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e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha

Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)


N.L. Supartini, I.K. Seken, I W. Suarnajaya

Language Education Study Program, Postgraduate Program

Ganesha University of Education
Denpasar, Indonesia

e-mail:, {ketut.seken, wayan.suarnajaya}

Penelitan ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi strategi komunikasi yang digunakan oleh
siswa lokal dan siswa blasteran (campuran) di kelas Bisnis Perhotelan di Sekolah Tinggi
Pariwisata Nusa Dua Bali. Subjek penelitian ini adalah dua siswa blasteran dan siswa-
siswa local semester dua di kelas Bisnis Perhotelan. Penelitian ini dirancang dengan
menggunakan kualitatif deskripsi serta instrumen yang digunakan adalah instrumen
manusia dengan melakukan beberapa aktivitas seperti merekaman proses belajar-
mengajar di kelas dan wawancara.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat sebelas
strategi yang digunakan oleh siswa lokal dan siswa blasteran selama proses belajar
mengajar. Siswa blasteran lebih menyukai strategi menjelaskan, strategi meninggalkan
pesan dan strategi pengulangan, sedangkan siswa lokal, mereka cenderung
menggunakan strategi menerjemahkan kata per kata dan strategi alih bahasa.
Berdasarkan hasil yang dtemukan, tujuan siswa menggunakan startegi untuk
memfasilitasi percakapan mereka agar mencapai tujuan komunikasi dalam proses belajar

Kata Kunci: strategi komunikasi, siswa blasteran (campuran), dan siswa lokal

This study aimed at investigating the type of communication strategies (CS) used by local
and mixed marriage students. The subjects were two mixed marriage students and local
students of Business Hospitality class in second semester. This study was designed as
descriptive qualitative inquiry and the instruments used was the researcher through some
actions such as recording teaching and learning process, interviewing and doing
observation. The findings showed that there were eleven (11) types of communication
strategies (CS) found in teaching and learning process used by mixed marriage and local
students. Mixed marriage students preferred to use circumlocution strategy, message
abandonment and repetition. For local students, they frequently used literal translation
and language switch. Based on the findings, they used certain strategies to facilitate their
conversation in order to get the goal of communication during class sessions. The
findings provide empirical evidence of the importance to use communication strategies for
the students.

Keywords: communication strategies (CS), mixed marriage students and local students

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

INTRODUCTION are also hard to catch up the meaning

Communication can be done in both from the speakers who are speaking a
written and spoken forms. When people foreign language especially speaking
communicate in spoken form, language is English as a foreign language.
definitely used as a means of Sometimes, they only listen some familiar
communication. Language is known as a words to understand what the speakers
system of arbitrary conventionalized vocal, mean. The success of the use of language
written or gestural symbols that enable should be able to overcome all problems
members of a given community to above.
communicate intelligibly with one another Both non-native and native speakers
(Brown, 2000). It means that in oral of a given language sometimes struggle to
communication, language takes the most find the appropriate vocabulary or
important part as a system to understand grammatical construction when attempting
the message. To deliver the message, the to communicate their meaning. Some
speaker should be able to use the people tend to employ different techniques
language correctly and accurately. to overcome their problems. They may
Therefore, the language needs to be abandon the message, alter the meaning
learned in many ways. they intend to convey, omit some items of
Every language has its own set of information, make their ideas simpler and
rules for grammar, syntax and less precise, or say something which is
pronunciation. Brown (2000) said that slightly different from the intended
one's cognitive development in his/her meaning. When person is able to
native language helps the person anticipate such a communication problem,
transfers the already learned concepts to he may overcome it by avoiding
the second language. The basic concepts communication or modifying what he
and ideas of one language can be suitably intends to say. If the problem arises while
applied to any other language. Therefore, the people are already engaged in
many people still encounter problems in speaking, he may try to find an alternative
verbal communication such as expressing way of getting the meaning across. The
new words; get the intended meaning of ways in which an individual speaker
interlocutors, use the grammar correctly, manages to compensate for this gap
choose the appropriate vocabulary to between what she wishes to communicate
explain certain objects, etc. and her immediately available linguistic
Language learning cannot be resources are known as communication
separated with the term of Second strategies (CS). According to Littlemore
Language Acquisition (SLA). SLA refers to (2003), people take some ways in order to
all of the aspects of language that the enhance the effectiveness of their
language learners need to master, such communication known as communicative
as phonology, semantic, pragmatic, strategies.
syntax (Ellis, 1994). There are many ways The term of communication
where speakers acquire knowledge of a strategies (CS) is used by people in
second language (L2). Different people in attempting to communicate in the foreign
different situations will learn second or second language with a reduced
language in different ways. The second interlanguage system. They find that the
language acquisition (SLA) theory target language items or structures to
suggests that one‟s learning of a second convey their messages are not available.
language is affected by his/her exposure In order to keep communication steady,
to language models. speaker may circumvent linguistic
The difficulties in explaining the difficulties by changing or reducing the
words in learning English as a foreign or content of their messages. In other words,
second language commonly come to the the speakers may avoid reference to a
people who start to learn a new language concept or topic in order to overcome the
for the first time. They are lack of some lack of the target language term or
linguistic resources which are not familiar expression needed to convey this
with their native language. The listeners meaning. These strategies are usually

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

known in the field of second language Bali Tourism Institute which is popular with
acquisition (SLA) research especially the best and biggest tourism in Bali. The
communication strategies as “avoidance” students are not only come from Bali, but
(Tarone, 1987) or “reduction” (Færch and they also come from other provinces even
Kasper, 1983). More often, speakers are other countries. It seems to be interesting
able to keep their communicative goals to conduct a research in the field of
and convey the original content of their communication strategies used by
messages by developing an alternative students from mixed marriage family.
means of expression. People can also use Additionally, Business Hospitality
the similar terms, a descriptive Department will be selected since the
circumlocution, a word coinage, a native class contains students from different
language transfer, a gesture or an appeal family background such as mixed
for assistance to achieve the goal of marriage students. This research will be
communication. These different kinds of carried out in Bali Tourism Institute Nusa
techniques might be used to compensate Dua Bali on purpose to investigate the
for or avoid all sorts of interlanguage form of communication strategies used by
deficits: lexical, grammatical, pragmatic or students from mixed marriage family and
sociolinguistic. local students during teaching and
In classroom interaction, the learning process. Bali Tourism Institute is
researcher found that the students came the biggest tourism school in Bali which
from different backgrounds of has a lot of students from outside of Bali
characteristics, race, and language. They and Indonesia.
did not set the same language up, in case
of their mother tongue and dominant METHOD
language. The phenomena were also The study is based on a qualitative
found in teaching and learning process. research which was conducted in
The researcher found that there were Business Hospitality Department in Bali
some students who are from mixed Tourism Institute.
marriage family. The students from mixed The subjects in this research were
marriage family were commonly becoming mixed marriage and local students of
a bilingual. They master two different second semester of Bussines Hospitality
languages based on their parents‟ class and an English teacher. In this
nationality. Although they are able to study, the students whose parents were
speak in two different languages, it was mixed between Japanese and Indonesian.
found that they still had problems in One of the subject used Japanese as their
expressing ideas in English. This means langauge in daily converation. Other used
that the students who are from mixed Indonesian for the min language in
marriage family require using certain communication.
strategy in order to be able to The data was collected through
communicate with interlocutor in teaching observations, interview and note takings.
and learning process. Commonly, the The observation was done for three
students use some communication sessions of teaching and learning
strategies like repetition, code switching or process. The students were given a task
expressing the word by giving examples. to make conversation with their friends
In accordance with the phenomenon related to certain topic. The process of
above, the researcher finds it interesting teaching and learning were recorded and
to conduct a study about communication observed. The data were collected in
strategies used by the students especially three class meetings; in the first meeting
those who are from mixed marriage they learned about their experience in
family. In addition, the thing that the working, the students are asked to tell
researcher would analyze is about a job experience that they have,
communication strategies used by adult meanwhile in the second meeting, they
learners during teaching and learning were asked about their opinion of abilities
process. Here, the researcher finds the and skills that they have. They were given
students from mixed marriage family in a questionnaire which consisted of a list of

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

skill and abilities. The students were 5 Circumlocution √ √ √

asked to choose which one that they
have. For the third meeting, the students 6 Appeal for √ - √
were asked to make a conversation about Use of All-
what kinds of abilities and skills must the 7 - √ -
Purposes Words
person have for working in tourism or Self Repair or
hospitality. 8 - √ -
The interview was also conducted to Stalling or Time
gain additional information about the 9 √ - √
Gaining Strategy
reason of the use of communication
strategies used by the students. Certain Avoidance or Reduction Strategy
data collected through the observation Message
were cross-checked through the 10 √ - √
interviews. Others
The data from the observation were 11 √ √ √
transcribed and coded in the form of Note:
utterances to identify the CS use by the S1A1 : mixed marriage student (female)
subjects. Each strategies used by the S1A2 : mixed marriage student (male)
students were recorded by placing a tick S1B : local students
on the list of CS form.
Table 1 above showed that they
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION types of communication strategies (CS)
There were eleven (11) types of CS employed by students during teaching and
were found in teaching and learning learning process were varied. Mixed
process namely: message abandonment, marriage students employed more CS
literal translation, circumlocution, stalling, than local students. The researcher put a
circumlocution, and appeal for assistance, tick in observation list for the CS used by
self repair, mime, word coinage and use of mixed marriage students and local
all purposes words. The researcher also students. Utterances said by mixed
found another strategy that was repetition. marriage students or local students were
However, three CS namely foreignizing, differentiated based on the subject. The
approximation and topic avoidance were subjects were coded based on mixed
not found in this research. marriage and local. As illustration, CS
From recording of 3 sessions of (literal translation) and there are tick in
teaching and learning process, the column S1A1 and S1B means that the
researcher found that there were 50 literal translation strategy was employed
utterances can be analyzed during by mixed marriage and local students.
teaching and learning process.
Table 2 Types of Communication
Table 1.List of CS used by Local and Strategies used by Mixed Marriage
Mixed Marriage Students Students
Communication No Types of CS Subject F Percen
S1A1 S1A2 S1B
1. 2 4.44%
Achievement and Compensatory Strategies
Language Mixed
Literal 2. 3 6.67%
1 √ - √ Switch marriage
Translation students
2 Language Switch √ - √ 3. Mime (S1A1+ 3 6.67%
3 Mime √ - -
4. Circumlocution 4 8.89%
4 Word Coinage - - √

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

Appeal for Stalling or Time

5. 2 4.44% 6. 3 6.67%
Assistance Gaining Strag.

Use of all Message

6. 1 2.22% 7. 2 4.44%
Purposes Words Abandonment

8. Repetition 1 2.22%
Stalling or Time
7. 3 6.67%
Gaining Strag.

Table 3 presents the result CS

8. Self Repair 3 6.67%
used by local students. It was found
Message that literal translation to be the most
9. 4 8.89% commonly strategy which occurred
during teaching and learning process.
10. Repetition 3 6.67% The percentage was 20%, means that
this strategy was the most frequent
strategy used by local students. The
From table 2, it can be seen that the next strategy was language switch.
most frequent strategies used by mixed Stalling or time gaining strategy and
marriage students were message appeal for assistance strategy have
abandonment, circumlocution and the same percentage of frequency
repetition. Other strategies also employed after language switch strategy. Then,
by mixed marriage students are stalling, followed by other strategy were
language switch, self repair and mime. message abandonment and repetition.
The other strategies used by mixed The other least strategy used by local
marriage students were literal translation, students was circumlocution and word
appeal for assistance and use of all coinage.
purposes. The low percentage of Use of All
Meanwhile, for local students also Purposes Strategy in mixed marriage
employed some CS in order to overcome students indicated that mixed marriage
the problem during communication when students did not like to use the general
using English as foreign language. The terms to explain certain words. They
local students used CS strategies such as preferred to use circumlocution
literal translation, language switch, strategy, message abandonment and
stalling, repetition and appeal for repetition because both mixed
assistance. marriage students have good
proficiency in English; therefore, it was
Table 3.Types of Communication easy for them to use circumlocution
Strategies used by Local Students strategy to convey the meaning during
No Types of CS Subject Freq. Prctg. communication. Meanwhile another
mixed marriage student preferred to
Literal use message abandonment to avoid
1. 9 20%
Translation inappropriate topic during
communication. She felt better to be
2. 6 13.3% silent rather than gave improper
Switch Local
Students answer to interlocutor.
3. Word Coinage (S1B1,S1 1 2.22% For local students, the lowest
B2,S1B3, percentage word coinage and
S1B4.S1 circumlocution strategy indicates that
4. B5.S1B6) 1 2.22%
the students were lacking of
Appeal for
vocabulary. Some local students with
5. Assistance 3 6.67% good English were able to use
use circumlocution and word coinage
strategies in which these strategies
required the speaker to be able to use

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

English fully. The highest percentage language switch, miming or stalling

of language switch and literal to deliver their message to their
translation shows that the local interlocutors.
students were influenced by their first 4. The students do not have sufficient
language. It can be concluded that the knowledge of English.
local students tended to avoid Although the students have
delivering difficult words or sentences learned English for years, it is still
owing to the shy feeling or worry of as a foreign language for them.
making mistakes; thus they switched They do not use the language for
the English words or sentences into their daily conversation; therefore
their native language, which is they do not have enough
Indonesian and since the listeners vocabularies or knowledge of the
were all Indonesians, they thought it language. To enrich the
would not be a problem though they vocabularies, the students require
just used Indonesian words. practicing the language regularly.
Based on the findings, there were Learning the language does not
found some major reasons identified mean learn what language is,
beyond the strategy used by the however learn how to use the
students; those are: language. The strategies such as
1. The students did not realize what literal translation, appeal for
to say in certain situation. In this assistance or language switch.
study, the researcher analyzed 5. The students tried to clarify their
that the students did not aware mistakes from their utterances.
about what they are going to say. While communicating by using
They looked speechless when they English, the speaker frequently did
are given a chance to give their not aware of what they were
opinion. They were hesitated to talking about. When they were
start certain utterances; it affected realize their mistake, they tried to
them to be silent in classroom. make a clarification of their
Thus, the reasons the students utterances by using certain
used certain strategies such as strategies as repetition, self repair,
repetition, message abandonment stalling or appeal for assistance.
or stalling strategies to overcome 6. The students tried to make the
their problem in communication. utterances run smoothly at the
2. The students found difficulty in same time.
expressing their idea in English. The students tended to make the
Commonly the students are able to utterances run smoothly rather that
answer the question from the avoid the topic being discussed. It
teacher. However, they were indicates that the students
confused to say in English. They attempted to keep the
were not able to access the word conversation flowing and maintain
that was actually stored in their their interaction with the
memory. Therefore, they employed interlocutor.
certain strategies such literal
translation or language switch After finding the types of CS used,
during their conversation. the researcher tried to make a comparison
3. The students did not recognize the between CS used by mixed marriage
English form or structure. students and local students. Table below
The students were not familiar with provides a brief view about the
some form or structure which are comparison of both subjects.
different with their first language.
They were hard to recognize the
correct and appropriate structure,
then they used communication
strategies such literal translation,

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

Table 4.Comparison of CS used by Mixed important for them, so they decided to

Marriage and Local Students leave the message unfinished. It might be
influenced by their Japanese culture.
S1A S1B Japanese do not like to say something
No Types of CS unimportant to their interlocutors. They
(F) (F)
just say to the point what they meant; it is
1. Literal Translation 2 9 different with Indonesian who is likely to
talk something with many explanations.
2. Language Switch 3 6 They did not straight to the point when
they wanted to explain the certain words,
3. Mime 3 - so it influenced the local students did not
4. Word Coinage - 1 use avoidance and reduction strategy.
However, it was found that one of local
5. Circumlocution 4 1 students used avoidance strategy. It
seemed that the student does not like to
Appeal for talk a lot or they are difficult to say in the
6. 2 3
Assistance target language.
Use of all The result of this research is related
7. 1 - the previous study which is conducted by
Purposes Words
Hua and Nor (2012) which found that the
Stalling or Time level of proficiency influence the use of
8. 3 3
Gaining Strag. communication strategy by the students.
9. Self Repair 3 - Bialystok‟s (1983) study found that
advanced students use more L2-based
Message strategies of approximation,
10. 4 2
Abandonment circumlocution and word coinage than the
regular students who employed more L1-
11. Repetition 3 1
based strategies of borrowing, language
switch and literal translation. He
concluded that the more proficient the L2
From the result of observation in the learners become, the more they rely on L2
classroom, the strategies which were based strategies. She noted that as the
employed by mixed marriage students learners move towards advanced levels,
were more varied than local students. they abandon some strategies in favor of
Mixed marriage students used ten (10) others. In this research, it was found that
types of communication strategy; mixed marriage students employed more
meanwhile local students used eight (8) strategies because they have better
types of communication strategies. Based proficiency in English. This statement was
on the theoretical review about types of supported by the result of interview
communication strategy, there two major between the teacher and the students.
of CS; achievement and compensatory While interviewing missed marriage
strategy and avoidance and reduction students, they said that they really like
strategy. Mixed marriage students tended learning English since she was child and
to use both strategies and local students have joined many kinds of English
mostly used achievement and courses to improve their ability in English.
compensatory strategy. This happened The teacher also said that those mixed
because when the local students having marriage students have got good mark in
problem in communication, they tried to final examination in previous semester.
deliver their intended meaning by saying Dobao (2012) investigated the use
any kinds of words in order to get the goal of CS by Galician learners of English and
of communication. For mixed marriage learner‟s native language was one of the
students, they also tried to deliver their explored factors influencing CS choice.
intended meaning to their interlocutors; Fifteen EFL learners with different
however they dislike saying something not linguistic backgrounds were selected;
seven of the spoke Galician as their

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

mother tongue and the rest spoke Related to the current study, based
Spanish. All the subjects were required to on teacher‟s perception on CS used by
accomplish three communicative tasks: a students, it was the strategy used by the
picture story narration, a photograph students to overcome their problems
description and ten-minute conversation. during communication using English. It is
The results showed that no significant really important for the students to use this
differences existed between Galician and strategy, because communicating by
Spanish native speakers in their choice of using English is not easy as using their
specific types of CSs such as avoidance, first language.
achievement and L1-based strategies. According to the teacher, students
However, there was a statistically faced many problems in communicating
significant difference between the two by using English in teaching and learning
groups in frequency of CS use. However, process such as the use the language,
he did not provide any well-founded pronunciation, lack of vocabularies, errors
explanation for the difference but or grammar and the use of facial
suggested that further research should be expression. To overcome those problems,
carried out on this issue. Related to the students might use some strategies
Dobao‟s research, in this study was also which are different from one to another.
found the difference of two types students The teacher also said that the students
in using communication strategies, it commonly used Indonesian while facing
seems that this study could answer the difficulty to express the word in English.
reasons behind the differences above. They just translate word by word and
The differences above might be influenced ignored the grammar, it seems that they
by some factors such as: lack of grammar knowledge. Moreover,
when the teacher asked opinion about the
1. English proficiency students, some students forgot to use
Less proficient learners may employ English anymore, after they have used
L1 based or reduction strategies, more Indonesian to say the unfamiliar words in
proficient learners may employ L2-based English. The teacher directly reminded the
achievement strategies. It can be seen students to use English. The strategies
from the students who were local or mixed that they used based on task given and
marriage with high proficiency English also their proficiency in English.
prefer to use strategies such as From the teacher‟s perception, the
circumlocution, self repair and repetition. use of CS by mixed marriage students
On the other side, the lower proficiency and local students are different. It
student preferred to use language switch depends on the first language of the
and literal translation which are still students. She said that female student of
influenced by the first language. mixed marriage family tend to be silent
2. First language when she is not able to answer my
The use of communication strategies question or understand the teacher‟
was also influenced by their first language. instruction. It might be because they are
The first language is the language that influenced by Japanese habit which
they usually use in daily life. When they people do not like to talk a lot. However,
were asked to speak English as a foreign another student from mixed marriage
language, in some cases they might use family tended to explain or describe the
their first language to express the words that he meant. The student said the
intended words. It can be seen from the words then giving examples or
result of observation that, mixed marriage descriptions in detail so the listener can
students whose first language is Japanese get his intended meaning. Compare, with
was observed expressing a word using local students, they were likely to answer
Japanese term. Meanwhile, local students the questions from the teacher in along
who commonly use Indonesian as their explanation but there is no point inside
first language were also found used their speaking. She said that commonly
Indonesian terms to express their ideas local students speak like „talking around
during conversation. the bush‟. They usually speak out of the

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

topic, even though they answer the occurred in literal translation strategy used
teacher‟s question. by local students.
Every students uses different CS The comparison of CS used
based on occasion, person and person to between local and mixed marriage
whom they talk with. The teacher found students is that mixed marriage students
that mixed marriage students commonly tended to use both strategies and local
use Japanese while communicating with students mostly used achievement and
their friends who understand Japanese. compensatory strategy especially
They use Japanese to talk about secret intralingual strategy. However local
message. Therefore, the other will not get students chose interlanguage strategy
what they are talking about. To examine only during communication. Both local and
the perceptions of the teacher on the use mixed marriage students mostly used the
of communication strategies in the literal translation and language switch as
classroom, an interview was held with the strategies to help them during
teacher who was teaching in this communication by using English as a
recording. The teacher was also asked foreign language.
about the different communication From the teacher‟s perception, the
strategies employed by the students choice of CS used by the students was
during teaching and learning session. The influenced by some factors such as their
teacher reported that the communication first language, their proficiency of English
strategies that the students used in the and the contexts.. The used of CS also
classroom included providing students contributes the teacher the way to speak
with alternative ways of expressing in to the students in order to make the
English. She said that the use of literal students understand.
translation and language switch were Referring to the findings described
influenced by their first language. She also above, this research is expected to to
said that the other strategies chose by the know what kind of strategy which
students were affected by their proficiency appropriate to use while teaching and the
in English and their ability to speak more students can use many kinds of
than one language. Sometimes, the communication strategies to interact
teacher also used strategies in the during teaching and learning process.
classroom to encourage students to The researcher expected that this
restructure their answer. study would provide information to other
researchers in related discipline who are
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION interested in conducting research in
From the explanation above, it can related field. As an illustration, other
be concluded that there were ten (10) dimensions in communication strategy
types of CS found in teaching and learning could be explored with more subjects to
process used by mixed marriage and local obtain more valid and reliable data. This
students. The strategies used by mixed study can become a reference for other
marriage students are 1) circumlocution, researchers who want to analyze about
2) message abandonment, 3) stalling or communication strategies‟ practices in a
time gaining, 4) language switch, 5) self community.
repair, 6) mime, 7) appeal for assistance, This study is also expected to
8) literal translation and 9) use of all enrich the knowledge of CS which can be
purposes words and (10) repetition. used by the students in learning English
The higher frequency of message as a foreign language. Although, there
abandonment and circumlocution strategy were abundant types of Communication
employed by mixed marriage students strategies which were found in
indicates that they prefer to explain some researches, however they have to use in
difficult words in the target language or appropriate contexts.
they tended to be silent or not respond the
questions to avoid miss understanding.
On the other side, the highest frequency

e-Journal Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (Volume 3, No 1 Tahun 2015)

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