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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

Design of Hexagonal Split Ring Resonator using HFSS


Pratibha Verma1, Sanjay Kumar Sharma2
1
Electronics and Communication Department, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow, India
2
Associate Professor, ECE, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow, India
Abstract-- In this paper, Hexagonal Split Ring
Resonator (HSRR) and Square Split Ring Resonator
(SSRR) are designed using HFSS simulation software.
Both split ring resonators are based on the
Metamaterial and same parameters. Then after
compare the simulation result of HSRR and SSRR.
HFSS simulation of the Hexagonal SRR shows
improved Return Loss and VSWR i.e. -44.7 dB and 1
respectively compare to Square Split Ring Resonator. Figure 2: SRR and its circuit diagram

A circular split-ring resonator (SRR) and its equivalent


Keywords-- Metamaterial, Hexagonal SRR,
circuit is shown in figure 2. The inductance of ring is
Resonant frequency
represented by L and the distributed capacitance is
represented by c1/2 and c2/2 where c1/2 is the capacitance
I. INTRODUCTION
composed by the upper outer and inner ring and c 2/2 is
In 1968, Veselago, described the electric permittivity the capacitance composed by lower outer and inner ring
(ε), and magnetic permeability (µ) are the two and both the capacitance connected in series. The
fundamental parameters characterizing the EM property transmission coefficient of the SRRs is minimum at the
of a medium, it is shown in figure 1 [1]. magnetic resonance frequency, which is estimated from
the inductance and capacitance [8] [9]. It is important to
design SRR structures from substrate of the microstrip
components because the shape, the orientation and the
arrangement of SRR structures change the inductance
and capacitance [12].
There are various shapes that have been available in
the literature. In this paper, the design of Hexagonal Split
Ring Resonator based on metamaterial is proposed using
HFSS.
(I)
(a) Designing of Hexagonal Split Ring Resonator using
Figure 1: Properties of Permittivity and Permeability
HFSS
for material
The design parameters of Hexagonal SRR are
Veselgo predicted that the most interesting region in following :
the material parameter space is quadrant III, in which
L (length of the side) = 4 mm
permittivity and permeability are simultaneously negative
w (width of the split ring) = 0.33 mm
[1].
s (separation between the rings) = 0.33 mm
Metamaterial is the artificial engineered structure. It
N (number of rings) = 3
composed of SRR and strip wires. Negative permeability
Ground plane dimensions = (8 ) mm
can be achieved by using split ring resonator and
negative permittivity can be achieved by using strip wire In designing, the substrate is Rogers RO4003. The
[2] [3]. relative permittivity and permeability of Rogers R04003
The electrical size of a multi split ring resonator are 3.5 and 1 respectively and its loss tangent is 0.0027.
(MSRR) can be arranged by simply changing the number The Hexagonal split ring resonator (HSRR) is shown in
of its rings while retaining the physical size [6]. figure 3.

816
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

Figure 5: Designing of the Square SRR


Figure 3: Designing of the Hexagonal SRR

The return loss and VSWR of Hexagonal SRR are The return loss and VSWR of Square SRR are shown
shown in figure 4 (a) & (b): in figure 6 (a) & (b):
Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 2 HFSSDesign1
Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 7 HFSSDesign1
0.00
0.00 Curve Info
Curve Info
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Setup1 : Sw eep1
-5.00
-5.00

-10.00
dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

dB(S(WavePort1,WavePort1))

-15.00 -10.00

-20.00

-15.00
-25.00

-30.00
-20.00
-35.00

-40.00
-25.00

-45.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00
Freq [GHz]
-30.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00
Freq [GHz]
(a)
(a)
Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 8 HFSSDesign1
160.00
Curve Info
VSWR(WavePort1)
Setup1 : Sw eep1
Ansoft Corporation XY Plot 3 HFSSDesign1
140.00 120.00
Curve Info
VSWR(WavePort1)
120.00 Setup1 : Sw eep1

100.00
100.00
VSWR(WavePort1)

80.00
80.00
VSWR(WavePort1)

60.00

40.00 60.00

20.00

40.00
0.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00
Freq [GHz]

20.00

(b)
0.00
Figure 4: (a) Return loss of HSRR (b) VSWR of HSRR 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00
Freq [GHz]
8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00

The resonant frequency of Hexagonal Split Ring (b)


Resonator is 9.75 GHz and return loss is -44.7dB. Figure 6: (a) Return loss of SSRR (b) VSWR of SSRR
(b) Designing of Square Split Ring Resonator using As shwon in the above figures (a) and (b), The
HFSS resonant frequency of Square Split Ring Resonator is
The design parameters of Square SRR are following: 6.75 GHz and return loss is -17.2 dB.
L (length of the side) = 4 mm
(II)
w (width of the split ring) = 0.33 mm
s (separation between the rings) = Comparison between Square and Hexagonal SRR
0.33 mm The design parameters of both the structures are same
N ( number of rings) = 3 but the results are different. The comparison between
Ground plane dimensions = (8 ) mm Square Split Ring Resonator and Hexagonal Split Ring
In designing, the substrate is Rogers RO4003. The Resonator are shown as following table 1:
relative permittivity and permeability of Rogers R04003
are 3.5 and 1 respectively and its loss tangent is 0.0027.
The square split ring resonator (SSRR) is shown in
figure 5.
817
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)
Table 1 [6] Yahya Rahmat-Samii, “Metamaterials in Antenna Applications:
Comparison between HSRR and SSRR Classifications, Designs and Applications”, IEEE, 0-7803-9444-
5/06 © 2006.
S. Shape of Side Length Return Resonance [7] K. Buell, H. Mosallaei, and K. Sarabandi, “A substrate for small
No. Structure of Structure Loss Frequency patch antennas providing tunable miniaturization factors,” IEEE
(mm) (dB) (GHz.) Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 135–146, Jan.
2006.
1. Square 4 -17.2 6.75 [8] Filiberto Bilotti,” Design of Spiral and Multiple Split-Ring
SRR Resonators for the Realization of Miniaturized Metamaterial
2. Hexagonal 4 -44.7 9.75 Samples”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques, Vol. 55, NO. 8, August 2007.
SRR
[9] Filiberto Bilotti,” Equivalent-Circuit Models for the Design of
The resonant frequency of Square SRR and Hexagonal Metamaterials Based on Artificial Magnetic Inclusions”, IEEE
Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 55, No.
SRR is different because of distributed capacitance, gap 12,. December 2007.
capacitance and inductance of resonator. [10] A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Single-
negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their
II. CONCLUSION electromagnetic applications”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas
and Propagation 49, 23 (2007).
The resultant frequency of the Square SRR is 6.75
[11] R. S. Penciu1, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki1, Th. Koschny, E. Ozbay,
GHz , return loss -17.2 dB and VSWR is 1. The resultant E. N. Economou1,5, C. M. Soukoulis, “Multi-gap individual
frequency of the Hexagonal SRR is 9.75 GHz on return and coupled split-ring resonator structures”, Optical Society of
loss of -44.7 dB and VSWR is 1. So it is conclude that America, pp 1-13, 2008.
the Hexagonal Split Ring Resonator show the improved [12] H. A. Majid, M. K. A. Rahim, and T. Masri, “Microstrip
return loss and highest resonant compare to Square Split Antenna’s Gain Enhancement using Left-Handed Metamaterials
Structure”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 8, pp.
Ring Resonator. 235-247, 2009.
[13] Ekmekci E, Topalli K, Akin T, Turhan-Sayan G (2009). “A
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