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Intensity of shot peening

O S K Intensity
OSK of shot peening

Shot peening intensity curve


Shot peening intensity curve
[ mm ]
Data point
[ mm ]
Data point

Coverage = 98 %
Coverage = 98 %
height
Intensity
height
Intensity

t
Arc Arc

0 Sot peening time [ min ]


0 Sot peening time [ min ]

The energy transmitted by shot peening depends: on the mass, on the velocity and
angleenergy
The of impact, on the hardness
transmitted of the shot
by shot peening peening
depends: on media, on
the mass, the number
on the of shot
velocity and
beads and on the surface conditions of part.
angle of impact, on the hardness of the shot peening media, on the number of shot
beads and ontest
If an Almen the strip
surface conditions
is shot peened of on
part.one side
only,
If an itAlmen
will betest
curved, more
strip is shotorpeened
less, convex
on oneonside
the
shot peened side, depending on the energy
only, it will be curved, more or less, convex on the of the
shot peened
shot peening side,media stream and
depending the energy
on the shot peening
of the
time.
shot peening media stream and the shot peening
time.
The shot peening intensity is defined as the arc
height
The shot of peening
an Almen test strip
intensity is measured
defined asatthea co-
arc
verage of 98 % by using an almen gauge.
height of an Almen test strip measured at a co-
verage of 98 % by using an almen gauge.
The definition is corresponding with the saturation
curvedefinition
The in the Military Specificationwith
is corresponding AMS-S-13165.
the saturation
curve in the Military Specification AMS-S-13165.
To set up a shot peening machine to the specified intensity, several shot peening
intensity
To set upcurves
a shothave initially
peening to be to
machine recorded with different
the specified setseveral
intensity, ups, with
shotatpeening
least 3
data points
intensity (recommended
curves have initiallyareto5).beFor the use with
recorded of Almen test set
different strips seewith
ups, page at 95.
least 3
data points (recommended are 5). For the use of Almen test strips see pagea 95.
The shot peening intensity curve, which produces the specified intensity at covera-
ge ofshot
The 98 %, measured
peening by using
intensity curve,anwhich
Almen gauge, will
produces the determine the correct
specified intensity at aset up of
covera-
the shot peening machine being used.
ge of 98 %, measured by using an Almen gauge, will determine the correct set up of
To achieve
the the specified
shot peening machinecoverage
being used. on the part see page 97.
To achieve the specified coverage on the part see page 97.
94
94
93
O S K Intensity of shot peening
Almen test strip, holding fixture and Almen gauge

19 -0,1
76 ± 0,4

M5
0.80

40

76
Test strip � N “

1.30
Test strip � A “

25 19
2.40

Test strip � C “ 38

Almen test strip Holding fixture


Analysis of stock – C75 S To ensure adequate planar support and
Cold rolled spring steel sufficient counterweight, the Almen test
Square edge number one (on 3“ edge) strip should be mounted on a holding
Finish blue temper (or bright) fixture using 4 flat headed screws of si-
Uniformly hardened and tempered ze M5 x 10 mm.
to 44 – 50 HRC
Flatness ± 0.04 mm arc height as
measured on Almen gauge
Limits of use: Almen test strip �A“ = 0.1 – 0.6 mm A
Almen test strip �C“ > 0.6 mm A
Almen test strip �N“ < 0.1 mm A

Almen gauge
The Almen gauge is used to
measure the arc height of an
Almen test strip fixed onto the
Almen gauge at six points.

Dial graduation = 0.01 mm

9,52

15,85
31,75±

40 Four hardened steel balls

Almen test strip in plane ± 0,1 mm

95
94
O S K Die
Intensity
Strahlintensität
of shot peening

Almen-Prüfvorrichtung
Mock up of part and
und
measuring
Strahlintensitätsmessung
of intensity

Almen test
Almen– Prüfstreifen
strip

Original
Original Bauteil
of part Almen-Prüfvorrichtung
Mock up of part

Strahlintensitätsmessung (praktische Ausführung)


Almen test
1) Almen-Prüfstreifen (determining
"A", "C" oder "N" jethe
nachshot peening
Messbereich intensity)
wählen.
Directions
2) Ebenheit des Almen-Prüfstreifens for use
mit der Almen-Messuhr prüfen.
3)
1) Almen-Prüfstreifen zentrisch
Choosing the specified auf dem
Almen Almen-Prüfstreifenhalter
test strips �A“, �C“, or �N“ (pageder95).
einzelnen
Messstellen auf der Almen-Prüfvorrichtung befestigen.
2) Controlling the Almen test strips for flatness with the Almen gauge (page 95).
4)
3) Verfestigungsstrahlen
Mounting the Almender testAlmen-Prüfvorrichtung gemäß
strips on the holding fixture ondem
the Original-Bauteil.
mock up.
5) Almen-Prüfstreifen lösen
4) Shot peening the mock up. und die Krümmung mit der Almen-Messuhr im Bogen-
maß bestimmen.
5) Measuring the arc height of the Almen test strips.
6)
6) DieMarking
gemessene Bogenhöhe
the results in the der Almen-Prüfstreifen
intensity stellt einen
curves. One intensity Punkt
curve der Strahl-
for each
intensitätskennlinie für die jeweilige
measuring point on the mock up. Messstelle dar.
7) Schritt 1 bis 6step
7) Repeating mit unterschiedlicher
1) to step 6) 5 times Strahldauer wiederholen,
with different bis die
shot peening Strahlinten-
times to be
sitätskennlinien für alle Messstellen gezeichnet werden
able to draw the intensity curve for each measuring point. können.
8)
8) DieThe
gemessenen
arc height Bogenhöhen
at a coveragebei einem
of 98 % on Strahlmittel-Bedeckungsgrad
each intensity curve can be von 98 %
deter-
dieser Strahlintensitätskennlinien entsprechen der Strahlintensität
mined and represents the shot peening intensity at this machine set up der jeweiligen
Messstelle.
(page 94).
9)
9) Schritt 1 bis 8step
Repeating mit veränderten
1) to 8) until Maschineneinstelldaten
the shot peening intensity someets
lange wiederholen
the limits bis
dieofStrahlintensitäten aller Messstellen innerhalb der vorgeschriebenen
the specified intensity in every measuring point on the mock up. Toleranz
liegen.
Note: Almen
Achtung: test strips should
Almen-Prüfstreifen be used
dürfen only
nicht once. verwendet werden.
mehrfach

96
95
Coverage of shot peening
K Coverage of shot peening
OSK
O
Definition
Definition
Coverage
Coverage means
means the
the percentage
percentage of of the
the surface
surface actually
actually impacted
impacted by
by the
the shot
shot pee-
pee-
ning
ning process (dimpled or obliterated surface). A coverage of 100 % is only a
process (dimpled or obliterated surface). A coverage of 100 % is only a theore-
theore-
tical
tical limit
limit and
and is
is neither
neither realizable
realizable nor
nor mesurable.
mesurable.
In
In the
the shot
shot peening
peening process
process a a minimum
minimum coverage
coverage ofof 98
98 %
% is
is mandatory.
mandatory.
Coverage
Coverage factor
factor
Coverage
Coverage to to more
more than
than 98
98 %
% (the
(the measurable
measurable limit)
limit) is
is defined
defined inin terms
terms of
of the
the multip-
multip-
le
le of
of the
the time
time taken
taken to
to achieve
achieve aa coverage
coverage of
of 98
98 % (e.g. 1.5
% (e.g. 1.5 xx tt 98
98 %).
%).

Not
Not shot
shot peened
peened Coverage
Coverage 98
98 %
% Coverage
Coverage 98
98 %
%

A
A coverage
coverage of of 98
98 %% is is the
the highest
highest measurable
measurable limit.
limit.
Intensity
Intensity and coverage are the most important
and coverage are the most important parameters
parameters in in the
the shot
shot peening
peening pro-
pro-
cess.
cess.
Only
Only complete
complete coverage
coverage and and the
the specified
specified intensity
intensity lead
lead toto the
the desired
desired distribution
distribution of
of
compressive residual
compressive residual stress. stress.
Equal
Equal coverage
coverage depends
depends on on the
the shot
shot peening
peening time,
time, thethe exposure
exposure to to the
the media
media
stream,
stream, the machine set up and the motion of the part or media stream in the shot
the machine set up and the motion of the part or media stream in the shot
peening
peening machine.
machine.
Many
Many specifications
specifications recommend
recommend controlling
controlling thethe coverage
coverage by by visual
visual means
means such such as
as aa
magnifying
magnifying glass
glass oror by by coating
coating the the part
part with
with tracer
tracer liquid
liquid before
before shot
shot peening.
peening. ItIt is
is
extremely
extremely difficult,
difficult, ifif not
not impossible,
impossible, to to examine
examine sufficient
sufficient coverage
coverage on on hardened
hardened
parts
parts or holes with a magnifying glass. The tracer liquid coating dampens the
or holes with a magnifying glass. The tracer liquid coating dampens the shot
shot
peening
peening intensity
intensity asas other
other liquid
liquid films
films (e.g.
(e.g. oil)
oil) and
and reduces
reduces the the depth
depth of
of compressi-
compressi-
ve
ve residual
residual stress
stress until
until itit is
is completely
completely removed.
removed.
OSK-Kiefer
OSK-Kiefer GmbH GmbH has,has, in in cooperation
cooperation with with the
the University
University of of Karlsruhe,
Karlsruhe, developed
developed a a
method which takes into account the ratio between shot
method which takes into account the ratio between shot peening time of the Almen peening time of the Almen
test
test strip
strip to
to the
the necessary
necessary shot shot peening
peening timetime of
of hardened
hardened materials
materials up up to
to 63
63 HRC.
HRC.

Shot
Shot peening
peening time
time ratio
ratio
This
This shot
shot peening
peening time
time ratio
ratio shows
shows the
the multiple
multiple shot
shot peening
peening time
time of
of a
a tempered
tempered or
or
hardened steel up to 63 HRC, compared with the shot peening time
hardened steel up to 63 HRC, compared with the shot peening time of an Almenof an Almen
test
test strip
strip (44—50
(44—50 HRC),
HRC), toto a
a coverage
coverage of
of 98
98 %.
%.

97
97
96