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Inferential Statistics

• The process of using information

obtained using a sample and

generalizing and using this

information to draw conclusions

about or to make generalizations

about a population

Recall

• Parameters – calculations made from

population data

For example, the population mean, μ,

and the population standard deviation,

σ

• Statistics – calculations made from

sample data

For example the sample mean, x , and

the sample standard deviation, s

Estimation

• Using sample data to estimate a

value for an unknown parameter

such as the population mean, μ, or

the population standard deviation, σ

Central Limit Theorem

• Given a random variable X with

population mean μ and (population)

standard deviation σ, for a random

sample of size n taken from this

population, the sampling distribution

of x becomes approximately normal

as the sample size n increases. The

mean of the distribution is μ⎯x = μ

and the standard deviation is σx= σ .

n

Point Estimate

• A point estimate for a parameter

The value of a statistic that

estimates the value of the

parameter

• Example: sample mean, x, is a

point estimate for the population

mean,μ

Other Point Estimates for the

Population Mean

• In addition to using the sample

mean, x , as a point estimate for

the population mean, μ, we could

use

Sample median

Mode

Other Point Estimates for the

Population Mean

• In addition to using the sample

mean, x , as a point estimate for

the population mean, μ, we could

use

Sample median

Mode

• Any measure of center

Other Point Estimates for the

Population Mean

• In addition to using the sample

mean, x, as a point estimate for

the population mean, μ, we could use

Sample median

Mode

• Q: Which point estimate should be

used to estimate the population

mean?

Use Sample Mean as Point

Estimate for Population Mean

• Unbiased estimator: A statistic is

an unbiased estimator if its

expected value is the same as the

value of the parameter.

Use Sample Mean as Point

Estimate for Population Mean

• Unbiased estimator: A statistic is

an unbiased estimator if its

expected value is the same as the

value of the parameter. Recall - a

statistic is unbiased if it does not

systematically overestimate or

underestimate the value of the

parameter that it estimates

Use Sample Mean as Point

Estimate for Population Mean

• Unbiased estimator: A statistic is an

unbiased estimator if its expected value

is the same as the value of the

parameter. Recall – by Central Limit

Theorem, if we took many samples

of size n and calculated the mean

for each sample then the mean of

the sample means would be μ

Use Sample Mean as Point

Estimate for Population Mean

• Consistent: the sample mean

provides consistent estimates of the

population mean since as the sample

size increases, the value of the

sample mean gets closer to the

value of the population mean

Use Sample Mean as Point

Estimate for Population Mean

• Efficiency: the majority of sample

means will be “close” to the value

of the population mean

Best Point Estimate

• The sample mean, x, is the best

point estimate for the population

mean, μ

Caution

• In using point estimates, we never

know

If the statistic is correct

• We can determine if the procedure

used to produce the statistic is

Unbiased

Consistent

Efficient

Confidence Interval

• A confidence interval estimate of a

parameter consists of an interval of

numbers together with a measure

of the likelihood that the interval

contains the unknown parameter

Confidence Interval

• A confidence interval estimate of a

parameter consists of an interval of

numbers together with a measure

of the likelihood, the Level of

Confidence, that the interval

contains the unknown parameter

Confidence Interval

• A confidence interval estimate of a

parameter consists of a pair of

numbers with an associated

probability, the Level of

Confidence, that the unknown

parameter will lie between the two

numbers

Level of Confidence

• The level of confidence in a

confidence interval is the

percentage of intervals that will

contain μ if a large number of

repeated samples are taken.

Level of Confidence

• The level of confidence in a

confidence interval is the

percentage of intervals that will

contain μ if a large number of

repeated samples are taken.

• Associated formula: (1 – α) 100%

•

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Confidence Value of α

(1 – α)•100%

90% 0.1

95% 0.05

96% 0.04

99% 0.01

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Confidence Value of α Area in each “Tail”,

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05

95% 0.05 0.025

96% 0.04 0.02

99% 0.01 0.005

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Value of α Area in each Critical Value,

Confidence “Tail”, Zα/2

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05 1.645

95% 0.05 0.025 1.96

96% 0.04 0.02 2.05*

99% 0.01 0.005 2.575

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Value of α Area in each Critical Value,

Confidence “Tail”, Zα/2

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05 1.645

95% 0.05 0.025 1.96

96% 0.04 0.02 2.053748911

99% 0.01 0.005 2.575

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Value of α Area in each Critical Value,

Confidence “Tail”, Zα/2

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05 1.645

95% 0.05 0.025 1.96

96% 0.04 0.02 2.054

99% 0.01 0.005 2.575

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Value of α Area in each Critical Value,

Confidence “Tail”, Zα/2

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05 1.645

95% 0.05 0.025 1.96

96% 0.04 0.02 2.054

99% 0.01 0.005 2.576*

http://www.framingham.edu/~smabrouk/online_stats/handout

s/pdf/t-Distribution_Table.pdf

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Value of α Area in each Critical Value,

Confidence “Tail”, Zα/2

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05 1.645

95% 0.05 0.025 1.96

96% 0.04 0.02 2.054

99% 0.01 0.005 2.576*

http://www.framingham.edu/~smabrouk/online_stats/handout

s/pdf/t-Distribution_Table.pdf

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Value of α Area in each Critical Value,

Confidence “Tail”, Zα/2

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05 1.645

95% 0.05 0.025 1.96

96% 0.04 0.02 2.054

99% 0.01 0.005 2.576

Interpretation of

Confidence Interval

• A (1 - α)•100% confidence interval

tells us that if we were to obtain

many simple random samples of size

n from a population for which the

mean μ is unknown then

approximately (1 - α)•100% of the

intervals would contain the value of

the population mean μ.

Central Limit Theorem

• Given a random variable X with

population mean μ and (population)

standard deviation σ, for a random

sample of size n taken from this

population, the sampling distribution

of x becomes approximately normal

as the sample size n increases. The

mean of the distribution is μx =μ

and the standard deviation is σx = σ .

n

By the Central Limit Theorem

• We know that

The distribution for the sample

means is approximately normal

The standard deviation for the

sample means is σx = σ

n for known

population standard deviation σ

Constructing a (1 - α)•100%

Confidence Interval about μ with Known

Population Standard Deviation σ

Constructing a (1 - α)•100%

Confidence Interval about μ with Known

Population Standard Deviation σ

• Suppose a simple random sample size n is

taken from a population with unknown

mean μ and known standard deviation σ.

• A (1 - α)•100% confidence interval for

μ is determined by

Lower bound: x −zα/2 σn

Upper bound: x + zα/2 σn

for zα/2 the critical z-value

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans

sleep each night? Based on a random

sample of 1120 Americans 15 years of

age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to

the American Time Use Survey

conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population

standard deviation for the amount of

sleep per night is 1.2 hours, construct

a 95% confidence interval for the mean

amount of sleep per night for

Americans 15 years of age or older.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

standard deviation especially when we are trying to

determine the confidence interval for the population

mean.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

the sample mean, x = 8.17 , and the population

standard deviation, σ = 1.2.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

and α/2 = 0.025.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

and α/2 = 0.025.

• Then, zα/2 = 1.96 is the critical value.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

and zα/2 = 1.96), we calculate the lower bound and

the upper bound for the confidence interval.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.099720558

≈ 8.10

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.099720558

≈ 8.10

Notice that we do NOT approximate any part of this

calculation.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.099720558

≈ 8.10

We only approximate the final value …

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.099720558

≈ 8.10

We only approximate the final value, never any of

the intermediate parts.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.240279442

≈ 8.24

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.240279442

≈ 8.24

Notice that we do NOT approximate any part of this

calculation.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.240279442

≈ 8.24

We only approximate the final value …

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

n 1120

≈ 8.240279442

≈ 8.24

We only approximate the final value, never any of

the intermediate parts.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

• Confidence Interval:

8.10 ≤ μ ≤ 8.24 (Inequality Notation)

μ ∈ [8.10, 8.24] (Interval Notation)

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

is such that 8.10 ≤ μ ≤ 8.24.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

is in the interval [8.10, 8.24].

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

is between 8.10 hours and 8.24 hours, inclusive.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

is between 8.10 hours and 8.24 hours, inclusive.

confidence interval.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

is between 8.10 hours and 8.24 hours, inclusive.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

many different samples of size 1120 and construct

the corresponding confidence intervals, 95% of these

confidence intervals would actually contain the value

of the population mean.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

refers to the success rate of the process being used

to estimate the mean.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

95%, is NOT a probability!!! It would be

INCORRECT to say that 95% of sample means would

be between 8.10 hours and 8.24 hours, inclusive.

• Time in Bed: How much do Americans sleep each

night? Based on a random sample of 1120 Americans

15 years of age or older, the mean amount of sleep

per night is 8.17 hours according to the American

Time Use Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics. Assuming the population standard

deviation for the amount of sleep per night is 1.2

hours, construct a 95% confidence interval for the

mean amount of sleep per night for Americans 15

years of age or older.

95%, is NOT a probability!!! It would be WRONG to

say that the probability that the population mean is

between 8.10 hours and 8.24 hours, inclusive, is

0.95.

Margin for Error

• The margin for error in a

confidence interval for which σ is

known is determined by

E =zα/2 σ

n

•

Margin for Error

• The margin for error in a

confidence interval for which σ is

known is determined by

E =zα/2 σ

n

•

approximately normal or the sample

size must be at least 30.

Margin for Error

• If we know the margin for error,

E =zα/2 σ ,

n

•

we can determine the sample size

necessary to achieve the desired

margin for error.

Margin for Error

• If we know the margin for error,

E =zα/2 σ ,

n

•

we can determine the sample size

necessary to achieve the desired

margin for error.

• HOW???

Margin for Error

• If we know the margin for error

that we are willing to tolerate then

we can determine the sample size

necessary to achieve the desired

margin for error.

n

•

E = zα / 2 ⋅ σ

n

Multiply both sides

E n = zα / 2 ⋅σ by the square root

of n and divide both

sides by E.

zα / 2 ⋅σ

n=

E

2

z

⎛

⋅σ ⎟ ⎞

Square both sides and,

n= ⎜ α/2

⎜ ⎟

⎜

⎝

E ⎟

⎠

to simplify the

expression, square

each value on the

2 right-hand side, if

z

⎛

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎞

⋅σ2 desired. Either form

n= ⎝ α/2⎠ can be used.

E2

Determining the Sample Size n

• The sample size n required to estimate

the population mean μ with a level of

confidence of (1 - α)•100% with a

specified margin of error E is

determined by

2

n= z •σ

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎜ α/2 ⎟

⎜

⎜⎜

⎝

E ⎟

⎟⎟

⎠

whole number.

• In “real life” will we know the

population standard deviation???

• In “real life” will we know the

population standard deviation???

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A

Gallup poll conducted January 17 –

February 6, 2005, asked 1028

teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years

of age , “Typically, how many hours per

week do you spend watching TV?” The

teenagers who participated in the survey

watched, on average, 13.0 hours of

television per week with a standard

deviation of 2.3 hours per week.

Construct a 95% confidence interval for

the average number of hours that

teenagers watch TV each week.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

and α/2 = 0.025.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

deviation given in the scenario are the

sample mean and

the sample standard deviation.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

sample mean and

the sample standard deviation

are provided, the population standard deviation, σ, is

unknown.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

the sample mean, x = 13.0 , and the sample standard

deviation, s = 2.3.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

the sample mean, x = 13.0 , and the sample standard

deviation, s = 2.3.

• Notice that the sample size, 1028, is at least 30.

That is, n ≥ 30.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

determine the critical value for the confidence

interval since we do not know the population standard

deviation.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

critical value for the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

critical value in order to calculate the lower bound

and the upper bound for the confidence interval.

What is the t-Distribution?

Properties of t-Distribution

• The t-Distribution changes based on

the number of degrees of freedom

Properties of t-Distribution

• The t-Distribution is centered at 0

and is symmetric about 0.

Properties of t-Distribution

• The area under the curve is 1.

Properties of t-Distribution

• The area under the curve is to the

left of 0 is ½.

Properties of t-Distribution

• The area under the curve is to the

right of 0 is ½.

Properties of t-Distribution

• The curve never touches the horizontal

axis.

Properties of t-Distribution

• The t-distribution is similar to the

standard normal distribution.

Properties of t-Distribution

• The area in the “tails” of the t-

Distribution is a little greater than the

area in the tails of the standard

normal distribution.

Properties of t-Distribution

• As the sample size n increases, the

density curve of t gets closer to the

standard normal density curve. (Law of

Large Numbers)

Properties of t-Distribution

• As the sample size n increases, the

density curve of t gets closer to the

standard normal density curve. (Law of

Large Numbers)

Properties of t-Distribution

• As the sample size n increases, the

density curve of t gets closer to the

standard normal density curve. (Law of

Large Numbers)

Function Comparison Tool …

Properties of t-Distribution

• As the sample size n increases, the

density curve of t gets closer to the

standard normal density curve. (Law of

Large Numbers)

Function Comparison Tool available at

http://www.framingham.edu/~smabrouk/Interactive/.

Constructing a (1 - α)•100%

Confidence Interval

about μ and σ unknown

Constructing a (1 - α)•100%

Confidence Interval

about μ and σ unknown

• Suppose a simple random sample size n is

taken from a population with unknown

mean μ and an unknown standard deviation

σ.

• A (1 - α)•100% confidence interval for

μ is determined by

x − t s

Lower bound: α/2

n

x + t s

Upper bound: α/2

n

for tα/2 computed with n-1 degrees of

freedom

Constructing a (1 - α)•100%

Confidence Interval

about μ and σ unknown

• Suppose a simple random sample size n is

taken from a population with unknown

mean μ and an unknown standard deviation

σ.

• A (1 - α)•100% confidence interval for

μ is determined by

x − t s

Lower bound: α/2

n

x + t s

Upper bound: α/2

n

for critical value tα/2 computed with n-1

degrees of freedom

Margin for Error

• The margin for error, E, in a

confidence interval for which sample

standard deviation is known is

determined by

E = tα/2 s

n

•

Margin for Error

• If we know the margin for error,

E, that we are willing to tolerate

then we can determine the sample

size, n, necessary to achieve the

desired margin for error.

Using Margin for Error to

Determine Sample Size

• In order to determine the sample

size, we must know

the margin for error, E,

the level of confidence (from

which we determine the critical

value, tα/2), and

an approximate value for sample

standard deviation, s.

Using Margin for Error to

Determine Sample Size

• If we know margin for error E,

critical value tα/2 , and an

approximate value for sample

standard deviation s then we can

solve

E = tα/2 s

n

•

Multiply

E = tα/2 s both sides

n

•

by n .

nE = tα/2s

Divide both

n = tα/2 s

•

sides by

E E.

2

n= t

⎛

⎜

⎜ α/2 •

s ⎞

⎟ Square both

E

⎟

⎜

⎝

⎟

⎠ sides.

Using Margin for Error to

Determine Sample Size

• If we know the margin for error,

E, the level of confidence (from

which we determine the critical

value, tα/2), and an approximate value

for sample standard deviation, s,

2

then the sample size is

n = tα/2

⎛

⎜ s⎟

•

⎞

E

⎜ ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

rounded up to the nearest whole

number.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

Since our table does not list 1027 degrees of

freedom, we will use the next closest, 1000 degrees

of freedom …

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

Since our table does not list 1027 degrees of

freedom, we will use the next closest, 1000 degrees

of freedom, without going over n – 1 = 1027.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

http://www.framingham.edu/~smabrouk/online_stats/h

andouts/pdf/t-Distribution_Table.pdf, does not

include a row for 1027, we must use the next closest

row, 1000 …

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

http://www.framingham.edu/~smabrouk/online_stats/h

andouts/pdf/t-Distribution_Table.pdf, does not

include a row for 1027, we must use the next closest

row, 1000, without going over 1027.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

degrees of freedom, we could use that table.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

degrees of freedom, we could use that table.

There are such tables available online as well as

electronic tables and software that can provide

this information as well.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

row: the z* row corresponds to an infinite number of

degrees of freedom, and the number of degrees of

freedom in this case is 1027 and not infinite.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

row: the z* row corresponds to an infinite number of

degrees of freedom.

The z* row is used when critical values are taken

from the standard normal table.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

1000 degrees of freedom is tα/2 = 1.962.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

tα/2 = 1.962 to determine the lower bound and the

upper bound for the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈12.85925587

≈12.9

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈12.85925587

≈12.9

Notice that we do NOT approximate any part of this

calculation.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈12.85925587

≈12.9

We only approximate the final value …

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈12.85925587

≈12.9

We only approximate the final value, never any of

the intermediate parts.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈13.14074413

≈13.1

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈13.14074413

≈13.1

Notice that we do NOT approximate any part of this

calculation.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈13.14074413

≈13.1

We only approximate the final value …

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

n 1028

≈13.14074413

≈13.1

We only approximate the final value, never any of

the intermediate parts.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

• Confidence Interval:

12.9 ≤ μ ≤ 13.1 (Inequality Notation)

μ ∈ [12.9, 13.1] (Interval Notation)

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

such that 12.9 ≤ μ ≤ 13.1.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

in the interval [12.9, 13.1] .

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

between 12.9 hours per week and 13.1 hours per

week, inclusive.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

between 12.9 hours per week and 13.1 hours per

week, inclusive.

• What does this mean in context of this scenario?

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

between 12.9 hours per week and 13.1 hours per

week, inclusive.

• That is, what is the interpretation of the confidence

interval?

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

between 12.9 hours per week and 13.1 hours per

week, inclusive.

• That is, what is the interpretation of the confidence

interval, in the context of this scenario?

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

13 years of age to 17 years of age spend between

12.9 hours per week and 13.1 hours per week,

inclusive, watching TV.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

age to 17 years of age spend, on average, between

12.9 hours and 13.1 hours, inclusive, watching TV

each week.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

time that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of

age spend watching TV each week is between 12.9

hours and 13.1 hours, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age

spend watching TV each week is between 12.9 hours

and 13.1 hours, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

hours that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of

age spend watching TV each week is between 12.9

hours and 13.1 hours, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

hours that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of

age spend watching TV each week is between 12.9

hours and 13.1 hours, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

hours that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of

age watch TV each week is between 12.9 hours and

13.1 hours, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

hours that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of

age watch TV each week is between 12.9 hours and

13.1 hours, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

hours that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of

age watch TV is between 12.9 hours per week and

13.1 hours per week, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

hours that teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of

age watch TV is between 12.9 hours per week and

13.1 hours per week, inclusive.

This is an interpretation of the confidence interval.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

confidence interval mentions any of the sample

information. This confidence interval mentions the

mean …

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

confidence interval mentions any of the sample

information. The interpretation of the confidence

interval mentions the mean and

this mean is the population mean.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

size 1028 and construct the corresponding confidence

intervals, 95% of these confidence intervals would

actually contain the population mean.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

being used to estimate the population mean.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

the population mean is in the confidence interval is

INCORRECT!!!

• How Much TV Do Teenagers Watch? A Gallup poll

conducted January 17 – February 6, 2005, asked

1028 teenagers 13 years of age to 17 years of age ,

“Typically, how many hours per week do you spend

watching TV?” The teenagers who participated in the

survey watched, on average, 13.0 hours of television

per week with a standard deviation of 2.3 hours per

week. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the

average number of hours that teenagers watch TV

each week.

means are in the confidence interval.

Choosing between the Normal

Distribution and the t-Distribution

for Confidence Intervals

σ known and population

Use Normal Distribution normally distributed

(z) OR

σ known and n ≥ 30

σ not known and

population normally

Use t-Distribution distributed

(t) OR

σ not known and n ≥ 30

Round-off Rule for Confidence

Intervals used to Estimate μ

• When using original sample data to

construct a confidence interval, round

the limits of the confidence interval to

one more decimal place than the original

data.

• When using given values of ⎯x, n, and s

with the sample data unknown, round

the limits of the confidence interval to

the same number of decimal places as

the sample mean.

Constructing a (1 - α)•100% Confidence

Interval for the Population Proportion p

Constructing a (1 - α)•100% Confidence

Interval for the Population Proportion p

• Suppose a simple random sample size n is

taken from a population.

A (1 - α)•100% confidence interval for p is

determined by

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ )

n

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ )

n

for which …

Constructing a (1 - α)•100% Confidence

Interval for the Population Proportion p

• Suppose a simple random sample size n is

taken from a population.

A (1 - α)•100% confidence interval for p is

determined by

p̂ − zα/2

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ )

Lower bound:

n

p̂ + zα/2

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ )

Upper bound:

n

(

ˆ 1 − pˆ ≥ 10

for which both n ≤ 0.05N and np )

must be satisfied.

Constructing a (1 - α)•100% Confidence

Interval for the Population Proportion p

• For a simple random sample size n,

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ )

n

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ )

n

ˆ 1 − pˆ ≥ 10

for which both n ≤ 0.05N and np ( )

must be satisfied.

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ).

n

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.*

(a) Construct and interpret the 99%

confidence interval for the proportion of U.S.

households having a telephone.

(b) Based on this confidence interval, should

those conducting surveys by telephones be

concerned?

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

The households were randomly selected.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent,

~ that is, n ≤ 0.05N.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent,

~ that is, n ≤ 0.05N.

we are determining if the sample size,

n, is no more than 5% of the population

size, N.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent.

~ The functional form of this inequality,

not know the exact population size, N,

but we do know the sample size, n.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent.

~ Since 4276 households were surveyed,

n = 4276.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent.

~ Since 4276 households were surveyed,

n = 4276.

n 4276

=

0.05 0.05

= 85,520

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent.

~ Since there are far more than 85,520

more than 5% of the population size and

…

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that these households

are independent.

~ Since there are far more than 85,520

more than 5% of the population size and,

thus, the households surveyed are

independent.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

Next, we must make sure that distribution

for the sample proportion is approximately

normal.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

Next, we must make sure that distribution

for the sample proportion is approximately

normal, that is, np( )

ˆ 1 − pˆ ≥ 10 .

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

n = 4276

4019

p̂ =

4276

4019

( )

1 − pˆ = 1 −

4276

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

n = 4276

4019

p̂ =

4276

257

( )

1 − pˆ =

4276

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 257 ⎞

( )

npˆ 1 − pˆ = 4276 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 4276 ⎠ ⎝ 4276 ⎠

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 257 ⎞

( )

npˆ 1 − pˆ = 4276 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 4276 ⎠ ⎝ 4276 ⎠

⎛ 257 ⎞

= 4019 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 4276 ⎠

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 257 ⎞

( )

npˆ 1 − pˆ = 4276 ⎜

4276 ⎟ ⎜ 4276 ⎟

⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠

≈ 241.553554724

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 257 ⎞

( )

npˆ 1 − pˆ = 4276 ⎜

4276 ⎟ ⎜ 4276 ⎟

⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠

≈ 241.6

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 257 ⎞

( )

npˆ 1 − pˆ = 4276 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 4276 ⎠ ⎝ 4276 ⎠

≥ 10

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Before we can construct the 99% confidence

interval we have some checks to perform.

We must make sure that distribution for the

sample proportion is approximately normal.

( )

npˆ 1 − pˆ ≥ 10 , we know that the

distribution for the sample proportion is

approximately normal.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Having established the necessary conditions,

the surveyed households are independent

the distribution for the sample proportion is

approximately normal

we can construct the 99% confidence interval.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Having established the necessary conditions,

the surveyed households are independent

the distribution for the sample proportion is

approximately normal

we can construct the 99% confidence interval.

Values of α in (1 - α)•100%

Level of Value of α Area in each Critical Value,

Confidence “Tail”, Zα/2

(1 – α)•100% α/2

90% 0.1 0.05 1.645

95% 0.05 0.025 1.96

96% 0.04 0.02 2.054

99% 0.01 0.005 2.576

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Having established the necessary conditions,

the surveyed households are independent

the distribution for the sample proportion is

approximately normal

we can construct the 99% confidence interval.

value is zα/2 = 2.576.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ).

n

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ )…

n

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 4019 ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1− ⎟

pˆ (1 − pˆ ) 4019 ⎝ 4276 ⎠ ⎝ 4276 ⎠

p̂ − z = − 2.576

.

n 4276 4276

α/2

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 257 ⎞

pˆ (1 − pˆ ) 4019

⎜ 4276 ⎟ ⎜ 4276 ⎟

p̂ − z = − 2.576

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

α/2

n 4276 4276 .

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ − z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

− 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ − z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

− 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

of this calculation.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ − z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

− 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ − z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

− 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

any of the intermediate parts.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ − z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) ≈ 0.930534103214 .

n

α/2

any of the intermediate parts.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ − z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) ≈ 0.93 .

n

α/2

any of the intermediate parts.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) .

n

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) …

n

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 4019 ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1− ⎟

pˆ (1 − pˆ ) 4019 ⎝ 4276 ⎠ ⎝ 4276 ⎠

p̂ + z = + 2.576 .

n 4276 4276

α/2

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

⎛ 4019 ⎞ ⎛ 257 ⎞

pˆ (1 − pˆ ) 4019

⎜ 4276 ⎟ ⎜ 4276 ⎟

p̂ + z = + 2.576 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

α/2

n 4276 4276 .

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ + z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

+ 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ + z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

+ 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

of this calculation.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ + z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

+ 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ + z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) =

4019

+ 2.576

(

4019 257 ).

3

n 4276 4276

α/2

any of the intermediate parts.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ + z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) ≈ 0.949260096974 .

n

α/2

any of the intermediate parts.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

p̂ + z

(

pˆ 1 − pˆ ) ≈ 0.95 .

n

α/2

any of the intermediate parts.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

bound is 0.95, the confidence interval is …

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

bound is 0.95, the confidence interval is …

0.93 ≤ p ≤ 0.95 (Inequality Notation)

p ∈ [0.93, 0.95] (Interval Notation)

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

proportion, p, is such that 0.93 ≤ p ≤ 0.95.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

proportion, p, is such that p ∈ [0.93, 0.95].

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

proportion, p, is in the interval [0.93, 0.95].

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

mean????

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

the context of this scenario????

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

That is, what is the interpretation of the

confidence interval?

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

U.S. households that have a telephone is

between 93% and 95%, inclusive.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

U.S. households having a telephone is between

93% and 95%, inclusive.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

U.S. households that have a telephone is

between 93% and 95%, inclusive.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

U.S. households having a telephone is between

93% and 95%, inclusive.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

95%, inclusive, of U.S. households that have

a telephone.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

includes any of the sample information. The

interpretation of the confidence interval

mentions the proportion or the percentage and

this proportion or percentage is the

population proportion.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

samples of size 4276 and construct the

corresponding confidence intervals, 99% of

these confidence intervals would actually

contain the population proportion.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

process being used to estimate the population

proportion.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

chance that the population proportion is in the

confidence interval is INCORRECT!!!

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

99% confidence interval for the proportion of

U.S. households having a telephone

sample proportions are in the confidence

interval.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Based on this confidence interval, should

those conducting surveys by telephones be

concerned?

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Based on this confidence interval, should

those conducting surveys by telephones be

concerned?

interval, between 93% and 95%, inclusive, of

U.S. households that have a telephone, those

conducting surveys by telephone can reach at

least 93% of U.S. households.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Based on this confidence interval, should

those conducting surveys by telephones be

concerned?

as much as 7% of U.S. households that cannot

be reached by telephone.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Based on this confidence interval, should

those conducting surveys by telephones be

concerned?

that have a telephone has increased from 35%

in 1920 to at least 93% now, not all U.S.

households have a telephone.

• In 1920, only 35% of U.S. households had

telephones. A recent survey of 4276

randomly selected households showed that

4019 households had telephones.

Based on this confidence interval, should

those conducting surveys by telephones be

concerned?

that have a telephone has increased from 35%

in 1920 to at least 93% now, not all U.S.

households have a telephone. Therefore, as of

yet, not all U.S. households can be reached

by telephone.

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

For example,

~ population mean

~ population proportion

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

• You MUST be careful not to approximate any

values used in calculating

the lower bound or

the upper bound

for the confidence interval.

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

• You MUST be careful not to approximate any

values used in calculating

the lower bound or

the upper bound

for the confidence interval.

• You can ONLY approximate the final value for

the lower and upper bound for the confidence

interval.

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

• You MUST be careful not to approximate any

values used in calculating

the lower bound or

the upper bound

for the confidence interval.

• You CANNOT calculate the lower and upper

bound piecemeal, approximate any values used

in the calculations, and then combine the

parts.

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

• You MUST be careful not to approximate any

values used in calculating

the lower bound or

the upper bound

for the confidence interval.

• You CANNOT calculate the lower and upper

bound piecemeal, approximating any values.

Doing so, produces errors and combining such

values makes the lower and upper bounds

useless and meaningless.

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

• You MUST be careful not to approximate any

values used in calculating

the lower bound or

the upper bound

for the confidence interval.

• You CANNOT calculate the lower and upper

bound piecemeal, approximating any values.

• You are interested in obtaining the most

accurate values possible.

• Notice that confidence intervals, which are

determined based on sample information,

provide a great deal of information about

population parameters.

• You MUST be careful not to approximate any

values used in calculating

the lower bound or

the upper bound

for the confidence interval.

• You CANNOT calculate the lower and upper

bound piecemeal, approximating any values.

• Without precision and accuracy, statistics and

parameters are meaningless.

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