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System Resources

User's Guide
278609 Rev. A4
Refer to this publication for complete and accurate information that helps you better operate and service Metso
Automation equipment. Your comments and suggestions are welcome.
Metso Automation, Inc.
1180 Church Road
Lansdale, PA 19446
Attention: Manager, Technical Publications

Copyright © 2005 by Metso Automation MAX Controls Inc.


Printed in the United States of America
All Rights Reserved

Metso Automation, Inc. • 278609 •


Contents
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................III

CHAPTER 1 ...................................................................................................................... 1-1

Setting up Application Environments at the maxSTATION..................................................................................1-1


Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................1-1
maxSTATION Hardware Overview......................................................................................................................1-1
maxSTATION Basics........................................................................................................................................1-2
Physical Configuration ......................................................................................................................................1-2
Setting up a maxSTATION ...............................................................................................................................1-2
Network and Communications Architecture .....................................................................................................1-3
Setting up maxDNA Software ...............................................................................................................................1-4
Desktop Shortcuts and Program Menus ................................................................................................................1-6
maxSTATION Software Infrastructure .................................................................................................................1-6
Understanding Registry and Initialization (ini) Settings .......................................................................................1-8
Configuring Initialization Files..........................................................................................................................1-8
Specifying Registry Settings..............................................................................................................................1-8
Identifying System Resources ...............................................................................................................................1-8
Understanding the DPUList.ini File ..................................................................................................................1-9
Understanding the wks.ini File ..........................................................................................................................1-9
Configuring Applications to Start up Automatically ...........................................................................................1-10
Logging on As an Administrator .........................................................................................................................1-10
Setting up maxSTATIONs with Individual Assignments ...................................................................................1-11
Viewing Alarms in a maxSTATION ...............................................................................................................1-11
Designating Alarm List Masters ......................................................................................................................1-12
Setting up Event Stations.................................................................................................................................1-13

CHAPTER 2 ...................................................................................................................... 2-1

Setting up Domains......................................................................................................................................................2-1
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................2-1
Designing a Domain Topology..............................................................................................................................2-3
Understanding Domain Addressing.......................................................................................................................2-5
Addressing Scheme ...........................................................................................................................................2-6
Using the Domain Configurator to Set up Domains..............................................................................................2-7
Using Domain Filters.......................................................................................................................................2-11
What to Do after Editing Domain Configurator ..............................................................................................2-12
Transferring the wks.ini File to all maxSTATIONs ........................................................................................2-12
Running the maxTRANSPORT Utility ...........................................................................................................2-12
maxPROXY Point Alias Feature .........................................................................................................................2-12
Assigning an alias for a point ..........................................................................................................................2-12
Security............................................................................................................................................................2-13

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System Resources User’s Guide

Restrictions ..................................................................................................................................................... 2-13


Troubleshooting Domain Problems .................................................................................................................... 2-13
Using Transport Daemon to Check Communications .................................................................................... 2-14
Checking on Points Using Point List Facility................................................................................................. 2-14
RRS Connections............................................................................................................................................ 2-16

CHAPTER 3 ...................................................................................................................... 3-1

Setting up maxSTATION Password Security Using Security Edit........................................................................ 3-1


Overview .................................................................................................................................................................. 3-1
Setting up Password Security ............................................................................................................................... 3-1
Modifying Security Level Passwords ............................................................................................................... 3-2
Modifying Default Security for Engineers and Operators ................................................................................ 3-2
Exporting and Importing Passwords and Default Logins ................................................................................. 3-2
Password Entry Checkbox ................................................................................................................................ 3-3

CHAPTER 4 ...................................................................................................................... 4-1

Configuring Security at the Process Level ............................................................................................................... 4-1


Overview .................................................................................................................................................................. 4-1
Configuring the Schemes Database ...................................................................................................................... 4-1
Building a Security Database................................................................................................................................ 4-2
Assigning Schemes and ASCs to Custom Blocks ............................................................................................ 4-3
maxSTATION Security Levels ............................................................................................................................ 4-3
Using Default Login ......................................................................................................................................... 4-5
Attribute Security Class (ASC)............................................................................................................................. 4-6
Viewing Security Assignments Using Point Browser ...................................................................................... 4-7
Assigning Attribute Security Classes (ASCs) to Custom Blocks ..................................................................... 4-7
Reassigning Attribute Security Classes (ASCs): .............................................................................................. 4-8
Using Schemes...................................................................................................................................................... 4-8
Assigning Schemes ........................................................................................................................................... 4-9
Using Security Scheme Editor Utility................................................................................................................. 4-10
Editing Security Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 4-13
Editing Unique Names and Defining New ASCs and Schemes ..................................................................... 4-14
Viewing Security Settings Online in maxVUE Runtime.................................................................................... 4-14
Intra-domain Security Issues .............................................................................................................................. 4-14
maxPROXY: Inter-domain Security Issues ........................................................................................................ 4-15
Remote Server Security Issues ........................................................................................................................... 4-15
Process Security Logic ....................................................................................................................................... 4-16

CHAPTER 5 ...................................................................................................................... 5-1

Checking Configuration Limits Using the I/O Configurator ................................................................................. 5-1


Overview .................................................................................................................................................................. 5-1
Creating a Configuration with BEMs ............................................................................................................... 5-2
Factoring in Service Time Base........................................................................................................................ 5-2
Specifying Software Versions .......................................................................................................................... 5-3
Creating an I/O Configuration Using the Configurator ........................................................................................ 5-3
Interpreting Percentage Bars............................................................................................................................. 5-4
Creating an I/O Configuration .......................................................................................................................... 5-5
Specifying an I/O Configuration with BEMs ................................................................................................... 5-5
Saving and Reloading a Saved Configuration ...................................................................................................... 5-6
Creating an I/O Configurator Report .................................................................................................................... 5-6

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Contents

CHAPTER 6 ...................................................................................................................... 6-1

Time Synchronization for DPU4E/F and DPU4E/F-DBM Systems.......................................................................6-1


Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................6-1
Theory of Operation ..............................................................................................................................................6-1
Clock Stability ...................................................................................................................................................6-2
Clock Accuracy .................................................................................................................................................6-2
General Operation..................................................................................................................................................6-3
Using a Workstation as the Time Source ..............................................................................................................6-3
Using an IRIG Card in the Workstation ................................................................................................................6-4
DPU4E/4F Time ....................................................................................................................................................6-4
Relative vs. Time of Day ...................................................................................................................................6-4
Understanding the _timesync Object.................................................................................................................6-4
Using a DPU With Optional IRIG Interface..........................................................................................................6-5
Overview ...........................................................................................................................................................6-5
DPU4E/F IRIG Configuration Procedure..........................................................................................................6-6
Using a Stable Time Card in the maxSTATION ...................................................................................................6-9
Using a DPU with No IRIG Interface .................................................................................................................6-10
Using TimeSync Program to Set Time ................................................................................................................6-11
Parameter Initialization....................................................................................................................................6-11
Accessing the TimeSync Program...................................................................................................................6-13
Manually Setting Time for One Object ...........................................................................................................6-14
Setting Workstation Time for One or More Objects .......................................................................................6-14
Synchronizing All Objects...............................................................................................................................6-15
Reviewing the Out of Sync Objects List .........................................................................................................6-16
Troubleshooting Problems...............................................................................................................................6-16
Using TimeSet.mn maxVUE Control..................................................................................................................6-16
Loss of Time Sync...............................................................................................................................................6-17
Frequency Calibration .........................................................................................................................................6-17
Considerations for Mixed DPU4E/F and DBM Systems ....................................................................................6-18
Stable Time Card or IRIG (GPS) Source in a Workstation .............................................................................6-18
IRIG (GPS) in DPU4, MAX1 Operator Station, or Stable Card in Release E AC..........................................6-19

v
Preface

This publication, consisting of five chapters, was prepared to help you


identify and plan your system resource requirements in preparation for
system configuration.

Chapter 1 discusses the maxDNA software application platform and


maxSTATION, the human-machine interface on which applications may be
viewed or executed. Refer to this chapter to learn how to prepare software,
configure software to start up automatically when a maxSTATION is turned
on, and to configure maxSTATIONs with individual assignments.

Chapter 2 discusses network domains. A maxDNA system may use domains


to functionally divide a system into operational units. Refer to this chapter
for a discussion of domains, proxy servers, network topology, and how to set
up domains.

Chapter 3 discusses maxSTATION password security. Use the Security Edit


utility to change maxSTATION passwords at any level and to select default
security levels for operator and engineer groups.

Chapter 4 explains how to set up security at the process level. Process


Security addresses the issue of “who can write to what.” Essentially, process
level security controls a write action to a Software Backplane ID. It is the
DPU that ultimately determines whether to grant or deny a write request. The
decision is based on a security scheme that relates the security level of the
source station that made the request to the security attributes of the target Id
(service.attribute). A service is an Atomic Block or Custom Block.

Chapter 5 explains how to use the I/O Configurator tool, a utility that makes
it easier to estimate I/O module requirements taking into account system
limitations.

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Chapter 1

Setting up Application Environments


at the maxSTATION

Overview
Use the maxSTATION to prepare software applications and organize your
system resources. A maxDNA distributed control system is segmented by
domains, consisting of workstations and DPUs. See Chapter 2, “Setting up
Domains.” Refer to this chapter to become acquainted with the maxDNA
software application environment and its hardware platform, the
maxSTATION.

maxSTATIONs are normally delivered with preloaded software. The


software included with a specific maxSTATION may depend on how the
maxSTATION is to be used.

This chapter explains

How maxDNA software is organized as viewed in Windows Explorer

How software should be prepared (initialization files and maxDNA


registry settings)

How to configure specific applications to start up automatically when a


maxSTATION is turned on

How to give maxSTATIONs individual application assignments

maxSTATION Hardware Overview


A maxDNA distributed control system consists of various quantities of the
following hardware components that make up its resources:

• maxSTATIONs providing the human interface with the system.


• Remote Processing Units (RPU) consisting of Distributed Processing
Units (DPUs) and I/O Modules, which provide control and data
acquisition capabilities.
• maxNET, a redundant Ethernet network, which interconnects
maxSTATIONs and DPUs.

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System Resources User's Guide

maxSTATION Basics
maxSTATION, an Intel Pentium-series workstation, running Microsoft
Windows XP operating system, is a high-performance workstation outfitted
with a high capacity hard drive, color monitor, engineering or operator
keyboard, mouse or track ball, and CD-ROM for loading maxDNA
application software.

The Windows video display is called the “desktop.” Icons representing files,
folders or programs may be placed on the desktop. A “window” is opened for
each individual program (often called an application) that is executed.
Multiple windows can be open simultaneously, be moved and resized, as
desired.

Physical Configuration
maxSTATION components, normally located in a control room, can be
packaged in either a cabinet, a work desk, or a combination of both.
Normally, RPU cabinets are located close to the processes they are
monitoring and controlling.

Setting up a maxSTATION
A maxSTATION may be set up as an:

• Operator’s Workstation
• Engineer’s Workstation
• Dedicated Function

The Operator’s Workstation uses maxVUE graphical interface software to


provide a graphical view of the process. The software uses both standard and
custom displays.

The Engineer’s Workstation is used for creating and maintaining


configurations and process control documentation using the maxDPUTools
configuration management software. It is also used to create and maintain
custom graphic displays using the maxVUE graphics editor software.

In addition to these functions, maxSTATIONs may be dedicated to a primary


application or function. For instance, maxSTATIONs may be set up to
collect and manage process and system alarms, process and event history,
archive history, or log history reports, using various maxDNA applications.

In network domains, maxSTATIONs may also be configured as proxy


servers. See Chapter 3. For OPC applications, a maxSTATION may be used
as an OPC server. See Publication 278607, OPC Server and Client User’s
Guide.

To better manage maxSTATION processing loads and to reduce network


traffic, individual maxSTATIONs could be configured for the following
specific functions:

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Setting up Application Environments at the maxSTATION

Alarms Communications (maxLINKS)


Event collection Proxy server
Event logging OPC server
History reports Quick Log server
History collection Remote SBP
(maxSTORIAN)

See “Setting up maxSTATIONs with Individual Assignments,” later in this


chapter.

Network and Communications Architecture


maxDNA uses a client/server architecture. Simply put, providers supply data
to clients using the Software Backplane distributed communications
infrastructure software. The maxDPU (DPU4E, DPU4F) is a primary data
provider for system clients. In earlier systems using DPU4A and DPU4Bs,
the DPU Bus Module (DBM) is a primary data provider.

Most maxDNA applications, such as maxVUE and maxDPUTools, are


clients accessing providers for data; however, applications, such as
maxSTORIAN, could play the role of provider as well as client. The
maxSTORIAN package gathers historic trend data and provides it to clients
such as maxVUE and the History Reports utility.

The maxDPU, acting as a server, collects information, stores it, and


ultimately transfers the information to the appropriate maxSTATION clients.
The collected data is comprised of alarm, event, trend, historical, and general
point information.

The SBP software suite includes the following core applications:

maxRRS - Registration and Routing (RRS), which connects clients with


providers of information. Providers ‘register’ information on the software
backplane. Clients ‘read’, ‘write’ and ‘subscribe’ to that information through
the software backplane.

maxLSS - Local Status Server (LSS), which provides maxSTATION


housekeeping functions, such as storage for other processes (for example, the
last display and selected point for maxVUE) and a set of simulation
functions.

Real Time Gateway (RTG), required with systems using DPU Bus Modules,
provides an interface between the DBM and the software backplane. The
RTG provides immediate data, trend data, alarm data, and more.

maxSTATIONs and maxDPU communicate with one another via maxNET.


The maxNET Network is a fully redundant 10/100 Mb per second Ethernet
network using industry standard TCP/IP protocol for communications
between Workstation clients and servers.

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System Resources User's Guide

Setting up maxDNA Software


maxSTATION hardware is delivered with preloaded software per specific
customer order. Many maxDNA applications feature associated initialization
files and registry entries, making it possible to customize the application to
meet your specific requirements. In most instances, however, you may accept
the application’s default settings.

To prepare software, you may need to perform any or all of the following:

• Run the Startup Configuration tool to add (or remove) applications to the
maxSTATION startup program to start the software automatically when
a maxSTATION is booted. The StartupConfig program is described in
Publication 278594, maxSTATION Auxiliary Functions, a User’s Guide,
Chapter 1.
• Set up associated ini (initialization) files
• Configure associated registry entries

Some maxDNA software, such as the Software Backplane suite, must be


installed on all maxSTATIONs. Other maxDNA applications are optional
depending on your requirements. The following software applications may
be installed on one or more maxSTATIONs:

Software Backplane Suite (see “Network and Communications


Architecture.”)

maxRRS Registration and Routing (RRS)


maxLSS Local Status Server (LSS
Real Time Gateway (RTG) provides interface between the DBM and software
backplane; DBM-based systems only
maxTRANSPORT inter-station communications
maxINIT Make a repeatable series of software backplane
operations
Configuration

maxDpuTools Configuration tools for maxDPU


Graphical Configurator Document and print graphical representations of
point database
General Utilities

Alarm annunciation Add audible signals to maxSTATION to indicate


alarms
MaxMergeAlm.exe Produce a merged alarm list derived from multiple
sources

Events utility Collect, store, and log alarms and events


I/O Configuration and Test Test hardware using simulated point database

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Setting up Application Environments at the maxSTATION

MAXDDE Exchange live data between applications


Registry Editor Edit maxDNA software registry settings
Point Picker Select and write point and HID text to any text box
QuickLogs Basic report generation package
Stable Time Permits a maxSTATION outfitted with stable time
card to assume time mastership of a maxDNA
system
TestSBP Debugger and diagnostic tool
Transfer Points Tool create a database of points to be shared among
DPUs connected to different DPU buses or
maxNET networks
Utilities for maxDPU systems only
Point Browser view and edit a DPU point database online
HealthLog monitor health of DPUs in your system
Bad Point Reference flag bad references in point database
Download FreezeCheck unfreeze outputs after a download
MaxMergeDpuAlm.exe produce a merged alarm list derived from multiple
DPUs
maxPROXY.exe runs when a workstation is configured as a proxy
server
TimeSync use to set up system time masters per domain
Security

MCS Security Edit set up password security


MCSSecurity
Schemes Editor create a security scheme database
Domain Configuration

Domain Configurator create domains

Screen Design

maxVUE Editor graphical user interface software which includes the


following:
maxVUE Runtime
Screen Programming (Hidden Logic)
maxSCRIPT; simple language to customize maxVUE displays

History Collection

maxSTORIAN Historian and reporting package


History Reports

Reports Package Create and generate history reports

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System Resources User's Guide

Miscellaneous

maxLINKS Package containing a set of interfaces to other


systems
OPC server Provides a standard way to supply data from a
maxDNA data source to any client application
Remote SBP Provides the ability to monitor a maxDNA system
from a remote location by connecting into a selected
workstation via a modem or LAN connection
maxCALCS Package to build calculations
maxAPPS Application development tool kit

Desktop Shortcuts and Program Menus


Most of these applications may be conveniently accessed using Windows
desktop shortcut icons and maxSTATION menus.

To access maxDNA program menus:

Click the Start button on the Task Bar, point to Programs and maxDNA to
access maxDNA software or to see additional menus for utility programs,
accessible from separate menus.

maxSTATION Software Infrastructure


Desktop and menu references are linked to executable programs that may be
accessed directly from Windows Explorer directories. The maxSTATION

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file organization is divided into two separate directory trees called MCS and
Custom; one is for MCS use and the other for end user use.

The most current maxDNA software, software upgrades, and associated


setup files are located in the MCS tree directory.

Use the folders organized under Custom to store maxDNA applications


containing your own custom settings and files. Consider the Custom
directory to be a safe place to store and preserve custom settings, point
configurations, custom displays, and databases.

When Metso Automation releases new software and upgrades, only software
located in the MCS folders is affected. Any work stored in Custom is
preserved.

In addition to programs, folders under Custom typically contain:

• Initialization (.ini) files associated with applications with your own


custom settings. (many located in Custom\SBP)
• Database files generated by various applications (located in
Custom\Database)
• maxDPUTools point configuration databases (located in
Custom\Configs)
• maxVUE Custom displays (located in Custom\Displays)
• maxVUE OCX controls (located in Custom\Controls)
• Utility programs and associated initialization files (located in
Custom\SBP)
• History Reports (located in Custom\History)

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System Resources User's Guide

Understanding Registry and Initialization (ini) Settings


A number of maxDNA programs (particularly utilities) have associated
Registry entries and ini files containing default settings. These settings may
be changed to meet specific requirements.

Configuring Initialization Files


Initialization files are typically text files containing settable options to
change the way a software program behaves or to activate optional features.
For example, software modules available with the Events package have
associated .ini files. The Event Collector .ini file, EvtColl.Ini, specifies the
names of the event providers that you want to include and other parameters.
Such files are read by the maxSTATION startup program when it is first
initialized. See “Configuring Applications to Start up Automatically,” later in
this chapter:

Specifying Registry Settings


The Metso Automation MCS Registry is a database containing the default
settings for maxDNA operating system and application-related software. The
Registry, a subset of the Windows registry, is divided into two sections, user
settings and machine settings. Using the MCS Registry Editor tool, you may
customize the settings contained in these two areas.

The machine settings area of the Registry contains default settings for several
maxDNA applications listed in Publication 278594, maxSTATION Auxiliary
Functions, a User’s Guide. Changes made in machine settings for software
installed on a specific maxSTATION remain in place and are applied
globally regardless of user and associated user logon name.

Changes made in the user settings area are associated with a specific user and
user logon name. Settings in the user setting part of the registry database are
organized by software application:

• maxVUE
• maxDPUTools
• Software backplane

Identifying System Resources


Two initialization files, stored in C:\Custom\Database, have special system-
wide importance: the following files are used to identify DPU and
workstation resources to other applications or to the network.

• DPUList.ini
• wks.ini

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Understanding the DPUList.ini File


DPUList.ini is a text file containing the names and IP addresses of all the
DPUs available in your system including virtual DPUs. A DPUList.ini file
should be created for each domain in your system.

This file is referenced by a number of maxDNA applications that need to


identify available DPUs in a system.

Point Browser Uses it to create the tree selection of the listed DPUs.
Healthlog Uses it to provide status of the listed DPUs.
DPUAlarms Uses it to get alarms from the listed DPUs.
DPUEvents Uses it to get events from the listed DPUs.
TimeSync Uses it to determine which DPUs to check time error and allow
time set/sync.
MaxDPUTools Uses it to look up the IP address for a given DPU name and
determine if the name references a stand-alone or backup pair
of DPUs. Also used to determine which DPUs get the security
database download if all is selected. Writes to DPUList.ini to
add a new DPU if user requests it.
Database The scope of DPUs from which to get the summaries
Summaries
Download Freeze The list of DPUs available to unfreeze
Check
Find Bad Reference The list of DPUs for checking bad references
MaxTRANSPORT Pre-registers the IP address of the available DPUs.(at this point
it does not pre-register the DPU name).
MaxPROXY Uses it to determine if a data request is directly from a DPU
and allows an extra proxy hop. (normally a proxy will not
forward a request for data to another proxy) .
I/O Inventory List of DPUs available to check list and current state of their
I/O.
DPU Atom List List of DPUs available from which you can get a summary of
(diagnostic utility) atoms by time class.

Understanding the wks.ini File


wks.ini is a text file listing domain names and workstation names and IP
addresses and the domains these stations may access. An identical copy of
this file should be distributed to each workstation in your system. Only one
file is used for an entire system. See Chapter 2. The file is stored in
C:\Custom\Database\Wks.ini file.

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System Resources User's Guide

Configuring Applications to Start up Automatically


After you log onto a maxSTATION as either Engineer or Operator, a startup
program, Startup.exe, launches a startup window and automatically starts up
the underlying system and software backplane logic.

When this program is started, it reads startup information that is created by


the StartupConfig program. See Publication 278594, maxSTATION
Auxiliary Functions, a User’s Guide, Chapter 1 for a detailed description.
The startup information can specify alarm, event, history and many other
programs that could be unique to this maxSTATION.

Logging on As an Administrator
To perform many basic maxSTATION setup functions, such as creating
passwords, configuring process security, setting up domains, selecting which
applications run automatically and so forth, you must be recognized by the
system as a user with administrative privileges.

Windows recognizes different user account classes. These classes include


Administrators, Guests, and Users, as well as operators. Each of the classes
has different privileges. When new user accounts are created, they are
assigned to one or more groups, which control the privileges of that account.
Each account has a password that allows access to the computer functions
under the Windows operating system.

Each account has a profile that maintains information about the desktop for
that account. These profiles contain information about what icons should
appear on the desktop and what programs should be accessible from the Start
menu, in addition to other information.

Two default accounts are always available in Windows: “administrator” and


“guest.” The administrator account is used for administration purposes,
including user administration, hardware and software administration, and
diagnostic testing. Guest account is a general-purpose account that allows
persons who do not have an account on the machine to use it with limited
privileges.

To log on as an Administrator:

1. Turn on the computer and monitor, if they are not already turned on.

When you turn the computer on, it goes through its normal boot up
routines. When the computer finishes its start up procedures, the
Windows Auto Logon Dialog appears.
2. Press the <Ctrl + Alt + Delete> keys to open the Logon Dialog.

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3. Click the administrator icon, enter the administrator password, and


click the Logon button.

Setting up maxSTATIONs with Individual Assignments


To balance processing loads, it is recommended that you select specific
maxSTATIONs for various control room assignments, such as alarm masters,
event stations, maxSTORIAN stations, and so forth. Assignments are
normally set up on maxSTATIONs configured as Operator Stations.

To further balance processing loads, maxSTATION assignments may be


distributed by domain. For instance, each domain may have alarm masters,
event collectors, event loggers, and so forth.

For critical control room applications, such as alarm and event monitoring,
alarm annunciation, etc, select two stations for each application in the event
one or the other station should fail.

Note: alarm annunciator instances must have direct access to domains to


generate audible alarms. Workstations set up for alarm annunciation cannot
go through proxy servers. Should a workstation be set up this way, the
annunciator will not sound for any domain access through a proxy.

Viewing Alarms in a maxSTATION


To view alarms in a maxSTATION environment, two OCX controls and
several other alarm-related programs need to be set up.

In the maxVUE Editor, use the Alarm List Control and Alarm Summary
Control to configure alarm displays which operators may view in maxVUE
Runtime. These are viewable from multiple maxSTATIONs.

Because the Alarm List typically appears in any number of maxSTATIONs,


it is required that you establish one or two maxSTATIONs as Alarm List
Servers to reduce network traffic. Only these stations will collect the Alarm
Lists from the active DPUs. All other maxSTATIONs will go to these servers
for Alarm Lists. Use the MCS Registry Editor entry to designate which
maxSTATIONs should be servers.

Two programs, MaxMergeDpuAlm.exe (for maxDPU systems only), and


MaxMergeAlm.exe, produce a merged alarm list derived from multiple
maxDPUs or DBMs. To activate these programs, you must configure the
MergeAlm.ini file and use the StartupConfig tool to specify alarms for the
workstation.

To set up maxSTATIONs as alarm masters:

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System Resources User's Guide

The following instructions for moving and renaming the MergeAlm.ini file is
for older systems. The current maxSTATION installation moves and
renames the appropriate MergeAlm.ini file based on your selection of
DPU4E/F and/or DBM systems. (Reference Only: Move and rename the
desired MergeAlm.ini file from Mcs\Setup\Custom to Custom\Sbp. Several
examples are provided in mcs\Setup\Custom: 4eMergeAlm.ini for systems
with maxDPUs only, DBMMergeAlm.ini for older systems with DBMs, and
BothMergeAlm.ini for hybrid systems with maxDPUs and DBMs. Pick the
appropriate file and copy it to Custom\Sbp. Rename the file to
MergeAlm.ini. The line “PROVIDER = DPU4E” is needed for the
maxSTATION to get DPU4E and/or DPU4F alarms. The MaxMergeAlm
program during startup reads the MergeAlm.ini file.)

The MaxMergeDpuAlm program references the DPUlist.ini file to learn the


names of DPUs with which to communicate. Make sure the appropriate DPU
names and IP addresses are provided in the DPUlist.ini file.

Enable alarms with the StartupConfig program. Currently the StartupConfig


program is described in Publication 278594, maxSTATION Auxiliary
Functions, a User’s Guide, Chapter 1.

Designating Alarm List Masters


Select one or two maxSTATIONs on your system as alarm list masters.
Your system must have at least one.

To make a station an alarm list master:

1. Click the Start button, point to Programs, maxDNA, Utilities, and then
click MCS Registry Edit to open the registry editor dialog box.

2. The registry editor dialog contains two tabs, user settings and machine
settings. Click the machine settings tab.

3. Expand the folder in the left directory window, locate and click on the
entry DPU Alarm List Server from the expanded list.

4. When you select this entry, a data entry field appears on the right
containing the current setting. Set this to Yes. This value should be set to
“No” for non-alarm-list-master stations.

5. Click Apply and OK to make the change and exit from the Registry
Editor.

6. Stop the station and restart the station from the startup program so that
the alarming programs see this registry change. If the alarm programs
are running as a service, the station must restarted from windows.

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Setting up Application Environments at the maxSTATION

Setting up Event Stations


Pick two maxSTATIONs in your system to be event collector stations. They
could be the same stations that are alarm masters or any other stations.

To activate the Events Package, run the StartupConfig program and select
“Events”. Additionally, you must configure the initialization files for the
Event Collector, Event Server, and Event Logger. If you intend to log
different events to multiple printers, you need to create multiple instances of
the Event Logger initialization file, called EvtLogger.Ini. See Publication
278594, maxSTATION Auxiliary Functions, a User’s Guide, Chapter 3,
"Understanding the Event Collector," "Understanding the Event Server, and
"Activating the Events Package."

To set up maxSTATIONs as annunciators, see Publication 278594,


maxSTATION Auxiliary Functions, a User’s Guide, Chapter 2. To generate
reports using QuickLogs, see Publication 278594, maxSTATION Auxiliary
Functions, a User’s Guide, Chapter 9. To set up a history reports server, see
Publication 278583, History Reports User’s Guide. To set up a station for
history collection using maxSTORIAN, see Publication 278622,
maxSTORIAN User’s Guide.

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Chapter 2

Setting up Domains

Overview
Use domains in a maxDNA system to functionally divide a system into
operational units. A domain typically contains a group of DPUs and
workstations that are engineered, maintained, and operated independently
from equipment in other domains. For example, in an electric generating
plant the control for each generating unit could be configured in a separate
domain. In addition, there may be common equipment shared by two
generators resulting in a third domain.

While items such as live data and historical trends can be retrieved from
other domains, many of the overhead functions would normally be performed
within the domain. For example, database configuration, alarm management,
event collection and logging, time synchronization, and diagnostic
maintenance are functions that are typically restricted to a domain.

Note: Accurate Sequence of Events (SOE) time synchronization only


operates within a domain, not across domains.

System size is another factor to consider when deciding to implement


domains. If yours is a particularly large system domains could help to reduce
the network traffic within the system. This would be an extremely rare case
where there are more than 30 to 40 DPUs in one functional unit. Consult the
factory for the best way to configure this type of system.

Up to 31 independent domains may be configured. Domains 1 to 15 are


primary domains, while domains 16 through 31 are auxiliary domains. A
maxDPU may be assigned to any primary domain from 1 to 15 (actually set
as hexadecimal 0-9,a,b,c,d,e,f). A DPU is assigned to one and only one
domain by the first address switch on the DPU4E chassis and by the second
value from the right in the IP address of a DPU4F. A Workstation may be
assigned to any domain from 1 to 31 and can belong to more than one
domain.

Domains 16 through 31 may contain workstations, but may not contain a


DPU. Workstations assigned to domains with no DPU can be configured to
communicate with workstations in other domains that have direct access to a
DPU. Workstations that provide other workstations with maxDPU or DBM
point access are called proxy servers.

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When a workstation is selected as a proxy, the utility maxPROXY.exe is


launched when the station starts up and a maxPROXY icon is placed in the
system tray area to indicate a proxy server is running. Click on this icon to
view a dialog showing proxy activity per DPU.

To make the domain concept possible, each device placed in a domain is


assigned an address designating which domain it is assigned to. When a DPU
monitors messaging traffic, it reads the address of the device sending the
message and the address of the target station. If the addresses do not match
the addresses of devices within its domain, it ignores the message. The DPU
only responds to messages for devices assigned to its domain.

To define domains and assign workstations to specific domains, you will use
a utility called Domain Configurator. As you define domains and make
domain assignments, the utility, in the background, automatically defines
domain addresses and creates a text file, wks.ini, listing domain names and
workstation addresses and the domains these addresses may access. The file
is stored in C:\Custom\Database\Wks.ini file.

A typical wks.ini file created by the Domain Configurator looks like the
following:
; C:\Custom\Database\Wks.ini file
; _______________________________
;
; This File should be identical on all workstations
;
;Domains
;
DOMAIN 4: ALMGEN3, *.*
;
;Stations
;
[172.16.160.4]MCSNT55,, 4
[172.16.160.35]VALIDAT1,, 4
[172.16.160.36]VALIDAT2,, 4
[172.16.160.55]VALIDAT3,, 4
[172.16.160.56]VALIDAT4,, 4
[172.16.160.60]VALIDAT5,, 4
;

To complete the domain configuration process:

1. Copy wks.ini file from the maxSTATION with the master file to each of
your maxSTATIONs.

2. Reboot each maxSTATION. The maxTRANSPORT program will


automatically update the IP addresses for the A and B networks to
support the specified domains.,

Important: make sure all your maxSTATIONs have the same wks.ini.

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Setting up Domains

Designing a Domain Topology


Use domains to segment your system in a way that makes best use of your
resources. In a large process control environment, a system may be
segmented by physical plant units. In a power generating station, for
instance, a domain may represent a single unit.

The following diagram represents a network topology using three primary


domains. Units 1 and 2 are each assigned their own domain. In addition,
Units 1 and 2 may share a third domain called Unit Common/

Figure 2-1. This illustration depicts three primary domains. Domains 1 and 2 share a common domain.

This diagram represents how a system with two units plus a unit common
might be configured. The system is set up with three domains representing
each of the two units plus one more for the unit common.

The DPUs in Unit1 can only communicate directly with the workstations in
Unit1. Likewise the DPUs in Unit2 can only communicate directly with
workstations in Unit2. The DPUs in common however can communicate
with workstations in Unit1, Unit2 and UNIT Common. This is because the

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System Resources User's Guide

workstations in Unit1 and Unit2 were configured to be members of both their


own UNIT and the common domain.

Notice that the three virtual SBP lines (three dark lines in the middle of
Figure 2-1) are each assigned a number used to set IP addresses on the
DPUs.

DPUs never write and are given automatic access to all direct connect
domains of the workstations within their own domain that have proxy servers
running. This means that DPUs in Unit1 will have access to data in UNIT
Common but not Unit2. Since there are two proxy servers in each domain,
the proxies are redundant.

As discussed earlier in this chapter, a multi-domain configuration may


consist of primary domains (domains 1 to 15), which contain DPUs and
workstations, and auxiliary domains (domains 16 to 31), which contain
workstations but no DPUs.

Figure 2-2. In this illustration, primary domains 1 and 2 share a third common primary domain. In addition,
auxiliary domains 20 and 21 may access the other primary domains via proxy servers.

Figure 2-2 shows a configuration consisting of primary domains and


auxiliary domains. The following figure is identical to Figure 2-1, but with
the addition of domains 20 and 21. These domains fall within the auxiliary

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Setting up Domains

range and contain only workstations that may access the information
contained within all the DPUs in a system by going through proxy servers. In
this example, workstations contained in these auxiliary domains are to be
used as supervisory stations that may read data but have no write privileges.
The Domain Configurator establishes these workstations as having indirect,
read only access to the primary domain.

As demonstrated in the illustration, these supervisory stations can be


dynamically redirected to either unit one or two and even contain overview
displays showing both units assuming that filters were in place for the
directed requests.

Understanding Domain Addressing


Domains are implemented using the addressing capabilities of maxNET. The
purpose of these addresses is to segment traffic to protect DPUs from
excessive messaging. Most of the details are set up using the Domain
Configurator.

Workstations and DPUs communicate with one another using maxNET.


maxNET, a dual, ultra high speed Ethernet based network, forms a backbone
to link intelligent processors, which provide control, communications, data
acquisition, and the human machine interface (HMI).

In addition to Ethernet, the network uses UDP/IP, a networking protocol


considered ideal for multiple network environments.

UDP/IP is the basis for communications on the Internet. A station on the


Ethernet is identified by an IP address. The IP address consists of four
numbers separated by periods. For example:

207.46.230.229 - corresponds to www.microsoft.com

You don't normally see the IP address because a Name Server (DNS) looks
up the address for you, but it is there.

Each permanent machine on the Internet is assigned an IP number. There are


special numbers that are not routed to a specific machine, but are intended for
use on local networks. These addresses are called non-routable. Metso
Automation maxDNA uses the following address ranges for Workstations
and DPUs:

172.16.xx.xx

172.17.xx.xx

Where:

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System Resources User's Guide

16 is reserved for the A network and 17 for the B network of the redundant
maxNET.

As a special characteristic, these addresses will not be passed through


routers. As such, there can be no leaks or conflicts with the Internet.

Addressing Scheme
Any maxDPU has two maxNET addresses (actually three if you count the
backup port):

172.16.0D.XX 172.17.0D.XX

Where D is the domain number 1 to 15 and XX is the DPU station address


from 2 to 253.

Workstations, on the other hand, can have many different secondary


addresses (one for each domain that they are a member of) as set up by the
Domain Configurator. Their primary address is set up via the network
control applet in Windows’ Administrator mode when the station is
initialized, or updated. The following represent workstation primary address
ranges:

172.16.160.01 - 172.16.160.254 – maxNET A Ethernet Card

172.17.160.01 - 172.17.160.254 – maxNET B Ethernet Card

Note that the Workstation number on a site must be unique (1 - 254). Use the
Domain Configurator to program which additional channels (domains) the
workstation is tuned to. These addresses are setup by the maxTRANSPORT
program when run in Administrator mode. maxTRANSPORT sets up
addresses in the range:

172.16.160+domain.01 - 172.16.160+domain.254 – maxNET A Ethernet


card

172.17.160+domain.01 - 172.16.160+domain.254 – maxNET B Ethernet


card

For example, Workstation 10 has access to domain 2. It will have the


following Ethernet addresses:

Cable A

172.16.160.10 - primary address 172.16.162.10 - domain 2 secondary


address

Cable B

172.17.160.10 - primary address 172.17.162.10 - domain 2 secondary


address

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Setting up Domains

Secondary addresses are setup automatically by the Domain Configurator


and maxTRANSPORT programs.

In summary, observe the following steps to set up domain addressing:

1. Establish a domain number. Check by looking in your existing


DPUlist.ini file, located in c:\custom\database. For Network A, a DPU
uses the following address scheme:

172.16.D.xx, where D is the domain number.

2. Assign all workstations a unique number (the last octet of the IP address)
1 to 254.

3. While logged in as administrator, configure workstations to


172.16.160.xx (their unique number), using the network applet of the
Windows Control Panel.

Run the Domain Configurator to define the domains and the workstations
assigned to the domains.

4. Reboot the workstation. The maxTRANSPORT program will detect the


changes when starting up and modify the IP addresses of the workstation
to include the domains you have defined. After updating the IP
addresses, maxTRANSPORT will cause the workstation to reboot again.

Using the Domain Configurator to Set up Domains


Use the Domain Configurator to:

• designate the domain(s) that your system has,


• list each of the maxSTATIONs in your system,
• Designate which domain(s) each maxSTATION belongs to and the type
of access it has.

Warning you must use the Domain Configurator to create at least one
domain. If you do not set up at least one domain:

• You may not be able to access your DPUs,


• maxSTATIONs will not be able to export points to one another.

The output of the Domain Configurator is a text file called wks.ini, located in
c:\custom\database. This file is used at each maxSTATION, in conjunction
with maxTRANSPORT, to set up the proper IP addresses for each
maxSTATION, and to enable maxTRANSPORT, when the Software
Backplane is running, to see the other maxSTATIONs in a system.

Warning editing this file directly may cause system communications


problems.

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System Resources User's Guide

To invoke the Domain Configurator:

Log on as Administrator, click the Start button on the Task Bar, point to
Programs, MAX Administrator Tools and click Domain Configurator to
open the MAX Domain Configure Dialog.

The dialog contains two tabs, Domain and Work Stations. First, use the
Domain tab to define the domains in your system. Then use the Work
Stations tab to assign workstations in your system to one or more domains
and to set up proxy servers.

To configure domains:

1. Open the Domain Configurator dialog to the Domains tab and enter the
name of each domain you intend to establish in the appropriate fields
under Domain.

A domain name is an alphanumeric string with no embedded spaces. The


underscore character is also valid in a domain name.

2. In the Domain Number field, enter a domain number. Click the down
arrow to select a domain number from a drop-down list box. When you
click the arrow, a list of the available domain numbers will drop down.
Do not attempt to enter the number directly in the field.

3. Check the Has DPU checkbox if the specified domain contains DPUs.
The checkbox should be unchecked when workstations in that domain
are going to get their data through proxy servers.

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Setting up Domains

4. Filters – If tagnames are unique in each domain, then tagname filters can
be part of the filter set. If not, then just station name filters can be used.
Filters can contain wild cards of "*" for 0-N characters or "?" for a single
character match. Filters are applied from left to right. The default is *.*.

The filters are used only if the tagname requested is not currently registered
in the local RRS (uploaded from DPUs or workstations that are defined for
direct access). For more details see “Using Domain Filters” in the following
section.

To configure workstations:

1. Click the Work Stations tab to open the following dialog:

2. In the Work Station field, enter the name of each workstation that exists in
your system. The name is the same name configured under Identification in
Networks in Control Panel.

3. In the Station Number field, just beneath the Work Station field, enter the last
octet of the IP address of that maxSTATION. For example, if the station’s IP
address is 1.72.16.160.20, then enter 20 in the Station Number.

4. Check the Run Proxy checkbox to make the associated workstation a proxy
server. A proxy server provides to other stations (outside the domain in
which the proxy server resides) access to its resources.

Note: If the domain is to have a proxy server, then if possible, assign two
maxSTATIONs to be proxy servers. This provides redundancy in the event
that one should fail.

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5. In the Domains and Access fields, specify which domain(s) this station is a
member of. Select configured domains (shown by domain number and name)
from the pull-down box.

6. To the left of each Domain and Access field that contains a station name is a
small button. Click on this button to open the Select Access pop-up. Click
one of the four radio buttons to configure access privileges for the associated
station.

When you select an access privilege, the button next to the Domain and
Access field bears a single letter character corresponding to the access
privilege you selected. For instance, if you select direct read/write access, the
letter D appears on the button face.

Click the Copy and Paste buttons to copy and paste a station’s information
to easily create stations with like properties.

Click the Sort Names button to perform an alphanumeric sort for all entered
workstation names.

When you are finished editing the Domain Configurator, select one of three
save and exit options available as button choices at the bottom right of the
dialog.

Click the Check and Save button to perform a check of the entries that you
have made to date. The Domain Configurator then updates the wks.ini file.

Click the Quit and Discard button to cancel all of the edits that you made
since the last save, and exit the program.

Click the Exit and Save to save all of your edits to date and exit the
program.

When you have completed and saved all your edits, the Domain Configurator
creates a Wks.ini file, which it stores at C:\Custom\Database\Wks.ini file.
Here is an example wks.ini file created by the Domain Configurator from the
above example:
; C:\Custom\Database\Wks.ini file
; _______________________________
;
; This File should be identical on all workstations

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Setting up Domains

;
;Domains
;
DOMAIN 4: ALMGEN3, *.*
;
;Stations
;
[172.16.160.4]MCSNT55,, 4
[172.16.160.35]VALIDAT1,, 4
[172.16.160.36]VALIDAT2,, 4
[172.16.160.55]VALIDAT3,, 4
[172.16.160.56]VALIDAT4,, 4
[172.16.160.60]VALIDAT5,, 4
;

Using Domain Filters


Domain filters are used to assist routing of information between domains.
The filters are only used with proxy access to data. If a request is made for a
specific tagname, the workstation first checks to see if that tagname is
registered with its own maxRRS. If it is registered, then the requests for data
are sent directly to the device that contains the tagname.

Filter strings, which you enter in the Filter field appearing on the Domain
Configurator Domains tab, may consists of tag names, HIDs, or a
combination of both. See figure.

If the tagname is not registered, a search is made of the domain filters to see
if there is a match.

For example if the tagname is AB4PUMP6 and a filter for domain 4 is


“??4*” then there is a match for domain 4. A search is then made for a
workstation that has direct access to domain 4 and is running a proxy. If all
criteria are met, then the request for data is sent to that proxy station.

If no match is found in the filters or no proxy station can be found, then a


check is made of the attribute _rrs.setdefaultdomain to see if a default
domain has been set. If this attribute = 0 then no default is defined and an
error will be returned to the application. If the attribute is set to a value from
1-31 then that defines the destination domain for the request. A check is then
made for a proxy with access to that domain. If an appropriate proxy server
is found the request is sent to that proxy workstation.

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System Resources User's Guide

The attribute for the default domain (_rrs.setdefaultdomain) can be set and
changed at any time. For example, a display can contain a maxSCRIPT that
changes the default to temporarily default to a specific domain.

Note: if there is more than one domain filter for a given domain then a
tagname match on any filter constitutes a match for that domain.

What to Do after Editing Domain Configurator


After you have made all of your Domain Configurator edits:

1. Transfer the new version of wks.ini to each of your maxSTATIONs.

2. Reboot the workstation. When starting up, maxTRANSPORT will


detect the changes and update the IP addresses of the workstation to
allow communication with the specified domains.

Transferring the wks.ini File to all maxSTATIONs


Using Windows Explorer, copy the wks.ini file from the maxSTATION with
the master file to each of the other maxSTATIONs. All maxSTATIONs
require this file to be up-to-date.

Running the maxTRANSPORT Utility


Reboot the workstation. When maxTRANSPORT starts up, it will update the
maxNET IP addresses of each maxSTATION. The secondary addresses will
be changed from 172.16.xxx.yyy and 172.17.xxx.yyy to the new addresses
based on domain assignment. Also, the primary address will be changed, if
necessary, to the form 172.16.160.yyy and 172.17.160.yyy as well as the
addresses needed to access the DPUs in the domain(s). The workstation will
be rebooted again by maxTRANSPORT after the IP addresses are updated.

maxPROXY Point Alias Feature


There are some occasions where you need to access a few points across
domains, or need to use an alternate name to locate an object within the
maxDNA system. The Proxy Server has the ability to create an alias for any
point to which it has access.

Assigning an alias for a point


Insure that proxy is running in one or more stations that have access to all
domains involved

Edit c:\custom\database\alias.ini to include proxy points and copy to all


stations to alias the point. Note you typically want more than one station for
redundancy.

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Setting up Domains

The format of alias.ini is:

<domain to register>,<alias name>,<actual name>

where:

<domain to register> - is one of the domains to which the workstation


running the proxy has direct access. The ‘client’ station using the proxy
name needs the appropriate access to this domain (read or read/write) in
order to access the data.

<alias name> - any valid service name or hid. Typically different from the
original by prefix. For example 1PID101 may become 15PID101 where 15
is a common domain, and 1 is the domain where the point originates

<actual name> - is the service name of the point to be indirectly accessed.


May be a HID or service name.

Examples:

15,15pid101,1pid101
15,/unit15/fuel/air/point1,1pid101

Security
The proxy point is accessible by any station with read/write or read access to
the domain in which the alias is registered. The security token must be valid
as in remote or proxied access. That is either the level 9 password, or the
currently logged in password needs to be the same between the client station
and the station with the proxy for a write to be allowed.

Restrictions
There are no alarms for the alias point displayed on the station with alias
access.

Troubleshooting Domain Problems


Use the Transport Daemon (maxTRANSPORT) and the Registration and
Routing Service (maxRRS) Point List Facility to troubleshoot domain
problems. Both facilities are part of the Software Backplane suite of
software.

Before using these two facilities to investigate problems, make sure the
wks.ini file is distributed throughout your system. A missing file is the
number one reason for lack of communications.

If the file c:\custom\database\wks.ini is on a station, that station will


communicate only with other stations listed in that file. Additionally, the file
c:\custom\database\dpulist.ini must be correct to communicate with DPUs.

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Make sure all your maxSTATIONs have the same wks.ini.

Designate a station as the master for wks.ini and DPUlist.ini. This should be
the station normally used to configure the system, as maxDPUTools
automatically updates DPUlist.ini. Propagate this file to all other stations
whenever a Workstation or DPU is added or removed.

Using Transport Daemon to Check Communications

Figure 2-3. a partial view of the Transport Daemon dialog.

Use the Transport Daemon dialog to find useful information for debugging
communications problems. The dialog should contain two happy faces for
Network A and Network B for each DPU or maxSTATION with which you
intend to communicate.

Figure 2-3 shows that Network B is not installed; the ? indicates that the
station has never communicated over this network. You can see both the
device name, and the IP address that is being used to communicate.

Much of the additional information is specialized debug information only of


use to a Metso Automation diagnostician.

Checking on Points Using Point List Facility


The Registration and Routing (RRS) program, the core of the software
backplane, is responsible for connecting clients with providers of
information. Providers register information on the software backplane.
Clients read, write and subscribe to that information through the software
backplane.

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Setting up Domains

Points, registered by stations on maxNET, may reside on a single device,


(such as _lss), or may be exported to become available to all devices. A good
way to determine if a point is recognized by your system is to use the
Registration and Routing Service (RRS) Point List Facility.

To open the RRS Dialog:

1. Click the RRS icon in the System Tray or the SbpMonitor icon if
running services. If SbpMonitor, click the maxRRS tab at the top or the
dialog.

2. Click the Point List button at the top of the dialog to access the
GetSortList dialog. The dialog shows a list of points (normally one page
at a time) that this station recognizes.

Quality of a
Connection Connection
List of Points Number

Type a partial
tag name here
to filter the
list

Figure 2-4. GetSortList Dialog

If the point you are expecting to see is not here, determine whether you are
communicating with the device that contains the point, and that the point is
actually installed there. If it is a workstation you can use its point list to
confirm its presence. If you see it on the machine where it resides, but not on
other machines, perhaps it was not exported.

Most points have multiple destinations. In the case of a primary and


secondary DPU, there is a destination for each. Note that there is also a
quality associated with each destination. In a backup pair, the quality of the
active will always be higher than that of the inactive. The RRS will always
choose the highest quality destination when it is not specified.

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RRS Connections
Many destinations will be that of “L2 Transports.” You can track them back
by the main RRS dialog. You need to match up the connection listed in the
point list with the RRS connection in some cases to track down problems. In
the following example, (Figure 2-5), a point created in the station whose
address ends with 160.60 would, in the point list, have a connection number
of 21, and a quality of 80.
Connection
Number

Last two
digits of IP
address

Connection
on that box

Connection
Quality

Figure 2-5. RRS Connections

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Chapter 3

Setting up maxSTATION Password


Security Using Security Edit

Overview
Security Edit, a utility accessible only to the Administrator login, allows
system administrators to change maxSTATION passwords at any level, and
to select the default security levels for the operator and engineer groups.

The passwords, and the default levels, are stored in the station’s Registry. As
part of this utility, the administrator can export (via floppy or other means)
the passwords and default levels and propagate them from one
maxSTATION to another so that like stations can be set up in a similar way.
The default passwords in effect when the software is installed are maxn,
where n is a single digit between 1and 9.

Setting up Password Security


To invoke the Security Edit utility, click the Start button, point to Programs,
Administrative Tools, and click Security Edit. When you invoke the utility,
a popup appears (see figure 3-1). From the popup, an administrator may:

• Modify passwords
• Modify the default security levels
• Export the passwords and levels to propagate them to another
maxSTATION.
• Indicate if passwords are required when the user attempts to go to a
lower numbered security level.

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System Resources User's Guide

Figure 3-1. MCS Security Edit screen upon entry

Modifying Security Level Passwords


To modify the security level passwords, locate the nine level buttons on the
Security Administration Dialog, select a level and enter a new alphanumeric
password for that level (level 0 has no password). Note that the previous
password is not visible.

Modifying Default Security for Engineers and Operators


To modify the default security levels at login for the engineer’s and
operator’s groups, in the Modify the Logins area of the Security
Administration Dialog, select a group and then enter the new desired level.

Exporting and Importing Passwords and Default Logins


To export the passwords and default login levels:

Click the Export button in the Save to File area of the Security
Administration Dialog to open a dialog box to designate the path and
filename for the exported data. The default path, A:\Security.reg, writes the
data to a diskette to port to other maxSTATIONs.

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Setting up maxSTATION Password Security Using Security Edit

You may choose another path, including the local hard drive, but to avoid
problems, use the same file extension. The passwords are encrypted in the
file, so if the file were to be edited, the passwords cannot be easily read.

To import the passwords and default login levels:

Use Windows Explorer to point to the file, and then double-click on the file.

Because the file’s extension is .reg, the file will be recognized by Windows’
Registry Editor, which will process the file, and then post a dialog box
stating that the data were entered into the station’s registry.

NOTE: all of the maxSTATIONs that will be sharing data MUST have the
same passwords for any given security level. If they do not, then a station
may not be able to see the points that were exported from another
maxSTATION.

Password Entry Checkbox


The Password Entry checkbox determines whether passwords are required
when a maxSTATION user changes Security Levels. By default, the
checkbox is checked when you first open the dialog.

When this option is checked, password entry will not be required when
changing to a security level that is lower than the current level. In this mode
security level changes will behave like the earlier MAX-supplied systems.
When the box is unchecked, a password will be required when selecting a
level less than the current, except for the situations shown in the following
table.

From To
Current Level Selected Level Password required
9 Any No
Any 0 No

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Chapter 4

Configuring Security at the


Process Level

Overview
Security in a maxDNA system uses a multitiered approach consisting of:

• Process Security
• Domain Security; see "maxPROXY Inter Domain Security Issues."
• Remote Access: see "Remote Server Security Issues."

Process Security addresses the issue of “who can write to what.” Essentially,
process level security controls a write action to a Software Backplane ID. It
is the DPU that ultimately determines whether to grant or deny a write
request. The decision is based on a security scheme that relates the security
level of the source station that made the request to the security attributes of
the target Id (service.attribute). A service is an Atomic Block or Custom
Block.

The Security Scheme is contained in special Atomic Blocks that are within a
DPU and is the same for all DPUs within a system. maxDNA supplies a
default version of the scheme that was designed to fit most needs. maxDNA
also supplies the tools to view, and if necessary, modify it to meet your
specific needs.

Configuring the Schemes Database


To set up a process security database:

1. Launch the program, Security Scheme Editor. To activate the program,


open Windows Explorer, locate the folder
C:\MCS\Setup\MCSSecuritySchemesEditor.exe, and double-click on
SecuritySchemesEditor.exe. This opens the Security Schemes Editor
dialog.

Note: if you are logged on as Administrator, you may also activate the
program using Windows menus. Click the Start button on the Windows
task bar, point to programs, Max Administrative Tools and click
SecuritySchemesEditor.

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2. Review the default scheme and modify it if necessary. This may include
the following:

• Editing security level names


• Editing definable attribute security classes
• Editing scheme names
• Editing scheme definitions

3. Using maxDPUTools, build the configuration for each DPU, adjusting, if


necessary, the security attributes of the services and their attributes.

Download the configuration and security scheme to the DPU; now the DPU
will enforce the security scheme as part of its normal activity.

Building a Security Database


Use the MCSSecurity Schemes Editor to implement system wide security at
the process level. The schemes editor utility creates a Microsoft Access-style
database which establishes write access privileges for various defined
security levels. This utility permits administrative or supervisory personnel to
assign write-access privileges to specific parts of a point database to specific
security levels.

The security database is downloaded automatically to a DPU as part of a


maxDPUTools point configuration database installation. maxDPUTools also
permits you to install the security database separately. See Publication
278597, maxDPUTools User’s Guide.

A “system” generally consists of multiple DPU pairs, each with their own
configuration and a copy of the Security Scheme Database that is the same
across all DPUs. Systems are shipped with the default Security Scheme. You
may view and modify the database using the security scheme utility, however
default database settings provide an “out-of-the-box” security policy to cover
the majority of users.

A process security database consists of the following highly interrelated


elements:

• maxSTATION Security Levels (0-9)


• Attribute Security Classes or ASCs (0-15)
• Schemes (0-15)
• The definition of the 16 Security Schemes (0 – 15)

(Note: for each security level, ASC, or scheme, a Unique Name may be
assigned for readability and easy identification. Internally the values for each
of the elements are stored as a number within the range shown in
parenthesis).

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Assigning Schemes and ASCs to Custom Blocks


Configuration engineers building a point database, particularly a database
with custom elements, should become familiar with the Scheme Database.

A scheme must be assigned to each service (Atomic Blocks and Custom


Blocks), and an ASC must be assigned to each attribute of a Custom Block.

Overriding ASC Defaults using maxDPUTools Referencing

Additionally, each attribute of an Atomic Block is assigned a default ASC,


which may be overridden on an instance-by-instance basis using referencing.
Use maxDPUTools to configure referencing and use the Point Browser to
edit references. See “Reassigning Attribute Security Classes,” later in this
chapter.

maxSTATION Security Levels


Users gaining access to the system are assigned to a maxSTATION security
group. maxSTATION security consists of 10 independent security levels
numbered 0 through 9. The numbered levels correspond with the following
default security level names:

0. Guest
1. LabData
2. Technician
3. Operator 1
4. Operator2
5. Supervisor
6. Tuner
7. Engineer1
8. Engineer2
9. ByPass

Note: Level 0 implies “no write access.” Level 9 is referred to as “Bypass”


mode. When the maxSTATION is at Security Level 9, the DPU will grant all
Writes.

Except for level 9, these levels, used in combination with Attribute Security
Classes and schemes, suggest what areas of a process database such users
should be granted access. The default names may be edited or customized to
meet specific organizational needs.

Upon startup, a maxSTATION assumes a particular level depending on who


is logged on (in the Windows sense) to the station. If the user login is a
member of the engineer group it assumes the default Engineering Level. If
the user login is a member of the operator group it assumes the default
Operator Level.

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Level numbering (Levels 1 – 8) is not to imply a hierarchy as in DBM-based


maxDNA Systems. For instance, level 1 is not necessarily lower than level
2, etc. If you desire, you may use the Security Edit program to make the
current system behave similar to the legacy systems.

To change the maxSTATION security level:

1. From the Windows Task Bar, click Start and point to Programs, maxDNA,
Utilities, and click SetSecurity.exe to access the following pop-up:

Note: To change the maxSTATION security level during maxVUE Runtime


operation: Access the maxVUE Runtime main menu and click the Security
button to open the following Security Pop-up: This pop-up is functionally the
same as the pop-up shown above it.

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2. Select a level and enter the password associated with that level.

The passwords for each level as well as the default Engineering and default
Operator levels are set via the MCS Security Edit utility. See Chapter 3.

Note: to run Security Edit, the currently logged on user must be a member of
the Windows Administrator group.

Using Default Login


Use the Default Login button to change the maxSTATION’s Security level to
the default level that corresponds to the current Windows user.

If the user is a member of the maxSTATION Engineer or Operator group


then the default Engineer/Operator level will be selected. Otherwise the
default is set to 0. The default Engineer and Operator levels are set via the
Security Edit program. The initial values after installation are 3 for Engineer
and 1 for Operator. Depending on the current security level when the Default
Login button is clicked, a password may be required to actually change to
that level.

Changing security levels may not require a password, and depends on the
current and selected passwords, and the Password Entry mode selected via

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System Resources User's Guide

the Security Edit program. The following table describes when a password is
required to change:

From To
Current Level Selected Level Password required
9 Any No
0 Any Yes
Any non-zero Default level for currently No
logged in user
Any non-zero A higher level Yes (unless selected level is the
default)
Any non-zero Any non-zero lower level Yes (unless the Password Entry
mode is set to allow lowering of
security levels without entering a
password).

Attribute Security Class (ASC)


In any process control system, many points may be written to, altering the
process in some way. Operators, for example, may issue write commands to
make mode changes, while engineers may issue writes that tune the system.

In a typical process environment, users issuing writes tend to fall into a small
number of groups. To further enhance process security, it is possible to group
writeable points by a user/application class.

By assigning all writeable points to specific classes, it becomes easier to


associate users with a class or classes. Such users should be permitted to
perform the write based on their role. For instance only Engineers should be
able to do writes that tune the system, whereas Mode changes should, in
general, be performed by an operator. These groups are the basis of Attribute
Security Classes (ASC), a set of sub-attributes.

Each service (Atomic, Standard, and Custom Blocks), is comprised of


attributes. Each attribute, in turn, has a set of sub-attributes. One of these
sub-attributes is Attribute Security Class. Attributes from different atoms
may be members of the same ASC.

The following are the supplied Attribute Security Classes. Each attribute of a
supplied Atomic Function is assigned one of these ASCs.

• ModeChange
• Targets/Commands
• Ack Alarm
• AlarmLimit
• Tune/Adjust
• Configuration

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The eight supplied ASCs cannot be changed. However, you may use the
Security Scheme Editor Utility to create up to eight additional ASCs that can
be applied to attributes of Custom Blocks and overrides of Atomic Function
attributes. Any new ASCs that you create become part of a security database
and are available from a maxDPUTools list box containing known ASCs.

Use maxDPUTools to override the ASC associated with the attribute for a
specific Atomic Block using references. See "Reassigning Attribute Security
Classes." Use maxDPUTools to assign an ASC to the attributes of a Custom
Block. See “Assigning Attribute Security Classes in Custom Blocks.”

Viewing Security Assignments Using Point Browser


The Attribute Security Class values assigned to attributes of an Atomic or
Standard Function Block can be viewed in the Point Browser.

To view ASCs:

1. Open the Point Browser and in the tree view expand the Online
Configuration folder and select the Atom Types by Station /Atl DLL
node.

2. Click on a station (the Atomic or Standard Function Blocks should be the


same for all DPUs).

3. Click on the desired Function Block.

The Attribute Security Class is the right-most column. The ASCs are shown
with the numeric values and the corresponding text as of the last
configuration download via maxDPUTools.

Assigning Attribute Security Classes (ASCs) to Custom Blocks


maxDPUTools assigns the default ASC of 5(Configuration) to the attributes
of Custom Function Blocks.

To change the default setting:

1. Open maxDPUTools and select a Custom Block from the Tree View
pane on the left to open its tabular detail.

2. Click on the Attribute Security Class field and click the down arrow to
open a drop-down box listing available ASCs.

3. Select a different ASC. The following figure shows a drop-down list


box, again with the numeric and corresponding text.

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Reassigning Attribute Security Classes (ASCs):


The ASCs assigned to each Atomic and Standard Function Block attribute
can be viewed via the Point Browser. See "Viewing Security Assignments
using Point Browser." If for a particular instance the ASC value is not
adequate it can be changed using an extended syntax of the Reference field.
The current syntax for “exposing” an attribute using the reference field is
shown below.

>exposedName.newCategory

This is extended as follows:

>exposedName.newCategory.newASC

Where “newASC” is the number of the desired ASC (0 –15). The number
should correspond to one that has been assigned a name in the Security
Schemes Editor.

Other valid syntaxes are:

>..newASC ( only assign a new ASC)

>exposedName..newASC ( expose and assign a new ASC)

>.newCategory.newASC ( assign a new category and new ASC)

To only assign a new ASC:

<newASC

Using Schemes
Schemes define, for each of the ASCs, the Security Levels that are write
enabled. Use maxDPUTools to assign a scheme to each Function Block. A
security database may consist of up to 16 individual schemes. Systems are
supplied with five default schemes that should cover most needs. Use the

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Security Scheme Editor to change these or develop new ones. There is no


fixed set as with the ASCs. The Scheme concept allows you the flexibility to
develop a relatively few write-sensitivity models to apply to Atomic Blocks
or Custom Blocks.

Default and any custom schemes may be viewed and configured in


maxDPUTools when you configure the SvcSecScheme attribute. See the next
section.

Assigning Schemes
Every Function Block has the attribute SvcSecScheme, which contains the
security scheme value. When an instance of a Function Block is created the
SvcSecScheme is assigned a value of 0. See the following figure. Note
although numeric values are stored internally, their corresponding scheme
names, assigned via the Security Schemes Editor, are displayed in the
dropdown list box. Use maxDPUTools to change values and assign new
values.

To configure schemes:

1. Invoke maxDPUTools and open the tabular detail for a specific Atomic
Block.

2. Edit the attribute SvcSecScheme.

Select from one of the following default schemes:

• Normal(0)
• NonCritical(1)
• Calibration(2)
• LockedMode(3)
• Secure points(4)
• Bypass(5)

Note: when you click in a field containing this attribute, you may click a
down arrow to select from a list of available schemes.

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Using Security Scheme Editor Utility


Before using maxDPUTools to configure and download a security database,
use the Security Scheme Editor to define the security database. Use the
Security Scheme Editor Utility to:

• Review and, if necessary, modify default security settings


• Edit security level names
• Edit definable attribute security classes
• Edit scheme names
• Edit scheme definitions

When you invoke the Security Scheme Editor Utility, the following dialog
appears:

Figure 4-1. Schemes View

When you first open the utility, the editor dialog opens in Scheme view. To
open the dialog in Attribute Security Class view or Level view, click the
appropriate buttons under Select View, appearing in the lower right corner of
the dialog. See Figure 4-1.

The Scheme Editor utility operates in two modes. If the currently logged-on
user is a member of the Windows Administrator’s group then the Editor

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executes in read/write mode. Read/write mode allows the database to be


modified. Otherwise the editor executes in Read mode, allowing only view
access.

Note: While in Read mode the editor does allow modification of the screen
data; however the means of saving the edits to the database are disabled.

Figure 4-2. Attribute Security Classes View

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Figure 4-3. Workstation Level View

Each view uses a similar format, but the information is organized differently.

Each of the three views features tabs across the top of the dialog, which may
be scrolled horizontally using the left/right arrow buttons.

When you select a view, tab entries appear for that specific view. For
instance, when the dialog opens in Scheme view, tabs representing each
available scheme appear. When you select Attribute Security Class view, tabs
for each available ASC appear.

The central portion of the dialog presents a table. It is useful to conceptualize


the Security Scheme Database as a three dimensional cube with the axis
being Schemes, ASCs and Security Levels. The editor, accordingly provides
three different two-dimensional views of the cube:

• Scheme View : ASC vs Security Level (for a given Scheme)


• ASC View : Scheme vs Security Level (for a given ASC)
• Level View: Scheme vs ASC (for a given Security Level)

On any given view the fields that are editable have a white background,
while non-editable fields have a gray background.

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In Levels view and Schemes View, rows for Attribute Security Classes
appears on the left. In Attribute Security Classes view, a Schemes row
appears on the left.

Likewise, in ASC and Schemes views, columns for workstation security


levels appear. In workstation Levels view, columns for security schemes
appear.

Editing Security Definitions


To understand how security settings can restrict access to certain data,
consider the following scenario.

The Security Scheme Editor Utility dialog is opened to Schemes view. This
view displays the settings for one scheme at a time. A scheme is selected
from the tabs at the top of the screen. From that view, the ASCs are listed
vertically and the Security Levels are listed horizontally, in a grid-type form.
The corresponding number of each name field is shown along side of it.

For a particular ASC a Security Level is enabled to write to an Attribute in


that ASC when its box is checked. Left clicking on the box toggles its state.

For example, on the scheme named “Normal” suppose Level 3 is the only
level enabled for ASC “ModeChange.” Also suppose that the Atom XYZ
was assigned to Scheme “Normal” via its SvcSecScheme attribute. Then at a
workstation with a Security Level 3, an operator can write to any attribute of
atom XYZ that has an ASC of “ModeChange.” If the workstation is changed
to any other Security Level, Write access to these same attributes would fail.

To edit current security settings:

1. Open the Security Scheme Editor Utility dialog and select a view:

Attribute Security Class


Scheme
Level

2. Select a tab at the top of the dialog and click on checkboxes in the two-
dimensional table to toggle the state of a specific setting.

3. In read/write mode, click the Save button to permanently save database edits.

4. Click the Exit button to close the dialog. If any edits have not been saved,
you are prompted to save or discard them.

5. Use maxDPUTools to download the edited scheme database to the DPU.

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Editing Unique Names and Defining New ASCs and Schemes


Use the Security Scheme Editor Utility to edit existing names or add new
names as you define additional ASCs or Schemes, or define your own
workstation level profiles.

The “Name” elements can be edited only from their respective views. For
instance, Scheme names can be changed only from the Scheme view; it is
grayed-out on other views. Note: the first eight ASC names are reserved for
maxDNA use and cannot be changed.

In the various views, a text field associated with a number may contain a
corresponding Unique Name. For example, under schemes the numbers 00
correspond to the scheme called Normal. Under workstation security levels,
the numbers 03 correspond to Operator1. Additionally, in cases where a user-
defined class or scheme has not been defined, the name field appears blank.

Viewing Security Settings Online in maxVUE Runtime


After the Scheme database is downloaded, use maxVUE to view the contents
of the Security Atomic Block objects within a DPU. The following MCS
supplied display allows the user to select a DPU.

C:\MCS\Displays\MN\SecuritySchemeView\SecuritySchemeView.mn

The display reads the Security Atoms from the selected DPU and presents the
data in exactly the same format as the MCSSecuritySchemesEditor. The only
difference is that all fields are grayed out indicating that no changes can be
made.

Note: Although the display is supplied with the maxVUE Runtime software,
you must set up the screen navigation to access this from their system
displays.

Intra-domain Security Issues


In order for a maxSTATION to be able to write values to another
maxSTATION in the same domain the passwords for the nine security levels
must be the same in both stations.

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maxPROXY: Inter-domain Security Issues


Inter-domain sbp writes are controlled by three factors. First, the Proxy.ini
file in the maxSTATION running maxPROXY lists sbpIds that will be
accepted and passed on the destination unconditionally, without regard for
the security level of the source station. The default Proxy.ini includes entries
for Alarm Paging that should never be removed. Up to eight additional
entries can be added.

For sbpIds that are not listed in Proxy.ini, the second factor applies which is
that the passwords for the nine security levels must be the same in both
stations. If so, the sbp write will be accepted and passed on the destination.
Otherwise, it will be rejected and sent back to the source station with an sbp
error status of SBP_E_AUTHENTICATION_REJECTED (0x86).

After maxPROXY passes the sbp write onto the destination station, the third
factor applies which is the standard process security assigned to the target
sbpId (i.e. tag.attribute). The security level of the source maxSTATION, the
scheme of the service and the ASC of the attribute will determine if it is
accepted or rejected by the destination DPU.

Remote Server Security Issues


SbpWrites from maxSTATIONs that access the maxNET via a Remote
Server are controlled by three factors.

The first factor is the c:\custom\sbp\Remote.ini file in the maxSTATION


running RemoteServe. The [NORMAL_WRITE_IDENTIFIERS] section
lists sbpIds that will be accepted and passed on the destination
unconditionally, without regard for the security level of the source station.
The default Remote.ini includes entries for Alarm Paging, which should
never be removed.

The [WRITE_AUTHORIZATIONS] section contains the stations that are


permitted to perform SbpWrite actions beyond those listed in the
[NORMAL_WRITE_IDENTIFIERS] section.

Additionally, on each station’s entry is a “levels=” field. It lists the security


levels that RemoteServ will allow the remote station to obtain. For instance if
a stations entry contained levels=1,3,5,7 then it would only be permitted to
acquire security levels 1,3,5 and 7 by RemoteServe whenever a user
attempted to change security levels via the maxVUE security popup. The
RemoteServe will modify SbpWrite messages to contain the remote station’s
current security level before passing the message on to its destination.

The second factor that applies is that the passwords for the levels in the
“levels=”field must be the same in the remote maxSTATION and the
maxSTATION running RemoteServ. If so, then a change to this security
level will be accepted. Otherwise, it will be rejected and sent back to the

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System Resources User's Guide

source station with an sbp error status of


SBP_E_INCORRECT_PASSWORD.

After RemoteServe modifies the sbp write message to contain the remote
station’s current security level, it passes the sbp write onto the destination
station. The third factor would then be applied which is the standard process
security assigned to the target sbpId (i.e. tag.attribute). The security level of
the source maxSTATION, the scheme of the tab, and the ASC of the attribute
will determine if it is accepted or rejected by the destination DPU.

Process Security Logic


The following diagram illustrates how a DPU logically processes a security
request. The Process Security logic in the DPU ties together the information
contained in the sbp write message and the Security Atoms as follows:

SbpWrite Request Contains


• ID: <service>.<attribute>
• Security level of source
station.

DPU Write Request Processing for


Service.attribute:
svcScheme = <service>.SvcSecLevel (assigned via maxDPUTools)
attrASC = AttrSecClass of <attribute> ( hardcoded in Atomic and Standard Function
blocks, but may be overridden using reference field via maxDPUTools).

If Security Level of Source Station is write enabled for this attrASC in svcScheme
then allow the write (Status = SBP_OK)
else reject write (status = SBP_E_OPERATION_DISALLOWED)

Security Atoms within DPU


(Contains Security Schemes
database from most recent
configuration download)

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Chapter 5

Checking Configuration Limits


Using the I/O Configurator

Overview
The maxPAC Input/Output System links the maxDNA Distributed Control
System to real world process control inputs and outputs. The number and mix
of I/O modules that may be configured depend on your specific application
requirements, DPU loading, and physical limitations associated with a
maxDNA system. To make it easier and quicker to estimate the number of
I/O modules required, taking into consideration system limits, use the I/O
Configurator estimation tool.

This tool takes the guesswork out of configuration estimating, since it checks
for known system limitations, and even warns you when you enter a
configuration mix that approaches or exceeds these limits.

Once you use the tool to specify an I/O configuration that stays within
system limits, it may be saved and exported to a text file, reloaded for
additional editing, or imported to maxDPUTools.

The tool takes the following factors into account:

• Addressing limitations
• Maximum number of I/O modules by type
• Addresses per module
• Electrical bus limitations
• Burst limits
• Service time base
• Bus Extender Module (BEM) limitations
• Software version

For detailed information, run the “I/O Bus Configuration Limits” program by
clicking the Start button and pointing to All Program, maxDNA, maxDPU
Utilities and clicking on I/O Bus Configuration Limits. Click the Limits
button for the number of addresses per card and number of cards per DPU of
each buffer type. Click the Help button for general help.

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Creating a Configuration with BEMs


A single DPU supports up to 60 modules per electrical bus. To extend the
effective range between a DPU and connected I/O modules, up to eight
BEMs may be used. I/O modules connected to a remote BEM may be
located up to 2000 meters from the DPU. When BEMs are used, a DPU
could support up to 60 modules per location (locally, remotely, or both), and
up to 255 addresses total for the DPU.

While a DPU supports up to 60 I/O per location, as noted, a link delay exists
that is proportional to distance. The Extender circuits themselves introduce
very little delay.

The distance factor primarily impacts Digital Input modules set for SOE
operation. This is caused by the need to scan all SOE cards every 1 ms.

For example, at 2,500 feet, a DPU4E can have 14 DI modules set for SOE.
No other restrictions limiting the number of cards exist. For instance, the
number of thermocouple or analog cards does not decrease because of
distance.

Factoring in Service Time Base


In addition to addressing considerations, service time base settings can limit
the type and number of modules configured. Buffer-type Atomic Function
Blocks provide the interface between the software and hardware components
of the system. Like all Atomic Function Blocks, buffers include a scheduling
capability that controls their execution rate (ServiceTimeBase attribute) and
their order of execution (ServicePriority and ScheduleType)

The ServiceTimeBase attribute lets you configure a three-tier execution rate


for each group and each atomic block within a group, consisting of Normal,
High, and Critical. The default schedule rates are 500ms, 100ms, and 40ms,
respectively.

Service time base especially impacts modules classified as burst cards:

AIs TCs

RTDs Pulse I/Os

The sum of the "burst cards" for each Service Time Base cannot exceed the
table size for that Service Time Base.

See the I/O Bus Configuration Limits program Limits button help for Burst
Table Limits

For a more complete discussion of execution rate, see Publication 278589,


Function Blocks Programmer's Reference Guide, Chapter 1, "Setting Atomic
block and Group Execution Rates and Priorities."

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Checking Configuration Limits Using the I/O Configurator

Specifying Software Versions


The I/O Configurator supports multiple software versions. Specify the
software version installed on your system to get an accurate representation of
I/O modules and features associated with each version. For instance, slow
DIs are available with Ver. 3.X, but not with Ver. 2.X.

Creating an I/O Configuration Using the Configurator


As previously mentioned, start the program by clicking Start and point to
All Programs, maxDNA, maxDPU Utilities and click I/O Bus
Configuration Limits.

The dialog consists of areas for specifying options and for entering I/O
modules types organized by service time base, normal, high, and critical.

The balance of the dialog consists of percentage bars that indicate how much
of the system resources are used by the configuration.

As you create a configuration, refer to the percentage bars to monitor cycle


time and addressing resources, dequeue rates, burst table and queue space,
and bus limits and adjust your configuration accordingly.

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Interpreting Percentage Bars


The percentage bars consist of color-coded bar graphs that change as you
enter quantities of I/O modules. A numerical percentage also appears within
each percentage bar indicating a precise measure of what resources have
been consumed.

The percentage bars are colored green to indicate that the configuration is
within system limits. If any percentage bar exceeds 90 percent, the bar graph
turns yellow. If any percentage bar exceeds 100 percent, the bar graph turns
red.

The two Resources bars represent IOP cycle time and address capacity. The
IOP processor in the DPU processes I/O every millisecond. The millisecond
percentage bar represents the percent of the 1msec cycle consumed by the
current configuration load.

The address percentage bar indicates the percent of addresses consumed by


the current configuration load. As noted, up to 255 addresses are permitted
per DPU.

The dequeue rate percentages bars measure how fast queue items, processed
by the IOP, are moving through five separate queues. The rate that queue
items enter a queue cannot exceed the rate that queue items leave the queue.
Should this occur, an overflow condition exists.

Dequeue rates are directly related to service time base selections (Normal,
High, and Critical). If any queue shows an overflow condition, make
adjustments to time base assignments.

The burst table space and queue space percentage bars represent the size of
the queue space consumed. The burst table space represents the address
space consumed by I/O modules defined as burst cards. Under Normal and
Critical, up to 32 addresses are permitted, respectively. Burst cards should
not be assigned to the critical time base category.

The Errors status area, in the upper right corner of the dialog, summarizes the
status of resources that the I/O Configurator monitors, consisting of:

• Resources (DPU cycle time and address limits)


• Dequeue rates
• Space (burst table and queue space)
• Bus limits (no more than 60 I/O modules per electrical bus; this is related
to the Total field appearing at the bottom of the I/O configuration
columns.)

When a resource in any of these four categories exceeds its limit, the field
next to the category name turns from green to red and the word bad appears.

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Checking Configuration Limits Using the I/O Configurator

Creating an I/O Configuration


To create an I/O configuration:

1. In the Options area of the dialog, select a software version that matches
the version installed on your system.

2. In the field labeled #BEMs, enter the number of Bus Extender Modules
(BEMs) you plan to use. Enter a number from 0 to 8.

3. Note: when you specify a BEM range, the tool adds a BEM tab to the
dialog for each BEM.

4. In the timer fields, enter a range in milliseconds for the service time base.
Use the following ranges or accept the default entries:

DPU4F
Normal Timer range: 100 - 500 milliseconds in multiples of 10.
High Timer range: 40 - 500 milliseconds in multiples of 10.
Critical Timer range: 10 - 100 milliseconds in multiples of 10.

DPU4E
Normal Timer range: 100 - 500 milliseconds in multiples of 20.
High Timer range: 40 - 500 milliseconds in multiples of 20.
Critical Timer range: 20 - 100 milliseconds in multiples of 20.

5. In the Card Select column, click the drop-down arrow next to each
available window field to select an I/O module.

6. For each selected module type, enter how many of that module type will
be needed by scheduling priority as Normal, High, or Critical. As you
enter numbers under each column, a subtotal appears at the bottom of the
columns. Additionally, a grand total appears beneath the subtotals.

Note: you may specify up to 60 modules per DPU. If you also specified
BEM requirements, each BEM is deducted from the total, since a BEM
counts as a module.

Specifying an I/O Configuration with BEMs


If you are creating an I/O configuration that includes BEMs, use the Local
tab to specify I/O module types in combination with each BEM tab to specify
quantities.

To assign I/O modules to a specific BEM:

In the Options area, specify the number of BEMs you will require. When
you specify a BEM quantity, the I/O Configurator creates BEM tabs for the
quantity specified.

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Use the Local tab to specify I/O module types. In the Card Select column,
click the drop-down arrow next to each available window field to select an
I/O module.

Click a desired BEM tab and specify the distance between the remote BEM
rack and the DPU.

On the BEM tab specify a module quantity by type and service time base
(normal, high, critical).

Saving and Reloading a Saved Configuration


The I/O Configurator allows you to save an I/O configuration to a text file,
which you may use to reload a configuration into the application for later
editing.

To save a configuration:

Create a configuration using the I/O Configurator and click the Save button
at the bottom of the dialog.

A dialog prompts you to save any current edits to the configuration. Click
Yes or No. If you click No, current I/O Configurator edits will be lost.

A new dialog appears allowing you to save the configuration with an .ibc
(I/O bus configuration) extension or a .dat extension. Assign a name to the
configuration file, select a directory location, (or accept the default location),
and click Save.

A dialog asks if you would like the ability to import the saved file to
maxDPUTools. Click Yes or No.

To reload the configuration, click the Load button to access a directory and
double-click on the desired file name. The file will open in the I/O
Configurator.

Creating an I/O Configurator Report


You may create a preformatted report, listing all configured I/O modules
organized by service time base, and any selected configuration options.

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Chapter 6

Time Synchronization for DPU4E/F and


DPU4E/F-DBM Systems

Overview
In DPU4E/F-based systems, a single DPU, or a backup pair of DPUs in each
domain, are normally configured as the System Time Master. The master
DPU(s) assumes time mastership over WorkStations and other DPUs within
the time master’s domain.

If the system also contains DBMs, see “Considerations for Mixed


DPU4E/4F-DBM Systems,” later in this chapter.

Theory of Operation
This chapter discusses various options available in a system that can be used
as a central source of time for the system. A DPU pair normally provides the
function of time mastership. Under certain circumstances a workstation can
provide this function at a reduced accuracy.

Either the Workstation or DPU can have an external source of accurate time
such as a GPS.

When selecting the system time source, consider the following two main
factors:

Clock stability with respect to UTC (Universal Coordinated Time) (used


to be called GMT Greenwich Mean Time)

Clock accuracy with respect to UTC

Stability defines how quickly the time drifts relative to UTC. The frequency
of the clock oscillator due to initial frequency error, temperature, and aging
have an affect on stability. The time error caused by stability would typically
increase over time. For clocks, this is usually specified in seconds per day or
seconds per month.

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Accuracy is defined as how close is the time to UTC. This error contribution
would be a fixed offset from UTC time and would be specified as seconds or
milliseconds of error.

Clock Stability
The Workstation and DPU do not contain precision clocks. The time of
these clocks can drift a few seconds per day. There are several ways to
improve the stability. For the Workstation, a stable time card can be added
that contains a temperature compensated oscillator that is also more accurate
than the standard clock. The software will use the time on the stable time
card to continually correct the PC clock. An IRIG time code decoder card
connected to an accurate time source (such as GPS) can also added to a
Workstation that will allow the PC clock to stay synced relative to UTC.

The DPU clock stability can be significantly improved through calibration.


See “Frequency Calibration,” later in this chapter, for information about this
feature. All slave DPUs automatically calculate this adjustment based on the
periodic time syncs received from the time master DPUs. The IRIG time
option of the DPU4E/F allows the DPU to be connected to an accurate time
source (such as GPS).

Clock Accuracy
The clocks of all DPUs within a domain are kept accurate to one another to
allow for proper Sequence of Events (SOE) time syncing regardless of the
time source. Each type of time source will have a different accuracy relative
to UTC.

If the standard PC clock is used, the DPU clock error (relative to UTC) will
be [the error in the time source + the human error in setting the time + the
drift due to stability + 1 sec]. If a stable time card is used, the formula is the
same except that the drift due to stability would be a much smaller number.
Since the drift increases over time, a smaller number would result in much
better average accuracy. If an IRIG time code decoder card connected to an
accurate time source (such as GPS) were added to the Workstation, the
overall DPU clock error would be about ±1 second from UTC.

If the DPU is used as the time source, the accuracy would be similar to the
Workstation and the same formula can be used. The difference is that
improved drift accuracy can be achieved without additional hardware. This
requires manual calibration to be performed. See “Frequency Calibration”
for information.

If the time master DPUs are equipped with the IRIG decoder option and
driven by an accurate IRIG source (e.g., a GPS receiver) then the system time
will be much more accurate. Sequence of Events time tags will be very close
to UTC. The use of this feature is the only way to achieve high Sequence of
Events accuracy between domains.

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Time Synchronization for DPU4E/4F Systems

General Operation
If a DPU receives a time sync or time set message, it first checks to see if the
clock error is greater than 10 seconds. If the difference is greater than 10
seconds, it immediately starts using the new time. If the time is less than 10
seconds, the DPU will gradually adjust out the error to minimize time
synchronization errors.

Achieving time sync may take up to 10 minutes depending on the size and
complexity of a system.

All slave DPUs get their time of day from a time master DPU within their
domain. When the time syncs are received the DPU also calculates a
correction factor that is used to speed up or slow down their internal clocks.
Over time their clock rate should closely match the clock rate of the system
time source. Slave DPUs will only accept time syncs from a Workstation if
they do not detect a DPU time master in their domain. Time master DPUs
will always accept a time sync from a Workstation.

Note: The number of Ethernet switches between the time master DPU and
the time slave DPUs must be limited to two to ensure meeting the SOE
accuracy specification.

In other words, on the A and B control room networks, there can be no


more than two Ethernet switches between the time master DPU and
any other DPU. Otherwise, the inter-DPU SOE time correlation
specification may not be met. For example, in the sketch, DPU A and
DPU B are one Switch away from the time master DPU. DPU C is
two Switches away from the time master DPU. This is a valid
configuration. However, DPU D is three Switches away from the time
master DPU. That is not recommended for SOE operation as it will
add additional time correlation error.

Ethernet Switch 1 Ethernet Ethernet


Switch 2 Switch 3

DPU A DPU B Time Master DPU C DPU D


DPU

Using a Workstation as the Time Source


This option is not recommended in a DPU4E/F system. With no additional
hardware, the DPU can be adjusted to be more stable than a workstation by
making the frequency calibration adjustment. There is no equivalent option
in the Workstation unless optional hardware is added.

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System Resources User's Guide

The steps for this option are the same as covered in the section “Using a
Stable Time Card in the maxSTATION” except:

Use the standard operating system utility to set the time in the Workstation.

Using an IRIG Card in the Workstation


The steps for this option are the same as described in the section “Using a
Stable Time Card in the maxSTATION” except:

Use the standard operating system utility to set the date in the Workstation.

DPU4E/4F Time
Relative vs. Time of Day
The DPU maintains two clocks: a relative time, and the time of day,
maintained as Universal Coordinated Time (not local time). All timings
(sequences, pulses, and delta time for analog functions) are relative.
Changing the time of day will not impact the proper operation of DPU
function blocks. Time of day is used to mark events such as sequence of
events.

Understanding the _timesync Object


The DPU contains a standard object within its point database called
_timesync. This is the control center of the time synchronization process.
The family of utilities that support time synchronization refer to attributes
that are members of the _timesync object. Member attributes consists of
the following:

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Time Synchronization for DPU4E/4F Systems

Members Description
CurrentError An indication of the difference between this DPU and the
master (not currently implemented).

IRIGAlignment Should be 1 except where the difference between local


and UTC (Universal Coordinated Time) is not an integral
hour.

IRIGTime Seconds from the IRIG signal.

IRIGType Zero for no card. Non zero dependent on card type that is
installed.

LastSyncVarA, This is the calculated time error detected during the most
LastSyncVarB recent time sync. This value needs to occasionally go
under MaxNetError for time sync to work.

MaxNetError Normally set at 400 microseconds, this is the maximum


allowable error detected during time synchronization. If
the calculated error is greater than this setting, the time
sync message is ignored and the DPU waits for the next
time sync.

This parameter can be set higher to get synchronization


where there may be longer communication delays (such
as more than two hops through switches) but this will
reduce the DPU to DPU time synchronization accuracy.

SecErrPerDay_P A calibration factor for the primary DPU of a DPU pair


that is a time master where there is no IRIG card. Note
that a positive number will make the clock run faster; a
negative number will make the clock run slower.

SecErrPerDay_S The calibration factor for a secondary DPU.

TimeMaster Set to 1 on one DPU or pair of DPUs in a domain.

Using a DPU With Optional IRIG Interface


Overview
The DPU4E/F supports an IRIG interface option. If the IRIG input signal
comes from an accurate time source, such as a GPS receiver, then the DPU
will closely track accurate global time. The IRIG signal is brought in through
an optional BNC connection on the DPU chassis for a DPU4E or a BNC
connection on the front panel of a DPU4F. Consult the DPU HW manual or
the factory for the additional hardware and installation instructions for these
options.

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An IRIG option must be installed in the DPU that is to be the time master for
the domain. Only one DPU (or DPU pair) is permitted to be the time master
for a domain. It is not necessary for the other DPUs in the domain to have
the IRIG option since they will operate as time slaves and get accurate time
from the time master DPU. Since each domain is accurately synced to global
time, this allows the various domains to remain in SOE time sync to each
other.

The time master DPU will receive the accurate time of day from the IRIG
signal but the day, month, and year will initially need to be set from the
workstation. Use either of the time set utilities, described in the following
sections, to set the approximate time. Be sure to first set the security level to
7 or above. Next, set the attribute, _timesync.IRIGType = 1, so that the DPU
will get the time of day from the IRIG card. Finally, the
_timesync.TimeMaster attribute should be set = 1. As long as a good time
source is connected to the IRIG input, this DPU will synchronize all the
DPUs in its domain and all workstations that have direct access to this DPU
as defined in the Domain Configurator. (See the chapter, in this manual, on
Setting up Domains).

maxTRANSPORT has an option settable in the startup configurator that


allows the workstation to ignore time syncs from the DPU. This parameter
should NOT be set on any of the workstations so that they respond to the
time sync from the DPU.

If the time master DPU needs to have the date changed, use either the
TimeSet.mn or the Manual Time Set portion of the TimeSync program to
send the date to the DPU. See “Using TimeSet.mn maxVUE Control” and
“Using TimeSync Program to Set Time.”

The next section discusses IRIG configuration and attributes in more detail.

DPU4E/F IRIG Configuration Procedure

Your security level must be set to at least 7 during this procedure.

Configure the TimeSync Atom


The TimeSync atom in the time master DPU (the DPU or DPU pair with the
IRIG decoder option) must be configured as follows.

IRIGType = 1 (IRIG card is installed)

TimeMaster = 1 (this DPU is the time master)

IRIGAlignment = 1 (60 minutes), 2 (30 minutes) or 3 (fifteen


minutes)

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Time Synchronization for DPU4E/4F Systems

Choose this setting based upon your time zone’s offset from
GMT as follows.

If your time zone is an integral number of hours from GMT,


choose 1 (e.g., if your time zone is 5:00 (h:m) from GMT).

If your time zone is offset from GMT by a multiple of 30


minutes, choose 2 (e.g., if your time zone is 5:30 (h:m) from
GMT).

If your time zone is offset from GMT by a multiple of 15


minutes, choose 3 (e.g., if your time zone is 5:15 or 5:45
(h:m) from GMT).

If you enter these settings via the Point Browser, don’t forget to also add
them to the DPU’s database so the settings will not be lost at the next
download.

Initialize the time in the DPU

WARNING
This procedure will send a time change to all DPUs, DBMs and direct access workstations in the
domain. You may lose events, process history, etc. Perform these steps with caution.

The DPU only uses the least significant portion of the IRIG time signal.
Therefore, the current time (including date and hour) must be sent to the time
master DPU by a workstation. This is also important because the DPU will
not accept time from the IRIG source unless the DPU’s internal time
(minutes and seconds) is close to that of the IRIG time signal that it is
receiving.

Check the date in the workstation and correct it if necessary.

Look at the IRIG source and note the time. Set the workstation time to that
value (within the tolerances listed below).

Look at the time master DPU’s internal time and date and compare it to the
IRIG source time. If it is within the tolerance’s listed below, skip the rest of
this section as the DPU time/date has already been initialized. The DPU’s
internal time may be read in the “Time” field of the TimeSync atom or on the
DPU4E and DPU4F Details displays in maxVUE.

Tolerances:

If IRIGAlignment = 1 (60 minutes), the time/date must be within +/-


30 minutes.

If IRIGAlignment = 2 (30 minutes), the time/date must be within +/-


15 minutes.

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If IRIGAlignment = 3 (15 minutes), the time/date must be within +/-


7.5 minutes.

If you need to initialize the DPU’s time/date, use either the TimeSet.mn or
the Manual Time Set portion of the TimeSync program to send the
workstation’s time and date to the DPU. See “Using TimeSet.mn maxVUE
Control” and “Using TimeSync Program to Set Time.”

Verify that the DPU is synchronized to the IRIG source


Connect the IRIG source to the DPU.

Use the Point Browser to look at the TimeSync atom in the time master DPU.

Look at the “IRIGTime” field. It should be incrementing and its value


should be equal to the minutes of the IRIG time within the context of the
IRIGAlignment setting. This is the value that the DPU is decoding from the
IRIG input signal.

If IRIGAlignment = “1”, the IRIGTime value will count from 0


seconds to 59.999 minutes and then repeat.

If IRIGAlignment = “2”, the IRIGTime value will count from 0


seconds to 29.999 minutes and then repeat.

If IRIGAlignment = “3”, the IRIGTime value will count from 0


seconds to 14.999 minutes and then repeat.

You may also look at the “TimeError” field. Its value represents the
difference between the IRIGTime and the DPU’s internal time (“Time”
field). The DPU will gradually adjust its internal minutes and seconds time
to match the value from the IRIGTime. Thus, the TimeError should
gradually decrease toward 0 seconds.

The “Time” field should follow (within a second or two) the value of the
IRIG source. The maxVUE display has a two second refresh rate so it may
not exactly match the value seen on your IRIG clock. It may take up to two
minutes for the DPU’s time to initially sync with the IRIG time because the
DPU’s internal time is designed to gradually drift into the new value.
However, it typically only takes 10 – 20 seconds for the initial sync. Once
they are synchronized, the DPU time will track the IRIG time.

Note – Depending upon how your system is set up and when you observe the
time, it is possible that the DPU time may vary from the time displayed by
the IRIG source in the hours, day, month or year values. This is because the
DPU only reads minutes and seconds from the IRIG source, ignoring the
hour and day-of-year information (the IRIG signal does not even contain
year information). That is done so that the DPU can work properly with
IRIG sources that generate either local or GMT time. The DPU only
displays GMT time. Your IRIG clock display might be configured to display

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Time Synchronization for DPU4E/4F Systems

local time.

Furthermore, because the DPU only gets minutes and seconds from the IRIG
source, it is possible that a configuration error could cause the DPU time to
have a constant offset from IRIG time. For example, assume that the current
GMT (IRIG) time/date is January 7, 2004 at 16:43:15. Further assume that
you made a mistake and initialized the DPU’s time to October 25, 1999 at
07:38:22. The DPU would lock into the minutes and seconds from the IRIG
time source but would report the wrong year, month, day and hour (i.e., the
DPU’s internal time would go to October 25, 1999 at 07:43:15). It would
continue to decode and report the accurate minutes and seconds. The rest of
the time/date value would increment at the proper rate but would always be
in error. This offset error will not occur if you correctly initialize the DPU
time.

This concludes the IRIG set up.

Using a Stable Time Card in the maxSTATION


If a stable time card is installed in a maxSTATION then this station becomes
the source of accurate time for the system.

To set accurate time:

1. Set the security level to 7 or higher.

2. Use the utilities that came with the card to set the time in this
workstation. Use a known good time reference to set the time as
accurately as possible.

3. Use the StartupConfig utility to run the TimeSync program on this


station. Refer to Publication 278594, maxSTATION Auxiliary Functions,
a User’s Guide.

Edit the c:\custom\sbp\timesync.ini to include the lines:


SYNC [DpuName1] Will sync this DPU if it is time master of a Domain.

SYNC [DpuName2]

SYNC <Domain1> Will sync Workstations in Domain1 that do not have


direct DPU4E/F access.
SYNC <Domain2>
AUTOSYNC ON Will cause the program to periodically synchronize
the listed devices

4. Use the Time Sync program to send the time to the time master DPU (s).

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5. Set the attribute, _timesync. TimeMaster = 1, in each of the designated


DPUs. This will start that DPU sending time sync messages to all DPUs
in the same domain and to all workstations that have direct access to that
DPU.

Each hour the TimeSync program updates DPU time for a time master DPU
specified in the TimeSync.ini file. In addition, every 5 seconds the TimeSync
program will synchronize Workstations in the domains specified in the
TimeSync.ini. The time master DPU will in turn synchronize the other DPUs
within that domain and workstations to which it has direct access. If a
workstation has direct access to more that one time master DPU it will stay
with the first DPU that sends the time sync message until that DPU stops
acting as time master.

maxTRANSPORT has a startup option (No Time Sync) to allow a station to


ignore incoming timesync messages. If this parameter is set, the workstation
will ignore time syncs from the DPU. This parameter MUST be set on the
workstation with the accurate time card and NOT set on all other
workstations.

Using a DPU with No IRIG Interface


If the DPU4E/F system has no specialized hardware or external time
interface, all stations can still be accurately synchronized to one another
within a domain. One DPU (or DPU pair) from each domain must be
designated to be the time master.

To manually adjust time:

1. Set the security level to 7 or higher.

2. Use the TimeSync program or the TimeSet.mn pop-up to set the time.
Use a time reference, as accurate as possible, to set the time. This will set
the time in this workstation and the time master DPU. If the system has
more than one domain a time set will be sent to the time master in each
domain if this station has direct access.

3. Set the attribute, _timesync. TimeMaster = 1, in each of the designated


DPUs. This will start that DPU sending time sync messages to all DPUs
in the same domain and to all workstations that have direct access to that
DPU. This attribute should also be set in the maxTOOLS4E
configuration file so that the state is preserved on a full download.

4. Repeat the time set at a later date as needed. Performing the DPU
frequency calibration procedure will significantly increase the time
between required time sets. See "Frequency Calibration," later in this
chapter.

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Note: if there is no time master within a domain, any DPU will accept a time
set. Once a DPU is set as time master, only the time master DPU will accept
a time set from a workstation.

maxTRANSPORT has a startup parameter that allows the workstation to


ignore time syncs from the DPU (No Time Sync). This parameter should
NOT be set on this workstation that does not contain a stable time card. The
time set will set the time master DPU and then in turn all workstations will
be set by that DPU.

Using TimeSync Program to Set Time


Use the TimeSync program to send a new time and date on command to a
DPU4E/F, Workstation or DBM.

The utility responds to manual time sets from the TimeSet.mn display by
sending the date and time to devices specified for automatic synchronization.

It periodically synchronizes DPUs, Workstations, and DBMs and contains a


diagnostic display for detecting time problems within the system.

Parameter Initialization
TimeSync includes several settings listed in an associated TimeSync.ini file,
which may be edited to suit your current requirements. The initial setup is
determined by c:\Custom\Sbp\TimeSync.ini at the time the program is
launched. The following is a summary of the parameter options:
SYNC [DPU4e] | <Domain> | RTG

This command is used to specify which DPU's and domains TimeSync will
synchronize automatically as well as in response to writes to manual time
sets from TimeSet.mn. It also allows the synchronization of DBMs through
the use of the RTG option. See the following various uses:
SYNC [DPU54]

The specified DPU will be synchronized once per hour if AUTOSYNC is set
to ON. This DPU must also be a time master.
SYNC <UNIT5>

This causes all workstations in the specified domain that do not have direct
DPU access to be synchronized every five seconds, so long as AUTOSYNC
is set to ON. This is also used for manual time entry using either the
TimeSet.mn or this TimeSync program.
SYNC RTG

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This causes TimeSync to synchronize the DBM clocks every five seconds. It
also causes them to respond to manual time entries made in either
TimeSet.mn or the TimeSync program. This command will also synchronize
the clocks of all DPU time masters that this workstation can see, even if they
aren't listed in this file as devices to be synced. Be careful with this
command.
AUTOSYNC ON | OFF

This command turns automatic synchronization on and off. If automatic


synchronization is on, all the objects named on SYNC lines will be kept in
sync by TimeSync. If it is set to off, TimeSync will not function in this way.
If this line isn't present, it defaults to being on.

For example:

Turning on automatic mode: AUTOSYNC ON

Turning off automatic mode: AUTOSYNC OFF

SECURITY n

This command sets the minimum security level that a user must have for the
TimeSync program to respond to manual entries in TimeSet.mn.

Important: If this line isn't present, the value defaults to nine.

For example:

Setting the minimum security to level seven: SECURITY 7

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Accessing the TimeSync Program


To access the program, you may create a Windows desktop shortcut. The
program can be found in c:\mcs\sbp\TimeSync.exe.

The TimeSync program can be launched automatically upon station startup


via the Setup options on the Startup Configuration Tool. Refer to
Publication 278594, maxSTATION Auxiliary Functions, a User’s Guide. Be
sure to uncheck the “Run as Service” box to have access to the dialog from
the desktop.

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Once launched an icon will appear in the task bar. Click on the icon to
bring up the user interface. The c:\custom\sbp\TimeSync.ini will be used to
initialize the preferences whether automatically or manually launched.

This window contains three main sections:

Manual Time,
Workstation Time,
Out of Sync Objects.

In addition, the bottom portion of the dialog contains the State field and a
Minimize button.

The State field indicates whether automatic synchronization is active. If a


problem occurs with the system clock, the message will read “Disabled.
Check System Clock.” In this situation, automatic synchronization will not
start.

Click Minimize to hide the window again.

Manually Setting Time for One Object


Note: if there is no time master within a domain, any DPU will accept a time
set. Once a DPU is set as time master, only the time master DPU will accept
a time set from a workstation.

To enter a specific time manually and send it to one object:

1. In the Time field, enter a specific time to be sent to the network object
specified in the object list.

2. In the Object List field click the down arrow to select from a list of
network objects to synchronize. Only domains and DPU’s are considered
valid objects. Individual workstations cannot be synchronized.

3. Click the Sync One Object button to synchronize the object selected in
the Object List drop down using the time entered in the time fields as a
reference.

Click the Get Current Time button to refresh the time fields with current
workstation time.

Setting Workstation Time for One or More Objects


Use the Workstation Time section to send the current Workstation time to
one object or to all objects specified in the c:\Custom\Sbp\TimeSync.ini.

This area of the dialog contains a time field showing the current workstation
time and date. These information-only fields cannot be edited. The “Sync”

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column shows which objects are being monitored by the TimeSync program
as specified via the TimeSync.ini file.

In the Object List area, click the down arrow to select from a drop-down list
of network objects to synchronize. Only domains and DPU’s are considered
valid objects. Individual workstations cannot be synchronized.

Click the Sync One Object button to synchronize the object selected in the
Object List drop down using the current workstation time as a reference.

The Object List displays information about devices that TimeSync knows
about based upon the current selection in the filter drop down.

Filter Drop Down filters the contents of the list display. The options are as
follows:

Display All Objects: Displays everything TimeSync knows about.


Display DPUs: Displays DPU’s only.
Display Workstations: Displays workstations only.
Display Domains: Displays domains only.
Display Time Masters: Displays only DPU Time Masters.
Display Time Sync Objects: Displays only objects in TimeSync.ini.

Synchronizing All Objects


To synchronize all objects named in TimeSync.ini at once:

Click the Sync All Objects button to access the following window.

The display includes a Result List showing all of the devices that will be
synchronized as a result of the Sync All Objects command. This list includes
only devices listed in timesync.ini.

The Result field summarizes whether the operation succeeded or failed.

Click the Synchronize button to synchronize all devices named in the list.

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Click the Close button to close the window without taking any action.

Reviewing the Out of Sync Objects List


Use the Out of Sync Objects section to diagnose time sync problems within
the system.

The only control present in this box is the list itself. It displays all objects
that are at least two seconds out of sync with local workstation time. The list
displays troubleshooting information, which includes the domain(s) to which
each out of sync device is assigned. The TimeSync program generates an
alarm when objects are added to this list.

Troubleshooting Problems
Problem Possible Remedy
Manual Sync on a domain doesn’t Is the domain currently being automatically
work. synchronized? If so, the time you have written
to it is getting immediately overwritten with
the workstation time.
The TimeSync workstation isn’t On a mixed system, the workstation with the
being recognized as a Time stable time card and TimeSync must have the
Master. lowest node ID, as in the TCP/IP address
(xxx.xxx.xxx.nodeID).
Synchronizing a DPU doesn’t The DPU may not be a time master. Only time
work, either manually or masters export the _SET_TIME.TIME
automatically. symbol, which TimeSync writes to.
If trying to synchronize automatically or
through “Sync All Objects” the device needs
to have a SYNC <deviceName> entry in
TimeSync.ini.

Using TimeSet.mn maxVUE Control


Note: Using the default security scheme the user must be at Security Level 7
or higher to set the time.

Use the TimeSet.mn control to enter a time to be set. Click the Apply button
to send the time to the local workstation time and to the DPU (or DPU pair)
that is set as time master. If there is more than one domain and this
workstation has direct access to them, each time master DPU will be time
synced. The day/month/year (which cannot be changed from this display)
must be changed in Windows.

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Loss of Time Sync


During the time sync process, the drift of all clocks will be accurately
adjusted. This will allow a system without a time sync to retain
synchronization to within a few seconds for a considerable length of time
after loss of a time sync master.

Frequency Calibration
To compensate for inaccuracies in clock crystal frequencies, a calibration
constant can be written to the Time Sync Master DPU. This enhanced feature
allows the DPU clock to be accurate much longer in the event of a failure of
the time master DPU.

To set the time, use the TimeSync program or the TimeSet.mn display. See
“Using TimeSet.mn maxVUE Control” and “Using TimeSync Program to
Set Time.” Select the Sync One Object or Apply button as accurately as
possible to minimize the error. In a 24-hour period, the time on the CRT
should be compared to the same time source used to set the time the day
before.

The time error in seconds can be measured and adjusted as necessary to be


number of seconds per day. This calibration factor should then be written to
the active DPU. If the primary DPU is active then the SecErrPerDay_P
attribute should be set. If the secondary is active then the SecErrPerDay_S
should be written. The factor should be positive to speed up the clock and
negative to slow it down.

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Repeat this procedure as necessary. You need not perform this every day
once the first adjustment is made. For each successive correction the
additional correction should be added or subtracted from the original
correction factor.

When the inactive DPU becomes active, it saves both the _s and _p
correction factors. Each DPU will need to be calibrated while being active
since the inactive DPU’s clock will automatically be time synced to the
active DPU’s clock.

Considerations for Mixed DPU4E/F and DBM Systems


In mixed systems with DPU4E/Fs and DBM, decide which device would be
the best source of accurate time. This source could be any of the following:

Stable time card or IRIG (GPS) source in a Workstation


IRIG (GPS) in a DPU4E/F
IRIG (GPS) in a DPU4
Stable time card in a Release E Applications Client
MAX1 Operator Station

Stable Time Card or IRIG (GPS) Source in a Workstation


For this application it would be best to run the TimeSync program in
Autosync mode and add the following lines in the
c:\Custom\Sbp\TimeSync.ini file:
SYNC RTG
AUTOSYNC ON

This line causes the program to use the Real Time Gateway (RTG) to
periodically send time sync messages to the DBMs. All DPUs that are set as
time masters will also respond to this message even if they are not
specifically listed in the TimeSync.ini file for synchronization. The DPU
time master will synchronize any Workstations that do not have their
maxTRANSPORT time sync disabled. The DBMs will synchronize any
Workstations that are running RTG and do not have time sync disabled.

By default, the Real Time Gateway (RTG) will receive time sync from the
DBMs and will not be a time master for the DBMs. The default for the
maxTRANSPORT is that it will honor time sync from the DPU. All three of
these need to be changed in the Workstation that will be the source of
accurate time.

To set up maxTRANSPORT:

1. Set the Stable Time Card option for maxTRANSPORT line in startup
configurator.

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2. Set the No Time Sync option for Real Time Gateway in the startup
configurator.

3. Use the startup configurator to automatically launch the TimeSync


program.

Any of the other Workstations that are running RTG and also have access to
DPUs must either disable maxTRANSPORT (DPU) or RTG (DBM)
synchronization. If both are left enabled (which is the default), conflicts will
occur over which station is controlling time for those Workstations.

IRIG (GPS) in DPU4, MAX1 Operator Station, or Stable Card in


Release E AC
In these cases the source of time will be the DBM portion of the system. One
Workstation will need to run the TimeSync program so that time can be
periodically propagated to the DPUs and Workstations that do not have
direct access to either DPUs or DBMs.

The TimeSync.ini file will need to include the following lines as necessary.
SYNC [DPU1] Will sync this DPU if it is time master of a domain.

SYNC [DPU2]

SYNC <DOMAIN1> Will sync workstations in Domain1 that do not have


DPU or DBM access.
SYNC <DOMAIN2>

AUTOSYNC ON Will periodically sync the specified stations.

The SYNC RTG line should NOT be included in the .ini file.

To set up maxTRANSPORT:

Set the Stable Time Card option for maxTRANSPORT in the startup
configurator for the Workstation running the TimeSync program.

Any of the other Workstations that are running RTG and also have access to
DPUs must either disable maxTRANSPORT (DPU) or RTG (DBM)
synchronization. If both are left enabled (which is the default), there will be
conflicts over which station is controlling time.

To disable the RTG set the No Time Sync option in startup configurator.

To disable the maxTRANSPORT set the No Time Sync option for transport
via the startup configurator.

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