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# ES 13 – Mechanics of Materials

## Long Quiz Solutions

(Combined Loadings, Stress Transformation, and Theories of Failure)

A 12-kN force acts on the pipe as shown. The pipe has an outer diameter of 50 mm and an
inner diameter of 30 mm. The water inside the pipe exerts an internal pressure of 8 MPa.
Looking at points A and D, determine:
a. The state of stress of the element.
b. The principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress experienced by the element.
USE MOHR’S CIRCLE ONLY.
c. The factor of safety of the element against yielding if 𝝈𝒀 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝐌𝐏𝐚 using
i. Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
ii. Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory
ES 13 – Mechanics of Materials
Long Quiz Solutions
(Combined Loadings, Stress Transformation, and Theories of Failure)

SOLUTION:

Section Properties:
1 2
𝑄= (𝑑𝑜3 − 𝑑𝑖3 ) = 8166 mm3
12 3
𝜋 4
𝐼𝑦 = 𝐼𝑧 = (𝑑 − 𝑑𝑖 ) = 85000𝜋 mm4
4
64 𝑜
𝜋
𝐽= (𝑑 4 − 𝑑𝑖4 ) = 170000𝜋 mm4
32 𝑜

Statics:
If we look at the FBD that exposes the +x-face (FBD adjacent to the support), we can solve for the internal forces here
by just using the concept of equivalent forces.
𝐹𝑥 = 0
𝐹𝑦 = 0
𝐹𝑧 = +12 kN (Shear Force)

It is easier to use vector operations here (shortcut YAY!) since all the forces (just one force in our case) are applied at
one point only.

𝑖̂ 𝑗̂ 𝑘̂

𝑀 = 𝑟⃗ × 𝐹 = [0.2 𝑚 0.12 𝑚 0 ] = (1.8𝑖̂ − 2.4𝑗̂) kN ∙ m
0 0 12 kN
𝑀𝑥 = 1.8 kN ∙ m (Torque)
𝑀𝑦 = −2.4 kN ∙ m (Bending Moment)

Note before we move on: Because we exposed the +x-axis in our FBD, all stresses act on the +x-face.

POINT A

## 𝐹𝑧 = 12 kN creates a transverse shear stress at point A.

𝑉𝑄 (12000)(8166.67)
(𝜏𝑉 )𝑥𝑧 = = = 18.350 MPa
𝐼𝑡 (85000𝜋)(𝟐𝟎)
(𝜏𝑉 )𝑥𝑧 acts in the same direction as 𝐹𝑧 (positive z-axis).

## 𝑀𝑥 = 1.8 kN ∙ m creates a torsional shear stress at point A.

𝑇𝑐 (1.8 × 106 )(25)
(𝜏 𝑇 )𝑥𝑧 = = = 84.259 MPa
𝐽 170000𝜋
The direction of (𝜏 𝑇 )𝑥𝑧 can be determined by inspection. If we follow the rotation of 𝑀𝑥 we can see that the shear stress
acts in the positive z-axis direction at point A.

𝑀𝑦 = −2.4 kN ∙ m produces zero flexural stress on point A since it is located on the neutral axis for moments about
the y-axis (𝑧 = 0).
𝜎𝑓 = 0 MPa

The internal pressure 𝑝 = 8 MPa creates a longitudinal stress and a hoop (tangential/circumferential) stress on point A.
These stresses are always tensile.
𝑝𝑟𝑖 (8)(𝟏𝟓)
𝜎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = 6 MPa (T) = 𝜎𝑥
2𝑡 2(𝟏𝟎)
𝜎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 always acts in the direction of the longitudinal axis (x-axis in our case).
ES 13 – Mechanics of Materials
Long Quiz Solutions
(Combined Loadings, Stress Transformation, and Theories of Failure)

𝑝𝑟𝑖 (8)(𝟏𝟓)
𝜎ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑝 = = = 12 MPa (T) = 𝜎𝑧
𝑡 (𝟏𝟎)
To determine the axis where 𝜎ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑝 acts, draw a tangent line at point A. Since the tangent line is parallel to the z-axis,
𝜎ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑝 acts on that axis.

Superposition:
𝜎𝑥 = 6 MPa (T)
𝜎𝑧 = 12 MPa (T)
𝜏𝑥𝑧 = +18.350 + 84.259 = 102.608 MPa (+z direction on +x-face)

## Stress Transformation (Mohr’s Circle)

ES 13 – Mechanics of Materials
Long Quiz Solutions
(Combined Loadings, Stress Transformation, and Theories of Failure)

Theories of Failure:

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory:

𝜎𝑌
𝜏𝑎𝑏𝑠 𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
2(F. S. )
Because 𝜎𝑝1 and 𝜎𝑝2 are of opposite signs,
𝜏𝑎𝑏𝑠 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜏max 𝑖𝑝 .
300 MPa
102.652 MPa =
2(F. S. )
F. S. = 1.4612

Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:

𝜎𝑌 2
𝜎12 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎22 = ( )
F. S.
300 2
(111.652)2 − (111.652)(−93.652) + (93.652)2 = ( )
F. S.
F. S. = 1.6851
ES 13 – Mechanics of Materials
Long Quiz Solutions
(Combined Loadings, Stress Transformation, and Theories of Failure)

POINT D

𝐹𝑧 = 12 kN produces zero transverse shear stress at point D since it is located on the outermost surface in the z-
direction (𝑄 = 0).
(𝜏𝑉 )𝑥𝑦 = 0 MPa

## 𝑀𝑥 = 1.8 kN ∙ m creates a torsional shear stress at point D.

𝑇𝑐 (1.8 × 106 )(25)
(𝜏 𝑇 )𝑥𝑦 = = = 84.259 MPa
𝐽 170000𝜋
The direction of (𝜏 𝑇 )𝑥𝑦 can be determined by inspection. If we follow the rotation of 𝑀𝑥 we can see that the shear stress
acts in the negative y-axis direction at point D.

## 𝑀𝑦 = −2.4 kN ∙ m creates a flexural stress on point D.

𝑀𝑦 𝑧 (2.4 × 106 )(𝟐𝟓)
𝜎𝑓 = = = 224.689 MPa (C) = 𝜎𝑥
𝐼 85000𝜋
Flexural stresses always act on the longitudinal axis (x-axis in our case). Also, if we inspect the rotation caused by 𝑀𝑦 ,
we will determine that point D experiences compressive flexural stress.

The internal pressure 𝑝 = 8 MPa creates a longitudinal stress and a hoop (tangential/circumferential) stress on point D.
These stresses are always tensile.
𝑝𝑟𝑖 (8)(𝟏𝟓)
𝜎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 = = = 6 MPa (T) = 𝜎𝑥
2𝑡 2(𝟏𝟎)
𝜎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 always acts in the direction of the longitudinal axis (x-axis in our case).
𝑝𝑟𝑖 (8)(𝟏𝟓)
𝜎ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑝 = = = 12 MPa (T) = 𝜎𝑦
𝑡 (𝟏𝟎)
To determine the axis where 𝜎ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑝 acts, draw a tangent line at point D. Since the tangent line is parallel to the y-axis,
𝜎ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑝 acts on that axis.

Superposition:
𝜎𝑥 = 6 (T) + 224.689 (C) = 218.689 MPa (C)
𝜎𝑦 = 12 MPa (T)
𝜏𝑥𝑦 = 84.259 MPa (-y direction on +face)
ES 13 – Mechanics of Materials
Long Quiz Solutions
(Combined Loadings, Stress Transformation, and Theories of Failure)

## Stress Transformation (Mohr’s Circle)

ES 13 – Mechanics of Materials
Long Quiz Solutions
(Combined Loadings, Stress Transformation, and Theories of Failure)

Theories of Failure:

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory:

𝜎𝑌
𝜏𝑎𝑏𝑠 𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
2(F. S. )
Because 𝜎𝑝1 and 𝜎𝑝2 are of opposite signs,
𝜏𝑎𝑏𝑠 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜏max 𝑖𝑝 .
300 MPa
142.842 MPa =
2(F. S. )
F. S. = 1.0501

Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:

𝜎𝑌 2
𝜎12 − 𝜎1 𝜎2 + 𝜎22 = ( )
F. S.
300 2
(39.498)2 − (39.398)(−246.187) + (−246.187)2 = ( )
F. S.
F. S. = 1.1189