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Gerakan Pada Garis Lurus

BAB
Motion Along a Straight Line Tarikh/ Date …………..
9

Hasil Pembalajaran SESARAN/ DISPLACEMENT

1.1 Mengenal pasti arah sesaran suatu zarah dari satu titik tetap.
1.2 Menentukan sesaran suatu zarah dari satu titik tetap.
1.3 Menentukan jumlah jarak yang dilalui oleh suatu zarah dalam sesuatu tempoh masa tertentu
menggunakan kaedah graf

1.1 Mengenal pasti arah sesaran suatu zarah dari satu titik tetap
Identify direction of displacement of a particle from a fixed point.

SESARAN / DISPLACEMENT
Sesaran suatu zarah adalah jarak zarah dari satu titik tetap O diukur dalam satu arah tertentu.
A displacement of a particle is the distance of a particle from a fixed point,O, measured towards a specific
direction.

A. Mengenalpasti Sesaran Suatu Zarah Dari Satu Titik Tetap


Identify Direction Of Displacement Of A Particle From A Fixed Point

NOTA/ NOTES:
Jika sebelah kanan O dianggap positif maka :
If the right side of O is considered the positive direction, then:

Sesaran Orentasi Contoh


Displacement Orientation Example
S = 10m
1.Positif Zarah berada disebelah KANAN O Zarah berada disebelah Kanan O
Positive The particle is on the RIGHT of O. The particle is 10m on the right of O
S = - 7m
2.Negatif Zarah berada 7m disebelah kiri O
Negative Zarah berada sebelah KIRI O The particle is 7 m on the left of O
The particle is on the LEFT of O

3.Sifar S = 0m
Zero Zarah berada di O atau kembali ke titik O Zarah berada pada titik O
The particle is AT O or return to O again The particle is at O

Contoh 1 /Example 1 Latihan 1/ Exercise 1

Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis lurus Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis lurus dan
dan sesarannya dari titik tetap O ditandakan sebagai sesarannya dari titik tetap O ditandakan sebagai s,.
s,. Dengan mengambil arah kekanan O sebagai Dengan mengambil arah kekanan O sebagai sebagai
sebagai positif, tentukan kedudukan zarah bagi positif, tentukan kedudukan zarah bagi setiap sesaran
setiap sesaran berikut dari O berikut dari O
A particle moves along a straight line with the displacement A particle moves along a straight line with the displacement s,
s, from a fixed point O. Assuming movement to the right from a fixed point O. Assuming movement to the right is
is positive determine the position of the particle for each of positive determine the position of the particle for each of
displacement from O. displacement from O.
a) 20 m (b) - 17m (c) 0 m a) 10 m (b) - 56 m (c) - 4 m

Penyelesaian: Solution
a) Zarah berada 20m di sebelah kanan titik O
The particle was 20m to the right of point O
b) Zarah berada 17m disebelah kiri titik O
The particle was 7m to the left of point O
c) Zarah berada titik O
The particle was at point O

104
Jenis jarak yang dijalani
Type of distance travelled

Tempoh Jarak dijalani Contoh Pernyataan


Duration Distance travelled Example statement
n saat pertama s t=0 ke st = n Jumlah jarak dijalani di dalam 3 saat pertama, s t=0 to st=3
The first n second s t=0 to st = n Total distance travelled during the first 3 second s t=0 to st=3
Saat ke - n s t=0 ke st = n Jumlah jarak dilalui dalam saat ke 3 , s t=2 ke st=n
th
The n second s t=n-1 to st=n Total distance travelled during the 3th second s t=2 to st=n

Contoh 2/ Example 2 Latihan2 / Exercise2

Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis lurus 1. Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis
dan melalui titik tetap O. Sasarannya S meter diberi lurus dan melalui titik tetap O. Sasarannya S meter
sebagai s = t² -2t. Cari sesaran zarah apabila : diberi sebagai s = t³ - 2t² -3. Cari sesaran zarah
A particle moves along a straight line and the displacement apabila :
,s meter is gigen as S = t² -2t ,Find the displacement A particle moves along a straight line and the displacement
when ,s meter is gigen as s = t³ - 2t² -3,Find the
(a) t = 4 s (b) t = 8s (c) t = 10s displacement when
(a) t = 1 s (b) t = 3s (c) t = 7s
penyelesaian
s = t² -2t. penyelesaian
2
a) t = 4, s=(4) – 2(4) = 8m
2
b) t = 8, s= (8) -2(8) = 48m
2
c) t = 10, s = (10) – 2(10) = 80m

2. Sesaran, s meter suatu zarah dari titik tetap O, t saat selepas zarah itu mula bergerak diberi oleh s = f(t).
Hitung (a) Sesaran dan (b) masa yang diambil.
The displacement, s meters, of particle from a fixed point O, t seconds after the start of the motion, is given by s = f(t).
Calculate (a) the displacement and (b) the time taken.
2 2
1. S = 7t – 5t 2. s = t – 2t
(a) Apabila t= 4 (b) Apabila s = - 2 (a) Apabila t= 7 (b) Apabila s = - 2
When t =4 When s = - 2 When t =7 When s = - 2

2 2
3. s = 2t – 5t + 6 4. s = 4t – 3t + 2
a) Apabila t= 8 (b) Apabila s = 3 a) Apabila t= 4 (b) Apabila s = -2
When t =8 When s = 3 When t =4 When s = -2

105
B. Menentukan jumlah jarak yang dilalui oleh suatu zarah dalam sesuatu tempoh masa tertentu menggunakan kaedah graf
Determine the total distance travelled by a particle over a time interval using graphical method .
Contoh 2/ Example 2
a) Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis b) Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis
lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas
2
melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s = 8  4t².Cari jumlah melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s = 4t – t .
jarak yang dilalui dalam 4 saat pertama. A particle moves along a straight line passing through O. Its
A particle moves along the straight line with the displacement, s metres, from O at t seconds after passing
displacement s m and t is the time after passing through through O is given by
2
the fixed point O. Given the displacement s = 8  4t² s = 4t – t .
therefore find the total distance travelled in the first 4 (a) Cari sesaran zarah apabila,
seconds. Find the displacement of the particle when
(i) t = 0, (ii) t = 1, (iii) t = 3, (iv) t = 5
Lakarkan graf sesaran melawan masa pergerakkan zarah
bagi
0t 5
Sketch the displacement-time graph of the motion of the particle
for 0  t  5
(b) Bilakah zarah tersebut kembali ketitik O sekali lagi?.
When is the particle back at O once again?

Jwb/Ans = 64m
c) Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis d) Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis
lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas
2 2
melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s = t + 3t – 10 melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s = 80t – 4t .
A particle moves along a straight line passing through O. Its A particle moves along a straight line passing through O. Its
displacement, s metres, from O at t seconds after passing displacement, s metres, from O at t seconds after passing
2 2
through O is given by s = t + 3t – 10 . through O is given by s = 80t – 4t .
Cari /Find (a) Bilakah masa zarah tersebut ,/ When is the particle
(a) sasaran permulaan
the initial displacement,
(i) 300 m disebelah kanan O? /300 m to the right of O ?

(b) sesaran apabila t = 3


the displacement when t = 3,
(ii) 500 m disebelah kiri O ?/ 500 m to the left of O ?

(c) Jarak yang dijalani dalam saat ke empat


the distance travelled in the fourth second.
(iii) melalui O semula?/ passing through O again?

(b) Cari masa apabila / Find the time interval when


(i) zarah berherak kesebelah kanan
the particle moves to the right
(d) jumlah jarak yang dilalui dalam 4 saat pertama
the total distance travelled in the first 4 seconds.

(ii) sesaran negative /the displacement is negative.

[Ans : – 10m, 8m, 10m, 28m]


[Ans : (a) t = 5, 15 ; 25; 20 ; (b) 0 < t < 10, t > 20s ]

106
Latihan 2/ Exercise 2
1. Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis 2. Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis
lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas
2 2
melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s = t –3 melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s = t – 4t + 3
A particle moves along the straight line with the displacement A particle moves along the straight line with the displacement s
2 2
s m is given as s = t –3 and t is the time after passing m is given as s = t – 4t + 3 and t is the time after passing
through the fixed point O. through the fixed point O.
Cari/ Find Cari / Find
a) Sesaran zarah apabila t = 1 dan t = 3 a) sasaran asal
the displacement of the particle at t = 1 and t = 3, the initial displacement ,
b) Jarak yang dilalui dalam 3 saat pertama. b) Jumlah jarak yang dijalani dalam tiga saat pertama
the distance traveled in the first 3 seconds. the total distance traveled in the third second,
c) julat masa apabila zarah berada disebelah kiri O
the range of time when the particle is at the left of O

[ -2m , 6m , 9m] [ 3m,5m, 3<t<1 ]

3. Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis 4 . Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis
lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas
2
melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s = 60 t – 5t . 1
A particle moves along the straight line with the displacement melalui titik tetap O diberi oleh s  t 2  3t  9
2 2
s m is given as s = 60 t – 5t and t is the time after passing
A particle moves along the straight line. Its displacement ,
through the fixed point O. s m from a fixed point O at t second is given by
Cari/ Find
1 2
a) Masa apabila zarah berada 100m di sebelah s t  3t  9
kanan O 2
the time when the particle is at 100 m to the right of O, Kira jumlah jarak yang dijalani,
Find the total distance travelled
b) Masa apabila zarah berada 225 m di sebelah
kiri O (a) dalam 5 saat pertama
in the first 5 seconds
the time when the particle is at 225 m to the left of O,
c) Masa apabila zarah melalui titik O semula
the time when the particle passes through O again.
(b) dalam saat kelima
in the fifth second.

(a) t= 2s, t=10s (b) t = 15s (c) t = 12s [ 7 m, 5 m ]

107
Hasil pembelajaran
HALAJU / VELOCITY

2.1 Menentukan fungsi halaju suatu zarah melalui kaedah pembezaan.


2.2 Menentukan halaju seketika suatu zarah.
2.3 Menentukan sesaran suatu zarah daripada fungsi halaju melalui kaedah pengamiran.
2. VELOCITY

A. Menentukan fungsi halaju suatu zarah melalui kaedah pembezaan dan menentukan halaju seketika sesuatu zarah
Determine velocity function of a particle by differentiation and determine velocity at instant time for a particle.
NOTA / NOTES
(i) Halaju zarah, v, pada masa t ialah kadar perubahan sesaran terhadap masa, iaitu,
The velocity of a particle, v, at the instant t is the rate of change of displacement with respect to time, that is
ds ds
s = f(t), v = f ’(t) = [ differentiate s once ] atau v =
dt dt
(ii) Jika arah pergerakkan zarah kekanan, dianggap positif, maka
If the direction of motion towards the right is considered positive, then
(a) Halaju positif bermakna zarah bergerak kearah kanan
positive velocity means the particle is moving towards the right,

(b) Halaju negatif bermakna bergerak kesebelah kiri


negative velocity means the particle is moving towards the left ,

(c) Halaju sifar bermakna zarah dalam keadaan pegun


Zero velocity means the particle is stationary.

Latihan 3 /Exercise 3
Suatu zarah bergerak di sepanjang garis lurus dengan sesarannya sm dan t ialah masa selepas
A particle moves along a straight line with its displacements, s m and the time t after passing through point O. Find the
velocity when t = 3 and initial velocity for each of the following:

velocity Velocity when t = 3 Initial Velocity


Displacement
2
(a) s = 4 + 9t – 3t v = 9 – 6t v = 9 – 6(3) = –9 t=0,v=4

(b) s= t²  4t + 2

(c) s = t²  4t

(c) s = t² -12t + 16

Lathihan 5 / Exercise 5
1
Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang satu garis lurus dengan halaju v ms dan t ialah masa selepas melalui titik tetap O.
Cari masa apabila zarah berhenti seketika dan masa bila zarah bergerak arah kekiri.
1
A particle moves along a straight line with the velocity of v ms and t is the time after passing a fixed point O. Find the time when the
particle is at instantaneous rest and the time as the particle moves to the left.
Fungsi halaju Masa apabila zarah berhenti seketika. Julat masa t bila zarah bergerak kearah
Velocity Function Time when the particle comes kiri
instantaneously to rest the range of t when particle moves to the
left
(a) v = 9t² – 4

(b) v = t² –3

2
(c) v = 2t + t – 28

108
Latihan 4 / Exercise 6
1. Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas
melalui titik tetap O . Diberi bahawa s=2t³ – 15t² + 36t, cari,
A particle moves in a straight line with its displacement, s meter and time t second after passed through a fixed point O. Given
that s=2t³ – 15t² + 36t, find
(a) sesaran apabila halajunya adalah sifar.
the displacement when the velocity is zero
(b) masa apabila zarah bergerak arah ke kiri
time when the particle moved to the left.

2. Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang suatu garis lurus.Sesarannya, s meter,pada masa t saat selepas melalui titik
2
tetap O . Diberi bahawa s = 4 + 9t – 3t , cari,
A particle moves in a straight line with its displacement, s meter and time t second after passed through a fix point
2
O. Given that s = 4 + 9t – 3t , find
(a) Masa apabila zarah berhenti seketika untuk berehat
the time when the particle comes instantaneously to rest
(b) sesaran maksimum
the maximum displacement.

B. Menentukan sesaran suatu zarah daripada fungsi halaju melalui kaedah pengamiran.
Determine displacement function of a particle when velocity function is given by integration
Contoh 5/ Example5
a) Halaju suatu zarah yang bergerak disepanjang garis lurus b) Halaju suatu zarah yang bergerak disepanjang garis lurus
2
diberi sebagai V = 3t +4. Cari sesaran apabila t =2 saat . diberi sebagai V = 5 +3t . Cari sesaran apabila t =3 saat
The velocity of a particle which is moving along a straight line The velocity of a particle which is moving along a straight
2
is given as v =3t + 4. Find the displacement when t = 2 second line is given as v = 5 + 3t . Find the displacement when
t = 3 second

[14m] [42m]
Latihan 5/Exercise 5

a) Halaju suatu zarah yang bergerak disepanjang garis lurus b) Halaju suatu zarah yang bergerak disepanjang garis lurus
2 2
diberi sebagai v = 3t -14t + 8.Cari sesaran apabila t = 4 saat diberi sebagai v = 6- 5t + 3t . Cari sesaran apabila
The velocity of a particle which is moving along a straight line t =2 saat
2
is given as v = 3t -14t + 8 . Find the displacement when t =4 The velocity of a particle which is moving along a straight
2
second line is given as v = 6- 5t + 3t . Find the displacement at 2
second

[ 10m]
[ -16m]
109
Latihan 6/ Exercise 6:
Satu zarah bergerak disepanjang garislurus dengan halaju v ms1 dan t ialah masa selepas melalui titik tetap O. Cari
jumlah jarak yang dilalui dalam tiga saat pertama
A particle moves along a straight line with the velocity of v ms1 , and t is the time after passing a fixed point O. Find the total distance
traveled in the first three seconds:
Halaju Sesaran Masa apabila zarah Jumlah jarak dilalui dalam tiga saat
Velocity displacement berhenti seketika. pertama.
Time when the particle Total distance traveled in the first three
stops momentarily. seconds
v = 6 – 6t s =  (6  6t )dt v=0 t=0,s=0
2
2
= 6t – 3t + c 6 – 6t = 0 t = 1 , s = 6(1) – 3(1) = 3
2
t = 3, s = 6(3) – 3(3) = –19
t = 0, s = 0 ,  c = 0
t=1
2 total distance = 3 + 19 = 22
s = 6t – 3t
2
v = 3t – 5t – 2

2
v = 2t – t

Contoh 7/ Example 7

a) Satu zarah bergerak b) Satu zarah bergerak c) Satu zarah bergerak disepanjang
disepanjang garislurus dengan disepanjang garislurus dengan 1 2
halaju v = 36 – 6t dan t ialah masa halaju v = 2t – 4 dan t ialah masa garislurus dengan halaju v = 12 – t
selepas melalui titik tetap O. selepas melalui titik tetap O
3
A particle moves in a straight line with A particle moves in a straight line with
dan t ialah masa selepas melalui titik
the velocity v = 36 – 6t where t is the the velocity v = 2t – 4 where t is the tetap O
time in second after passing time in second after passing through
through point O. point O. A particle moves in a straight line with the
Cari / Find Cari / Find -1 1 2
velocity v ms where v = 12 – t where
(a) Masa apabila jarak adalah (a) sesaran zarah selepas 4 saat. 3
maksimum the displacement of the particle t is the time in seconds after passing
the time when the distance is after 4 seconds. through a fixed point O.
maximum Cari /Find
(b) Jarak maksimum (b) sesaran zarah apabila zarah (a) Sesaran zarah selepas 4 saat
the maximum distance. berhenti seketika the displacement of the particle after 4
the displacement when the seconds
particle stops momentarily (b)Jarak maksimum dilalui sebelum
zarah menukar arah gerakkannya.
the maximum distance traveled by the
particle before it changed its direction.

110
Latihan 7 / Exercise 7
-1 -1 -1
a) Halaju v ms ,suatu zarah yang b) Halaju v ms ,suatu zarah yang c) Halaju v ms ,suatu zarah yang
bergerak di sepanjang garislurus bergerak di sepanjang garislurus bergerak di sepanjang garislurus diberi
2 2 2
diberi sebagai v = 5 + 4t – t pada diberi sebagai v = t – 6t + 8 pada sebagai v = 20 + 8t – t pada masa t
masa t saat selepas melalui titik masa t saat selepas melalui titik tetap saat selepas melalui titik tetap O. Cari
-1
tetap O. Cari O. Cari The velocity, v ms , of a particle moving
-1
The velocity, v ms , of a particle
-1
The velocity, v ms , of a particle moving along a straight line is given by v = 20 + 8t –
2 2
moving along a straight line is given by along a straight line is given by v = t – 6t t at time t seconds after passing through a
2
v = 5 + 4t – t at time t seconds after + 8 at time t seconds after passing fixed point O. Find
passing through a fixed point O. Find through a fixed point O. Find (a) halaju awal
(a) Halaju awal (a) halaju awal the initial velocity,
the initial velocity, the initial velocity, (c) halaju maksimum zarah tersebut
(b) Halaju zarah bila t = 2s (b) halaju bila t = 3s the maximum velocity of the particle
the velocity when t = 2s, the velocity when t = 3s, (d) tempoh masa zarah bergerak
(c) masa bila zarah berhenti (c) Masa bila zarah berhenti seketika kesebelah kanan
seketika. the time when the particle stops the interval when the particle moves to
the time when the particle stops instantaneously, the right.
instantaneously, (d) Tempoh masa zarah bergerak (e) jarak yang dijalani dalam 3 saat
(d) tempoh bila zarah bergerak kesebelah kiri. pertama
The interval when the particle the distance traveled in the first 3 seconds
kesebelah kanan moves to the left.
the interval when the particle moves
towards the left.

-1
Ans : 5 ms , 9 ms
-1
;t=5 ; t > 5]
[Ans :8 ms-1, -1ms-1 ; t = 2, 4 ; 2 < t < 4] s-1 -1
[Ans :20m , 8 ms , , 0 < t < 10, 87m ]

Hasil pembelajaran PECUTAN/ ACCELERATIONS

3.1 Menentukan fungsi pecutan suatu zarah melalui kaedah pembezaan.


3.2 Menentukan pecutan seketika suatu zarah.
3.3 Menentukan halaju seketika suatu zarah daripada fungsi pecutan melalui kaedah pengamiran.
3.4 Menentukan sesaran suatu zarah daripada fungsi pecutan melalui kaedahpengamiran.
3.5 Menyelesaikan masalah yang melibatkan gerakan pada garis lurus.

A : Menentukan fungsi pecutan suatu zarah melalui kaedah pembezaan.


Determine acceleration function of a particle by differentiation

Pecutan seketika bagi suatu zarah yang bergerak pada suatu garis lurus ialah kadar perubahan halaju terhadap
masa.
The instantaneous acceleration of a particle, a, at the instant t, is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time, that is

dv d 2 s
a= =
dt dt 2

111
1. Pecutan sekata bermakna kadar perubahan halaju secara tak seragam.
The uniform acceleration means that the velocity change in the unvarying rate.

2. Makna tata tanda bagi pecutan.


Meaning of the signs of acceleration:

a0 Halaju meningkat apabila t meningkat


velocity increases when t increases.
Halaju menyusut apabila t meningkat.
a0 ( Nyah pecutan atau awa pecutan)
velocity decreases when t increases.
( deceleration or retardation).
a0 Halaju sekata/ Halaju maksimum or minimum
uniform velocity / v maximum or minimum

Latihan 8/ Exercise 8
-1
Suatu zarah bergerak dengan halaju v ms dan t ialah masa selepas melalui titik tetap O. Cari pecutan awal dan pecutan
pada ketika t = 3 saat bagi setiap yang berikut.
1
A particle moves with its velocity v ms and t is the time after passing through a fixed point O. Find the initial acceleration and
acceleration when t = 3 seconds for each of the following.

Fungsi Halaju Pecutan awal Pecutan pada 3 saat


Velocity functions Initial acceleration Acceleration at 3 seconds
example: a = 3 –2t
v = 3t – t² a = 3 –2t When t =3, a = 3–2(3)
When t = 0, a = 3–2(0) 2
dv 2 = –3ms
a= = 3 –2t = 3ms
dt
(a) v =2t² + 5t

(b) v = t³ + 2t²– 6

Fungsi Sesaran Pecutan awal Pecutan pada 3 saat


Displacement function Initial acceleration Acceleration at 3 s

(c) s = 2t³–t² + 8

(d) s = t – t³

(e) s = 4t – t³

112
B. Menentukan Fungsi Halaju Suatu Zarah Dari Fungsi Pecutan Mengunakan Kaedah Pengamiran
Determine Velocity Function Of A Particle From Acceleration Function By Integration

Contoh 9/ Example 9
2
Pecutan suatu zarah yang bergerak di sepanjang suatu garis lurus dari keadaan rehat ialah a ms dan t s ialah masa
selepas melalui titik tetap O.
2
The acceleration of a particle which is moving along a straight line from its instantaneous rest is a ms and t s is the time after
passing through a fixed point O.
Cari halaju maksimum zarah tersebut
Find the maximum velocity of the particle.

Fungsi Pecutan Fungsi Halaju Halaju Maksimum atau minimum


Acceleration function Velocity function Maximum or minimum velocity

a = 6 – 2t
v=  a dt Maximum velocity ; a = 0
6 – 2t = 0
=  (6– 2t)dt t=3

= 6t – t² + c 1
When t = 3,v = 6 (3) – 3² = 9 ms
When t = 0, v = 0, therefore c =0.
 v = 6t – t²
(a) a = 6 – 4t

(c) a = 6t² –2t

Contoh 9/ Exemple 9
-1
a) Suatu zarah bergerak dengan halaju v ms dan t b)Suatu zarah bergerak melalui titik tetap O.Pecutan
ialah masa selepas melalui titik tetap O dengan halaju v 2
a cms , diberi oleh a = 2t + 3,dimana t iaah masa dalam
1
ms .Diberi saat selepas melalui titik O. Diberi halaju awal ialah –10
v = t(t –3) dan t ialah masa selepas melalui O. cm s
1
.
A particle is moving along a straight line and passed a fixed A particle moves along a straight line through a fixed point O. Its
1 2
point O with its velocity, v ms . Given acceleration, a cm s , is given by a = 2t + 3, where t is the time
v = t(t –3) and t is the time in second after passed through O. in seconds after passing through O. Given that its initial velocity
Cari/ Find 1
is –10 cm s .
(a) sesaran bila t = 5 saat
displacement when t = 5 seconds
Cari /Find
(b) Jarak maksimum sebelum ia menukar arah
(a) the velocity of the particle when its acceleration is 11
gerakkannya 1
maximum distance before it changed its direction cm s
(c) Jumlah jarak dilalui dalam 5 (b) the total distance traveled by the particle during 4
saat pertama seconds after passing through 0.
total distance traveled in the first
5 second

113
Latihan 9 /Exercise 9
-2
Q1 Pecutan a ms suatu zarah yang bergerak A1
2.
disepanjang garis lurus diberi oleh a = 12 – 4t
Dimana t ialah masa dalam saat selepas melalui
-1
titik O. Halaju zarah ialah 14 ms apabila elalui
titik O
-2
The acceleration, a ms , of a particle moving along a
2
straight line is given by a = 12 – 4t , where t is the
time in seconds after passing through a fixed point O.
-1
The velocity of the particle is 14 ms when it passes
through O.
Cari/ Find
(a) pecutan awal
the initial acceleration,
(b) Halaju apabila t = 2s
the velocity when t = 2s,
(c) masa apabila zarah berhenti seketika
the time when the particle stops instantaneously,
(d) halaju maksimum zarah tersebut. -2 -1 -1
[Ans : 12 ms , 30 ms , t = 7s, 32ms ]
the maximum velocity of the particle.
Q2 Pecutan a ms-2 suatu zarah yang bergerak di A2
sepanjang garis lurus diberi oleh a = 6 – 2t, dimana t
ialah masa dalam saat selepas melalui titik tetap O.
-1
Halaju zarah ialah 16 ms apabila melalui titik O. Cari
-2
The acceleration, a ms , of a particle moving along a
straight line is given by a = 6 – 2t, where t is the
time in seconds after passing through a fixed point O.
-1
The velocity of the particle is 16 ms when it passes
through O. Find
(a) pecutan awal
the initial acceleration,
(b) halaju maksimum zarah tersebut
the maximum velocity of the particle,
(c) Pecutan zarah apabila ia berhenti seketika,
the acceleration of the particle when it stops
instantaneously,
(d) Jumlah jarak yang dijalanidalam 8 saat pertama
the total distance travelled in the first 8 seconds.
-2 -1 -1
[Ans : 6 ms , 25 ms , -10 ms , 149 1/3m ]
Q3 Satu zarah bergerak disepanjang garis lurus A3
-1
melalui titik tetap O dengan halaju 24ms .
-2
Pecutannya a ms , t s selepas melalui titik O
diberi sebagai a = 10 – 2t. Zarah itu berhenti
selepas P saat.
A particle moves along a straight line and passes
-1
through a fixed point O, with a velocity of 24 ms . Its
-2
acceleration, a ms , t s after passing through O is
given by a = 10 – 2t. The particle stops after p
seconds.
Cari / Find
(a) Pecutan awal zarah tersebut.
the initial acceleration of the particle,
(b) Halaju maksimum zarah tersebut
the maximum velocity of the particle,
(c) Nilai p
the value of p,

(d) Jumlah jaeak yang di lalui oleh zarah itu.


the total distance travelled by the particle.

-2 -1
[Ans : 10 ms , 49 ms , p = 12; 432 m ]
114
SPM QUESTIONS

1. SPM 2003 P2 Q12


-1 -2
Satu zarah bergerak di sepanjang garis lurus melalui titik tetap O dengan halaju 24 ms . Pecutan, a ms ,ts selepas
melalui O diberi sebagai a = 10-2t. Zarah itu berhenti selepas k s.
-1
A particle moves in a straight line and passes through a fixed point O, with a velocity of 24 ms . Its acceleration, a
-2
ms , t s after passing through O is given by a = 10-2t. The particle stops after k s.
(a) Cari (i) halaju maksimum zarah itu
Find (i) the maximum velocity of the particle,
(ii) nilai k
the value of k. [6 marks]
(b) Lakar kan graf halaju-masa untuk 0  t  k.
Seterusnya atau cara lain hitung jumlah jarak yang dilalui pada masa tersebut
Sketch a velocity-time graph for 0  t  k.
Hence, or otherwise, calculate the total distance traveled during that period. [4marks]

[Answers: 49, 12, 432]

2. SPM 2004 P2Q15


-1
Suatu zarah bergerak disepanjang garis lurus dari satu titik tetap P.Halajunya, V ms diberi sebagai v = 2t(6 – t),
dimana t ialah masa dalam saat selepas meninggalkan P .( Anggap pergerakan kekanan ialah positif)
-1
A particle moves along a straight line from a fixed point P. Its velocity, V ms , is given by v = 2t(6 – t), where t is the
time, in seconds, after leaving the point P.
(Assume motion to the right is positive.)
Cari /Find
(a) Halaju maksima zarah tersebut
the maximum velocity of the particle, [3 marks]
(b) Jarak yang dilalui dalam saat ke tiga,
the distance traveled during the third second, [3 marks]
(c) nilai t apabila zarah melalui titik P semula
the value of of t when the particle passes the point P again, [2marks]
(d) masa diantara zarah meninggalkan P dengan zarah megalihkan arah gerakkannya
the time between leaving P and when the particle reverses its direction of motion.
[ 2marks]
1
[Answers: 18, 17 , 9, 6]
3

115
3. SPM 2005 P2Q15
Diagram below shows the positions and directions of motion of two objects, P and Q, moving in a straight line passing
two fixed points, A and B respectively. Object P passes the fixed point A and the object Q passes the fixed point B
simultaneously. The distance AB is 28 m

-1 2
The velocity of P, vp ms , is given vp = 6+4t-2t , where t is the time, in seconds A, after it passes A while Q travels
-1
with a constant velocity of -2 ms , Object P stops instantaneously at the point C, (Assume that the positive direction
of motion is towards the right)
Find,
-1-,
(a) the maximum velocity, in ms of P, [3 marks]
(b) the distance, in m, of C from A, [4 marks]
(c) the distance, in m, between P and Q when P is at the point C. [3 marks]

[Answers: 8, 18, 4]

4.SPM 2006 P2 Q12


-1-, 2
A particle moves in a straight line and passes through a fixed point O. Its velocity, v ms is given by v = t -6t + 5,
where t is the time, in seconds, after leaving O. (Assume motion to the right is positive)
(a) Find
(i) the initial velocity of the particle,
(ii) the time interval during which the particle moves towards the left,
(iii) the time interval during which the acceleration of the particle is positive.
[5marks]
(b) Sketch the velocity-time graph of the motion of the particle 0  t  5 [2marks]
(c ) calculate the total distance traveled during the first 5 seconds after leaving O.[3 marks]

[ Answers: 5, 1  t  5 , t>3 , 13]

116
5. SPM 2007 P2Q12
-1-
A particle moves along a straight line and passes through a fixed point, O. Its velocity, v ms , is given by
2
v = t – 6t + 8, where t is the time, in seconds, after passing through O
[Assume motion to the right is positive]
Find
-1
(a) the initial velocity, in ms [1 mark]
1
(b) the minimum velocity, in ms- [3 marks]
I the range of values of t during which the particle moves to the left. [2 marks]
(d) the total distance, in m, traveled by the particle in the first 4 seconds [4 marks]
-1
[Answers: 8 ms , -1 ms ,
-1
2  t  4 , 8 m]

6. SPM 2008 P2Q12


-1-
A particle moves along a straight line and passes through a fixed point, O. Its velocity, v ms , is given by
2
v = 10 + 3t – t , where t is the time, in seconds, after passing through O. The particle stops instantaneously at a point R.
Find
-2
(a) the acceleration, in ms , of the particle at R [3 marks]
-1
(b) the maximum velocity, in ms , of the particle, [3 marks]
(c) the total distance, in m, travelled by the particle in the first 9 seconds , after passing
through O. [ 4 marks]
-2 -1
[Ans : – 7ms , 12.25 ms , 123 1/6m]

117
Motion Along A Straight Line (Extra Exercises For YOU)

Type I : Given s = f(t)


Q1. : A particle moves in a straight line and passes through a fixed point O. Its displacement, s m, from O, is given by
2
s = t – 6t + 8, where t is the time, in seconds, after leaving O.
(Assume motion to the right is positive)
Find
(a) The initial displacement of the particle,
(b) the values of t when the particle passes through O,
(c) the value of t when the particle is 1m to the left of O,
(d) the value of t when the particle is 15m to the right of O,
(e) the distance traveled by the particle in the third second,
(f) the total distance travelled in the first 5 seconds,
(g) the initial velocity of the particle,
(h) the velocity of the particle when t = 4,
(i) the acceleration of the particle,
(j) the displacement of the particle from O when it stops instantaneously.

Type 2 : Given v = f(t) [Most commonly asked questions]


-1-,
Q 2. : A particle moves in a straight line and passes through a fixed point O. Its velocity, v ms is given by
2
v = t – 12t + 20, where t is the time, in seconds, after leaving O.
(Assume motion to the right is positive)
(a) Find
(i) the initial velocity of the particle,
(ii) the time interval during which the particle moves towards the left,
(iii) the time interval during which the acceleration of the particle is positive.
[5marks]
(b) Sketch the velocity-time graph of the motion of the particle 0  t  10 [2marks]
(c ) calculate the total distance traveled during the first 10 seconds after leaving O. [3 marks]

118
-1-
Q3 : A particle moves along a straight line and passes through a fixed point, P. Its velocity, v ms , is given by
v = 3 t(4 – t), where t is the time, in seconds, after passing through P.
[Assume motion to the right is positive]
Find
(a) the maximum velocity of the particle, [3 marks]
(b) the distance traveled during the third second, [3 marks]
(c) the value of of t when the particle passes the point P again, [2marks]
(d) the time between leaving P and when the particle reverses its direction of motion.
[ 2marks]
-1
[Answers: 12 ms , 11 m , t = 6s, 0  t  4]

Type 3 : Given a = f(t)


-1-,
Q4 . : A particle moves in a straight line and passes through a fixed point O. Its acceleration, a ms is
given by a = 3 (6 – t), where t is the time, in seconds, after leaving O.
(Assume motion to the right is positive)
(a) Find
(i) the initial acceleration of the particle,
(ii) the time interval during which the particle moves towards the left,
(iii) the time interval during which the acceleration of the particle is positive.
[5marks]
(b) Sketch the velocity-time graph of the motion of the particle 0  t  12 [2marks]
(c ) calculate the total distance travelled during the first 12 seconds after leaving O. [3 marks]
-2
[Answers: 18 ms , t > 12 , 0 < t < 6 ; 432m ]

119
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