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MATERI I

DASAR-DASAR MANAJEMEN KONSTRUKSI

CAKUPAN ISI
Dalam minggu ini akan dibahas pokok materi sbb :
1. Pengertian dasar manajemen konstruksi (MK)
2. Mengapa diperlukan manajemen konstruksi
3. Ruang lingkup ilmu MK (MK Body of Knowledge)

TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN
Dari modul ini diharapkan dapat diketahui dan dipahami beberap hal yakni,
pengertian dasar manajemen konstruksi, mengapa diperlukan manajemen
konstruksi, ruang lingkup ilmu MK (MK Body of Knowledge) khususnya yang akan
dipelajari pada mata kuliah ini

KRITERIA PENILAIAN
Mengerti dan memahami pengertian dasar manajemen konstruksi, perlunya
manajemen konstruksi serta ruang lingkup manajemen konstruksi

METODA PENYAMPAIAN DAN PENILAIAN


Metoda penyampaian materi untuk mencapai tujuan dilakukan dengan :
1. Perkuliahan/ceramah
2. Diskusi

Manajemen Konstruksi 1
PENGERTIAN DASAR MANAJEMEN (PROYEK) KONSTRUKSI
Pengertian manajemen dapat dikembangkan dari beberapa pendekatan,
pendekatan pertama dari pengertian manajemen klasik yakni manajemen
merupakan fungsi dari kegiatan perencanaan, pelaksanaan dan pengendalian.
Pengertian tersebut selanjutnya berkembang menjadi perencanaan (planning),
pengorganisasian (organizing), penyusunan staff (staffing), pengarahan dan
motivasi (directing & motivating), serta pengendalian (controlling).

Pendekatan kedua, manajemen merupakan siklus kegiatan perbaikan


berkelanjutan (continuous improvement). Dikenal sebagai siklus PDCA (Plan-Do-
Check-Corrective Action). Pendekatan lainnya, manajemen adalah mengolah
input menjadi output dengan nilai tambah. Proses manajemen yang baik
diharapkan menghasilkan nilai tambah yang besar tidak sekedar akumulasi dari
nilai input.

Sedangkan proyek, dapat diartikan sebagai kumpulan kegiatan untuk mencapai


tujuan dengan sumberdaya yang terbatas. Secara skematis diperlihatkan pada
gambar berikut.

Apa, MP/MK ?

Tujuan
Keg
• Proyek :
Sumberdaya terbatas

• Manajemen :
1. Mengolah input menjadi output (nilai tambah) dg proses MK
2. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing & Controlling ; PDCA
3. Perencanaan, Pengorganisasian (Pelaksanaan) & Pengendalian

Manajemen Konstruksi 2
MENGAPA DIPERLUKAN MANAJEMEN (PROYEK) KONSTRUKSI
Metoda manajemen konstruksi berkembang dari metoda tradisional karena
terdapat beberapa alasan diantaranya adanya tekanan ekonomis, adanya
kelemahan dari metoda tradisional serta dampak logis dari perkembangan industri
jasa konstruksi. Secara skematis diperlihatkan pada gambar berikut.

Mengapa, MK ?

1. Tekanan ekonomis
2. Kelemahan metoda tradisional (Pemilik-Perencana-Pembangun/Pelaksana :
a. Perencana kurang akurat dlm detail pelaksanaan dan akurasi biaya
b. Masukan pengalaman pengalaman lapangan diperlukan pd saat perencanaan
c. Pelaksana tidak/belum menerapkan metoda pelaksanaan dgn baik
3. Perkembangan industri jasa konstruksi (Tuntutan, wktu lebih cepat, biaya lebih
murah, kualitas lebih baik)

Performance Metoda baru

Complexity

Manajemen Konstruksi 3
RUANG LINGKUP ILMU MANAJEMEN (PROYEK) KONSTRUKSI
Ilmu manajemen konstruksi berkembang pada dua bidang keilmuan atau
keterampilan yakni keterampilan teknis (technical skill) serta keterampilan
pengelolaan manusia dan manajemen. Dengan memperhatikan kedua bidang
keilmuan tersebut maka terdapat berbagai konsep dasar dan aplikasi keilmuan
yang dipelajari di bidang manajemen konstruksi. Diperkirakan sejak tahun 1930-an
hingga kini telah dipelajari berbagai konsep dasar dan aplikasi ilmu seperti metoda
penjadwalan (Gant Chart, NWP, Arrow Diagram, PDM), metoda perencanaan dan
pengendalian pembangunan (Analisa BOW, TQM, Value Engineering), Penerapan
teknologi informasi untuk pengambilan keputusan seperti artificial intelligent,
expert system, DSS, MIS. Secara skematis diperlihatkan pada gambar berikut.

MK, Body of Knowledge ?

 Artificial Inteligent, Expert System, DSS, MIS


Sd. 1990-an

 Environment Impact
 Value Eng, Quality Assurance, Risk Management

Sd. 1970-an

 Ishikawa Methods, TQM, Time-Cost-Product spec control

NWP, Arrow Diagrams, PDM, Critical Path.

 Operation Reseach

Sd. 1930-an

 Control Man & Material, BOW

 Gant-Chart
Technical Skill Management & Human Skill

MK

Manajemen Konstruksi 4
Diagram Topik Materi Pada Perkuliahan Manajemen Konstruksi
Berbagai topik materi perlu dipelajari untuk memperoleh keterampilan yang
memadai sebagai pengelola atau manajer proyek. Namun demikian dengan
berbagai keterbatasan pada perkuliahan manajemen konstruksi dipilih beberapa
topik materi yang dapat menjadi pemahaman serta keterampilan dasar yang
diperlukan seorang perencana untuk memahami manajemen pelaksanaan
pekerjaan konstruksi. Secara skematis diperlihatkan pada gambar berikut.

Buble Diagram Hubungan Topik Pada MK/MP

Art Intlgt
MIS

Risk Mgn Hukum P Least-cost Crashing

Rsrc Sch.

S-Curve Cash-flow NWP-CPM

Cost est. WBS-OAT

Dasar MP FS, Ekotek

Manajemen Konstruksi 5
Berbagai Isu Terkini Yang Berkembang Di Bidang Manajemen Konstruksi :
Konstruksi & Dunia Berkelanjutan (Construction & Sustainability World)

Pembangunan berbagai fasilitas yang diperlukan oleh manusia (human made)


harus memperhatikan sumberdaya alam yang terbatas (natural resources). Untuk
melindungi alam telah disusun berbagai perangkat hukum yang diperlukan (legal).
Ketiga aspek tersebut secara terkait harus mendukung gagasan dunia yang
berkelanjutan (sustainable world). Secara skematis diperlihatkan pada gambar
berikut.

Manajemen Konstruksi 6
Konstruksi & Proses Berkelanjutan (Construction & Sustainable Process)

Kegiatan konstruksi merupakan salah satu dari dari berbagai kegiatan dalam
siklus pembangunan (construction, operation, demolition, production). Siklus
pembangunan tersebut dengan memperhatikan berbagai komponen perlu
mendukung gagasan dunia yang berkelanjutan. Secara skematis diperlihatkan
pada gambar berikut.

Manajemen Konstruksi 7
Pustaka

1. Barrie, Donald. S dan Boyd C. Paulson, Manajemen Konstruksi Profesional,


terjemahan - Penerbit Erlangga , 1992.

2. Buku Ikatan Arsitek Indonesia (IAI) , Pedoman Hubungan Kerja antara Arsitek
dan Pemberi Tugas, 2004.

3. Djoyowirono, Soegeng, Manajemen Konstruksi, Edisi Keempat, Biro Penerbit


Teknik Sipil Universitas Gajah Mada, 2005

4. Jurnal - Harga satuan bahan bangunan dan Konstruksi, Penerbit Yayasan


Pandu Bangun Persada Nusantara Februari, 2009.

5. Ritz, George J, Total Construction Project Management, Mc. Graw-Hill Int’L,


1994

6. Soeharto, Iman, Manajemen Proyek-Dari Konseptual Sampai Operasional, Jilid


1 dan Jilid 2-Edisi 2, Penerbit Erlangga, 1999

7. Tubagus Heydar Ali, Prinsip-prinsip Net Work Planning, Gramedia, 1992

8. Zulkarnain Djamin, Perencanaan dan Analisa Proyek, Universitas Indonesia,


1984.

Regulasi Penting

• UU no 8/1999 tentang Perlindungan Konsumen


• UU no 18/1999 tentang Industri Jasa Konstruksi (UUJK)
• UU no 30 /1999 tentang Arbitrase dan Masalah Penyelesaian sengketa
• Perpres no 54/ 2010 tentang Pengadaaan Barang dan Jasa Di Lingkungan
Pemerintah

Manajemen Konstruksi 8
Topik Bahasan Mata Kuliah Manajemen Konstruksi :

1. Dasar-Dasar Manajemen Konstruksi


2. Tahapan Pembangunan
3. Pelaku Proyek
4. Sistem Pelaksanaan Pembangunan
5. Pelelangan
6. Perhitungan Volume Pekerjaan
7. Rencana Anggaran Biaya
8. Perencanaan Waktu Pekerjaan
9. NWP
10. Latihan NWP
11. Keterkaitan Waktu & Biaya Pekerjaan
12. Pengendalian Waktu & Biaya Pekerjaan
13. Kurva S
14. Latihan Penyusunan Kurva S

Manajemen Konstruksi 9
Bacaan Lanjut

Construction project manager


Posted by Civil Engineer

1. What is a Construction Project Manager?


The title Construction Project Manager is used to define any supervisory level managers
who supervising construction projects. He may also be called as construction
superintendent, general construction manager, executive construction manager,
constructor or even contractor or sub-contractor. He could be a salaried employee of a
construction company or engaged to manage a particular construction project.

2. Main activities of Construction Project Managers


The construction project manager has to be involved in the project from the beginning
through to its completion. By employing his knowledge and expertise in terms of the
efficient use of required resources, he has to ensure the achievement of predetermined
objectives of cost, time, and quality. To make sure of these objectives, he has to decide
which construction methods are appropriate for cost effective scheduling. He has to discuss
architectural and engineering drawings with design engineers to effectively plan and
harmonize every facet of the project. This may include preparation and use of complicated
flow charts and bar charts, and various graphs for data representation. Nowadays, project
managers use computers to analyze, conceptualize and implement plans and designs.

Project Manager is in charge of Construction project management. His qualification is


construction management or civil engineering or construction science. He has to ensure
that the entire project is completed on time, without exceeding budgetary limits. It is a high
pressure job. The manager has complete control and is responsible for everything related to
the construction project.The construction project manager has to plan a logical, phase wise
implementation of the project, assigning predetermined timeframes for the completion of
each phase. He has to take all measures to see that the time frame is adhered to.

Manajemen Konstruksi 10
These days, there is a great demand for people with a good academic foundation in the field
of construction management. Employers generally prefer a degree in construction science,
with special focus on the management aspect. It is a four-year degree course offered by over
120 colleges in the country.

Coursework for a degree in construction science is very comprehensive. Some of the


subjects covered would be engineering and architectural sciences, mathematics, statistics,
computer science, project control and development, site planning, building design,
construction methods, construction materials, value analysis, cost estimating, contract
administration, building codes and standards and inspection procedures.

The American Institute of Constructors (AIC) and the Construction Management


Association of America (CMAA) also give certification after written examinations and
verification of education. The AIC awards the Associate Constructor (AC) and Certified
Professional Constructor (CPC) designations and the CMAA awards the Certified
Construction Manager (CMM) designation.

3. Construction Project Manager - Really bright career


prospects
There are bright career prospects for a professionally qualified construction project
manager. Practical work experience is of vital importance before a position of independent
functioning will be offered. A few years experience at a junior-grade position on
construction projects is a prerequisite required by most employers. The position would fetch
a handsome salary package and commands a respectable position in society.

The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted a salary survey in July 2005
and found that candidates with a degree in construction management got an average annual
salary figure of $42,923.

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Manajemen Konstruksi 11
Definitions and job description of Project management
Posted by Construction English on September 25th, 2008

There are many definitions of project management. This post try to pisk out some
most common that widely accepted and understood. Also listed here the job
description and main activities that project management job must cover.

Definitions of Project Management:


* PMBOK (Project Management — Body of Knowledge as defined by the Project
Management Institute — PMI):“Project management is the application of
knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project
requirements.“
* PRINCE2 project management methodology: “The planning, monitoring and
control of all aspects of the project and the motivation of all those involved in it to
achieve the project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and
performance.”

* DIN 69901 (Deutsches Institut für Normung - German Organization for


Standardization): “Project management is the complete set of tasks, techniques,
tools applied during project execution“

Job description
Project management is quite often the province and responsibility of an individual
project manager. This individual seldom participates directly in the activities that
produce the end result, but rather strives to maintain the progress and productive
mutual interaction of various parties in such a way that overall risk of failure is
reduced.

A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and


implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are
representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the
contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is
essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality, and above all, client
satisfaction, can be realized.

In whatever field, a successful project manager must be able to envision the entire
project from start to finish and to have the ability to ensure that this vision is
realized.

Any type of product or service — Pharmaceuticals, buildings, vehicles, electronics,


computer software, financial services, etc. — may have its implementation overseen
by a project manager and its operations by a product manager.

Manajemen Konstruksi 12
Project management activities
Project management is composed of several different types of activities such as:

1. Analysis and design of objectives and events


2. Planning the work according to the objectives
3. Assessing and controlling risk (or Risk Management)
4. Estimating resources
5. Allocation of resources
6. Organizing the work
7. Acquiring human and material resources
8. Assigning tasks
9. Directing activities
10. Controlling project execution
11. Tracking and reporting progress (Management information system)
12. Analyzing the results based on the facts achieved
13. Defining the products of the project
14. Forecasting future trends in the project
15. Quality Management
16. Issues management
17. Issue solving
18. Defect prevention
19. Identifying, managing & controlling changes
20. Project closure (and project debrief)
21. Communicating to stakeholders
22. Increasing / decreasing a company’s workers

Manajemen Konstruksi 13