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Body Fuels

Source : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22593/#A2208

1. Glucose1
 Glikolisis
 Dalam sitosol2
 3 tahapan
i. Conversion3: Glucose 4 Fructose 1,6-biphosphate
ii. Cleavage : Fructose 1,6-biphosphate  Two three-carbon fragments5
iii. Harvest6 : three-carbon fragments 7 pyruvate8
 Pyruvate dipecahkan kepada alanine (melalui transaminasi pyruvate)
dan lactate. Lactate diubah (gluconeogenesis) menjadi glucose di hepar
(Cori cycle)
 Alanine dibawa ke hepar dan diproses menjadi urea (melalui deaminasi)
dan pyruvate. Urea dieksresi manakala pyruvate diubah semula menjadi
fatty acids atau glukosa
 Citric acid cycle
2. Lactate
3. Ketone Bodies
4. Fatty Acids
 Esterified and released from triacyglycerols9
 Esterified (di hepar) menjadi glycerol phosphate, kemudiannya membentuk triacylglycerol
 Transported ke adipose tissue dalam partikel2 lipoprotein (eg: LDL)

1
Suatu molekul organic dengan 6-carbon backbone
2
Glukosa perlu masuk dulu untuk diproses sebab G-6-P bercas negative so tak boleh melepasi membrane sel. G-6-
P tidak stabil so lebih mudah termetabolisme
3
Untuk trap glucose dalam sel dan membentuk compound yang boleh dipecah secara mudah (can be readily
cleaved) menjadi phosphorylated three-carbon units
4
Melalui phosphorylation (oleh hexokinase: transfer phosphoryl group ke hydroxyl group di C-6 glukosa),
isomerization dan 2nd phosphorylation
5
Readily interconvertible
6
ATP is harvested/generated when 3-carbon fragments oxidized into pyruvate
7
Melalui oksidasi
8
Suatu molekul organic dengan 3-carbon backbone yang terbentuk (dalam badan) melalui glikolisis dan memiliki
functional groups berupa Ketone dan carboxylate (so ia adalah sejenis keto acid). Melalui 2 jalur (gluconeogenesis
melalui oksidasi atau sintesis lipid dan asam lemak melalui acetyl-CoA)
9
Enormous reservoir of metabolic fuels, disimpan dalam jaringan adiposa
In human beings, the liver is the major site of fatty acid synthesis. Recall that
these fatty acids are esterified in the liver to glycerol phosphate to form
triacylglycerol and are transported to the adipose tissue in lipoprotein particles,
such as very low density lipoproteins (Section 26.3.1). Triacylglycerols are not
taken up by adipocytes; rather, they are first hydrolyzed by an extracellular
lipoprotein lipase for uptake. This lipase is stimulated by processes initiated by
insulin. After the fatty acids enter the cell, the principal task of adipose tissue is
to activate these fatty acids and transfer the resulting CoA derivatives to
glycerol in the form of glycerol 3-phosphate. This essential intermediate in
lipid biosynthesis comes from the reduction of the glycolytic intermediate
dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Thus,adipose cells need glucose for the synthesis
of triacylglycerols (Figure 30.13).

Tambahan info

Kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group


from ATP to an acceptor. Hexokinase, then, catalyzes the transfer of a
phosphoryl group from ATP to a variety of six-carbon sugars (hexoses),
such as glucose and mannose. Hexokinase, like adenylate kinase (Section
9.4.2) and all other kinases, requires Mg2+ (or another divalent metal ion
such as Mn2+) for activity. The divalent metal ion forms a complex with ATP.