types of motion
Ans: d

35. Which of the following is a type of linear motion?


a. angular motion
b. curvilinear motion
c. angulolinear motion
d. curviangular motion
Ans: b

36. Which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between linear and angular motion?
a. angular motion of the joints produces linear motion
b. linear motion of the joints produces angular motion
c. both of the above choices are correct
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: a

37. Which of the following is Newton’s Law of Inertia?


a. for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction
b. a body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted on by a force
c. a change in the acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it
d. none of the choices are correct
Ans: b

38. Which of the following is the Law of Acceleration?


a. for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction
b. a body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted on by a force
c. a change in the acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: c

39. Which of the following is the Law of Reaction?


a. for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction
b. a body in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line unless acted on by a force
c. a change in the acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: a

40. Which of the following is an example of a type of friction?


a. static
b. kinetic
c. both of the above choices are correct
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: c

41. Which of the following is not among the general factors that positively affect the achievement of balance?
a. the center of gravity falls outside the base of support
b. a larger base of support
c. a greater weight of an object
d. a lower center of gravity
Ans: a

42. Which of the following statements is false regarding forces?


a. may either push or pull on an object
b. product of mass and acceleration
c. without forces acting on an object there would be no motion
d. relative to the mass of an object
Ans: d

43. Which of the following is not an example the result of excessive tissue deformation due to mechanical loading?
a. compression
b. straightening
c. shear
d. bending
Ans: b

44. Which of the following factors may enhance stability?


a. lowering the body's center of gravity within the base of support
b. moving the body’s center of gravity closer to the center of the base of support
c. both of the above choices are correct
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: c

45. Which of the following definitions is correct?


a. rolling friction is always much less that static or kinetic friction
b. static equilibrium is when the body is at rest or completely motionless
c. both of the above choices are correct
d. none of the above choices are correct
Ans: c

46. For two objects in contact with each other which of the following would result in the greatest amount of
friction?
a. one object sliding across the other
b. one object sitting stationary on the other
c. one object rolling across the other
d. the amount of friction would be the same in all of the above examples
Ans: b

47. Which of the following could be done to reduce the amount of force needed to move a lever?
a. move the resistance closer to the axis
b. apply the force further from the axis
c. decrease the amount of resistance
d. all of the above
Ans: d

48. Which of the following levers would be best to use to move a specific object if your only objective was slight
movement of the object?
a. 1st class with resistance arm of 10 and force arm of 10
b. 2nd class with resistance arm of 10 and force arm of 20
c. 3rd class with resistance arm of 20 and force arm of 10
d. each would be just as effective as the others
Ans: b

49. Which of the following levers would be best to use to move a specific object if your only objective was speed of
the object’s movement?
a. 1st class with resistance arm of 10 and force arm of 10
b. 2nd class with resistance arm of 10 and force arm of 20
c. 3rd class with resistance arm of 20 and force arm of 10
d. each would be just as effective as the others
Ans: c

50. The point at which all of the body’s mass and weight is equally balanced or equally distributed in
all directions is the _____.
a. balance point
b. point of equilibrium
c. axis
d. center of gravity
Ans: d