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Pratikraman Sutras

with English translation and explanation

A complete guide on how to do


Sāmāyika, Chaitya Vandan, and Pratikraman

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´ÉÉBʺɮúÒ {ÉÖilɪÉ-´ÉMMÉ-½þilÉÉ, ºÉÖ½þÉªÉ ºÉÉ +¨½þ
ºÉªÉÉ {ɺÉilÉÉ.

Published by
Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago

Compiled by

Mukesh Doshi
Pradip Shah
Darshana Shah

The publication of this book


is made possible due to a generous donation
from

Mr. Pramod and Mrs. Usha Shah


Skokie, Illinois

Published by:
Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago
435 North, Route 59
Bartlett, IL 60103

Cover Design

Narendra Velani
Payal Gandhi

Compiled by:

Mukesh M. Doshi Pradip and Darshana Shah


1540 Sandburg Drive 487 Jeremy
Schaumburg, IL 60173-2183 Bourbonnais, IL 60914
Phone: (847) 517-2505 Phone: (815) 935-1499
mukusha@sbcglobal.net Pradipks1@sbcglobal.net

This book has no copyright


Please use this book and material herein with the utmost respect

ii
Dedicated to:
Pāthshālā teachers and Pāthshālā students around the world

in pursuit of

Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct.

iii
To attain liberation one must block the inflow of
Karmic influx and also restrain the activities of all
sense organs and annihilate all passions. All these
must be achieved through the activities of mind,
speech, and body; by not doing, not asking others to
do and not approving or praising others who do them.

………. Saman Suttam, Gāthā, 80

Preface

iv
Jai Jinendra.

Jainism is the world’s oldest religion. The last of the 24 Tirthankars, Bhagawān Mahāvir
(599 B.C.-525 B.C.), propounded the Jain religion, as we know it today. Bhagawān
Mahāvir preached in the Ardha Māgadhi language, the language of the common people at
His time. Accordingly, most Jain scriptures are written in Ardha Māgadhi language.
Since the time of Bhagawān Mahāvir, however, several Āchāryas have written many
texts, both in the Ardha Māgadhi and the Sanskrit language. All of the fundamental Jain
Sutras are therefore, written in either Ardha Māgadhi or Sanskrit, and most have a poetic
tone.

Jainism greatly emphasizes on right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct for leading
a spiritual life and attaining the ultimate goal of liberation. While living worldly lives, we
are bound to commit several mundane sins and wrong doings. Repenting for these sins
and wrong doings is utmost important for us so that we remain vigilant in our daily lives.
We must constantly strive to improve our daily conduct and enhance our understanding
of Jain philosophy. To guide us further along the path of right knowledge, right faith, and
right conduct Jainism prescribes six essential activities a Shrāvak and Shrāvikā should do
daily. These activities are Sāmāyika, Chauvisattho (obeisance to 24 Tirthankar
Bhagawān), Guru Vandan, Pratikraman, Kāusagga (meditation) and, Pachchakkhān
(taking vow/s). Jain Āchāryas have recommended set rituals to do these six essential
activities, all of which require recitation of many Sutras. In well-known text Tattvārtha
Sutra, Āchārya Umāsvāti Mahārāj says that real understanding and knowledge of any
religious activity are the prerequisite for attaining liberation. We hope that the
information presented in this book helps you understand Jain Sutras and rituals.

Numerous scholars have translated the fundamental Jain Sutras into various Indian
languages. However, a few years ago when we started teaching Pratikraman Sutras to our
Pāthshālā students in Chicago, we realized a void of a good English translation of
Pratikraman Sutras, which the children in western countries can easily understand. This
book is our effort to fill this gap. We fully realize that during translation, the real charm,
meaning, and essence of the original scriptures may be lost. Accordingly we want to
emphasize the fact that one must learn these Sutras in their original form and language,
Ardha Māgadhi or Sanskrit. This book should serve only as an aid in understanding the
Sutras and should not replace the original works. It is our hope that people will learn and
understand the Sutras in their original language, and until then, this book will help them
do the essential activities of Shrāvak and Shrāvikā.

In translating Sutras, we have emphasized the real meaning of the verse or the words
rather than the literal translation. Consequently, to make the explanations as easy as
possible to understand, in many places the translations do not follow the original order of
the verse or the words.

Section Ι of this book contains translation of Sutras 1-21 with explanation. Please note
that the Sutras in this book are in accordance with the Jain Shvetāmbar tradition. Section
II of this book outlines a step-by-step procedure of doing Sāmāyika, Chaitya Vandan, and
Pratikraman. The ritual of Pratikraman has evolved over last 2000 or more years. We
want to emphasize that the ritual of Pratikraman presented in this book is not as elaborate

v
as commonly practiced. This book provides only an abbreviated version of the original
ritual of Pratikraman. Since Pratikraman includes other five essential activities, we
sincerely hope that an aspirant will be able to do all of the six essential activities with the
help of this book. The procedure of Pratikraman presented in this book is adopted from
the original concept presented by Shree Manubhai Doshi in Introduction to Shree
Samvatsari Pratikraman. We extend our appreciation and gratitude to him for
contributing the groundwork for the Pratikraman procedure presented here.

We do not claim this work to be the original work. We have only compiled, translated,
and rephrased the material presented herein so as to make it easily understandable to
those, whose primary language is English. We may have committed several mistakes in
doing so. We will be grateful to those, who will please draw our attention to those
mistakes. If anything presented in this book is contrary to the teachings of the Tirthankar
Bhagawān and Jina Ājnā, we ask for forgiveness. Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Jai Jinendra.

Mukesh Doshi ● Pradip Shah ● Darshana Shah

vi
Acknowledgement

• Mr. Pravin Shah, Chairman, JAINA Education Committee, for his


valuable guidance and inspiration and, for providing us
Devanāgari fonts
• Shree Jina-chandraji Mahārāj of Bandhu Triputi for his guidance
and help in getting this book printed
• Mr. Narendra Velani and Miss Payal Gandhi for the cover design
• Mr. Alap Shah and Miss Megha Doshi for their valuable input and
suggestions
• Mr. Jayesh K. Shah for technical help
• Mr. Pramod Shah and Mrs. Usha Shah for their generous donation
for publication of this book

And finally,

We thank Pāthshālā teachers and Pāthshālā students of


The Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago
for giving us the golden opportunity of teaching at Chicago Pāthshālā

We are truly grateful to all of them for their selfless help


and for being a constant source of inspiration.

Thank you and Jai Jinendra

Mukesh Doshi ● Pradip Shah ● Darshana


Shah

vii
Transliteration Guide

All Jain scriptures are written in Devanāgari script. To correctly read and pronounce our
scriptures it is necessary to use various diacritical marks on various English letters. The
bold letter in each Devanāgari word should be pronounced similar to the pronunciation of
the bold letter in each English word.

Devan¡ English Pr¡krit Devan¡g English Pr¡krit


gari words Words ari words Words
Letter Letter
a ago karma ·h adhesiv padham
e am
¡ far ¡tm¡ ¸ ** Pra¸¡ma
i India jina t ** tapasvi
¢ police Mah¡v¢r th thatch tirth
u rule guru d ** darshan
£ rude s£tra dh dharma dharma
e red deva n name namask¡
r
ai ailment jain p pen puj¡
o go ogho ph f phone falpuja
au mouse pauÀadha b boy besanu
m mangalam bh abhor bhagaw¡
n
Å Oh lokaÅ m mother muni
k kite kesar y yoga yoga
kh khayber kham¡sama r run Ara-n¡th
¸a
g guru guru l love lobha
gh ghost gh¡ti V, w van vachan
ch chant ch¡ritra sh shine Sh¡nti-
n¡th
Chh ** chhatra À push Parame
Àthi
j jelly jiva
jh john z¡lar
¶ tea tik¡
¶h ** p¡thash¡l¡
· door dukkadam

** No equivalent pronunciation in English

viii
Table of Contents

Section – I Pratikraman Sutras


A complete guide on how to do............................................................................................i

Published by.........................................................................................................................i
Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago..................................................................................i

Mukesh Doshi.......................................................................................................................i
The publication of this book .............................................................................................i
is made possible due to a generous donation....................................................................ii
from..................................................................................................................................ii
Mr. Pramod and Mrs. Usha Shah......................................................................................ii

Please use this book and material herein with the utmost respect.......................................ii
Right faith, Right knowledge, and Right conduct..............................................................iii
................................................................................................................................iv
To attain liberation one must block the inflow of Karmic influx and also restrain the
activities of all sense organs and annihilate all passions. All these must be achieved
through the activities of mind, speech, and body; by not doing, not asking others to do
and not approving or praising others who do them............................................................iv
Preface................................................................................................................................iv

1. navak¡ra mah¡mantra.....................................................................................................1
Āchārya.............................................................................................................................5
Upādhyāy.............................................................................................................................9

2. paµchindiya s£tra.........................................................................................................15

3. kham¡sama¸a s£tra.......................................................................................................18

4. ichchhak¡ra s£tra..........................................................................................................19

5. abbhu¶¶hi°mi s£tra......................................................................................................20

6. iriy¡vahiy¡ s£tra...........................................................................................................22

7. tassa uttar¢ s£tra..........................................................................................................24

8. annattha s£tra...............................................................................................................25

9. l°gassa s£tra.................................................................................................................28

10. kar®mi bhant® s£tra..................................................................................................31

11. s¡m¡iya-vaya-jutt° s£tra..............................................................................................33

ix
13. jam kiµchi s£tra..........................................................................................................42

15. j¡vanti-ch®i¡im s£tra..................................................................................................49

16. j¡vanta k® vi s£tra......................................................................................................50

17. nam°rhat s£tra.............................................................................................................51

18. uvasagga-haram st°tra.................................................................................................52

Namiuna Pāsa Visahara Vasaha Jina Fullinga...................................................................54

Om Rhim Shreem Arham Namiuna Pāsa Visahara Vasaha Jina Fulling Rhim Namah’. .54

19. jaya v¢yar¡ya! s£tra....................................................................................................55

20. arihanta-ch®iy¡¸am s£tra............................................................................................57

21. kall¡¸a-kandam stuti....................................................................................................58

Paryushan Parva...........................................................................................................63

What is Pratikraman?.........................................................................................................64
1. Sāmāyika - The Practice of Equanimity........................................................................65
2. Chauvisattho - Worshipping Tirthankar Bhagawān......................................................66
3. Guru Vandan - Offering Obeisance to Guru Mahārāj...................................................66
4. Pratikraman - Turning Back from Transgressions.........................................................66
5. Kāusagga - Concentration and Meditation....................................................................66
6. Pachchakkhān - Taking Appropriate Vows...................................................................66

Importance of Pratikraman................................................................................................67

Pratikraman........................................................................................................................69

Sāmāyika: The First Āvashyak..........................................................................................69

paµchindiya s£tra...............................................................................................................69

iriy¡vahiy¡ s£tra.................................................................................................................70
Taking the Vow of Sāmāyika: .......................................................................................77

Pachchakkhān....................................................................................................................80

Dev Vandan-Chaitya Vandan: The Second Āvashyak......................................................82

Guru Vandan: The Third Āvashyak .................................................................................91

Pratikraman: The Fourth Āvashyak...................................................................................92

x
Reflecting on Transgression of Codes of Conduct............................................................93
Five Anu Vratas (Five Minor Vows).................................................................................98
Three Guna Vrata (Auxiliary Vows)............................................................................101
Four Shikshā Vrata (Four Disciplinary Vows) ............................................................102

Kāusagga: The Fifth Āvashyak.......................................................................................106


Conclusion of Pratikraman..............................................................................................111

References........................................................................................................................120

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

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
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I offer obeisance to the Tirthankaras (Arihantas)


I offer obeisance to the liberated souls (Siddhas)
I offer obeisance to the heads of religious order (Āchāryas)
I offer obeisance to the masters of religious scriptures (Upādhyāys)
I offer obeisance to all the monks and nuns in the entire universe (Sādhus and Sādhvis)
This five-fold obeisance is the destroyer of all sins
Amongst all the auspicious things, it is the first and the best auspicious thing.

xii

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

There are four auspicious entities in the universe.


Arihantas are auspicious
Siddhas are auspicious.
Sādhus are auspicious.
The religion explained by the omniscient is auspicious.

There are four supreme entities in the universe.


Arihantas are supreme.
Siddhas are supreme.
Sādhus are supreme.
The religion explained by the omniscient is supreme.

xiii
I take refuge in four entities of the universe.
I take refuge in Arihantas.
I take refuge in Siddhas.
I take refuge in Sādhus.
I take refuge in the religion explained by the omniscient.



xiv
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

Even the heavenly gods revere Tirthankar Bhagawān. Sincere obeisance to the idol of
Tirthankar Bhagawān destroys all sins. It is the first step towards attaining heaven and,
obeisance to the idol of Tirthankar ultimately leads to liberation.



 





Bhagawān Mahāvir is auspicious; Gautam Swāmi is auspicious; Sthulibhadra and other


Sādhus are auspicious; Jain dharma is auspicious.

















Tirthankar Bhagawān, who is worshipped even by heavenly gods; Siddha Bhagawān,


who permanently resides on Siddhashilā; Āchārya Mahārāj, who propagates the Jain
religion; revered Upādhyāy Mahārāj and, Sādhus and Sādhvis, who are well versed in the
scriptures and followers of three jewels of Jainism; may all these five supreme beings
bestow bliss everyday.

xv








We worship Bhagawān Rishabhadev, who was the first king of the planet earth, who was
the first to renounce everything and, who was the first Tirthankar (of current descending
half of the time cycle).
















Oh Tirthankar Bhagawān, you eradicate the misery of the universe; I bow down to you.
Oh Tirthankar Bhagawān, you are the adorable ornament of the universe; I bow down to
you.
Oh Tirthankar Bhagawān, you are the supreme being of the universe; I bow down to you.
Oh Tirthankar Bhagawān, you destroy the endless cycles of birth and death; I bow down
to you.













xvi






I always pray, take refuge in and bow down to Bhagawān Mahāvir, who is worshipped by
all heavenly gods as well as demons and, who has eradicated all His Karma. This un-
paralleled Tirtha is established by Bhagawān Mahāvir. Oh! Bhagawān Mahāvir, Your
austerities were intense. You have attained the ultimate enlightenment, wealth of
knowledge, patience, and peace. Oh! Bhagawān Mahāvir, please show me the path to
attain liberation.












May the entire universe attain bliss; may all living beings be oriented to the interest of
others; let all faults be eliminated; and may people be happy everywhere.











I forgive all living beings; let all living beings forgive me. I am on friendly terms with all.
I have no enmity towards anybody.


xvii







Whenever Jineshvar Bhagawān is worshipped all the troubles disintegrate, the shackles of
obstacles break, and the mind achieves a blissful state











Jain Darshan and Jain way of life are most auspicious. They are the cause of ultimate
bliss (Moksha). They are the best and the greatest amongst all religious philosophies.

xviii
xix
Section - I

Pratikraman Sutras

xx
The eight essential requisites of right faith are:
absence of doubt, absence of longing, absence
of contempt, absence of confusion, absence of
belief in heretical sects, stabilization, affection
and exaltation about the right faith.
Saman Suttam (Gāthā 231)

xxi
1. navak¡ra mah¡mantra

xɨÉÉä +Ê®ú½ÆþiÉÉhÉÆ.
xɨÉÉä ʺÉrùÉhÉÆ.
xɨÉÉä +ɪÉÊ®úªÉÉhÉÆ.
xɨÉÉä =´ÉVZÉɪÉÉhÉÆ.
xɨÉÉä ±ÉÉäB ºÉ´´É-ºÉɽÚþhÉÆ.
BºÉÉä {ÉÆSÉ-xɨÉÖCEòÉ®úÉä, ºÉ
´´É-{ÉÉ´É-{{ÉhÉɺÉhÉÉä;
¨ÉÆMɱÉÉhÉÆ SÉ ºÉ´´Éä˺É,
{Éfø¨ÉÆ ½þ´É< ¨ÉÆMɱÉÆ.
nam° arihant¡¸am.
nam° siddh¡¸am.
nam° ¡yariy¡¸am.
nam° uvajjh¡y¡¸am.
nam° l°® savva-s¡h£¸am.
®s° paµcha-namukk¡r°, savva-p¡va-
ppa¸¡sa¸°;
ma´gal¡¸am cha savv®sim,
Meaning
pa·hamam havai ma´galam.
I offer obeisance to the Tirthankaras (Arihantas).
I offer obeisance to the liberated souls (Siddhas).
I offer obeisance to the heads of religious order (Āchāryas).
I offer obeisance to the masters of religious scriptures (Upādhyāys).
I offer obeisance to all the monks and nuns in the entire universe (Sādhus and Sādhvis).
This five-fold obeisance is the destroyer of all sins.
Amongst all the auspicious things, it is the first and the best auspicious thing.

Explanation
Navakār Mantra is also known as Namaskār Mantra, Namokār Mantra, and Namukkār
Mantra. It is the most revered mantra in Jainism. In the first and second Pada, obeisance
is offered to the omniscient Lords. In the third, fourth, and fifth Pada, obeisance is
offered to Guru Mahārāj. The remaining four Padas explain the importance of this
obeisance. Some Jain traditions do not include the last four Padas in Navakār Mantra. In
the version presented here, Navakār Mantra is composed of nine Padas. The last two

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Padas make up a single line, so it has eight lines, or Sampadās as known in Prākrut
language. There are 68 letters in the original Prākrut version of the Navakār Mantra.

There are 108 attributes of the five supreme beings, known as Pancha Paramesthi,
namely, Arihanta, Siddha, Āchārya, Upādhyāy, and Sādhu. The Jain rosary has 108
beads, which signify the 108 attributes of the five supreme beings. These 108 attributes
are as follows:

Arihanta ………………………. 12 attributes


Siddha …………………………. 8 attributes
Āchārya ………………………. 36 attributes
Upādhyāy …………………….. 25 attributes
Sādhu ………………………… 27 attributes
Total ………. 108 attributes

Arihanta

The word “Arihanta” has many meanings. The word is derived from the word “Arhat”.
Those who are revered by heavenly beings and everybody else are known as Arhants or
Arhats. In his treatise Āvashyak-niryukti, Āchārya Bhadrabāhu Swami wrote that those
who are revered by all and are destined to be liberated in their current life are called
Arihantas or Arhats. Arihantas are the only ones who explain the real meaning and
destiny of the soul.

Bhadrabāhu Swami further states in the same text that Arihanta are the ones who have
destroyed their enemies. (Ari means enemies and hant means destroyer.) These enemies
reside within us and prevent us from achieving liberation. Specifically, these enemies are:
misusing five-sense organs, objects of sensual pleasure, and luxuries, and the passions
(which are anger, ego, deceit, greed, attachment, and aversion).

Bhadrabāhu Swami further states that Arihantas are those who have conquered 22 kinds
of physical adversities, physical and mental pain, and tortures induced by others. One
becomes omniscient after eradicating all four destructive karmas. All those who are
omniscient are Arihantas in its literal meaning. In Jain terminology, Arihantas are also
known as Kevali. There are two broad classifications of Arihantas: Sāmānya (simple)
Kevali and Tirthankar Kevali. Upon attaining omniscience, both Sāmānya Kevali and
Tirthankar Kevali ultimately attain liberation after the remaining four non-destructive
karmas are exhausted. (The four destructive Karmas are eradicated upon attaining Keval-
jnān) While Sāmānya Kevalis simply spend the remainder of their lives in meditation
until all non-destructive karmas are exhausted. Tirthankar Kevalis, upon attaining
omniscience, reestablish Jain sangha, and devote their lives in preaching and guiding
others toward the path leading to liberation. In each half of one time cycle, only 24
Kevalis attain the distinction of that of a Tirthankar. In the Navakār Mantra, the word
Arihanta refers only to Tirthankar Kevali. All those who attain omniscience attain
liberation upon nirvana, and these liberated souls are now known as Siddhas. Thus,
Tirthankar or Arihanta also becomes a Siddha upon nirvana. The Siddha stage is the
ultimate stage for the soul. It is important to understand that the Arihanta stage precedes
the Siddha stage for Tirthankaras. In the spiritual hierarchical sense, Siddha is the stage
above the stage of Arihanta. In the Navakār Mantra, obeisance is offered first to Arihanta

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because Arihantas devote their remaining lives to preaching and guiding worldly souls to
the path of liberation.

Twelve attributes of Arihanta are as follows:

1. Omniscience
2. Absence of all natural calamities and diseases within the area of 125 Yojan of
Tirthankar
3. All heavenly gods and humans respect and bow down to Tirthankar
4. Thirty five special qualities of Tirthankar’s sermon
5. Ashok tree, which is twelve times the height of Tirthankar
6. Shower of fragrant flowers (Sur-pushpa Vrushti)
7. Devine music
8. Devine Chāmar (whisk)
9. A golden throne
10. An aureole behind the head of Tirthankar
11. Devine drums
12. Devine three-layered umbrella above Tirthankar’s head

The last eight attributes together are known as Ashta- Prātihārya.

Above mentioned twelve attributes of Arihanta are further elaborated into thirty-four
attributes, which are referred to as 34 Atishaya in Jain scriptures.

A. Four attributes present at birth:

1. Divine and healthy body, which is fragrant and devoid of perspiration


2. Fragrant breath
3. Milky white and odorless blood and flesh
4. Invisible diet and excreta

B. Eleven attributes attained upon attaining omniscience:

1. A total of 1,00,0002 human beings, heavenly gods, and other animals and birds
can be accommodated within a space of 1 Yojan Square when Tirthankar delivers
sermons
2. Tirthankar’s sermon, though delivered in Ardha-māgadhi language, is understood
well by all, including animals, and is heard clearly up to 1 Yojan distance
3. Aureole (Bhāmandal) behind Tirthankar’s head
4 to11. Absence of disease, enmity, calamity, plague, flooding, draught, famine, and
political unrest up to a distance of 125 Yojan

C. Nineteen attributes created by heavenly gods:

1. Wheel of dharma (Dharma-chakra) moves along with Tirthankar


2. Chāmar
3. A throne
4. Three layered umbrella over the head of Tirthankar
5. A flag (Dharma-dhvajā)

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6. Nine golden lotus flowers to walk upon
7. A gold, silver, and jewel-laden fort (Samavasaran) for delivering sermons
8. Visibility of Tirthankar’s face from all directions while delivering sermons
9. Ashok tree
10. Thorns face downwards while walking
11. Trees bow down to Tirthankar
12. Music from divine drums at the time of sermons
13. Cool soothing breeze
14. Circum-ambulation of birds
15. Sprinkles of fragrant water
16. Shower of fragrant flowers
17. Hair and nails do not grow following renunciation
18. Ten million heavenly gods always accompany Tirthankar
19. All seasons are always favorable

Digambar Tradition
The Digambar tradition, however, mentions following 34 slightly different attributes of
Tirthankar.

A. Ten of the 34 attributes present at birth:

1. The most beautiful body


2. Body full of fragrance
3. Body devoid of perspiration
4. Body devoid of excretion
5. Peaceful and soothing voice
6. Unmatched physical strength
7. Milk-like blood
8. 1008 desirable birthmarks and features
9. Proportionally built body
10. Solid physique

B. Ten attributes attained upon attaining omniscience:

1. Affluence all around


2. Walking without touching the ground
3. Visibility of face from all four directions
4. Complete kindness
5. Life devoid of obstacles
6. No food required to sustain life
7. Perfect knowledge
8. No growth of hair and nails
9. No blinking of eyes
10. No shadow of body

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C. Fourteen attributes created by the heavenly gods:

1. Facilitating a universal language


2. Enabling all beings to get along with each other
3. Clean air all around
4. Clear skies
5. Fruits, crops, and flowers flourish year-round irrespective of season
6. Miles and miles of neat and clean grounds all-around
7. Lotuses made from gold under the Tirthankar’s feet
8. Sounds of reverential praises in the skies around the Tirthankar
9. Blowing of slow and fragrant breezes
10. Fragrant rains
11. Removal of all potential obstacles from the land
12. Contentment all around
13. Moving of Dharma-chakra (symbolic wheel of religion) in Tirthankar’s Samavasaran
14. Presence of eight embellishments around the Tirthankar (e.g., Chhatra, Chāmar,
Dhvajā (flag), bell, Kalash (sacred vessel), fan, swastika, and mirror)

Siddha
As explained above, all Omniscients ultimately become Siddha when they exhaust the
remaining four destructive karmas upon attaining nirvana. Siddhas are liberated souls that
are free from the cycles of birth and death. These liberated souls stay in a place called
Siddha-shilā, which is located at the top of the universe. They have reached the highest
state, which is liberation, and have attained Moksha. They have eradicated all their
Karmas and therefore do not accumulate any new Karma, thus freeing themselves forever
from the cycle of birth and death (Akshaya-sthiti). This state of freedom is Moksha. A
liberated soul has infinite bliss (Anant-sukha), infinite knowledge (Anant-jnān), infinite
perception (Anant-darshan), and infinite energy (Anant-virya). These souls have the
ability to know everything that is happening now, that has happened in the past, and that
will happen in the future. They have no desires and are completely detached from any
sense of craving or aversion (Anant-chāritra, Vitarāgatva). Despite the fact that all
Siddhas retain a unique identity, they are equal (Aguru-Laghutva) and formless
(Arupitva).

Thus, Siddhas have the following 8 attributes:

1. Infinite knowledge (Anant-jnān)


2. Infinite perception (Anant-darshan)
3. Infinite, uninterrupted bliss (Anant-avyābādha-sukha)
4. Infinite perfect conduct (Anant-chāritra)
5. Imperishable status (Akshaya-sthiti)
6. Formlessness (Arupitva)
7. Equal-ness with other Siddhas (Aguru-laghutva)
8. Infinite energy (Anant-virya)

Āchārya
Āchārya is the spiritual head of the Jain congregation (Sangha) in the absence of
Tirthankar. Āchāryas carry out the message of Jina, the last Tirthankar Bhagawān
Mahāvir. Āchāryas bear the responsibility for the spiritual well being of the entire Jain

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Sangha. Before reaching that state, one must do an in-depth study and gain mastery of all
the Āgams. In addition to acquiring a high level of spiritual excellence, they also have the
ability to lead the Sangha (Sādhus, Sādhvis, Shrāvaks, and Shrāvikās). They should also
know the various languages of the country and have a sound knowledge of other
philosophies, ideologies, and religions of the region and the world. Āchāryas have 36
attributes, which are discussed in detail below.

Āchāryas have control over all pleasures derived from five-sense organs:
• Touch
• Taste
• Smell
• Sight
• Hearing
Our natural instincts cause us to seek pleasures, which are usually always derived from
these sense organs. Many times in pursuit of these pleasures, we knowingly or
unknowingly indulge in immoral, unethical, illegal, or harmful activities. These pleasures
obstruct the path toward spiritual upliftment. These sense organs are the root causes of
passions (anger, ego, deceit and greed), which are our true enemies. For example, our
skin likes to have a soothing touch, we crave tasty food, we like to have pleasant smells
around us, and we like to see attractive objects, and we like to hear pleasant-sounding
things. When we do not have these pleasurable experiences, we become unhappy,
frustrated, disappointed, and sometimes angry. Āchārya Mahārāj controls these pleasures
and remains in perfect equanimity whether these sensory experiences are favorable or
unfavorable.

Nine ways to observe celibacy (Brahmacharya)


Until the time of Lord Pārshva-nāth, there were only four great vows for Sādhu. Celibacy
was included in the vow of non-possessiveness. However, as times changed, Lord
Mahāvir added the fifth great vow of celibacy. (In the correct order of the five great
vows, celibacy is the fourth vow.) Upon renunciation, all Sādhus and Sādhvis commit to
these five great vows for the rest of their lives.

Our scriptures have defined following nine ways for strict observation of vow of
celibacy:

1. Do not stay near or in a place where persons of opposite sex, eunuchs, or animals
live.
2. Do not be alone in a lonely place with someone of the opposite sex.
3. Do not observe a person of opposite sex.
4. Do not sit at the same place where a person of the opposite sex has been sitting
until a certain amount of time has elapsed.
5. Do not listen to the conversations of couples and do not live in a place where
you must share a common wall with a couple.
6. Do not think about any sensual pleasures or experiences from the time before
renunciation.
7. Do not consume intoxicating food or liquids.

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8. Do not indulge in tasty foods and eat simple food in moderation.
9. Do not use make-up and wear simple clothes.

Free and detached from four passions (Kashāyas)


Āchārya Mahārāj has attained a complete control on four passions
• Anger (Krodha)
• Ego (Māna)
• Deceit (Māyā)
• Greed (Lobha)

Observation of five great vows (Mahā-vratas)


Āchārya Mahārāj observes these great vows and does not ask encourage, or appreciate
anybody who indulges in any activity, which is contrary to these vows.
The five great vows are described below:

1. Nonviolence: Complete and total commitment to nonviolence, in thoughts,


words, and actions (Prānātipāt Viraman Vrata)
2. Truthfulness: To speak only harmless truth (Mrushāvāda Viraman Vrata)
3. Non-stealing: To take only those things which are duly given (Adattādāna
Viraman Vrata)
4. Celibacy: (Maithuna Viraman Vrata)
5. Non-possessiveness: To own no money, property, or ornaments. They should
own no more than the bare necessity of clothing and pots to accept alms. (Sādhus of
Digambar sects do not wear any clothes because they consider clothing as
possessions. (Parigraha Viraman Vrata)

Observation of five codes of conduct (Āchār)

1. Code of conduct regarding right knowledge (Jnānāchār):


To study and teach religious scriptures, to write and encourage others to write and
publish religious scriptures, and, to take proper and due care of religious books is
Jnānāchār.
2. Code of conduct regarding right faith (Darshanāchār):
To understand the preachings of Jina beyond any doubts and to respect and honor Jina
and the path to liberation shown by Jina.
3. Code of right conduct regarding ascetic life (Chāritrāchār):
To observe ascetic regulations and restrictions properly and helping other monks to
do the same.
4. Code of right conduct regarding observation of austerities (Tapāchār):
To observe austerities and encourage and help others observe austerities. There are 12
different ways to observe austerities. Those, which are related to voluntary endurance
of hardships and restrictions of bodily pleasures, are known as external austerities
(Bāhya Tap). Those austerities, which directly affect the karmas and help shed
karmas, are known as internal austerities (Abhyantar Tap).

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External austerities (Bāhya Tapa):
• Fasting (Anashan)
• Partial fasting (Unodari)
• Limiting consumption of number of food items (Vrutti-Sankshep)
• Avoiding or limiting consumption of tasty food (Rasa-tyāg)
• Voluntary endurance of physical hardships (Kāyā Klesha)
• Controlling and limiting other pleasures (Pratisanlinatā)

Internal austerities: (Abhyantar Tapa)


• Repentance for mental, verbal, and physical bad deeds (Prāyashchitta)
• Humility (Vinay)
• Selfless service to Sādhu, Sādhvi, and elderly (Vaiyāvachcha)
• Study of religious scriptures (Swādhyāy)
• Meditation (Dhyāna)
• Abandonment of physical and material things and passions
(Vyutsarga)

5. Codes of conduct regarding mental, verbal, and physical abilities (Viryāchār):


To use mental, verbal, and physical abilities properly and constantly engage in
spiritual activities without a moment of laziness.

Observation of five kinds of carefulness (Samitis):


1. Carefulness in movements to avoid any Himsā (Iryā Samiti).
2. Carefulness of speech so as to speak only harmless truth and to speak only what is
necessary (Bhāshā Samiti).
3. Carefulness in accepting alms (Gochari) to avoid the 42 faults of accepting alms
(Eshanā Samiti).
4. Carefulness in handling clothes, pots, and pans used for Gochari (Ādāna-Bhand-Matt-
Nikshepanā Samiti).
5. Carefulness in getting rid of bodily waste (Pārishthā-panikā Samiti).

Observation of restrains of thought, speech, and body (Three Guptis):


1. Restrain bad thoughts (Mana Gupti).
2. Restrain bad language (Vachan Gupti).
3. Restrain bad physical activity (Kāya Gupti).

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Thus, Āchārya Mahārāj has 36 attributes as follows:

Control over five-sense organs 5


Observance of celibacy in nine ways 9
Free from four passions 4
Commitment to five great vows 5
Observation of five codes of conduct 5
Carefulness in five activities 5
Restrain of thought, speech, and bodily activities 3
Total 36

Upādhyāy

Lord Mahāvir’s main disciples (Ganadhars) compile his preachings in 11 texts known as

Āgams. There are 11 main Āgams (Anga-āgams) and 12 sub Āgams (Upānga -āgams).
A Sādhu attains the rank of an Upādhyāy after studying and mastering all of these texts.

Anga-āgams:

Anga-āgams are the oldest religious scriptures and the backbone of Jain literature. (The
names in bracket appearing in italics are the names of texts in Prākrut language)

1. Āchārānga Sutra (Āyārānga-sutta):


This Āgam describes the codes of conduct of ascetic life and the penance of Lord
Mahāvir. Historically, this is the oldest Āgam

2. Sutra-krutānga Sutra (Suyagadānga-sutta):


This Āgam describes nonviolence, Jain metaphysics, and the refutation of other religious
theories such as Kriyā-vāda, Akriyā-vāda, Ajnānvāda, and Vinaya-vāda.

3. Sthānānga Sutra (Thānānga-sutta):


This Āgam defines and categorizes the fundamentals of Jain metaphysics.

4. Samavāyānga Sutra (Samavāo):


This Āgam defines and categorizes the fundamentals of the Jain religion from a different
perspective than the Sthānānga Sutra.

Originally there were 12 Anga-Āgams. However, when the Āgams were first verbally compiled in the 4th
century B.C., nobody remembered the 12th Āgam, known as Drashtivāda (Ditthivāya), it in its entirety.
Hence, this Āgam is extinct. The description of Drashtivāda found in other Jain Sutras indicates that this
Anga-āgam was the largest of all Āgam Sutras. It was classified in five parts:
(l) Parikrama, (2) Sutra, (3) Purvagata, (4) Pratham-Anuyoga, and (5) Chulikā.
The third part, Purvagata, includes 14 Purvas, which contain the Jain religion's endless treasure of
knowledge on every subject. The word Purva means “before”. Some scholars believe that it was named
‘Purva’ because it contained knowledge, which existed before Lord Mahāvir’s time.)

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5. Vyākhyā-prajnapti or Bhagawati Sutra (Viyāha-pannatti):
This Āgam explains the subtle knowledge of soul, matter, and other related subjects. It
discusses 36,000 questions and answers and is the largest of the 11 Anga-āgams.

6. Jnātā-dharma-kathānga Sutra (Nāyā-dhamma-kahāo):


This Āgam explains Jain principles through examples and stories. This text is very useful
in understanding the mode of Lord Mahāvir’s preaching.

7. Upāsaka-dashānga Sutra (Uvasaga-dasāo):


This Āgam explains the code of conduct of the 10 lay followers (Shrāvaks) of Lord
Mahāvir. This Āgam is very useful for understanding the code and conduct of ordinary
people (Shrāvak Dharma) in the Jain religion.

8. Antakrit-dashānga Sutra (Antagada-dasāo):


This Āgam tells the stories of 10 sacred monks who attained liberation (Moksha).

9. Anuttaraopa-pātika-dashānga Sutra (Anuttarova-vāiya-dasāo):


This Āgam contains the stories of 10 additional sacred monks who attained the top-most
heaven, known as Anuttara heaven.

10. Prashna-vyākaran Sutra (Panhā-vāgaranam):


This Āgam describes the five great vows (Mahā-vratas) and the five worst sins defined in
the Jain religion.

11. Vipāk Sutra (Vivāga-suyam): This Āgam explains the results of good and bad karmas
through several stories.

Upānga-āgams:

These 12 scriptures were developed as a treatise to Anga-āgams and provide further


explanation of Anga-āgams.

1. Aupa-pātika Sutra (Ovavāiyam):


This Āgam describes the splendid procession of King Konika when he visited Lord
Mahāvir. It also explains how a person can attain heaven in the next life.

2. Rāja-prashniya Sutra (Rāyā-pasena-ijja):


This Āgam describes the story of Monk Keshi, who was a Ganadhar of Lord Pārshvanāth.
He cleared the doubts of King Pradeshi regarding the existence and attributes of the soul.
Monk Keshi made the king a follower of the Jain religion. After his death, the king was
born in heaven as a dev. He regularly came from heaven to shower Lord Mahāvir with
unprecedented pomp and splendor. The 32 dramas (plays) described in this Āgam
provide examples of the ancient dramatic art of India.

3. Jivābhigama Sutra:
This Āgam describes the universe and all the living beings (souls) that reside within it.

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4. Prajnāpanā Sutra (Pannavanā):
This Āgam describes the form and attributes of the soul from a different perspective.

5. Surya-prajnapti Sutra (Suriya-pannatti Sura-pannatti):


This Āgam describes the Sun, planets, and associated mathematics regarding their
motion.

6. Chandra-prajnapti Sutra (Chanda-pannatti):


This Āgam describes the Moon, planets, and associated mathematics regarding their
motion. Both the Chandra-prajnapti and Surya-prajnapti Upāngas are very important in
understanding the ancient Jain astrology.

7. Jambu-dvipa-prajnapti Sutra:
This Āgam describes Jambu-dvip, big island located in the center of the middle world as
explained in Jain geography. This Āgam also provides information on ancient kings.

8. Nirayārvali Sutra:
This āgam describes the story of ten prince brothers. All ten princes fought with King
Chetak of Vaishāli in cooperation with king Konik. King Chetak was the half brother of
the ten princes. In the end all ten princes went to hell after dying in war.

9. Kalpā-vatansikā Sutra (Kappā-vadamsiāo):


This Āgam describes the story of King Konika’s children. Instead of fighting with King
Chetak in the war, they renounced the world and became monks. After their death, they
went to heaven.

10. Pushpikā Sutra (Puspiāo):


This Āgam describes the previous lives of certain Devas (angels) who worshiped Lord
Mahāvir.

11. Pushpa-chulikā Sutra


This Āgam describes stories similar to those in the Pushpikā Sutra.

12. Vrashnidashā Sutra (Vanhidasāo):


This Āgam explains how Lord Nemināth convinced 10 kings in the Vrashni region to
follow the Jain religion.

Thus, the 25 attributes of Upādhyāy are as follows:

Mastery of 11 Anga Āgams, 12 Upānga Āgams, 1 text that enumerates 70 ways to


observe the code of conduct and, 1 text that enumerates 70 ways to observe and perform
rituals and activities.

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Digambar tradition
In the Digambar tradition, Upādhyāy must master the following 25 scriptures, which are
slightly different from those described above

14 Purvas 11 Anga Āgams


1. Utpād Purva 1. Āchārānga
2. Agrāyaniya Purva 2. Sutra-krutānga
3. Virya-Pravād Purva 3. Sthānānga
4. Asti-nāsti Pravād Purva 4. Samavāyāng
5. Jnān-pravād Purva 5. Vyākhyā-prajnapti
6. Karma-pravād Purva 6. Jnātā-Kathānga
7. Satya-pravād Purva 7. Upāsaka-adhyayana
8. Ātmā-pravād Purva 8. Antha-Krita Dashānga
9. Pratyākhyān Purva 9. Anuttarotpāda Dashānga
10. Vidyā-pravād Purva 10. Vipāk Sutra
11. Kalyān-pravād Purva 11. Prashna-vyākarana
12. Prānavāy Purva
13. Kriyā-vishāl Purva
14. Loka-bindu Purva

Sādhus and Sādhvis

When householders desire to detach from the worldly aspects of life and deeply desire for
spiritual uplift, they renounce worldly life and become Sādhus (monks) or Sādhvis
(nuns). Before becoming a Sādhu or a Sādhvi, a layperson must stay with Sādhus or
Sādhvis to understand their lifestyles and study religion for several months. When they
feel confident that they will be able to live the life of a monk or a nun, they inform the
Āchārya that they are ready for initiation. If the Āchārya is convinced that they are
capable of following the vows of Sādhus and Sādhvis, he prepares them for Dikshā.
Dikshā is an initiation ceremony, which a householder must perform before becoming a
monk or a nun. At the time of Dikshā, Sādhus and Sādhvis commit to the five major
vows for the rest of their lives.

Sādhus and Sādhvis adhere to the five great vows, which are explained below:

Vow Meaning Explanation


Ahimsā Mahāvrata Nonviolence Not to commit any type of violence.
Satya Mahāvrata Truth Not to indulge in any type of lie or
falsehood.
Asteya Mahāvrata Non-stealing Not to take anything unless it is given.
Brahmacharya Mahāvrata Celibacy Not to indulge in any sensual activities
Aparigraha Mahāvrata Non-possessiveness Not to acquire more than what is needed to
maintain day-to-day life.

When monks and nuns commit to these five vows, they promise to never break these
vows and promise to never ask or encourage anybody else to break these vows - be it in
thought, speech, or action.

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Thus, Sādhus and Sādhvis have the following 27 attributes:

Five great vows as explained above 5


To protect five one-sensed beings (water, fire, earth, air, 6
and plant known as Sthāvar souls) and one group of
moving living beings (two-sensed to five-sensed living
beings) known as Trasa souls
To control pleasures derived from any of the five senses 5
(touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing)
To observe five types of carefulness1 1
To control mind, speech, and body 3
Not to eat before sunrise and after sunset 1
To forgive others 1
To avoid greed 1
To endure hardship 1
To endure suffering 1
To be introspective 1
To keep the heart pure 1

Digambar Tradition – Attributes of Monks

The Digambar tradition believes in the following 27 attributes of Sādhu:

Observation of 5 great vows 5


Observation of 5 kinds of carefulness 5
Control of five senses (Indriya Vijay) 5
6 Āvashyak (six essentials - same as described in 6
Digambar Āchāryas)2
Pulling out hair from own head (Kesha Loch) 1
No bathing (Asnāna) 1
Sleeping on the floor (Bhumi Shayan) 1
No brushing teeth (Adanta-dhovan) 1
Eating food in standing posture only (Uttishan-āhār) 1
Eating only once a day (Eka-bhuti) 1

So far we have reviewed a detailed explanation and the importance of the first four Padas
of Navakār Mantra. Now let us review the detailed meaning of the remaining five Padas.

1
Carefulness while moving around, carefulness of speech and talking, carefulness in accepting alms,
carefulness in the use of cloths and utensils, carefulness in disposal of bodily waste
2
Kesha loch (pulling out of hair from own head), Asnāna (no bathing), Bhumi Shayan (sleeping on the
floor), Adanta-dhovan (no brushing of teeth), Uttisthān-āhār Sevan (eating food in standing posture only),
Eka-bhukti (eating once a day only)

13
In the fifth Pada of the Navakār Mantra, the words ‘Loe Savva Sāhunam’ offer obeisance
to all the present and past Sādhus and Sādhvis of the entire universe

The remaining four Padas describe the importance and benefits of Navakār Mantra.
When we recite Navakār Mantra, we should remember the 108 virtues of five supreme
beings and strive to attain those virtues. When someone is determined to attain those
virtues, he or she will naturally commit fewer sinful activities. In addition, simply
engaging in prayer will help eradicate bad karmas. This is why the sixth Pada of Navakār
Mantra explains that offering obeisance to the five supreme beings destroys sins.
Eradication of sins and purification of soul are the most important steps for the spiritual
upliftment of the soul towards its journey to salvation. The last Pada in the Navakār
Mantra states that it is the most blissful and auspicious sutra in the entire universe. The
Navakār Mantra has been present in its original version since the beginning of time and
will be present forever. It is considered to contain the real essence of all 14 Purvas. One
should recite Navakār Mantra upon waking up in morning, before going to bed, before
meals, before starting any new activity, and preferably all the time. One who dies while
reciting and/or listening to Navakār Mantra will be reborn as a heavenly being or a
human.

14
2. paµchindiya s£tra

{ÉÆËSÉÊnùªÉ-ºÉÆ´É®úhÉÉä, iɽþ xÉ
´É-ʴɽþ-¤ÉƦÉSÉä®ú-MÉÖÊkÉvÉ®úÉä.
SÉ=ʴɽþ-EòºÉɪÉ-¨ÉÖCEòÉä, <+
+]Âõ`öÉ®úºÉ-MÉÖhÉä˽þ
ºÉÆVÉÖkÉÉä.............................1.
{ÉÆSÉ-¨É½þ´´ÉªÉ-VÉÖkÉÉä, {ÉÆSÉ-Ê
´É½þɪÉÉ®ú-{ÉɱÉhÉ-ºÉ¨ÉilÉÉä.
{ÉÆSÉ-ºÉʨÉ+Éä ÊiÉMÉÖkÉÉä,
UôkÉÒºÉ-MÉÖhÉÉä MÉÖ°ü ¨ÉVZÉ..2.

paµchindiya-samvara¸°, taha nava-viha-


bambhach®ra-guttidhar°.
chauviha-kas¡ya-mukk°, ia a¶¶h¡rasa-
gu¸®him saµjutt°..............................1.
Meaning:
My Guru Mahārāj has attained perfect control over the pleasures and pains associated
paµcha-mahavvaya-jutt°,
with five-sense organs. He observes celibacy in the nine paµcha-
prescribed ways. He is free from
thevih¡y¡ra-p¡la¸a-samatth°.
four kinds of passions. Thus, my Guru Mahārāj possesses these 18 virtues.

My paµcha-sami°
Guru Mahārāj observes thetigutt°, chhatt¢sa-gu¸°
five great vows, five codes of conduct, five kinds of
gur£ and
carefulness, majjha......................................2.
three kinds of restraints in daily activities. Thus, my Guru Mahārāj
possesses 36 qualities

Explanation
Guru Mahārāj has the following 36 qualities:

• Control over the five-sense organs:


Touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing

• Observation of celibacy in the following nine ways:


1. Do not stay near or in a place where persons of opposite sex, eunuchs, or
animals live.
2. Do not be alone in a lonely place with someone of the opposite sex.
3. Do not observe a person of opposite sex.

15
4. Do not sit at the same place where a person of the opposite sex has been
sitting until a certain amount of time has elapsed.
5. Do not listen to the conversations of couples and do not live in a place
where you must share a common wall with a couple.
6. Do not think about any sensual pleasures or experiences from the time before
renunciation.
7. Do not consume intoxicating food or liquids.
8. Do not indulge in tasty foods and eat simple food in moderation.
9. Do not use make-up and wear simple clothes.

• Free from four kinds of passions:


1. Anger
2. Ego
3. Deceit
4. Greed

• Observance of the five great vows:


1. Non violence
2. Truth
3. Non-stealing
4. Celibacy
5. Non-possessiveness

• Observation of the five codes of conduct:


1. Code of conduct related to knowledge
2. Code of conduct related to right faith
3. Code of conduct related to monk-hood
4. Code of conduct related to austerity
5. Code of conduct related to inner and physical strength

• Observation of the five kinds of carefulness (so as not to hurt any living being) in
day-to-day activities:
1. Carefulness while moving around
2. Carefulness while talking
3. Carefulness in accepting alms
4. Carefulness in the use of objects which are used in the day-to-day lives of
monks.
5. Carefulness in disposing bodily waste.

• Observation of the three kinds of restrains:


1. Total control over mind
2. Total control over speech
3. Total control over body

(For more detailed explanation of these 36 qualities, please refer to the Navakār Mantra.)

Panchindiya Sutra is also known as Sthāpanā Sutra. Panchindiya Sutra is the 91st and 92nd
stanza of the text Sambodha Prakaran, composed by Āchārya Haribhadra Suri. The
presence of a Guru Mahārāj is essential while performing certain rituals. If a teacher

16
assigns his students some assignments and then leaves the classroom, the students will
likely misbehave. Similarly, any religious activity, especially Sāmāyika and Pratikraman,
are most beneficial when performed in the presence of a Guru Mahārāj. However, we
may not always have the Guru Mahārāj to instruct us while performing Sāmāyika and
Pratikraman. Does this mean we should never perform these rituals if there is no Guru
Mahārāj around? No. Our learned Āchāryas have shown us how to establish the presence
of a Guru Mahārāj before performing these rituals in the following way.

1. Place a religious book or any other symbolic object (like a rosary) on a Sāpado (a
special stand used to rest religious books) to demonstrate your respect for
knowledge).
2. Extend your right hand, palm facing the Sāpado, and recite Panchindiya Sutra.

These three symbolic actions establish the presence of a Guru Mahārāj in the religious
object placed on the Sāpado. The Sāpado and the object placed on it are called Sthāpanā-
āchārya (Symbolic Guru). Now, whatever vows we take and whatever repentance we do
are done under the presence and supervision of Guru Mahārāj. Thus, reciting Panchindiya
Sutra is essential in performing Sāmāyika and Pratikraman. By reciting this Sutra, we
admire the 36 attributes of Guru Mahārāj and remind ourselves to strive to adopt these
attributes.

17
3. kham¡sama¸a s£tra

<SUôÉ欃 JɨÉÉ-ºÉ¨ÉhÉÉä!
´ÉÆÊnù=Æ, VÉÉ´ÉÊhÉVVÉÉB
ÊxɺÉÒʽþ+ÉB?
¨ÉilÉBhÉ ´ÉÆnùÉʨÉ...........................1.
ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium,
j¡va¸ijj¡®
nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi. .1.

Meaning

Oh! Guru Mahārāj! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful
activities to the best of my ability, and I am bowing down my head to you.

Explanation

This Sutra is also known as Panchāng Pranipāt Sutra as this Sutra is recited while
offering obeisance in a specific posture wherein five body parts, namely, two hands, two
knees and, forehead - touch the floor. This posture is depicted in the following picture.

This sutra is recited while offering obeisance to the idol of Tirthankar Bhagawān and to
Guru Mahārāj, who is referred to as Kshamā Shraman in this sutra. ‘Kshamā Shraman’
means that Jain monks are the masters of forgiveness. They have equanimity towards all
living beings and enmity towards none.

18
4. ichchhak¡ra s£tra

<SUôEòÉ®ú ºÉÖ½þ-®úÉ<? ºÉÖ½þ-näù


´ÉʺÉ? ºÉÖJÉ-iÉ{É,
¶É®úÒ®ú-ÊxÉ®úɤÉÉvÉ, ºÉÖJÉ-
ºÉÆVɨÉ-ªÉÉjÉÉ-ÊxÉ´ÉǽþiÉä ½þÉä
VÉÒ,
º´ÉÉʨÉ! ¶ÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ VÉÒ? +ɽþÉ®ú-
{ÉÉxÉÒ EòÉ ±ÉÉ¦É näùxÉÉ VÉÒ. .1.

Meaning

Oh! Guru Mahārāj! With your permission I very kindly wish to know if you were
comfortable during last night (or day)? Is your penance going well? Are you free from
any bodily inflictions? Oh! Guru Mahārāj, is your journey in ascetic life free of
obstacles? Oh! Guru Mahārāj, are you doing well? Please kindly oblige by accepting
alms from me.

Explanation

This sutra is recited while offering obeisance to Guru Mahārāj. This Sutra is known as
Guru Sukha Shātā Sutra because it describes a devotee inquiring about Guru Mahārāj’s
well being.

Jain monks do not have any possession worth the name. What they keep with them are a
couple of pieces of cloth for covering the body, some religious books, two or three
wooden bowls for accepting food and water, a whisk, a walking stick, and simple
bedding.

Jain monks depend on laymen for all their needs, including food and water. When they
ask us for alms, we should offer them the proper food. We should also try to find out if
they need other things, like medicine. There is no better use for our resources than
offering them to monks and nuns. We should consider ourselves fortunate if they accept
anything from us. We should also give them our complete respect and offer them our
obeisance and service.

19
5. abbhu¶¶hi°mi s£tra

<SUôÉ-EòÉ®äúhÉ ºÉÆÊnùºÉ½þ ¦ÉMÉ


´ÉxÉÂ! +¤¦ÉÖÎ]Âõ`ö+ÉäʨÉ,
+Ϥ¦ÉiÉ®ú-näù´ÉʺÉ+Æ JÉɨÉä=Æ?
<SUÆô, JÉɨÉä欃 näù´ÉʺÉ+Æ.

VÉÆ ËEòÊSÉ +{ÉÊkÉ+Æ, {É®ú-


{ÉÊkÉ+Æ; ¦ÉkÉä, {ÉÉhÉä;
Ê´ÉhÉB, ´ÉäªÉÉ´ÉSSÉä; +ɱÉÉ´Éä,
ºÉƱÉÉ´Éä; =SSÉɺÉhÉä, ºÉ¨ÉɺÉhÉä;
+ÆiÉ®ú-¦ÉɺÉÉB, =´ÉÊ®ú-¦ÉɺÉÉB; VÉÆ
ËEòÊSÉ ¨ÉVZÉ
Ê´ÉhɪÉ-{ÉÊ®ú½þÒhÉÆ, ºÉÖ½Öþ¨ÉÆ
´ÉÉ, ¤ÉɪɮÆú ´ÉÉ; iÉÖ¤¦Éä VÉÉhɽþ,
+½Æþ xÉ VÉÉhÉÉʨÉ; iɺºÉ ʨÉSUôÉ Ê¨É
nÖùCEòbÆ÷..............................1.

ichchh¡-k¡r®¸a sandisaha bhagavan!


abbhu¶¶hi°mi,
abbhintara-d®vasiam kh¡m®uî?
ichchham, kh¡m®mi d®vasiam.
Meaning

Oh! Guru Mahārāj please voluntarily give me permission to ask for your forgiveness for
any jam kiµchi
wrong doings apattiam,
that I may have done to you para-pattiam;
during the day. (Guru Mahārāj now will
say, “Please do so”)
bhatt®, p¡¸®;
vi¸a®,
I accept v®y¡vachch®;
your permission. ¡l¡v®,
I beg for your pardon, for sanl¡v®;
all the wrong doings that I may have
committed during the day. I may have caused unhappiness or bitterness to you in regards
uchch¡sa¸®,
to food sam¡sa¸®;
or water. I may have disrespected antara-bh¡s¡®,
you or may not have taken proper care of you. I
mayuvari-bh¡s¡®; jam kiµchi majjha
have disrespected you by sitting at a higher level or at the same level as you. I may
have interrupted you while you were talking, I may have talked back to you, or I may
havevi¸aya-parih¢¸am,
tried to prove you wrong. I may suhumam
have exhibited v¡, major b¡yaram
or even minor
v¡; tubbh®
discourteousness j¡¸aha,
to you, which I am notahamaware of butnayouj¡¸¡mi;
may be awaretassaof. Now
michchh¡ mi dukka·am.......................1.
20
therefore, I beg for your forgiveness for all my such wrong doings and wish that they
might be undone.

Explanation

This Sutra is a request for forgiveness from Guru Mahārāj for any breaches in respect
committed towards the Guru. The devotee first asks the Guru for permission to ask for
forgiveness. This Sutra is normally recited after bowing down to the Guru and reciting
Khamāsamano Sutra while performing Guru Vandan.

21
<SUôÉ-EòÉ®äúhÉ ºÉÆÊnùºÉ½þ ¦ÉMÉ
6. iriy¡vahiy¡ s£tra
´ÉxÉÂ! <Ê®úªÉÉ´ÉʽþªÉÆ
{ÉÊb÷CEò¨ÉÉʨÉ?
<SUÆô, <SUôÉ欃 {ÉÊb÷CEòʨÉ=Æ. .1.
<Ê®úªÉÉ´ÉʽþªÉÉB, Ê´É®úɽþhÉÉB. .2.
MɨÉhÉÉMɨÉhÉä.......................3.
{ÉÉhÉ-CEò¨ÉhÉä, ¤ÉÒªÉ-CEò¨ÉhÉä,
½þÊ®úªÉ-CEò¨ÉhÉä,
+ÉäºÉÉ-=ËkÉMÉ-{ÉhÉMÉ-nùMÉ-¨É]Âõ]õÒ-
¨ÉCEòb÷É-ºÉÆiÉÉhÉÉ-ºÉÆEò¨ÉhÉä..4.
VÉä ¨Éä VÉÒ´ÉÉ Ê´É®úÉʽþªÉÉ..5.
BËMÉÊnùªÉÉ, ¤Éä<ÆÊnùªÉÉ,
iÉä<ÆÊnùªÉÉ, SÉ=Ë®úÊnùªÉÉ,
{ÉÆËSÉÊnùªÉÉ..........................6.
+ʦɽþªÉÉ, ´ÉÊkɪÉÉ, ±ÉäʺɪÉÉ,
ºÉÆPÉÉ<ªÉÉ, ºÉÆPÉÎ]Âõ]õªÉÉ,
{ÉÊ®úªÉÉʴɪÉÉ, ÊEò±ÉÉʨɪÉÉ, =qùÊ
´ÉªÉÉ, `öÉhÉÉ+Éä `öÉhÉÆ ºÉÆEòÉʨɪÉÉ,
VÉÒʴɪÉÉ+Éä ´É´É®úÉäʴɪÉÉ, iɺºÉ
ʨÉSUôÉ Ê¨É nÖùCEòbÆ÷...........7.
ichchh¡-k¡r®¸a sandisaha bhagavan!
iriy¡vahiyam
pa·ikkam¡mi? ichchham, icch¡mi
pa·ikkamiuî.......................................1.
iriy¡vahiy¡®, vir¡ha¸¡®.......................2.
gama¸¡gama¸®..................................3.
p¡¸a-kkama¸®, b¢ya-kkama¸®, hariya-
kkama¸®, °s¡-utti´ga-pa¸aga-daga-ma¶¶¢-
makka·¡-sant¡¸¡-sa´kama¸®...............4.
j® m® j¢v¡ vir¡hiy¡............................5.
®gindiy¡, b®indiy¡, t®indiy¡, chaurindiy¡,
paµchindiy¡.......................................6.
abhihay¡, vattiy¡, l®siy¡, sa´gh¡iy¡, sa
´gha¶¶iy¡, 22
pariy¡viy¡, kil¡miy¡, uddaviy¡, ¶h¡¸¡°
¶h¡¸am sa´k¡miy¡, j¢viy¡° vavar°viy¡, tassa
Meaning

Oh! Guru Mahārāj, please voluntarily give me permission to apologize and repent (to do
Pratikraman) for the sins that I may have committed while moving around. (Now Guru
Mahārāj will say, ‘Please do so.”)

I accept your permission. Now, I want to apologize and repent by doing Pratikraman.

While walking, I may have trampled upon living beings, seeds, green vegetation, dew,
ant burrows, moss, wet soil, and spider webs. Or, I may have hurt one-sensed, two-
sensed, three-sensed, four-sensed, or five-sensed living beings by kicking them, covering
them with dirt, trampling them, colliding them with each other, or touching them. Or, I
may have distressed them, frightened them, displaced them, or killed them.

I repent and apologize for all these sins that I may have committed.

Explanation

It is very important to purify our souls before performing any religious ritual, especially,
Chaitya Vandan, Sāmāyika, and Pratikraman. The best way to cleanse our soul is by
asking for forgiveness and repent for sins we have committed either knowingly or
unknowingly, however trivial they may be. After asking for forgiveness, we should
perform Kāyotsarga or introspection and pledge to not repeat these sins. The ritual we
perform for atonement is known as Iriyāvahiyam. This sutra, along with the following
two sutras, which follow, precede Kāyotsarga, also known as Kāusagga. By reciting this
sutra, we enumerate the sins that we may have committed while moving around, and
repent, and ask for forgiveness for those sins.

23
7. tassa uttar¢ s£tra

iɺºÉ =kÉ®úÒ-Eò®úhÉähÉÆ,
{ÉɪÉÎSUôkÉ-Eò®úhÉähÉÆ, Ê
´ÉºÉÉä½þÒ-Eò®úhÉähÉÆ,
ʴɺɱ±ÉÒ-Eò®úhÉähÉÆ, {ÉÉ´ÉÉhÉÆ
Eò¨¨ÉÉhÉÆ ÊxÉMPÉɪÉhÉ]Âõ`öÉB,
`öÉ欃 EòÉ=ººÉMMÉÆ...............1.
tassa uttar¢-kara¸®¸am, p¡yachchhitta-
kara¸®¸am,
vis°h¢-kara¸®¸am, visall¢-kara¸®¸am,
Meaning
p¡v¡¸aÆ kamm¡¸am niggh¡ya¸a¶¶h¡®,
I now¶h¡mi k¡ussaggam.............................1.
want to absolve all my sins committed (as mentioned in the previous sutra) by
repenting. To purify my soul and to make it free of pain (caused by practicing religion
without right faith or, practicing religion just for the show and practicing religion for
worldly gains) and to completely destroy all my sins, I shall now perform Kāyotsarga.

Explanation

Tassa Uttari sutra is the second of the three sutras recited while performing Kāyotsarga.
In Iriyāvahiyam sutra, we enumerate and repent for the sins that we may have committed
during our movements. This Sutra is recited to further repent for those sins. We,
therefore, atone by undertaking Kāyotsarga to free ourselves of pain we are suffering
caused by practicing religion without right faith, right knowledge, right intention, and for
worldly gains.

24
annattha s£tra
8.
+zÉilÉ->ðºÉʺÉBhÉÆ, xÉÒºÉʺÉBhÉÆ,
JÉÉʺÉBhÉÆ, UôÒBhÉÆ, VÉƦÉÉ<BhÉÆ,
=bÂ÷bÖ÷BhÉÆ, ´ÉɪÉ-ÊxɺÉMMÉähÉÆ,
¦É¨É±ÉÒB, Ê{ÉkÉ-¨ÉÖSUôÉB.......1.
ºÉÖ½Öþ¨Éä˽þ +ÆMÉ-ºÉÆSÉɱÉä˽þ,
ºÉÖ½Öþ¨Éä˽þ JÉä±É-ºÉÆSÉɱÉä˽þ,
ºÉÖ½Öþ¨Éä˽þ ÊnùÎ]Âõ`ö-
ºÉÆSÉɱÉä˽þ. .......................2.
B´É¨ÉÉ<B˽þ +ÉMÉÉ®äú˽þ, +-
¦ÉMMÉÉä +-Ê´É®úÉʽþ+Éä,
½ÖþVVÉ ¨Éä EòÉ=ººÉMMÉÉä......3.
VÉÉ´É +Ê®ú½ÆþiÉÉhÉÆ ¦ÉMÉ
´ÉÆiÉÉhÉÆ, xɨÉÖCEòÉ®äúhÉÆ xÉ
{ÉÉ®äúʨÉ................................4.
iÉÉ´É EòɪÉÆ `öÉhÉähÉÆ ¨ÉÉähÉähÉÆ
ZÉÉhÉähÉÆ, +{{ÉÉhÉÆ
´ÉÉäʺɮúÉʨÉ..5.

annattha-£sasi®¸am, n¢sasi®¸am,
kh¡si®¸am, chh¢®¸am, jambh¡i®¸am,
u··u®¸am, v¡ya-nisagg®¸am, bhamal¢®,

pitta-muchchh¡®. .............................1.
suhum®him a´ga-saµc¡l®him,
suhum®him kh®la-saµc¡l®him,
suhum®him di¶¶hi-saµc¡l®him. ........2.
®vam¡i®him ¡g¡r®him, a-bhagg° a-
vir¡hi°,
hujja m® k¡ussagg°...........................3.
j¡va arihant¡¸am bhagavant¡¸am,
namukk¡r®¸am na p¡r®mi..................4.
Meaning

t¡va k¡yam ¶h¡¸®¸am m°¸®¸am


25
jh¡¸®¸am,
app¡¸am v°sir¡m .5.
I shall now engross myself in complete Kāyotsarga (meditation), except for breathing in
and out, coughing, sneezing, yawning, belching, letting out bodily gas, fainting, feeling
dizzy, and subtly moving body, phlegm, and eyes.

I shall terminate my Kāyotsarga by offering obeisance to Arihanta Bhagawān by saying,


“Namo Arihantānam” aloud. Until then, I shall not speak, move, or engage in any other
bodily and mental activities.

Explanation

The word ‘Kāyotsarga’ is the Sanskrit translation of the Prākrut word ‘Kāusagga’.
Kāyotsarga means renouncing voluntary bodily and mental activities. It is one of the six
ways of performing internal austerities, which help eradicate karmas (Nirjarā). During
Kāyotsarga, one should meditate on the real nature of the soul while continuously
remembering that one’s body is only the temporary residence of the soul. However, most
people are not able to meditate this way for a substantial period of time. Therefore, Jain
Āchāryas have recommended that one should mentally recite Logassa Sutra (which
follows this sutra) in which one offers obeisance to the 24 Tirthankaras.

The duration of Kāyotsarga is specified in terms of respiratory cycles. One respiratory


cycle equals one deep breath in and one deep breath out. Concentrating on breathing
cycles helps achieve the deep concentration necessary for meditation. The most common
duration of Kāyotsarga is 25 respiratory cycles. If one does not know Logassa Sutra, one
may instead recite Navakār Mantra four times. However, the best way to do Kāyotsarga
is by mentally reciting one line of Logassa Sutra with each breath. This means reciting
Logassa Sutra up to and including the line “Chandesu Nimmalayarā…”

Before beginning Kāyotsarga, we recite Annattha Sutra to take the vow of Kāyotsarga.
However, total renunciation of bodily and mental activities is impossible due to certain
involuntary bodily activities and unavoidable circumstances. Annattha Sutra also
enumerates these exceptions so that we may do Kāyotsarga without breaking the vow of
Kāyotsarga. These exceptions are known as Āgār in Prākrut language. There are 12
minor exceptions to the vow of Kāyotsarga, which are implicitly mentioned in Annattha
sutra, and four major exceptions, which are implied in this sutra but not implicitly
mentioned. These exceptions are listed below.

Twelve minor exceptions:

1 Breathing in 7 Letting out bodily gas


2 Breathing out 8 Episode of dizziness
3 Coughing 9 Episode of fainting
4 Sneezing 10 Subtle body movements
5 Yawning 11 Movements of body fluids within the body
6 Belching 12 Subtle movements of eyes

26
Four major exceptions:

1. Being forced to move away from a situation in which small animals are killing
each other if one cannot bear to witness this.
2. Moving away in the event of natural calamities like flood, earthquake, fire, etc.
3. Moving away if attacked by or in danger of being attacked by dangerous animals.
4. Move away in response to orders by a higher authority or landlord.

Any of the above mentioned acts do not break the vow of Kāyotsarga.

27
±ÉÉäMɺºÉ =VVÉÉä+-MÉ®äú, vɨ¨É-
ÊiÉilÉ-ªÉ®äú ÊVÉhÉä.
+Ê®ú½ÆþiÉä ÊEòkÉ<ººÉÆ, SÉ=
´ÉÒºÉÆ Ê{É Eäò´É±ÉÒ...............1.
9. l°gassa s£tra
=ºÉ¦É-¨ÉÊVÉ+Æ SÉ ´ÉÆnäù, ºÉƦɴÉ-
¨ÉʦÉhÉÆnùhÉÆ SÉ ºÉÖ¨É<Æ SÉ.
{É=¨É-{{ɽÆþ ºÉÖ{ÉɺÉÆ, ÊVÉhÉÆ
SÉ SÉÆnù-{{ɽÆþ ´ÉÆnäù.......2.

ºÉÖÊ´É˽þ SÉ {ÉÖ{¡ò-nÆùiÉÆ,
ºÉÒ+±É-ʺÉVVÉƺÉ-´ÉɺÉÖ-
{ÉÖVVÉÆ SÉ.
ʴɨɱÉ-¨ÉhÉÆiÉÆ SÉ ÊVÉhÉÆ,
vɨ¨ÉÆ ºÉÆËiÉ SÉ ´ÉÆnùÉʨÉ.. ..3.
EÖÆòlÉÖÆ +®Æú SÉ ¨Éϱ±É,
´ÉÆnäù ¨ÉÖÊhÉ-ºÉÖ´´ÉªÉÆ xÉʨÉ-
ÊVÉhÉÆ SÉ.
´ÉÆnùÉÊ¨É Ê®ú]Âõ`ö-xÉä˨É,
{ÉɺÉÆ iɽþ ´Érù¨ÉÉhÉÆ SÉ.. . ..4.

B´ÉÆ ¨ÉB +ʦÉlÉÖ+É, ʴɽÖþªÉ-


®úªÉ-¨É±ÉÉ {ɽþÒhÉ-VÉ®ú-
¨É®úhÉÉ.
SÉ=-´ÉÒºÉÆ Ê{É ÊVÉhÉ´É®úÉ, ÊiÉilÉ-
ªÉ®úÉ ¨Éä {ɺÉÒªÉÆiÉÖ............5.

ÊEòÊkɪÉ-´ÉÆÊnùªÉ-¨ÉʽþªÉÉ, VÉä
B ±ÉÉäMɺºÉ =kɨÉÉ ÊºÉrùÉ.
+ɯûMMÉ-¤ÉÉäʽþ-±ÉɦÉÆ,
ºÉ¨ÉÉʽþ-´É®ú-¨ÉÖkɨÉÆ-ËnùiÉÖ..6.

SÉÆnäùºÉÖ Êxɨ¨É±É-ªÉ®úÉ,
+É<SSÉäºÉÖ +ʽþªÉÆ {ɪÉɺÉ-
ªÉ®úÉ.
ºÉÉMÉ®ú-´É®ú-MÉƦÉÒ®úÉ,
28 ʺÉrùÉ
ʺÉËrù ¨É¨É ÊnùºÉÆiÉÖ..............7.
l°gassa ujj°a-gar®, dhamma-tittha-yar®
ji¸®.
arihant® kittaissam, chauv¢sam pi k®val
¢.......................................................1.

usabha-majiam cha vand®,


sambhava-mabhi¸anda¸am cha sumaim
cha.
pauma-ppaham sup¡sam, ji¸am cha
chanda-ppaham vand®......................2.

suvihim cha puppha-dantam, s¢ala-


sijjansa-v¡su-pujjam cha.
vimala-ma¸antam cha ji¸am, dhammam
santim cha vand¡mi...........................3.

kunthum aram cha mallim,


vand® mu¸i-suvvayam nami-ji¸am cha.
vand¡mi ri¶¶ha-n®mim, p¡sam taha
vaddham¡¸am cha..............................4.

®vam ma® abhithu¡, vihuya-raya-


mal¡ pah¢¸a-jara-mara¸¡.
chau-v¢sam pi ji¸avar¡, tittha-yar¡ m®
pas¢yantu.........................................5.

kittiya-vandiya-mahiy¡, j® ® l°gassa
uttam¡ siddh¡.
¡rugga-b°hi-l¡bham, sam¡hi-vara-
muttamaÆ-dintu...............................6.
Meaning
chand®su nimmala-yar¡, ¡ichch®su
ahiyam pay¡sa-yar¡.
s¡gara-vara-gambh¢r¡, siddh¡ siddhim
mama disantu............................7.
29
I eulogize and worship the 24 Tirthankars of this current descending half phase of the
time cycle. They have achieved Keval-jnān and the distinction of an Arihanta. They
enlighten the entire universe and establish the four-fold Jain Sangha.

I offer my obeisance and bow down to, Bhagawān Shree Rushabhadev, Ajit-nāth,
Sambhav-nāth, Abhinandan-swāmi, Sumati-nāth, Padmaprabha-swāmi, Supārshva-nāth,
Chandraprabha-swāmi, Suvidhi-nāth (also known as, ‘Pushpadanta-swāmi’), Shital-nāth,
Shreyāns-nāth, Vāsupujya-swāmi, Vimal-nāth, Anant-nāth, Dharma-nāth, Shānti-nāth,
Kunthu-nāth, Ara-nāth, Malli-nāth, Munisuvrat-swāmi, Nami-nāth, Nemi-nāth, Pārshva-
nāth, and Mahāvir-swāmi.

Oh! All 24 Tirthankaras, your souls are free from the bondage of karmic particles, and
thus you are free of old age as well as cycles of birth and death. You have propagated the
religious order. I praise all of your virtues, offer my obeisance to you, and worship you.
Please bestow upon me the sense to attain perfect knowledge (Keval-jnān), which shall
lead to ultimate liberation.

You have achieved liberation and therefore, the entire universe praises you, worships
you, and offers obeisance to you. Please bestow upon me the right faith (Bodhi-lābh),
perfect spiritual health, and the highest state of contemplation.

Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you are purer than the full moon, brighter than the sun and,
more serene and deeper than the ocean. Oh! Siddha Bhagawān, please bestow upon me
the ultimate Siddhatva (salvation).

Explanation

Logassa Sutra is also known as ‘Chaturvimshati Stava’ or ‘Chauvisattho.’ By reciting this


sutra, we worship and praise the virtues of all 24 Tirthankars of current descending half
phase of the time cycle. Jain scriptures recommend six essential activities that a Shrāvak
or Shrāvikā must do everyday. These activities are: Sāmāyika, Chauvisattho, Guru
Vandan, Pratikraman, Kāyotsarga, and Pachchakkhān (to take a vow). Thus, by reciting
Logassa Sutra, one worships and offers obeisance to the 24 Tirthankars, and in essence
performs one of the six essential activities of Shrāvak and Shrāvikā.

A few things here need further clarification. In the last three stanzas of Logassa Sutra,
the devotee requests several things from Tirthankaras. However, Tirthankaras do not
Theany
have Arhats haveand
attachments, propounded theanything
thus do not give doctrine of Non-violence,
to anyone. The real essence of these
requests
equally is largely misunderstood.
for those who areWhen we recite
desirous to Logassa
practiceSutra, we do
it and not really
those whoask for
anything; rather, we express our desires in the form of requests. We neither plead nor
are not;
demand thosefrom
anything whothehave abandoned
Tirthankaras. Whenviolence
we worship andandthose
praisewho
the virtues of
have not;with
Tirthankars those
truewho are and
devotion deeply engrossed
understand in worldly
that Tirthankar ties and
Bhagawān do not give
anything
those who to anybody. We must
are not. Thislead our livesof
doctrine in such a way is
Ahimsā thatthe
ourtruth.
desires It
will
isbecome a
reality on their own. We should not request and desire any worldly things from
rightly enunciated
Tirthankar Bhagawān. Wein may,thehowever,
teachingsdesireof
andthe Arhats.
request those things, which will lead
Comprehending
us thenumber
to liberation. (See Sutra true spirit
19, Jaiof the doctrine,
Viyarāya one
Sutra for an shouldof the things
explanation
which may be wished upon from
practice it till one's last breath. Tirthankar Bhagawān).

…Bhagawān Mahāvir (Āchāranga Sutra, Ch. 4)


30
10. kar®mi bhant® s£tra

Eò®äú欃 ¦ÉÆiÉä! ºÉɨÉÉ<ªÉÆ


ºÉÉ´ÉVVÉÆ VÉÉäMÉÆ
{ÉSSÉCJÉÉʨÉ,
VÉÉ´É ÊxɪɨÉÆ {ÉVVÉÖ
´ÉɺÉÉʨÉ, nÖùʴɽÆþ, ÊiÉ-Ê
´É½äþhÉÆ,
¨ÉhÉähÉÆ, ´ÉɪÉÉB, EòÉBhÉÆ, xÉ
Eò®äúʨÉ, xÉ EòÉ®ú´ÉäʨÉ,
iɺºÉ ¦ÉÆiÉä! {ÉÊb÷CEò¨ÉÉʨÉ,
ËxÉnùÉʨÉ, MÉÊ®ú½þÉʨÉ,
+{{ÉÉhÉÆ ´ÉÉäʺɮúÉʨÉ. .1.

kar®mi bhant®! s¡m¡iyam


s¡vajjam j°gam pachchhakkh¡mi,
Meaning

Oh! Bhagawān, I am now going to do Sāmāyika and therefore, vow to give up all the
sinful activities. As long as I remain in Sāmāyika, I shall not commit any sinful activity in
thought, speech, or action nor shall I encourage anyone to indulge in such activities. Oh!
Bhagawān, I hate myself for committing sinful activities. I repent and apologize for
committing sinful activities. I condemn and censure myself for such sinful activities. By
the virtue of Sāmāyika, I am going to relinquish my soul, which is riddled with sins.

Explanation

Karemi Bhante Sutra is recited to take the vow of Sāmāyika. Sāmāyika means
equanimity. It is observed for 48 minutes, since it is ordinarily not possible for a Shrāvak
to remain in equanimity for longer than 48 minutes. As mentioned in Logassa Sutra, Jain
scriptures recommend six essential activities, that a Shrāvak and Shrāvikā must perform
everyday. These activities are Sāmāyika, Chauvisattho, Guru Vandan, Pratikraman,
Kāyotsarga, and Pachchakkhān. During Sāmāyika we renounce all worldly activities and
meditates on the true nature of the soul. When we do Sāmāyika we essentially live a life
of a monk for the duration of Sāmāyika. Sāmāyika helps achieve equanimity. This Sutra
is also recited when someone takes a Dikshā, even Tirthankar Bhagawān also recite this
Sutra while taking Dikshā. Since a monk remains in Sāmāyika Vrata for his entire life,
instead of the words, ‘Jāv Niyamam’ (until I am in Sāmāyika) a word, ‘Jāvajjivāe’ is
recited, which means, ‘for the entire life’.

31
There is nothing as fearful as death, and there is no
suffering as great as birth.

Be free from the fear of both birth and death,

by doing away with attachment to the body.

…….Bhagawān Mahāvir
(Mulāchār, 2/119)

32
11. s¡m¡iya-vaya-jutt°VÉÉ´É
ºÉɨÉÉ<ªÉ-´ÉªÉ-VÉÖkÉÉä, s£tra¨ÉhÉä
½þÉä< ÊxɪɨÉ-ºÉÆVÉÖkÉÉä.
ÊUôzÉ< +ºÉÖ½Æþ Eò¨¨ÉÆ, ºÉ¨ÉÉ<ªÉ
VÉÊkÉ+É ´ÉÉ®úÉ.......................1.
ºÉɨÉÉ<ªÉΨ¨É = EòB, ºÉ¨ÉhÉÉä <´É ºÉÉ
´É+Éä ½þ´É< Vɨ½þÉ.
BBhÉ EòÉ®úhÉähÉÆ, ¤É½ÖþºÉÉä
ºÉɨÉÉ<ªÉÆ EÖòVVÉÉ................2.
ºÉɨÉÉʪÉEò Ê´ÉÊvÉ ºÉä ʱɪÉÉ, Ê´ÉÊvÉ
ºÉä {ÉÚhÉÇ ÊEòªÉÉ,
Ê´ÉÊvÉ ¨Éå VÉÉä EòÉä<Ç +Ê´ÉÊvÉ
½Öþ<Ç ½þÉä,
=xÉ ºÉ¤ÉEòÉ ¨ÉxÉ-´ÉSÉxÉ-EòɪÉÉ ºÉä
ʨÉSUôÉ Ê¨É nÖùCEòbÆ÷...........3.
nùºÉ ¨ÉxÉ Eäò, nùºÉ ´ÉSÉxÉ Eäò,
¤ÉÉ®ú½þ EòɪÉÉ Eäò --
<xÉ ¤ÉkÉÒºÉ nùÉä¹ÉÉå ¨Éå ºÉä VÉÉä
EòÉä<Ç nùÉä¹É ±ÉMÉÉ ½þÉä,
=xÉ ºÉ¤ÉEòÉ ¨ÉxÉ-´ÉSÉxÉ-EòɪÉÉ ºÉä
ʨÉSUôÉ Ê¨É nÖùCEòbÆ÷..............4. .4.

s¡m¡iya-vaya-jutt°, j¡va ma¸® h°i


niyama-saµjutt°.
chhinnai asuham kammam, sam¡iya
jatti¡ v¡r¡..........................................1.
s¡m¡iyammi u ka®, sama¸° iva s¡va°
havai jamh¡.
®®¸a k¡ra¸®¸am, bahus° s¡m¡iyam
kujj¡.................................................2.
s¡m¡yika vidhi s® liy¡, vidhi s® p£r¸a
kiy¡,
vidhi m®, j° k°¢ avidhi hu¢ h°,
una sabak¡ mana-vachana-k¡y¡ s®
michchh¡ mi dukka·am......................3.
33
dasa mana k®, dasa vachana k®,
Meaning

As long as someone observes the vow of Sāmāyika, and maintains full control over his
mind, his bad Karmas (sins) are eradicated. Moreover, whenever a person is under the
vow of Sāmāyika, he is just like a monk. Therefore, one should do Sāmāyika over and
over again.

I took the vow of this Sāmāyika according to the prescribed method and I shall terminate
the vow of Sāmāyika also in the prescribed method. I ask for your pardon, if I have
deviated from the prescribed method mentally, verbally, or physically.

If I have committed any of the 10 breaches of mental activity, 10 breaches of speech or


12 breaches of bodily actions, respectively through my mind, speech, or body, I
apologize for the same and ask for your pardon.

Explanation

Karemi Bhante Sutra is recited to take the vow of Sāmāyika, while Sāmāiya Vaya Jutto
Sutra is recited to terminate the vow of Sāmāyika. Sāmāyika is the ultimate way to lead a
life, which can lead to liberation. A monk leads his entire life in the vow of Sāmāyika.
During Sāmāyika one should meditate, study scriptures, and should avoid all worldly
matters. The prescribed duration of Sāmāyika is 48 minutes. Since our mind can
concentrate for only a limited amount of time, it is believed that we are unable to
meditate for longer than 48 minutes. However, if one wants to do more Sāmāyika
continuously, he should take the vow afresh, without terminating the Sāmāyika after each
48-minute duration. One may not, however, perform more than three Sāmāyika
consecutively.

If a Sāmāyika is done in the presence of Guru Mahārāj, we should ask for permission
from Guru Mahārāj to terminate the Sāmāyika

We should ask, “Sāmāyika Pāru?” (Oh! Guru Mahārāj, may I please terminate
Sāmāyika?)

Guru Mahārāj will say, “Puno Vi Kāyavvam” (You should do Sāmāyika over and over
again)

We should then say, “Yathāshakti” (I shall do the same, as and when I can)

and we should now say, “Sāmāyika Pāryu”. (I did terminate Sāmāyika.)

Now Guru Mahārāj will say, “Āyāro Na Mottavvo” (Please do not forget the benefits of
Sāmāyika)

We should then say, “Tahatti” (Yes, Guru Mahārāj, I shall do the same)

34
Thirty-two breaches of the vow of Sāmāyika:

Ten breaches of thought:

1. To think of things other than the well-being of the soul


2. To wish for fame through Sāmāyika
3. To desire material benefits, like wealth, through Sāmāyika
4. To be proud of performing Sāmāyika better than others.
5. To perform Sāmāyika out of fear.
6. To wish for and to be sure of receiving worldly gains by performing Sāmāyika.
7. To doubt the benefits of Sāmāyika
8. To become angry during Sāmāyika or to perform Sāmāyika out of anger.
9. To perform Sāmāyika without faith or with disrespect for Sāmāyika
10. To do Sāmāyika without high regards, without proper devotion or without
proper enthusiasm.

Ten breaches of speech:


1. To speak harsh, unpleasant or untrue words.
2. To speak without thinking.
3. To speak against the scriptural teachings.
4. To shorten Sāmāyika Sutras while reciting them.
5. To speak quarrelsome words.
6. To talk about useless stories without any spiritual significance
7. To ridicule or to laugh at others.
8. To mispronounce Sāmāyika sutras.
9. To speak decisively1.
10. To hum or mumble during Sāmāyika

Twelve breaches of physical activity:


1.To sit in an inappropriate manner keeping one leg on the top of the other.
2. To sit on a place that is not well balanced or steady.
3. To look around.
4. To do sinful activities or encourage others to do so.
5. To use a wall or a pillar as a support while sitting.
6. To contract or spread out hands and legs.
7. To stretch
8. To crack joints
9. To cleanse the body.

1
Without regard for the other people’s viewpoint. As per the Jain scriptures only omniscients know the
whole truth

35
10. To sleep
11. To itch
12. To sit while covering up the body with clothes above the waist to stay
warm or to avoid insect bites. (This does not apply to females)

The essence of all knowledge consists in not committing


violence. The doctrine of ahimsā is nothing but the
observance of equality i.e. the realization that just as I do
not like misery, others also do not like it.

……Bhagawān Mahāvir

(Sutra-krutānga, 1/1/4/10)

36
As gold does not cease to be gold even
if it is heated in the fire, an
enlightened man does not cease to be
enlightened on being tortured by the
effects of karma

……Bhagawān Mahāvir
(Samaysār, 184)

37
12. jaga-chint¡ma¸i chaitya-vandana

<SUôÉ-EòÉ®äúhÉ ºÉÆÊnùºÉ½þ ¦ÉMÉ


´ÉxÉÂ! SÉèiªÉ-´ÉxnùxÉ Eò°Æü? <SUÆô.

VÉMÉ-ÊSÉxiÉɨÉÊhÉ! VÉMÉ-xÉɽþ!
VÉMÉ-MÉÖ°ü! VÉMÉ-®úCJÉhÉ!
VÉMÉ-¤ÉÆvÉ´É! VÉMÉ-ºÉilÉ´Éɽþ! VÉMÉ-
¦ÉÉ´É-Ê´É+CJÉhÉ!
+]Âõ`öɴɪÉ-ºÉÆ`öÊ´É+-°ü´É!
Eò¨¨É]Âõ`ö-Ê´ÉhÉɺÉhÉ!
SÉ=´ÉÒºÉÆ Ê{É ÊVÉhÉ´É®ú! VɪÉÆiÉÖ
+-{{ÉÊb÷½þªÉ-ºÉɺÉhÉ.............1.

Eò¨¨É-¦ÉÚʨÉ˽þ Eò¨¨É-¦ÉÚʨÉ˽þ
{Éfø¨É-ºÉÆPɪÉÊhÉ,
=CEòÉäºÉªÉ ºÉkÉÊ®ú-ºÉªÉ ÊVÉhÉ-
´É®úÉhÉ Ê´É½þ®ÆúiÉ ±É¤¦É<;
xÉ´É-EòÉäÊb÷˽þ Eäò´É±ÉÒhÉ,
EòÉäb÷Ò-ºÉ½þººÉ xÉ´É ºÉɽÖþ Mɨ¨É<.
ºÉÆ{É< ÊVÉhÉ´É®ú ´ÉÒºÉ ¨ÉÖÊhÉ,
ʤɽÖÆþ EòÉäÊb÷˽þ ´É®úxÉÉhÉ;
ºÉ¨Éhɽþ EòÉäÊb÷-ºÉ½þººÉ-nÖù+,
lÉÖÊhÉVVÉ< ÊxÉSSÉ Ê´É½þÉÊhÉ..2.

VɪÉ= ºÉÉÊ¨ÉªÉ VɪÉ= ºÉÉʨɪÉ


Ê®úºÉ½þ ºÉkÉÖÆÊVÉ,
=ÏVVÉÊiÉ {ɽÖþ-xÉäʨÉ-ÊVÉhÉ, VɪÉ=
´ÉÒ®ú ºÉSSÉ=®úÒ-¨ÉÆb÷hÉ;

38
ichchh¡-k¡r®¸a sandisaha bhagavan!
chaitya-vandana kar£î? ichchham.
jaga-chint¡ma¸i! jaga-n¡ha! jaga-gur£!
jaga-rakkha¸a!
jaga-bandhava! jaga-satthav¡ha! jaga-
bh¡va-viakkha¸a!
a¶¶h¡vaya-sa¸¶havia-r£va! kamma¶¶ha-
vi¸¡sa¸a!
chauv¢sam pi ji¸avara! jayantu a-
ppa·ihaya-s¡sa¸a...............................1.

kamma-bh£mihim kamma-bh£mihim
pa·hama-sa´ghaya¸i,
ukk°saya sattari-saya ji¸a-var¡¸a
viharanta labbhai;
nava-k°·ihim k®val¢¸a, k°·¢-sahassa
nava s¡hu gammai.
sampai ji¸avara v¢sa mu¸i, bihum
k°·ihim varan¡¸a;
sama¸aha k°·i-sahassa-dua, thu¸ijjai
nichcha vih¡¸i...................................2.

jayau s¡miya jayau s¡miya risaha


sattuµji,
ujjinti pahu-n®mi-ji¸a, jayau v¢ra
sachchaur¢-ma¸·a¸a;
bharu-achchhahim mu¸i-suvvaya,

39
Meaning

Oh! Guru Mahārāj, please voluntarily give me permission to do Chaitya Vandan. (If Guru
Mahārāj is present, he will say, “Please do so”.) I accept your permission.

Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you are like the best of the best jewel (Chintāmani). You are
the ultimate head of the whole universe. You are the preceptor of the universe. You are
the protector of the universe. You are like an elder brother to the whole universe. You are
the guide of the entire universe and, you perceive the inner thoughts of the entire
universe. Oh! Twenty-four Tirthankaras, your idols are consecrated on Mt. Ashtāpad.
You have eradicated all eight categories of Karma. The four-fold Jain order established
by you will prevail unobstructed forever. You are the greatest of the greatest.

In all Karma Bhumi2, there may exist at a time, a maximum 170 Jineshvar Bhagawān,
who are endowed with the most unique and the best physic, 90 million omniscients
(Keval-jnāni) and, 90000 million monks. I pray every morning to the twenty
Tirthankaras, 20 million omniscient monks and, 20,000 million other monks who are
currently present.

Oh! Lord, you are the great. You are the great. Oh! Bhagawān Rushabhadev, your idol
graces Mt.Shatrunjay, Oh! Nemi-nāth Bhagawān, your idol graces Mt.Girnār, Oh!
Bhagawān Mahāvir-swāmi, your idol graces the temple in the town of Sāchor, like a
precious ornament. Oh! Bhagawān Munisuvrat-swāmi, your idol graces the temple in the
town of Bharuch. Oh! Bhagawān Pārshva-nāth, your idol graces the temple in the town of
Mathura and you eradicate the sufferings and the sins of the people 3. I offer my obeisance
to all Jineshvar Bhagawān, who may have ever existed anytime in the past, may exist
anytime in the future or are present now anywhere in the universe.

I am bowing down to the 85,700,282 temples and 15,425,836,080 Tirthankar idols, which
are always present in the universe.

Explanation

In ‘Jag Chintāmani Sutra’ we pray to the temples and idols of Tirthankar Bhagawān
which have always existed and which will always exist.

This Sutra is mostly self-explanatory. However, some explanation is in order, to account


for the number of maximum number of Tirthankars that may be present and the minimum
number of Tirthankaras that are always present at any given time in the universe.

According to Jain scriptures, the shape of universe resembles a man standing with his
hands on waist and legs shoulder-width apart. The universe is divided in four parts. The
very top of the universe is known as Siddha-shilā, where the liberated souls exist. The
heavens are located below the Siddha-shilā and upto the middle part. The humans live in

2
Jain scriptures define 15 distinct areas collectively known as Karma Bhumi. It is a place where people
commonly need to use shrapnel, writing instruments and agriculture for their survival.
3
The composer of this Sutra has mentioned name of Pārshva-nāth as an example.

40
the middle part of the universe, which is known as Madhya-loka. The hells are located in
the lower part of the universe, below the waist.

In Madhya-loka there are an infinite numbers of concentric circles of land alternating


with ocean. The most central region of these circles is a land known as Jambu-dvip. A
ring of ocean surrounds Jambu-dvip. This ocean is surrounded by a ring of land, known
as Dhātaki-khanda. The next land in the series is known as Pushkar-dvip. Dhātaki-khand
is twice the size of Jambu-dvip and Pushkar-dvip is twice the size of Dhātaki Khand.
Jambu-dvip is divided into three sections. The northern part is known as Airāvat Kshetra,
the southern part is known as Bharat Kshetra, and the middle section is known as Mahā
Videha Kshetra. We live in Bharat Kshetra. Since Dhātaki-khand is twice the size of
Jambu-dvip, it has two Bharat Kshetras, two Airāvat Kshetras, and two Mahā -videha
Kshetras. Accordingly Pushkar-dvip has four of each Kshetras. All of Jambu-dvip,
Dhātaki-khand, and half of the Pushkar-dvip are collectively considered as Karma
Bhumi. Thus, Karma Bhumi consists of five Bharat Kshetras, five Airāvat Kshetras, and
five Mahā Videha Kshetras. Tirthankar Bhagawāns are not present in Bharat Kshetra and
Airāvat Kshetra at all times. If they are present, there could be only one live Tirthankar
Bhagawān in each Kshetra. Mahā Videha Kshetra is further divided into 32 sections,
which are known as Vijay. In each Vijay of Mahā Videha Kshetra only one Tirthankar
Bhagawān may exist at the same time. However, at any given time there are at least four
Vijay in which Tirthankar Bhagawān is present. Thus, in Mahā Videha Kshetra there
could be a maximum of 32 Tirthankar Bhagawān and a minimum of 4 Tirthankar
Bhagawān at any given time.

Thus a maximum of 170 Tirthankar Bhagawāns may exist simultaneously in Karma


Bhumi detailed as follows:

5 Bharat Kshetra …………………… 5


5 Airāvat Kshetra …………………… 5
5 Mahā Videha Kshetra …….. 5 x 32 = 160

Total ……………………………… 170

Likewise a minimum number of 20 Tirthankar Bhagawān may be present at any given


time is detailed as follows:

5 Mahā Videha Kshetra …….. 5 x 4 = 20.

41
13. jam kiµchi s£tra

VÉÆ ËEòÊSÉ xÉɨÉ-ÊiÉilÉÆ, ºÉMMÉä


{ÉɪÉÉ汃 ¨ÉÉhÉÖºÉä ±ÉÉäB.
VÉÉ<Æ ÊVÉhÉ-ˤɤÉÉ<Æ, iÉÉ<Æ ºÉ
´´ÉÉ<Æ ´ÉÆnùÉʨÉ....................1.

jam kiµchi n¡ma-tittham, sagg® p¡y¡li


m¡¸us® l°®.
j¡im ji¸a-bimb¡im, t¡im savv¡im
Meaningvand¡mi.....................................1.

I bow down to all the places of pilgrimage and, to the idols of Tirthankar Bhagawān
present anywhere in the heavens, lower realm of the universe, and the middle section of
the universe, which is commonly known as Manushya Loka.

Explanation

This sutra is an important Chaitya Vandan Sutra. It is recited after reciting Jag
Chintāmani Sutra or other short poetic compositions, which offer obeisance to temples
and the idols of Jineshvar Bhagawān.

42
The transgressions of the enlightened
world-view are: suspicion, misguided
inclination, doubt, praise for the
heretical doctrines, and familiarity with
the heretical doctrines.
…..Tattvārtha Sutra (7.18)

43
xɨÉÖilÉÖ hÉÆ, +Ê®ú½ÆþiÉÉhÉÆ,
¦ÉMÉ´ÉÆiÉÉhÉÆ........................1.
+É<-MÉ®úÉhÉÆ, ÊiÉilÉ-ªÉ®úÉhÉÆ,
14. namutthu ¸am s£tra
ºÉªÉÆ-ºÉƤÉÖrùÉhÉÆ...............2.
{ÉÖÊ®úºÉÖkɨÉÉhÉÆ, {ÉÖÊ®úºÉ-
ºÉÒ½þÉhÉÆ,
{ÉÖÊ®úºÉ-´É®ú-
{ÉÖÆb÷®úÒ+ÉhÉÆ, {ÉÖÊ®úºÉ-
´É®ú-MÉÆvÉ-½þilÉÒhÉÆ...........3.
±ÉÉäMÉÖkɨÉÉhÉÆ, ±ÉÉäMÉ-
xÉɽþÉhÉÆ, ±ÉÉäMÉ-ʽþ+ÉhÉÆ,
±ÉÉäMÉ-{É<Ç´ÉÉhÉÆ, ±ÉÉäMÉ-
{ÉVVÉÉä+-MÉ®úÉhÉÆ...............4.
+¦ÉªÉ-nùªÉÉhÉÆ, SÉCJÉÖ-nùªÉÉhÉÆ,
¨ÉMMÉ-nùªÉÉhÉÆ,
ºÉ®úhÉ-nùªÉÉhÉÆ, ¤ÉÉäʽþ-
nùªÉÉhÉÆ.................................5.
vɨ¨É-nùªÉÉhÉÆ, vɨ¨É-
näùºÉªÉÉhÉÆ, vɨ¨É-xÉɪÉMÉÉhÉÆ,
vɨ¨É-ºÉÉ®ú½þÒhÉÆ, vɨ¨É-´É®ú-
SÉÉ=®ÆúiÉ-SÉCEò´É]Âõ]õÒhÉÆ..6.
+{{ÉÊb÷½þªÉ-´É®ú-xÉÉhÉ-
nÆùºÉhÉ-vÉ®úÉhÉÆ,
ʴɪÉ]Âõ]õ-Uô=¨ÉÉhÉÆ..............7.
ÊVÉhÉÉhÉÆ, VÉɴɪÉÉhÉÆ,
ÊiÉzÉÉhÉÆ, iÉÉ®úªÉÉhÉÆ,
¤ÉÖrùÉhÉÆ,
¤ÉÉä½þªÉÉhÉÆ, ¨ÉÖkÉÉhÉÆ,
¨ÉÉä+MÉÉhÉÆ...........................8.
ºÉ´´ÉzÉÚhÉÆ, ºÉ´´É-nùÊ®úºÉÒhÉÆ,
ʺɴÉ-¨ÉªÉ±É-¨É¯û+-¨ÉhÉÆiÉ-
¨ÉCJɪÉ-¨É´´ÉɤÉɽþ-¨É{ÉÖhÉ®úÉÊ
´ÉÊkÉ ÊºÉÊrùMÉ<-xÉɨÉvÉäªÉÆ
`öÉhÉÆ ºÉÆ{ÉkÉÉhÉÆ, xɨÉÉä
ÊVÉhÉÉhÉÆ, ÊVÉ+-¦ÉªÉÉhÉÆ......9.
VÉä + +<ǪÉÉ ÊºÉrùÉ,
44 VÉä + ¦ÉÊ
´ÉººÉÆÊiÉ-hÉÉMÉB EòɱÉä.
namutthu ¸am, arihant¡¸am, bhagavant¡¸am.
.........................................................1.
¡i-gar¡¸am, tittha-yar¡¸am, sayaÆ-
sambuddh¡¸am..................................2.
purisuttam¡¸am, purisa-s¢h¡¸am, purisa-
vara-pu¸·ar¢¡¸am, purisa-vara-gandha-hatth
¢¸am.................................................3.
l°guttam¡¸am, l°ga-n¡h¡¸am, l°ga-hi¡¸am,
l°ga-pa¢v¡¸am, l°ga-pajj°a-gar¡¸am.....4.
abhaya-day¡¸am, chakkhu-day¡¸am, magga-
day¡¸am,
sara¸a-day¡¸am, b°hi-day¡¸am............5.
dhamma-day¡¸am, dhamma-d®say¡¸am,
dhamma-n¡yag¡¸am, dhamma-s¡rah¢¸am,
dhamma-vara-ch¡uranta-chakkava¶¶¢¸am..6.
appa·ihaya-vara-n¡¸a-dansa¸a-dhar¡¸am,
viya¶¶a-chhaum¡¸am.........................7.
ji¸¡¸am, j¡vay¡¸am, tinn¡¸am, t¡ray¡¸am,
buddh¡¸am, b°hay¡¸am, mutt¡¸am,
m°ag¡¸am..........................................8.
savvann£¸am, savva-daris¢¸am, siva-
mayala-marua-ma¸anta-makkhaya-

Meaning

45
I bow down to Arihanta Bhagawān.

Oh! Arihanta Bhagawān:


• The right spiritual knowledge originates through your sermons.
• You establish the four-fold Jain Sangha and thus, you are called Tirthankar.
• You attain Keval-jnān on your own, without the physical presence of a spiritual
Guru.
• You are the example of the best human being.
• You are the most fearless human being.
• You are the best amongst human beings like a Pundarik Lotus4.
• You are like the fragrance emanating Gandha Hasti5
• You are the most respected being in the entire universe.
• You are the supreme entity of the universe.
• You are the benefactor of the universe.
• You are like a lamp (of knowledge) to the universe.
• You illuminate and enlighten the universe (spiritually).
• You bestow fearlessness.
• You bestow the true understanding of the nature of the soul.
• You bestow the right path leading to liberation.
• You bestow the ultimate refuge to all living beings.
• You bestow right faith.
• You bestow true religion.
• You preach the truest religion.
• You are the supreme king of religion.
• You are the only guide, who leads us to true religion.
• You have ended the cycles of birth and death in all four realms (human, animal,
subhuman and heaven). You are the beholder of the Dharma Chakra. Thus, you
are like the supreme king (known as Chakravarti).
• You are the beholder of everlasting perfect knowledge (Keval-jnān) and perfect
perception.
• You have attained the perfect knowledge (Keval Jnān)
• You have achieved the status of a Jin (those who have completely conquered the
four passions- anger, ego, deceit and greed), and you help others achieve the
same.
• You have ended the cycles of birth, and death and you help others to do the same.
• You have attained perfect perception, and you help others to attain the same.
• You have attained Moksha, and you help others to do the same.

I bow down to Tirthankar Bhagawān. You know and perceive anything and everything.
Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you have attained Moksha, which is the abode of bliss, which
is free of bodily pains and ailments, which is endless and everlasting, which is free of
sufferings, and from where nobody ever has to return (to four realms of life).

4
Pundarik is a variety of lotus, which is white in color and considered to be the best kind of lotus.
5
Hasti means elephant. Gandha Hasti is considered to be the best breed of elephant.

46
Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, I bow down to you, and all those, who have attained Moksha,
those who will attain Moksha in their current life, and those who will attain Moksha
anytime in future by my thoughts, speech, and body.

Explanation

Shakarendra is the supreme god of the heaven, known as Saudharma heaven. Due to his
special clairvoyance knowledge he immediately knows whenever the soul of a Tirthankar
Bhagawān is conceived. Shakrendra then assumes a specific posture (as depicted in the
diagram below) and recites Namutthunam Sutra. Therefore, this Sutra is also known as
Shakra Stava Sutra and Pranipāt-danda Sutra. This Sutra enumerates the virtues of
Tirthankar and offers obeisance to all Tirthankaras and omniscients. The meaning of
some of the virtues described in this Sutra is explained below.

1. Upon attaining Keval-jnān Tirthankar Bhagawān spends the rest of his life in
supreme meditation (Param Shukla Dhyān) and giving sermons. His top disciples,
known as Ganadhars, compose Jain Āgams based on Tirthankar Bhagawān’s
sermons. Thus, Tirthankar Bhagawāns are the true composers of the Āgams.

2. Upon attaining Keval-jnān, the first thing Tirthankar Bhagawān does is to re-
establish the four-fold Jain Sangha, which consists of Sādhu, Sādhvi, Shrāvak,
and Shrāvikā. The Jain Sangha is also known as a Tirtha, and which explains why
Bhagawān is known as Tirthankar.

3. In general all those who attain Keval-jnān except Tirthankaras, generally have a
spiritual Guru, who preach and/or guide them to attain Moksha. However, those
who are destined to become Tirthankaras are self-realized. They attain Keval-jnān
and Moksha without the help of a spiritual Guru. That is why Tirthankar
Bhagawān is also known as Svayam Sambuddha (self realized).
4. The lotus flower is considered the very best flower and the Pundarik variety of
lotus is considered the very best variety of lotus. Lotus flowers grow in mud and
water, but they themselves remain clean and beautiful, untouched by the

47
impurities of mud and the lure of water. Like the lotus flower, Tirthankar
Bhagawān remains untouched by the passions and the material pleasures of the
world. Tirthankar Bhagawān is serene, beautiful and eye pleasing and is thus
compared to the Pundarik variety of lotus flower.

5. Likewise, Gandha Hasti is considered the best elephant because it emanates a


pleasant fragrance. This unique fragrance is so influential that all other animals
and enemies stay away from Gandh Hasti. Similarly, the fragrance of Tirthankar
Bhagawān’s great punya keeps all natural calamities, unhappiness, and all
diseases away. Thus, Tirthankar Bhagawān is likened to a Gandh Hasti.

6. Just as a lamp brightens a dark space, Tirthankar Bhagawān illuminates the


darkness of spiritual ignorance and enlightens us in regards to spirituality. He
shows us the path leading to liberation. Thus, Tirthankar Bhagawān is compared
to a lamp and said to be an illuminator.

7. Tirthankar Bhagawān is the supreme example of compassion and friendliness.


Therefore, no living being is ever afraid of him. Likewise, Tirthankar Bhagawān
is never afraid of anything or anybody. Thus, Tirthankar Bhagawān teaches us to
be compassionate and extend fearlessness to all living beings.

8. A Chakravarti (supreme king) has conquered all his enemies to attain this title.
Similarly, Tirthankar Bhagawān has conquered all his true inner enemies (namely
anger, ego, deceit, and greed) and thereby, he has ended the cycles of birth and
death. Thus, Tirthankar is the beholder of Dharma Chakra.

The last stanza of Namutthunam Sutra describes Moksha. Jain scriptures call this place
Siddha-shilā, which is located at the very top of the universe. It is the ultimate abode for
liberated souls. A liberated soul has ended the cycles of birth and death and stays on the
Siddha-shilā forever with everlasting peace and ultimate bliss. Since the liberated souls
have no physical body, there are no movements, no bodily pains or ailments, and no
mental anguish.

48
15. j¡vanti-ch®i¡im s£tra

VÉÉ´ÉÆÊiÉ SÉä<+É<Æ, =bÂ÷fäø


+ +½äþ + ÊiÉÊ®ú+-±ÉÉäB +.
ºÉ´´ÉÉ<Æ iÉÉ<Æ ´ÉÆnäù, <½þ
ºÉÆiÉÉä iÉilÉ ºÉÆiÉÉ<Æ..1.
j¡vanti ch®i¡im, u··h® a ah® a
tiria-l°® a.
Meaning savv¡im t¡im vand®, iha sant°
tattha sant¡im…….1.
I bow down to all the existing idols of Jineshvar Bhagawān present anywhere in the
upper, middle, or the lower part of the universe.

Explanation

This Sutra is also known as Sarva Chaitya Vandan Sutra. Sarva means all, and Chaitya
means either temple or an idol of Jineshvar Bhagawān. In Jag Chintāmani Sutra, we offer
obeisance to those temples and idols which have always existed and which will always
exist. In this Sutra, we offer obeisance to only currently existing idols of Jineshvar
Bhagawān present anywhere in the universe.

49
16. j¡vanta k® vi s£tra

VÉÉ´ÉÆiÉ Eäò Ê´É ºÉɽÚþ, ¦É®ú½äþ®ú


´ÉªÉ-¨É½þÉ-Ê´Énäù½äþ +.
ºÉ´´Éä較 iÉä較 {ÉhÉ+Éä, ÊiÉ-Ê
´É½äþhÉ ÊiÉ-nÆùb÷-Ê´É®úªÉÉhÉÆ.
......................................1.
j¡vanta k® vi s¡h£, bharah®ravaya-
mah¡-vid®h® a.
savv®sim t®sim pa¸a°, ti-vih®¸a ti-
Meaning
da¸·a-viray¡¸am.................................1.
Sādhu Mahārāj and Sādhviji Mahārāj do not commit any sinful activities either in their
thoughts, speech, or bodily actions, nor they cause others to do the same or praise others
who commit sinful activity. I bow down in my thoughts, by my speech and by my body,
to all such Sādhu Mahārāj and Sādhviji Mahārāj, present anywhere in Bharat Kshetra,
Airāvat Kshetra, and Mahā Videha Kshetra;

Explanation

This Sutra is also Known as Sarva Sādhu Vandan Sutra (Sarva means all) since by
reciting this sutra we offer obeisance to all Sādhu and Sādhviji Mahārāj present anywhere
in all 15 Karma Bhumi, namely 5 Bharat Kshetra, 5 Airāvat Kshetra and 5 Mahā-videha
Kshetra (see explanation section of Sutra 12, Jag Chintāmani Sutra, for further details). In
Bharat Kshetra (where we live) and Airāvat Kshetra people are not always fortunate to
have the physical presence of Arihanta Bhagawān. Consequently, we do not always have
the benefit of his sermons or his guidance. Therefore, it is the Guru Mahārāj, who
preaches us through his sermons and guides us on the path leading to Moksha as
originally preached by Arihanta Bhagawān. Since, Guru Mahārāj is extremely important
in our spiritual journey to Moksha, it is extremely important to offer obeisance to Guru
Mahārāj to express respect and gratitude for providing spiritual guidance.

50
17. nam°rhat s£tra

xɨÉÉä½ÇþiÉÂ-ʺÉrùÉ-
SÉɪÉÉæ{ÉÉvªÉɪÉ-ºÉ´ÉÇ-
ºÉÉvÉÖ¦ªÉ&....................1.
nam°rhat-siddh¡-ch¡ry°p¡dhy¡ya-
sarva-s¡dhubhyaÅ….1.
Meaning

I bow down to Arihanta Bhagawān, Siddha Bhagawān, Āchārya Mahārāj, Upādhyāy


Mahārāj, and all Sādhu and Sādhvi Mahārāj.

Explanation

This Sutra is composed in the Sanskrit language by Āchārya Shree Siddhasen Diwākar
Suri, who is credited for composing many other valuable Sanskrit works of Jainism. In its
real essence this Sutra is a mini Navakār Mantra. It is usually recited prior to reciting any
Stuti or Stavan and before performing many other important rituals.

51
=´ÉºÉMMÉ-½þ®Æú {ÉɺÉÆ, {ÉɺÉÆ
18. uvasagga-haram
´ÉÆnùÉ欃 st°tra
Eò¨¨É-PÉhÉ-¨ÉÖCEÆò.
ʴɺɽþ®ú-ʴɺÉ-ÊxÉzÉɺÉÆ,
¨ÉÆMɱÉ-Eò±±ÉÉhÉ-+É´ÉɺÉÆ..1.
ʴɺɽþ®ú-¡Öò˱ÉMÉ-¨ÉÆiÉÆ, EÆò`äö
vÉÉ®äú< VÉÉä ºÉªÉÉ ¨ÉhÉÖ+Éä.
iɺºÉ Mɽþ-®úÉäMÉ-¨ÉÉ®úÒ, nÖù]Âõ`ö-
VÉ®úÉ VÉÆÊiÉ =´ÉºÉɨÉÆ.........2.
ÊSÉ]Âõ`ö= nÚù®äú ¨ÉÆiÉÉä, iÉÖVZÉ
{ÉhÉɨÉÉä Ê´É ¤É½Öþ-¡ò±ÉÉä ½þÉä<.
xÉ®ú-ÊiÉÊ®úBºÉÖ Ê´É VÉÒ´ÉÉ, {ÉÉ
´ÉÆÊiÉ xÉ nÖùCJÉ-nùÉäMÉSSÉÆ..3.
iÉÖ½þ ºÉ¨¨ÉkÉä ±Éräù, ËSÉiÉɨÉÊhÉ-
Eò{{É-{ÉɪɴÉ-¤¦ÉʽþB.
{ÉÉ´ÉÆÊiÉ +Ê´ÉMPÉähÉÆ, VÉÒ´ÉÉ
+ªÉ®úɨɮÆú `öÉhÉÆ..............4.
<ªÉ ºÉÆlÉÖ+Éä ¨É½þɪɺÉ! ¦ÉÊkÉ-
¤¦É®ú-Êxɤ¦É®äúhÉ Ê½þ+BhÉ.
iÉÉ näù´É! ÊnùVVÉ ¤ÉÉä˽þ, ¦É´Éä ¦É´Éä
{ÉɺÉ! ÊVÉhÉ-SÉÆnù!. .5.

uvasagga-haram p¡sam, p¡sam vand¡mi


kamma-gha¸a-mukkam.
visahara-visa-ninn¡sam, ma´gala-kall¡¸a-
¡v¡sam..............................................1.
visahara-phuli´ga-mantam, ka¸¶h®
dh¡r®i j° say¡ ma¸u°.
tassa gaha-r°ga-m¡r¢, du¶¶ha-jar¡ janti
uvas¡mam.........................................2.
chi¶¶hau d£r® mant°, tujjha pa¸¡m° vi
bahu-phal° h°i.
nara-tiri®su vi j¢v¡, p¡vanti na dukkha-
d°gachcham......................................3.
Meaning
tuha sammatt® laddh®, chint¡ma¸i-
kappa-p¡yava-bbhahi®. 52
p¡vanti aviggh®¸am, j¢v¡ ayar¡maram
Oh! Shree Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, I bow down to you. Even your caretaker Yaksha
Pārshva is capable of nullifying the unfavorable situations caused by other people and/or
other elements. You have eradicated all Karmas. You are capable of nullifying the poison
of the most poisonous snake. You are the abode of bliss and unending happiness.

By reciting the Mantra known as Visahara Fullinga Mantra with faith, people can cure
their misfortunes, chronic illness, plague and other fatal epidemic diseases, and febrile
illnesses.

Aside from the recitation of this Mantra, even sincere obeisance to you contributes to
good fortune. Those, who offer sincere obeisance to you with a deep faith, will have a life
free of sufferings and bad luck, in all of their future human or animal lives.

Attainment of the right knowledge and right faith, as preached by you, is more precious
than Chintāmani6 and Kalpa Vruksha7. When one attains right knowledge and right faith,
one attains Moksha without difficulty, wherein there is no old age or death.

Oh! Universally revered Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, I eulogize you with a heart full of
devotion. Oh! Jineshvar Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, I wish for the right knowledge, right
faith and, right conduct in all my future lives.

Explanation

Uvasagga-haram Sutra is one of the most revered Sutras in Jain tradition. Āchārya
Bhadrabāhu Swāmi (504 B.C. to 428 B.C.) composed this Stotra between 442 B.C. and
428 B.C. He was the last Shrut Kevali8 of current time cycle. Bhadrabāhu Swāmi’s
brother Varāhmihir was also a Jain monk. After sometime, however, Varāhmihir
renounced monk-hood and started to make a living as a fortune-teller. Once he wrongly
forecast the lifespan of a prince and as a result, the king sentenced him to death. After his
death, Varāmihir was born as a Vyantar Dev.9 He then caused the epidemic of plague (a
fatal infectious disease) in the Jain Sangha. Āchārya Bhadrabāhu Swāmi then composed
Uvasagga-haram Sutra and taught it to people. It is said that continuous recitation of
Uvasagga-haram Sutra by the people eradicated the epidemic of plague.

Jain Karma philosophy states that one has to eradicate bad Karmas by austerities or suffer
the resultant effects of Karma. So the obvious question is how recitation of this or any
other Mantra will be of help. Let us now consider the importance of Mantra.

As previously stated, Āgams are compiled from the sermons of Bhagawān Shree
Mahāvir-swāmi. The last Āgam, which is now extinct, is known as Drashti-vāda. The
description of Drashtivāda found in other Jain Sutras indicates that this Anga-āgam was
6
Chintāmani is one kind of jewel described in mythological literature, which is capable of giving anything
that is wished for.
7
Kalpa Vruksha is one kind of tree described in mythological literature, which is capable of yielding
anything that is wished for.
8
Shrut Kevali is the one who has not attained Keval-jnān, but thoroughly knows and understands all the
āgams.
9
VyantarDeva is a kind of a heavenly being who gets a pleasure in harassing human beings.

53
the largest of all Āgam Sutras. It was classified in five parts: (l) Parikrama, (2) Sutra, (3)
Purvagata, (4) Pratham-Anuyoga, and (5) Chulikā. The third part, Purvagata, includes 14
Purvas, which contain the Jain religion's endless treasure of knowledge on every subject.
14 Purvas clearly mention the importance Mantra. Recitation of a Mantra for worldly
gains and benefits is not only prohibited but also is fruitless. However, if Mantra,
expressing devotion and prayers to Yaksha and Yakshini, is recited with devotion and
faith for the benefit of sufferings of other people, to eradicate natural calamities, or for
the protection of Jain temples, Jain religion, and Sangha, recitation of mantra will
definitely help eliminate these misfortunes.

Most Mantras express devotion to heavenly beings, and Yaksha and Yakshini. When to
be Tirthankar Bhagawān attains Keval-jnān, Shakrendra, the supreme Deva of
Saudharma Devaloka, due to his deep devotion to Tirthankar Bhagawān, assigns a
dedicated Yaksha to take care of Arihanta Bhagawān. Yaksha and Yakshini are not yet
liberated and hence, they still have passions. Visahara Fullinga Mantra is in devotion to
Pārshva Yaksha, who is the caretaker Yaksha of Pārshva Nāth Bhagawān. This mantra is
as follows:

Namiuna Pāsa Visahara Vasaha Jina Fullinga

This Mantra is also recited by adding other specific holy words. One example is
following version, which was composed by renowned Āchārya Shree Māntunga Suri.

Om Rhim Shreem Arham Namiuna Pāsa Visahara Vasaha Jina Fulling Rhim
Namah’

When a mantra is recited with true devotion and faith, Yaksha and Yakshini can bring
forth the beneficial effects, if they are pleased. Uvasagga-haram Sutra is a devotional
Sutra dedicated to Shree Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān. Since Pārshva Yaksha is deeply
devoted to Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān; reciting Uvasagga-haram Sutra pleases Pārshva
Yaksha and, therefore brings forth the beneficial results. It is however important to
remember that when we recite Navakār-mantra we offer obeisance to Pancha Paramesthi
(Arihanta, Siddha, Āchārya, Upādhyāya, and Sādhu/Sādhvi). Tirthankar Bhagawān is
Vitarāgi and hence does not help or hurt anyone.

54
VÉªÉ ´ÉҪɮúɪÉ! VÉMÉ-MÉÖ¯û!, ½þÉä=
¨É¨ÉÆ iÉÖ½þ {{ɦÉÉ´É+Éä
19. jaya ¦ÉªÉ´ÉÆ!.
v¢yar¡ya! s£tra
¦É´É-ÊxÉ´´Éä+Éä ¨ÉMMÉÉhÉÖºÉÉÊ®ú+É
<]Âõ`ö¡ò±É-ʺÉrùÒ....................1.
±ÉÉäMÉ-ʴɯûrù-SSÉÉ+Éä MÉÖ¯û-VÉhÉ-
{ÉÚ+É {É®úilÉ-Eò®úhÉÆ SÉ.
ºÉÖ½þ-MÉÖ¯û-VÉÉäMÉÉä iÉ´´ÉªÉhÉ-ºÉä
´ÉhÉÉ +É-¦É´É¨ÉJÉÆb÷É.............2.
´ÉÉÊ®úVVÉ< VÉ< Ê´É ÊxɪÉÉhÉ-¤ÉÆvÉhÉÆ
´ÉҪɮúɪÉ! iÉÖ½þ ºÉ¨ÉªÉä.
iɽþ Ê´É ¨É¨É ½ÖþVVÉ ºÉä´ÉÉ, ¦É´Éä ¦É´Éä
iÉÖ¨½þ SɱÉhÉÉhÉÆ.................3.
nÖùCJÉ-CJÉ+Éä Eò¨¨É-CJÉ+Éä, ºÉ¨ÉÉʽþ-
¨É®úhÉÆ SÉ ¤ÉÉäʽþ-±ÉɦÉÉä +.
ºÉÆ{ÉVVÉ= ¨É½þ B+Æ, iÉÖ½þ xÉɽþ!
{ÉhÉɨÉ-Eò®úhÉähÉÆ...............4.
ºÉ´ÉÇ-¨ÉÆMɱÉ-¨ÉÉÆMɱªÉÆ, ºÉ´ÉÇ-
Eò±ªÉÉhÉ-EòÉ®úhɨÉÂ.
|ÉvÉÉxÉÆ ºÉ´ÉÇ-vɨÉÉÇhÉÉÆ, VÉèxÉÆ
VɪÉÊiÉ
¶ÉɺÉxɨÉÂ………………………………..5.

jaya v¢yar¡ya! jaga-guru!, h°u mamam tuha


ppabh¡va° bhayavaÆ!.
bhava-nivv®° magg¡¸us¡ri¡ i¶¶haphala-
siddh¢...............................................1.
l°ga-viruddha-chch¡° guru-ja¸a-p£
¡ parattha-kara¸am cha.
suha-guru-j°g° tavvaya¸a-s®va¸¡ ¡-
bhavamakha¸·¡..................................2.
v¡rijjai jai vi niy¡¸a-bandha¸am v¢yar¡ya!
tuha samay®.
taha vi mama hujja s®v¡, bhav® bhav®
Meaning
tumha chala¸¡¸am..............................3.
dukkha-kkha° kamma-kkha°,
55 sam¡hi-
mara¸am ca b°hi-l¡bh° a.
sampajjau maha ®am, tuha n¡ha! pa¸¡ma-
Oh! Vitarāga Paramātmā, Oh! Spiritual preceptor of the universe, through your teachings,
incessantly throughout this life and in all future lives, I wish to:

1. Attain detachment from worldly life


2. Lead a life on the path of right conduct, as you preached.
3. Attain salvation
4. Lead a life of high morals and ethics
5. Be respectful to, and take good care of Guru Mahārāj and elderly people
6. Be helpful and of service to others
7. Be in close touch of the right spiritual Guru: and
8. Follow Guru’s instructions and orders.

Oh! Vitarāga Paramātmā, I am aware of the fact that your teachings advise against asking
anything from you. In spite of this, I wish to be of service to you at your feet, during this
and all future lives. Oh! Bhagawān, I bow down to you, and further desire for:

1. Freedom from the cycles of birth and death, which are the cause of ultimate
unhappiness.
2. Eradication of my karmas
3. A peaceful death in perfect equanimity: and
4. Right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct

Jain Darshan and the Jain way of life are the most auspicious. They are the cause of
ultimate bliss (Moksha). They are the greatest of all religious philosophies.

Explanation

Jaya Viyarāya Sutra is also known as Pranidhāna Sutra or Prārthanā Sutra. This Sutra is
a humble request to Vitarāga Bhagawān for the twelve things mentioned above for this
life and all future lives. As explained in Logassa Sutra (Sutra number 9), one expresses
his desires essentially as requests. Jain Darshan categorically, prohibits requesting and
desiring any worldly gains and good fortunes from Tirthankar Bhagawān. However,
aspiring for detachment from the worldly things, and right faith, right knowledge, and the
right conduct leading to Moksha is the real essence of Jain Darshan. Jainism is the only
religious philosophy that puts the burden of liberation on our own shoulders. It makes us
responsible for our own actions and makes us work to destroy our bad karmas on our
own. Therefore, the Jain philosophy of friendliness, compassion, and pardon is the best
way of life among all religious philosophies.

56
20. arihanta-ch®iy¡¸am s£tra

+Ê®ú½ÆþiÉ-SÉä<ªÉÉhÉÆ, Eò®äúʨÉ
EòÉ=ººÉMMÉÆ..........................1.
´ÉÆnùhÉ-´ÉÊkÉ+ÉB, {ÉÚ+hÉ-´ÉÊkÉ+ÉB,
ºÉCEòÉ®ú-´ÉÊkÉ+ÉB,
ºÉ¨¨ÉÉhÉ-´ÉÊkÉ+ÉB, ¤ÉÉäʽþ-±ÉɦÉ-
´ÉÊkÉ+ÉB,
Êxɯû´ÉºÉMMÉ-´ÉÊkÉ+ÉB...........2.
ºÉrùÉB, ¨Éä½þÉB, ÊvÉ<ÇB, vÉÉ®úhÉÉB,
+hÉÖ{{Éä½þÉB ´ÉbÂ÷fø¨ÉÉhÉÒB,
`öÉ欃 EòÉ=ººÉMMÉÆ. .3.

arihanta-ch®iy¡¸am, kar®mi
k¡ussaggam......................................1.
vanda¸a-vatti¡®, p£a¸a-vatti¡®, sakk¡ra-
vatti¡®,

Meaning

Oh! Arihanta Bhagawān, I wish to perform Kāyotsarga to offer obeisance to you; to


worship you; to express my reverence to you; to respect you; to attain right knowledge,
right faith and right conduct; and to attain salvation.

I am doing this Kāyotsarga with an ever-increasing level of faith, intellect, tranquility,


determination, and contemplation.

Explanation

In this Sutra we offer obeisance to the idols of Arihanta Bhagawān. This sutra and
Annattha Sutra (Sutra number 8), are recited before doing Kāyotsarga to offer obeisance
to Arihanta Bhagawān

57
21. kall¡¸a-kandam stuti

Eò±±ÉÉhÉ-EÆònÆù {Éfø¨ÉÆ
ÊVÉËhÉnÆù, ºÉÆËiÉ iÉ+Éä xÉäʨÉ-
ÊVÉhÉÆ ¨ÉÖËhÉnÆù.
{ÉɺÉÆ {ɪÉɺÉÆ ºÉÖMÉÖÊhÉCEò-
`öÉhÉÆ, ¦ÉkÉÒ< ´ÉÆnäù ʺÉÊ®ú-
´Érù¨ÉÉhÉÆ...............................1.
+{ÉÉ®ú-ºÉƺÉÉ®ú-ºÉ¨ÉÖqù-{ÉÉ®Æú,
{ÉkÉÉ ÊºÉ´ÉÆ ËnùiÉÖ ºÉÖ<CEò-ºÉÉ®Æú.
ºÉ´´Éä ÊVÉËhÉnùÉ ºÉÖ®ú-Ë´Énù-´ÉÆnùÉ,
Eò±±ÉÉhÉ-´É±±ÉÒhÉ Ê´ÉºÉɱÉ-EÆònùÉ.
.................................................2.
ÊxÉ´´ÉÉhÉ-¨ÉMMÉä ´É®ú-VÉÉhÉ-Eò{{ÉÆ,
{ÉhÉÉʺɪÉÉ-ºÉäºÉ-EÖò´ÉÉ<-nù{{ÉÆ.
¨ÉªÉÆ ÊVÉhÉÉhÉÆ ºÉ®úhÉÆ
¤ÉÖ½þÉhÉÆ, xɨÉÉ欃 ÊxÉSSÉÆ
ÊiÉVÉMÉ-{{ɽþÉhÉÆ.............. .3.
EÖÆòËnùnÖù-MÉÉäCJÉÒ®ú-iÉÖºÉÉ®ú-
´ÉzÉÉ, ºÉ®úÉäVÉ-½þilÉÉ Eò¨É±Éä
ÊxɺÉzÉÉ.
´ÉÉBʺɮúÒ {ÉÖilɪÉ-´ÉMMÉ-½þilÉÉ,
ºÉÖ½þÉªÉ ºÉÉ +¨½þ ºÉªÉÉ {ɺÉilÉÉ. .4.

kall¡¸a-kandam pa·hamam ji¸indam,


santim ta° n®mi-ji¸am mu¸indam.
p¡sam pay¡sam sugu¸ikka-¶h¡¸am,
bhatt¢i vand® siri-vaddham¡¸am.......1.

Meaning

58
With true devotion I bow down to: first Tirthankar Shree Rushabhadev Bhagawān, who is
the source of prosperity; to Shree Shānti-nāth Bhagawān; to Shree Nemi-nāth Bhagawān,
who is like a supreme monk; to Shree Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, who enlightens the
universe and, is the abode of supreme virtues; and, to Bhagawān Shree Mahāvir-swāmi.

Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you have successfully crossed the ocean of worldly life. I also
desire Moksha, which is the real essence of your teachings. Oh! Jineshvar Bhagawān, all
the heavenly deities also offer obeisance to you. You are the ultimate source of ultimate
and everlasting bliss.

Your preachings are the best (and only) medium through which one can attain Moksha.
Through your preachings you have exposed and then destroyed incorrect viewpoints, Oh!
Jineshvar Bhagawān, I am bowing down to your preachings, which are the refuge even to
scholars and, which are the best in all three realms (upper, middle and lower realms).

Oh! Saraswati Devi,10 holding a lotus in one hand and a book in the other; seating on a
lotus flower, please bless me. You are as beautiful as a jasmine flower and a full moon.
Your complexion is as white as cow’s milk and fresh snow. Please bestow upon me the
ultimate happiness.

10
Saraswati Devi is the goddess of knowledge

59
60
Section - II

A complete guide of how to do


Sāmāyika, Chaitya Vandan
and
Pratikraman
Adopted from an original concept presented by
Shree Manubhai Doshi
in
‘Introduction to Shree Samvatsari Pratikraman’

61
62
Paryushan Parva

Paryushan Parva is the most important festival in the Jain tradition. The eight days of
Paryushan Parva begin on the twelfth day of the dark half of the month of Shrāvan.
Paryushan ends on the day of Samvatsari day, which is the fourth day of the bright
half of the month of Bhādarvo (per Hindu calendar). Paryushan usually falls during
the months of August or September.

Traditionally, festivals are a time for celebration, jubilation, enjoyment, and


entertainment. But Jain festivals are meant for renunciation, austerities, study of the
scriptures, recitation of holy hymns, meditation, and expression of devotion for the
Tirthankars. Paryushan Parva is a time to reflect and repent for the undesirable
activities we did over the year. It is a period to observe austerities to shed
accumulated karma. Observing austerities helps control our desires for material
pleasures, which makes it an important element of spiritual training.

During Paryushan, most temples hold regular ceremonies in their prayer rooms and
meditation halls. During the first three days of Paryushan, Sādhus and Sādhvis deliver
sermons related to the five essential activities that Shrāvaks and Shrāvikās are
required to do during Paryushan. These five essential activities are:

1. Amāri Pravartan: Leading a non-violent life and working towards a non-violent


world;
2. Sādharmik Vātsalya: Respecting fellow beings who follow the Jain philosophy
3. Attham Tapa: Fasting for three consecutive days
4. Chaitya Paripāti: Going in groups to different Jain temples for Darshan; and
5. Kshamāpanā: Doing the Pratikraman. .

On the fourth day of Paryushan, a ceremonious reverence is given to the Kalpa Sutra.
The Kalpa Sutra is a holy scripture that includes a detailed account of Bhagawān
Mahāvir’s life. The Kalpa Sutra is read to the congregation from the fourth through
the last day of Paryushan. On the fifth day, the auspicious dreams of Bhagawān
Mahāvir’s mother Trishalā are celebrated in a special ceremony.

The final day of Paryushan, known as Samvatsari, is the most important day of
Paryushan. On this day, Jains ask for forgiveness from family, friends, enemies, and
any one else with whom they have had problems and/or hard feelings for hurting
them in any way, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the year. Jain scriptures
advise that, forgiving all and not harboring ill will towards anyone, is a definite step
forward in the spiritual journey towards liberation. Accordingly, the annual
Samvatsari Pratikraman is the most important day in Jain tradition.

While meditating and purifying ourselves during the eight days of Paryushan, we to
strive to realize ourselves in the truest sense. We call the Festival of Paryushan the
Festival of the Soul because when we forgive, we become one with the light of our
soul.

63
The word “Paryushan” has several different meanings:

1. Pari + ushan = all kinds + to burn = to burn (shed) all types of karmas.
Jain scriptures prescribe 12 different types of austerities including- fasting, which
helps shed our karmas.
2. Another meaning of “ushan” is to stay closer. Thus, Paryushan can also mean to
stay closer to our soul and to stay absorbed in our own-self (soul). Performing
Swādhyāy (self-study), meditation, and austerities are recommended activities to
become closer to one’s soul
3. Pari + Upashamanā = Upashamanā means to suppress our passions (Kashāyas -
anger, ego, deceit, and greed) from all sources.

The purpose of life according to Jain teachings is to realize oneself, to experience


wholeness with own soul, peace, and to have reverence for all life.

Therefore, the real purpose of the Paryushan is to purify our souls by staying closer to our
souls, to look at our faults, to ask for forgiveness for our mistakes, and to take vows to
minimize our faults. During Paryushan we should strive to minimize our worldly affairs
so that we can concentrate on our true selves.

Asking for forgiveness may be difficult. Therefore, our great Āchāryas have said:
“Kshamā Virasya Bhushanam, Kshamāvāni Michchhā Mi Dukkadam”. (To ask for
forgiveness is a great quality of the brave ones. If I have committed any mistakes, either
knowingly or unknowingly, I ask for your forgiveness.) The process of shedding karma
begins by asking for forgiveness with sincerity and vowing to not repeat put mistakes.
Forgiveness requires humility (Vinay - absence of ego) and suppression of anger.

Shvetāmbars observe eight days of Paryushan, while Digambars celebrate a ten-day of


Dash-Lakshanā Parva, which begins on the last day of Shvetāmbar Paryushan. The
Digambar tradition celebrates the ten best characteristics of the soul, which are:

1. Kshamā (forgiveness),
2. Mārdava (humility),
3. Ārjava (straightforwardness),
4. Shaucha (contentment or absence of greed),
5. Satya (truth),
6. Samyam (restraint of all senses),
7. Tapa (austerities),
8. Tyāg (charity),
9. Ākinchan (non-possessiveness), and
10. Brahmacharya (celibacy).

What is Pratikraman?

During our life, we undertake different activities, some of which benefit the soul and
some of which do not. In its purest form, the soul has infinite perception, infinite
knowledge, infinite energy, and infinite bliss. These attributes are not realized by a
worldly soul (soul which is not yet liberated) because it is covered with karmas. Karmas
are primarily accumulated as a result of the four passions: anger, ego, deceit, and greed.

64
Tirthankars have explained many ways to free us from these four passions to help attain
Moksha. It is in the best interest of every living being that we refrain from these passions.

Accordingly, Jainism recommends various restraints and limitations, which are


conducive to spiritual development. We do not, however, always follow those limitations
from time to time; in fact, many of us regularly go astray from the prescribed
recommendations. Whenever such transgressions occur, we need to “turn back”. This
turning back is known as Pratikraman. In the present context, turning back means
refraining from activities that are not beneficial to the soul. Thus, Pratikraman is a means
of atonement for wrong actions.

Pratikraman is one of the six daily essential activities (Āvashyak). Practicing these six
essential rites with true faith on a daily basis helps our soul progress spiritually.
Tirthankars and Āchāryas have placed great emphasis on the importance of doing
Pratikraman every morning and evening. The evening Pratikraman is performed to repent
sins committed during the day, and the morning Pratikraman is performed to repent sins
committed during the night. However, if one cannot perform daily Pratikraman, one
should perform biweekly, quarterly, or, at the least, yearly Pratikraman. Jain scriptures
recommend that all Jains do yearly Pratikraman, which is called Samvatsari Pratikraman.

The Pratikraman procedure presented here is not a direct translation of the traditional
Samvatsari Pratikraman. Rather, it is a short synopsis that conveys the essence of a daily
Pratikraman.

Six Essential Activities (Āvashyak)

There are six essential activities that every layman and laywoman should perform daily.
The Sanskrit term for ‘essential’ is Āvashyak. Practicing these six essential rites with true
faith, we can detach from passions and progress spiritually. These six essentials are as
follows:

1. Sāmāyika - The Practice of Equanimity


Sāmāyika means to remain calm and undisturbed; to discard all sinful activities; to
engage in spiritual activities; to be free of all passions; to treat all living beings equally,
and to have no feelings of like, dislike, attachment, desire, or aversion. Sāmāyika is the
essence of Tirthankars’ teachings; perfect Sāmāyika is ideal conduct.

Sāmāyika helps us achieve a calm mind and temperament. It is the process of Sāmāyika
that enhances the quality of equanimity, the process that takes one closer to the soul.
From a realistic point of view, during Sāmāyika, the soul is in its purified state.
Spiritually speaking, time spent in equanimity is the only meaningful time. No one has
attained Moksha, no one is attaining Moksha, and no one will attain Moksha without the
practice of Sāmāyika. One must practice Sāmāyika to attain right faith, right knowledge,
and right conduct. Jain monks and nuns take the vow to remain in Sāmāyika for their
entire lives at the time of taking Dikshā and thus remain in the state of equanimity,
throughout their lives. When a layperson practices Sāmāyika, he spends his time as a
Sādhu. Laypersons should try to do at least one Sāmāyika every day.

65
2. Chauvisattho - Worshipping Tirthankar Bhagawān
Chauvisattho means praying and appreciating the attributes of the 24 Tirthankars. By
striving to attain these qualities, we can control our passions. By reciting Logassa Sutra
we offer obeisance to the 24 Tirthankar Bhagawān, and therefore it is known as
Chaturvimshati-Stava. By reciting Logassa Sutra with true faith, we strive to attain the
qualities of Tirthankar and, thus, purify our beliefs and attain right faith. Those who
possess right faith will ultimately attain Moksha.

3. Guru Vandan - Offering Obeisance to Guru Mahārāj


Vandanā means respecting and saluting. In the absence of a Tirthankar, our true spiritual
teachers are Jain Āchāryas, Upādhyāys, and Sādhus, who show us the path to liberation.
Āchāryas, Upādhyāys, and Sādhus are true practitioners of the path to liberation. By
paying respect to them, we subdue our ego, control our passions, and develop humility
(Vinay). This process helps us advance spiritually.

4. Pratikraman - Turning Back from Transgressions


Pratikraman means reviewing our daily activities and concentrating on refraining from
the sins committed during the day. "Prati" means, "back”, and "Kraman" means "to go”.
Pratikraman, therefore, means to go back, review, confess, and repent for bad thoughts
and actions in our daily activities. It also means going back to the path of non-violence,
truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy, and non-attachment. Pratikraman means asking
forgiveness for our wrongful acts without reservation, vowing to minimize these acts,
forgiving others for their faults, and extending friendship. Pratikraman helps to stop the
influx of karma that obscures the true nature of the soul.

We can shed karma by practicing penance in 12 different ways - six external ways and
six internal ways. External penance detaches us from the external world (like pleasures of
five senses and the mind and body) and prepares us for our spiritual journey. Internal
penance helps realize the true nature of the soul. One cannot begin our spiritual journey
without examining our faults, atoning for our faults by asking for forgiveness, and
resolving not to commit them in future. These three constitute the first kind of internal
penance, called Prāyashchitta (repentance); this is the essence of Pratikraman

5. Kāusagga - Concentration and Meditation


Kāusagga means becoming detached from the body. Most of our misery and unhappiness
stems from our attachment to our bodies. The process of Kāusagga, also known as
Kāyotsarga, involves making the body and mind as steady as possible so that we can
concentrate on and experience the feeling that our soul is separate from our body. This
process helps reduce attachment to material things.

6. Pachchakkhān - Taking Appropriate Vows


Pratyākhyān or Pachchakkhān refers to the abandonment of things harmful to the soul
and acceptance of things beneficial to the soul. Taking Pachchakkhān means taking vows
appropriate to our capabilities, disengaging from worldly objects, and engaging in the
process of purification. When we take Pachchakkhān, we renounce certain activities for a
pre-determined period of time to discipline ourselves.

66
Importance of Pratikraman
Of the six essential activities, Pratikraman is the most important since it encompasses the
other five essential activities, as explained below.

Before Pratikraman begins, we must take a vow of Sāmāyika. During Pratikraman, by


reciting Logassa and Namutthunam Sutras, we bow down to and offer obeisance to the 24
Tirthankars and their attributes. By reciting Panchindiya and Khamāsaman Sutras, we
bow down to the ascetics and their attributes. Thus, Pratikraman includes Chauvisattho
and Dev-Vandan essentials. Pratikraman is done while sitting or standing in a meditative
posture, which is Kāyotsarga. During Pratikraman, we are also required to take
Pachchakkhān appropriate to our capacity.

The Pratikraman procedure includes the recitation of many Sutras. The Sutras are written
in Ardha-Māgadhi (the common language during Bhagawān Mahāvir’s time) and
Sanskrit languages. These Sutras consist of many hymns in praise of the Tirthankars and
many verses of repentance and confession.

Spiritual Meanings of the Items Used in Sāmāyika & Pratikraman

Charavalo: Charavalo is made by attaching hundreds of soft white strings of yarn to a


wooden stick If we must move during Sāmāyika or
Pratikraman, we should use Charavalo to gently clean the
floor and clear the space of even the tiniest living beings.
Spiritually, the Charavalo symbolizes non-violence and the
importance of cleansing our souls of all karma particles. The
Charavalo and Muhapatti both constantly remind us that we
are in Sāmāyika and we must exercise equanimity during
Sāmāyika.

Katāsanu: Katāsanu, also known as Āsana, is a rectangular piece of cloth


to sit on while performing Sāmāyika or Pratikraman.

Muhapatti: : Muhapatti is a 10 to 12-inch square piece of white cloth. The


cloth is folded in half, the folded end is folded again
about one inch, and then folded laterally so it has
three open sides and one closed side. This symbolizes that we can
attain Moksha only as humans and not from the other three realms
of life. Muhapatti is used to cover the mouth while reciting
Sāmāyika Sutras, reminding us to be careful about what we say,
and to refrain from lying and saying provocative useless things. In addition, Muhapatti
reminds us to restrain our speech, to speak only when necessary, and to be humble and
courteous. Finally, Muhapatti also keeps our spit from falling on religious objects and
books.

Religious books: Religious books help us study for 48 minutes during Sāmāyika.

67
Sthāpanāchārya: It is difficult to progress spiritually without proper guidance from the
right guru. If, however, a Guru Mahārāj is not present during
Pratikraman or Sāmāyika, we establish the guru’s seat by putting a
religious book that contains Navakār Mahāmantra and Panchindiya
Sutra along with a Navakārvāli on a Sāpadā (bookstand). We sit facing
East or North in front of the Guru’s seat. This enables us to maintain
discipline during Sāmāyika and develop humility

Purifying the mind is very critical for Sāmāyika, since a pure mind generates pure speech.
Having a clean space, body, and clothes is also important when doing Sāmāyika.
Sāmāyika should be done according to the procedure prescribed by our great Āchāryas.
No modifications should be made, and all Sutras should be recited as correctly as
possible. We must take the vow of Sāmāyika before starting Pratikraman. After
Pratikraman, we must conclude Sāmāyika. We must do Sāmāyika with true faith and not
as a mere mechanical or thoughtless ritual.

Guidelines for doing meaningful Pratikraman:

• Have clean body, mind, and thoughts.


• Wear clean simple clothes.
• Use Charavalo, Katāsanu, Muhapatti, a Sāpado (stand for books), a Navakārvāli
(rosary) and religious books.
• Keep Muhapatti in front of the mouth when reciting Sutras.
• Use Charavalo to gently clean the floor and clear the area of living beings, and then
put Katāsanu on the floor before sitting.
• Avoid using the restroom during Pratikraman.
• Observe silence during Pratikraman.
• Do not eat, drink, or chew.

All unenlightened persons produce sufferings.


Having become deluded, they produce and
reproduce sufferings, in this endless world.
….Bhagawān Mahāvir (Uttarādhyayan, 6/1)

68
Pratikraman

Sāmāyika: The First Āvashyak

Place a religious book, which contains Navakār Mahāmantra and Panchindiya Sutra on
a Sāpado. Place a Navakārvāli on the book, and assume that this is the seat of a
preceptor (or guru). Hold the Muhapatti in your left hand in front of the mouth and
extend your right arm towards the Sthāpanāji with the right palm facing the Sthāpanāji.
Now, recite Navakār mantra.

nam° arihant¡¸am.
nam° siddh¡¸am.
nam° ¡yariy¡¸am.
nam° uvajjh¡y¡¸am.
nam° l°® savva-s¡h£¸am.
®s° paµcha-namukk¡r°, savva-p¡va-ppa¸¡sa¸°;
ma´gal¡¸am cha savv®sim, pa·hamam havai ma´galam.

Meaning:
I offer obeisance to the Tirthankaras (Arihantas).
I offer obeisance to the liberated souls (Siddhas).
I offer obeisance to the heads of religious order (Āchāryas).
I offer obeisance to the masters of religious scriptures (Upādhyāys).
I offer obeisance to all the monks and nuns in the entire universe (Sādhus and Sādhvis).
This five-fold obeisance is the destroyer of all sins.
Amongst all the auspicious things, it is the first and most auspicious thing.

Now we will offer our respect to the Āchāryas (preceptors or gurus) by reciting the
Panchindiya Sutra. Āchāryas are the heads of the religious order. They have studied
all the scriptures. They guide us and lead us toward the path of liberation. They have
36 attributes, as detailed in the following Sutra.

paµchindiya s£tra
paµchindiya-samvara¸°, taha nava-viha-bambhach®ra-
guttidhar°.
chauviha-kas¡ya-mukk°, ia a¶¶h¡rasa-gu¸®him saµjutt°.....1.
paµcha-mahavvaya-jutt°, paµcha-vih¡y¡ra-p¡la¸a-samatth°.
paµcha-sami° tigutt°, chhatt¢sa-gu¸° gur£ majjha.............2.

69
Meaning:
My Guru Mahārāj has attained perfect control over the pleasures and pains associated
with the five-sense organs. He observes complete celibacy in the nine prescribed ways.
He is free from the four kinds of passions: anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Thus, my Guru
Mahārāj possesses these 18 virtues.

In addition my Guru Mahārāj observes the five great vows and five codes of conduct
(regarding knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities, and vigor). He observes five kinds of
carefulness (while moving, speaking, accepting alms, placing or replacing anything, and
disposing bodily waste). He observes three kinds of restraints (regarding the mind,
speech, and body) in all daily activities. Thus, my Guru Mahārāj possesses a total of 36
qualities.

Now, let us kneel down at the feet of Bhagawān and the Gurus while reciting the
following Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful
activities to the best of my ability, and I am bowing down my head to you.

Every spiritual activity should be done with vigilance in order to avoid even the most
minute violence. We must observe non-violence to the utmost possible extent. We may
have, either knowingly or unknowingly, committed violence or caused distress to other
living beings while moving. To atone for these intentional or unintentional acts of
violence, we will now do Kāusagga. For that purpose, we will first recite the
Iriyāvahiyam Sutra, which explains the ways in which we may have caused violence.

iriy¡vahiy¡ s£tra
ichchh¡-k¡r®¸a sandisaha bhagavan! iriy¡vahiyam
pa·ikkam¡mi? ichchham, ichchh¡mi pa·ikkamiuî.................1.
iriy¡vahiy¡®, vir¡ha¸¡®....................................................2.
gama¸¡gama¸®...............................................................3.
p¡¸a-kkama¸®, b¢ya-kkama¸®, hariya-kkama¸®, °s¡-utti´ga-
pa¸aga-daga-ma¶¶¢-makka·¡-sant¡¸¡-sa´kama¸®...............4.
j® m® j¢v¡ vir¡hiy¡..........................................................5.
®gindiy¡, b®indiy¡, t®indiy¡, chaurindiy¡, paµchindiy¡......6.
abhihay¡, vattiy¡, l®siy¡, sa´gh¡iy¡, sa´gha¶¶iy¡,
pariy¡viy¡, kil¡miy¡, uddaviy¡, ¶h¡¸¡° ¶h¡¸am sa´k¡miy¡, j¢viy¡°
vavar°viy¡, tassa michch¡ mi dukka·am.............................7.

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Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj, please voluntarily give me permission to apologize and repent (to do
Pratikraman) for the sins that I may have committed while moving around. (Now Guru
Mahārāj will say, ‘Please do so.”)

I accept your permission. Now I want to apologize and repent (to do Pratikraman).

While walking, I may have trampled living beings, seeds, green vegetation, dew, ant
burrows, moss, wet soil, and spider webs. I may have hurt one-sensed, two-sensed, three-
sensed, four-sensed, or five-sensed living beings by kicking them, covering them with
dirt, trampling them, colliding them with each other, or touching them. I may have caused
trouble to them by distressing them, frightening them, displacing them, or killing them.

Therefore, I repent and apologize for all these sins that I may have committed.

Now, we recite following sutra.

tassa uttar¢ sutra


tassa uttar¢-kara¸®¸am, p¡yachchhitta-kara¸®¸am,
vis°h¢-kara¸®¸am, visall¢-kara¸®¸am, p¡v¡¸aÆ kamm¡¸am
niggh¡ya¸a¶¶h¡®, ¶h¡mi k¡ussaggam.
Meaning:
Now, I want to absolve all my sins (as mentioned in the previous sutra) by repenting. To
purify my soul and make it free of the pain (caused by practicing religion without right
faith, practicing religion just for the show and practicing religion for worldly gains.) and
to completely destroy all my sins, I shall now perform Kāyotsarga.

We will now take the vow of Kāusagga by reciting following Sutra

annattha-s£tra
annattha-£sasi®¸am, n¢sasi®¸am, kh¡si®¸am, chh¢®¸am,
jambh¡i®¸am, u··u®¸am, v¡ya-nisagg®¸am, bhamal¢®,
pitta-muchchh¡®. ...........................................................1.
suhum®him a´ga-saµch¡l®him, suhum®him kh®la-
saµch¡l®him,
suhum®him di¶¶hi-saµch¡l®him. ....................................2.
®vam¡i®him ¡g¡r®him, a-bhagg° a-vir¡hi°,
hujja m® k¡ussagg°.........................................................3.
j¡va arihant¡¸am bhagavant¡¸am,
namukk¡r®¸am na p¡r®mi...............................................4.

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t¡va k¡yam ¶h¡¸®¸am m°¸®¸am jh¡¸®¸am, app¡¸am
v°sir¡mi……………………………………………………….5

72
Meaning:
I shall now engross myself in complete Kāyotsarga (meditation), except for breathing in
and out, coughing, sneezing, yawning, belching, letting bodily gas out, dizziness or
fainting, and subtle movements of body, phlegm, and eyes.

I shall terminate my Kāyotsarga by offering obeisance to Arihanta Bhagawān (by saying


“Namo Arihantānam” aloud). Until then, I shall not speak or move and renounce all other
bodily and mental activities.

Now we do Kāusagga. Kāusagga literally means to give up the body. During Kāusagga,
we must stay motionless (except for the exceptions mentioned above) and meditate. We
can assume either of the following postures during Kāusagga.

Now, stay focused and recite Navakār Mantra four times OR Logassa Sutra in your
mind.

Conclude Kāusagga by saying “Namo Arihantānam” aloud. Now we will recite Logassa
Sutra to offer obeisance to the 24 Tirthankars.

l°gassa-s£tra
l°gassa ujj°a-gar®, dhamma-tittha-yar® ji¸®.
arihant® kittaissam, chauv¢sam pi k®val¢.......................1.
usabha-majiam cha vand®,
sambhava-mabhi¸anda¸am cha sumaim cha.
pauma-ppaham sup¡sam, ji¸am cha chanda-ppaham vand®..2.
suvihim cha puppha-dantam, s¢ala-sijjansa-v¡su-pujjam cha.

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vimala-ma¸antam cha ji¸am, dhammam santim cha vand¡mi..3.
kunthum aram cha mallim,
vand® mu¸i-suvvayam nami-ji¸am cha.
vand¡mi ri¶¶ha-n®mim, p¡sam taha vaddham¡¸am cha......4.
®vam ma® abhithu¡, vihuya-raya-mal¡ pah¢¸a-jara-mara¸¡.
chau-v¢sam pi ji¸avar¡, tittha-yar¡ m® pas¢yantu.............5.
kittiya-vandiya-mahiy¡, j® ® l°gassa uttam¡ siddh¡.
¡rugga-b°hi-l¡bham, sam¡hi-vara-muttamaÆ-dintu............6.
chand®su nimmala-yar¡, ¡ichch®su ahiyam pay¡sa-yar¡.
s¡gara-vara-gambh¢r¡, siddh¡ siddhim mama disantu........7.

Meaning:
I eulogize and worship the 24 Tirthankars of the current descending half phase of the
time cycle. They have achieved Keval-jnān and the distinction of an Arihanta. They
enlighten the entire universe and establish the four-fold Jain Sangha.

I offer my obeisance and bow down to Bhagawān Shree Rushabhadev, Ajit-nāth,


Sambhav-nāth, Abhinandan-swāmi, Sumati-nāth, Padmaprabha-swāmi, Supārshva-nāth,
Chandraprabha-swāmi, Suvidhi-nāth (also known as ‘Pushpadanta-swāmi’), Shital-nāth,
Shreyāns-nāth, Vāsupujya-swāmi, Vimal-nāth, Anant-nāth, Dharma-nāth, Shānti-nāth,
Kunthu-nāth, Ara-nāth, Malli-nāth, Munisuvrat-swāmi, Nami-nāth, Nemi-nāth, Pārshva-
nāth, and Mahāvir-swāmi.

Oh! All 24 Tirthankaras, your souls are free from the bondage of karmic particles, and
thus you are free of old age as well as cycles of birth and death. You have propagated the
religious order. I praise all of your virtues, offer my obeisance to you, and worship you.
Please bestow upon me the ability to attain perfect knowledge (Keval-jnān), which shall
lead to ultimate liberation.

You have achieved liberation and, therefore, the entire universe praises you, worships
you, and offers obeisance to you. Please bestow upon me the right faith (Bodhi-lābh),
perfect spiritual health, and the highest state of contemplation.

Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you are purer than the full moon, brighter than the sun, and
more serene and deeper than the ocean. Oh! Siddha Bhagawān, please bestow upon me
the ultimate Siddhatva (salvation).

As a sign of respect, we should ask for permission before beginning any religious
activity. We now seek permission to inspect Muhapatti. First, we bow down while
reciting Khamāsaman Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

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Now we ask for permission to inspect Muhapatti by saying:

“Ichchhākāren sandisah Bhagawān! Sāmāyika Muhapatti Padilehu?”

Meaning:
I wish to have your honor’s permission to inspect Muhapatti for the purpose of
performing Sāmāyika.

If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would give permission by saying:

“Padilehe a.”

Meaning:
Please do so.

Now we accept his permission by saying:

“Ichchham.”

Meaning:
I accept your permission.

Now, unfold the Muhapatti and turn it three times to make sure that not even a minute
insect has crept in. If any insects are there, we should carefully remove them and put
them in a place where they cannot get hurt. The purpose of this is to remain as vigilant
as possible in observing non-violence.

We are now ready to take the vow of Sāmāyika. First, we bow down while reciting
Khamāsaman Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

Now we seek permission by asking:

“Ichchhākāren Sandisah Bhagawān! Sāmāyika sandisāhu?”

Meaning:
Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, may I have your kind permission to take the vow of Sāmāyika?

If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would give permission by saying:

“Sandisāheh.”

Meaning:
Please do so.

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Now we accept his permission by saying:

“Ichchham”

Meaning:
I accept your permission.

Now we bow down again while reciting Khamāsaman Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

Now we seek permission to begin Sāmāyika by asking:

“Ichchhākāren Sandisah Bhagawān! Sāmāyika thāu?”

Meaning:
Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, may I have your kind permission to begin Sāmāyika?

If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would give permission by saying:

“Thāeh.”

Meaning:
Please do so.

Now we accept the permission by saying:

“Ichchham”

Meaning:
I accept your permission.

Now, please stand up (using the Charavalo) and, with folded hands raised high (at the
level of the forehead), recite Navakār Mantra. Then ask Guru Mahārāj to give the vow
of Sāmāyika by saying:

“Ichchhakāri Bhagawān! Pasāya kari Sāmāyika dandak ucharāoji.”

Meaning:
Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, please kindly give me the vow of Sāmāyika

Now, take the following vow from the Guru Mahārāj. If the Guru Mahārāj is not present,
take the vow from an elderly person. If an elderly person is not present, recite the
following Sutra to take the vow yourself.

76
Taking the Vow of Sāmāyika:
kar®mi bhant®
kar®mi bhant®! s¡m¡iyam s¡vajjam j°gam pachchakkh¡mi,
j¡va niyamam pajjuv¡s¡mi, duviham, ti-vih®¸am,
ma¸®¸am, v¡y¡®, k¡®¸am, na kar®mi, na k¡rav®mi,
tassa bhant®! pa·ikkam¡mi, nind¡mi, garih¡mi,
app¡¸am v°sir¡mi...............................................................1

Meaning:
Oh! Graceful Gurudev, I am now going to do Sāmāyika and, therefore, vow to give up all
sinful activities. As long as I remain in Sāmāyika, I shall not commit any sinful activities
mentally, verbally, or physically, nor shall I encourage others to indulge in such
activities. Oh! Bhagawān, I hate myself for my sins. I repent and apologize for the sinful
activities I may have committed. I condemn and censure myself for such sinful activities.
By the virtue of Sāmāyika, I relinquish my soul, which is full of sins.

This is a very important Sutra. Every word of this Sutra is significant and should be
correctly understood. Equanimity is the essence of Jainism. Since Sāmāyika is performed
to develop and attain equanimity, and since this Sutra is recited to take the vow of
Sāmāyika, it is regarded as the essence of all Āgams.

Now, please bow down again while reciting Khamāsaman Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

Now we ask for permission to sit down by saying:

“Ichchākāren Sandisah Bhagawān! Besane sandisāhu?”

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj, may I have your permission to sit down?

If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would say:

“Sandisāheh.”

Meaning:
You have my permission (to sit down)

Now we say:

“Ichchham.”

77
Meaning:
I accept your permission.

Now, please sit-down.

Again bow down while reciting Khamāsaman Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

Now say:

“Ichchhākāren Sandisah Bhagawān! Besane thāu?”

Meaning:
Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, may I have your permission to be steady in Sāmāyika while
sitting down?

If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would say:

“Thāeh.”

Meaning:
Yes, you may do so.

Now we say:

“Ichchham”

Meaning:
I accept your permission.

Once again bow down while reciting Khamāsaman Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

Now say:

“Ichchhākāren Sandisah Bhagawān! Sajzai sandisāhu?”

Meaning:
Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, may I ask your kind permission to begin the Swādhyāya?

78
If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would say:

“Sandisāheh”.

Meaning:
Please do so.

Now we say:

“Ichchham”

Meaning:
I accept your permission.

Once again bow down while reciting Khamāsaman Sutra.

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

Now say:

“Ichchhākāren Sandisah Bhagawān! Sajzai Karu?”

Meaning:
Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, may I ask your kind permission to concentrate in Swādhyāy?

If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would say:

“Kareh.”

Meaning:
Please do so.

Now we say:

“Ichchham”

Meaning:
I accept your permission.

Now recite Navakār mantra three times with folded hands.

If you want to do only Sāmāyika, engage yourself in religious activities such as,
Swādhyāy, contemplation, or meditation of Navakār Mahā mantra for 48 minute.
Then continue with the procedure for “conclusion of Sāmāyika” on page number 106.
However, if you are doing Pratikraman please continue as follows.

79
Pachchakkhān

Following Pachchakkhān is mandatory for those people who have done any austerities
today.

p¡¸ah¡ra divasa-charimam pachchakkh¡mi


annatha¸¡-bhoge¸am, sahas¡-gare¸am,
mahattar¡-g¡re¸am savva-sam¡hivattiy¡-
g¡re¸am vosir¡mi

For those people who have not done any austerity today and wish to abstain from all
kinds of food for the evening following Pratikraman (highly recommended), the
appropriate Pachchakkhān is:

divasa-charimam pachchakkh¡mi chauvvihampi


¡h¡ram asa¸m p¡¸am kh¡imam s¡imam annatha¸¡-
bhoge¸am, sahas¡-gare¸am, mahattar¡-g¡re¸am savva-
sam¡hivattiy¡-g¡re¸am vosir¡mi

For those people who have not done any kind of austerity today, have to take at least
the vow to abstain from all kinds of food except water for the evening following
Pratikraman. The appropriate Pachchakkhān for this vow is:

divasa- charimam pachchakkh¡mi tivihampi ¡h¡ram


asa¸m kh¡imam s¡imam annatha¸¡-bhoge¸am,
sahas¡-gare¸am, mahattar¡-g¡re¸am savva-
sam¡hivattiy¡-g¡re¸am vosir¡mi

I vow to abstain from consuming four kinds of foods namely, solid foods, snacks and
fruits, and Mukhavās;1 from now until 48 minutes after sunrise tomorrow (OR, three
kinds of foods, namely; solid foods, snacks and fruits and, Mukhavās.) This vow shall
remain unbroken if any food was forced into my mouth, if I put any food in mouth
unintentionally, or if I have to break this vow as per the instruction of my religious
teacher to prevent my equanimity from being disturbed.

One must take the vow to abstain from consuming all four kinds of food (Chauvihār) if
he has done any austerity that day (e.g. Ekāsanu, Biyāsanu, Upavās, etc.). Those who
have not done any austerity that day may take the vow to abstain from all four kinds of
foods or the vow to abstain from all kinds of food except for water (Tivihār).

1
Mukhavās is consumed in many parts of India after lunch and dinner in small bite size quantity as a
refreshing mouth freshener.

80
81
If you only want to do Chaitya Vandan, start here.

Dev Vandan-Chaitya Vandan: The Second Āvashyak

First, we seek permission to do Dev Vandan by bowing down while reciting the
following:

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi. .1.

Oh! Bhagawān! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful activities to
the best of my abilities, and I am bowing my head down to you.

“Bhagawān, with your permission, may I perform Chaitya Vandan (Dev Vandan)?”

Since Bhagawān’s permission is assumed, we say:

“I accept your permission.”

Then we recite the following prayer.

Sakal Kushal Valli, Pushkāravart Megho;


Durita timir Bhānu, Kalpa vriksho pamānah,

Bhavajala nidhi potah, Sarva Sampatti Hetu;


Sa Bhavatu Satatam Vah,

Shreyase Shāntināthah, Shreyase Pārshwanāthah.

Meaning:
Oh! Bhagawān Shānti-nāth! Oh! Bhagawān Pārshva-nāth! May you be there for our well
being forever. You are the abode of all happiness. You are like rain in Pushkarāvarta.
You are like the sun dispelling the darkness of evils. You are like a tree, which can yield
anything desired. You are like a ship for crossing the sea of endless cycles of birth and
death. You are the source of all prosperity.

Now we recite any of the Dev Vandan Stotras such as follows.

Parmeshwar Paramātmā Jagpāvak Paramishta,


Jay Jay Guru Devādhidev Mere Nayanmen Sthit (1)

Achal Akal Avikār Sār Karunāras Sindhu,


Jagati Jan Ādhār Ek Nishkāran Bandhu (2)

Gun Anant Prabhu Tāhrā Keme Kahyā Na Jây,


Paramprabhu Jin Dhyānathi Chidānand Sukh Thāy (3)

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Meaning:
Oh! Supreme Bhagawān! Oh! Supreme soul! You are the purifier of the world. You are
supremely desirable. You are worshipped even by the heavenly gods. You are the
greatest of the great. You are always there in my thoughts and my sight.

You are liberated and, thus, always without a body. You are free of passions. You are the
real essence of the sea of compassion. You are the only refuge for and selfless companion
to all worldly beings.

Bhagawān, one can never completely describe your innumerable attributes.


However, by contemplating the supreme omniscient Bhagawān, everlasting bliss can
prevail.

Now recite following Sutras.

jam kiµchi s£tra


jam kiµchi n¡ma-tittham, sagg® p¡y¡li m¡¸us® l°®.
j¡im ji¸a-bimb¡im, t¡im savv¡im vand¡mi............................1.

Meaning:
I bow down to all the places of pilgrimage and all the idols of Tirthankar Bhagawān
present anywhere in the heavens, lower realm of the universe, and middle section of the
universe, which is commonly known as Manushya Loka.

namutthu ¸am s£tra


namutthu ¸am, arihant¡¸am, bhagavant¡¸am.....................1.
¡i-gar¡¸am, tittha-yar¡¸am, sayaÆ-sambuddh¡¸am.............2.
purisuttam¡¸am, purisa-s¢h¡¸am, purisa-vara-pu¸·ar¢¡¸am,
purisa-vara-gandha-hatth¢¸am........................................3.
l°guttam¡¸am, l°ga-n¡h¡¸am, l°ga-hi¡¸am, l°ga-pa¢v¡¸am, l°ga-
pajj°a-gar¡¸am................................................................4.
abhaya-day¡¸am, chakkhu-day¡¸am, magga-day¡¸am,
sara¸a-day¡¸am, b°hi-day¡¸am..........................................5.
dhamma-day¡¸am, dhamma-d®say¡¸am, dhamma-n¡yag¡¸am,
dhamma-s¡rah¢¸am, dhamma-vara-ch¡uranta-chakkava¶¶¢¸am.
......................................................................................6.
appa·ihaya-vara-n¡¸a-dansa¸a-dhar¡¸am,
viya¶¶a-chhaum¡¸am.......................................................7.
ji¸¡¸am, j¡vay¡¸am, tinn¡¸am, t¡ray¡¸am, buddh¡¸am, b°hay¡¸am,
mutt¡¸am, m°ag¡¸am.......................................................8.

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savvann£¸am, savva-daris¢¸am, siva-mayala-marua-ma¸anta-
makkhaya-mavv¡b¡ha-mapu¸ar¡vitti siddhigai-n¡madh®yam
¶h¡¸am sampatt¡¸am, nam° ji¸¡¸am, jia-bhay¡¸am..............9.
j® a a¢y¡ siddh¡, j® a bhavissanti-¸¡ga® k¡l®.
sampai a va¶¶am¡¸¡, savv® ti-vih®¸a vand¡mi.................10.

Meaning:
I bow down to Arihanta Bhagawān.

Oh! Arihanta Bhagawān:


• Your sermons are the source of true spiritual knowledge.
• You establish the four-fold Jain Sangha; thus, you are called Tirthankar.
• You attain Keval-jnān on your own without the physical presence of a spiritual
Guru.
• You exemplify the best human being.
• You are the most fearless human being.
• You are the best among human beings, like a Pundarik Lotus11.
• You are like the fragrance-emanating Gandha Hasti12
• You are the most respected in the entire universe.
• You are the supreme entity of the universe.
• You are the benefactor of the universe.
• You are like a lamp of knowledge to the universe.
• You illuminate and enlighten the universe (spiritually).
• You bestow fearlessness.
• You bestow true understanding of the nature of the soul.
• You bestow the right path leading to liberation.
• You bestow the ultimate refuge to all living beings.
• You bestow right faith.
• You bestow true religion.
• You are the preacher of true religion.
• You are the supreme king of religion.
• You guide the way to true religion.
• You have ended the cycles of birth and death in all four realms (human, animal,
subhuman, and heaven), and you help others do the same. Thus, you are the beholder
of the Dharma Chakra and are like the supreme king (known as Chakravarti).
• You are the beholder of everlasting perfect knowledge (Keval-jnān) and perfect
perception.
• You are free of imperfectness.
• You have achieved the status of a Jin (those who have completely conquered the four
passions (anger, ego, deceit, and greed), and you help others achieve the same.
• You have attained perfect perception, and you help others attain the same.
• You have attained Moksha, and you help others attain Moksha as well.
11
Pundarik is a variety of lotus, which is white in color and considered to be the best kind of lotus.
12
Hasti means elephant. Gandha Hasti is considered to be the best elephant.
See explanation section of Sutra No. 14 for more detailed explanation.

84
I bow down to Tirthankar Bhagawāns, those who know and perceive anything and
everything. Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you have attained Moksha, which is the abode of
bliss, where there are no movements, which is free of bodily pains and ailments, which is
endless and everlasting, which is free of sufferings, and from where nobody ever has to
return (to four realms of life).

Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, I bow down to you with my thoughts, speech, and body I bow
down to all who have attained Moksha, will attain Moksha in their current lives, or will
attain Moksha anytime in the future.

j¡vanti ch®i¡im s£tra


j¡vanti ch®i¡im, u··h® a ah® a tiria-l°® a.
savv¡im t¡im vand®, iha sant° tattha sant¡im…….1.

Meaning:
I bow down to all the currently existing idols of Jineshvar Bhagawān present anywhere in
the upper part of the universe, middle part of the universe, or lower part of the universe.

j¡vanta k® vi s¡h£ s£tra


j¡vanta k® vi s¡h£, bharah®ravaya-mah¡-vid®h® a.
savv®sim t®sim pa¸a°, ti-vih®¸a ti-da¸·a-viray¡¸am..........1.

Meaning:
Sādhu Mahārāj and Sādhviji Mahārāj do not commit any sinful activities in their
thoughts, speech, or bodily actions. They do not cause others to commit sinful activities
or praise others who do commit sins. I bow down in my thoughts, by my speech and by
my body to all Sādhu Mahārāj and Sādhviji Mahārāj present anywhere in Bharat Kshetra,
Airāvat Kshetra, and Mahā Videha Kshetra.

Now we recite Namorhat Sutra, which is a Sanskrit version of Navakār Mantra.

nam°rhat s£tra
nam°rhat-siddh¡-ch¡ry°p¡dhy¡ya-sarva-s¡dhubhyaÅ….1.

Meaning:
I bow down to Arihanta Bhagawān, Siddha Bhagawān, Āchārya Mahārāj, Upādhyāy
Mahārāj, and all Sādhu and Sādhvi Mahārāj.

Now is the time for a Stavan, a devotional song in praise of Tirthankar Bhagawān. .
Uvasaggaharam Stotra is a Stavan, which is a very significant Mantra in Jainism. Its
importance as a Mantra is second only to Navakār Mantra. This Stotra is an obeisance
to Bhagawān Pārshva-nāth.

uvasagga-haram s£tra

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uvasagga-haram p¡sam, p¡sam vand¡mi kamma-gha¸a-
mukkam.
visahara-visa-ninn¡sam, ma´gala-kall¡¸a-¡v¡sam................1.
visahara-phuli´ga-mantam, ka¸¶h® dh¡r®i j° say¡ ma¸u°.
tassa gaha-r°ga-m¡r¢, du¶¶ha-jar¡ janti uvas¡mam............2.
chi¶¶hau d£r® mant°, tujjha pa¸¡m° vi bahu-phal° h°i.
nara-tiri®su vi j¢v¡, p¡vanti na dukkha-d°gachcham..........3.
tuha sammatt® laddh®, chint¡ma¸i-kappa-p¡yava-bbhahi®.
p¡vanti aviggh®¸am, j¢v¡ ayar¡maram ¶h¡¸am..................4.
iya santhu° mah¡yasa! bhatti-bbhara-nibbhar®¸a hia®¸a.
t¡ d®va! dijja b°him, bhav® bhav® p¡sa! ji¸a-chanda!........5.

Meaning:
Oh! Shree Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, I bow down to you. Even your caretaker Yaksha
Pārshva can nullify the unfavorable situations caused by other people and/or other
elements. You have eradicated all karmas and are free of all karmas. You can nullify the
poison of the most poisonous snake. You are the abode of bliss and unending happiness.

By faithfully reciting Visahara Fullinga Mantra,’ people can cure their misfortunes,
chronic illness, plague, and other fatal diseases and febrile illnesses
In addition to reciting this Mantra, even offering our sincere obeisance to you is a cause
of a good fortune. Those who offer sincere obeisance to you with deep faith will enjoy a
life free from suffering and bad luck in all future human or animal lives.

Attaining right knowledge and right faith, as you preach, is more precious than
Chintāmani13 and Kalpa Vruksha.14 When one attains right knowledge and right faith,
one attains Moksha without difficulty, wherein there is no old age or death.

Oh! Universally revered Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, I eulogize you with a heart full of
devotion. Oh! Jineshvar Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, I wish for right knowledge, right faith,
and right conduct in all my future lives.

Now we will recite the Jay Viyarāya Sutra. In the first half of this Sutra, we wish for
several qualities, which are listed in the explanation of this Sutra. We recite this section
of the Sutra with folded hands touching the spot on the forehead between two eyebrows.
This spot is called Ājnā Chakra, which means ‘decision-making circle’.

jaya v¢yar¡ya-s£tra

13
Chintāmani is one kind of jewel described in mythological literature, which is capable of giving anything
that is wished for.
14
Kalpa Vruksha is one kind of tree described in mythological literature, which is capable of yielding
anything that is wished for.

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jaya v¢yar¡ya! jaga-guru!, h°u mamam tuha ppabh¡va°
bhayavaÆ!.
bhava-nivv®° magg¡¸us¡ri¡ i¶¶haphala-siddh¢..................1.
l°ga-viruddha-chch¡° guru-ja¸a-p£¡ parattha-kara¸am cha.
suha-guru-j°g° tavvaya¸a-s®va¸¡ ¡-bhavamakha¸·¡............2.
v¡rijjai jai vi niy¡¸a-bandha¸am v¢yar¡ya! tuha samay®.
taha vi mama hujja s®v¡, bhav® bhav® tumha chala¸¡¸am..3.
dukkha-kkha° kamma-kkha°, sam¡hi-mara¸am cha b°hi-l¡bh° a.
sampajjau maha ®am, tuha n¡ha! pa¸¡ma-kara¸®¸am........4.
sarva-ma´gala-m¡´galyam, sarva-kaly¡¸a-k¡ra¸am.
pradh¡nam sarva-dharm¡¸¡m, jainam jayati ¿¡sanam.........5.

Meaning:
Oh! Vitarāga Paramātmā! Oh! Spiritual preceptor of the universe, through your
teachings, incessantly throughout this life and in all future lives, I wish to:

1. Detach myself from worldly life.


2. Lead my life on the path of right conduct, as you preached.
3. Attain salvation.
4. Lead a life of high morals and ethics.
5. Be respectful to and take good care of Guru Mahārāj and elderly people.
6. Be helpful to and of service to others.
7. Be in close touch with the right spiritual Guru.
8. Follow the instructions and orders of the Guru.

Oh! Vitarāga Paramātmā, I am aware that your teachings advise against asking anything
from you. In spite of this, I wish to be of service to you at your feet for this life and all
my future lives. Oh! Bhagawān, I bow down to you and further long for:

9. Freedom from the cycles of birth and death, which cause ultimate unhappiness.
10. Eradication of my karmas.
11. A peaceful death in perfect equanimity.
12. Right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct.

Jain Darshan and the Jain way of life are the most auspicious. They are the source of
ultimate bliss (Moksha). They are the best and the greatest among all religious
philosophies.

We complete this Chaitya Vandan by doing a Kāusagga. For that purpose, we now recite
the following Sutra.

arihanta-ch®iy¡¸am-s£tra
arihanta-ch®iy¡¸am, kar®mi k¡ussaggam.........................1.

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vanda¸a-vatti¡®, p£a¸a-vatti¡®, sakk¡ra-vatti¡®,
samm¡¸a-vatti¡®, b°hi-l¡bha-vatti¡®,
niruvasagga-vatti¡®........................................................2.
saddh¡®, m®h¡®, dhi¢®, dh¡ra¸¡®, a¸upp®h¡®
va··ham¡¸¢®, ¶h¡mi k¡ussaggam......................................3.

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Meaning:
Oh! Arihanta Bhagawān, I wish to perform Kāyotsarga to offer my obeisance to you;
worship you; express my reverence to you; respect you; attain right knowledge, right
faith, and right conduct; and attain salvation.

I am doing this Kāyotsarga with an ever-increasing level of faith, intellect, peaceful mind,
determination, and contemplation.

Now we recite the following Sutra.

annattha sutra
annattha-£sasi®¸am, n¢sasi®¸am, kh¡si®¸am, chh¢®¸am,
jambh¡i®¸am, u··u®¸am, v¡ya-nisagg®¸am, bhamal¢®,
pitta-muchchh¡®. ...........................................................1.
suhum®him a´ga-saµc¡l®him, suhum®him kh®la-saµc¡l®him,
suhum®him di¶¶hi-saµc¡l®him. ......................................2.
®vam¡i®him ¡g¡r®him, a-bhagg° a-vir¡hi°,
hujja m® k¡ussagg°.........................................................3.
j¡va arihant¡¸am bhagavant¡¸am,
namukk¡r®¸am na p¡r®mi...............................................4.
t¡va k¡yam ¶h¡¸®¸am m°¸®¸am jh¡¸®¸am,
app¡¸am v°sir¡mi .5.

Meaning:
I shall now engross myself in complete Kāyotsarga (meditation), except for breathing in
and out, coughing, sneezing, yawning, belching, letting bodily gas out, episode of
dizziness or fainting, and subtle movements of body, phlegm and eyes.

I shall terminate my Kāyotsarga by offering obeisance to Arihanta Bhagawān (by saying


“Namo Arihantānam” aloud). Until then I shall not speak or move and renounce all other
bodily and mental activities.

Now, recite Navakār Mantra once in your mind and terminate Kāusagga by saying
‘Namo Arihantānam’ aloud. Then recite the following prayer:

kall¡¸a-kandam pa·hamam ji¸indam,


santim ta° n®mi-ji¸am mu¸indam.
p¡sam pay¡sam sugu¸ikka-¶h¡¸am,
bhatt¢i vand® siri-vaddham¡¸am.....................................1.

Meaning:

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With true devotion, I bow down to the first Tirthankar, Shree Rushabha-dev Bhagawān,
who is the source of prosperity; to Shree Shānti-nāth Bhagawān; to Shree Nemi-nāth
Bhagawān, who is like a supreme monk; to Shree Pārshva-nāth Bhagawān, who
enlightens the universe and is the abode of supreme virtues; and Bhagawān Shree
Mahāvir-swāmi.

This is the conclusion of Chaitya Vandan


If you are doing Pratikraman, please continue with the following
procedure:

Now do Khamāsaman four times, as follows:

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

Now say “Bhagawānaham!”

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

and say “Āchāryaham!”

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

and say “Upādhyāyaham!”

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi

and say “Sādhuham!”

Those who are ignorant of the supreme purpose of life will

never be able to attain nirvana (liberation) in spite of their

observance of the vratas (vows) and Niyama (rules) of religious conduct

and practice of Shila (celibacy) and Tapas (penance).

……..Mahāvir (Samaysār, 153)

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Guru Vandan: The Third Āvashyak
The third essential is known as Guru Vandan, or bowing down to Sādhu Mahārāj and
Sādhvi Mahārāj. Unfortunately, we do not have Arihanta Bhagawān with us to guide us
and lead us to the path of liberation. However, in the absence of Arihanta Bhagawān,
Sādhu Mahārāj and Sādhvi Mahārāj guide us to the path of liberation as preached by
Arihanta Bhagawān. Therefore, we offer obeisance to them to show our reverence.
Before we begin Guru Vandan, we should inspect Muhapatti. We seek permission by
asking:

‘Bhagawān, may I inspect Muhapatti?’

Assuming the permission, we turn it over three times using the procedure explained
earlier. Now, we recite the Guru vandan Sutra given below.

abbhu¶¶hiomi sutra
ichchh¡-k¡r®¸a sandisaha bhagavan! abbhu¶¶hi°mi,
abbhintara-d®vasiam kh¡m®uî? ichchham, kh¡m®mi
d®vasiam.

Now place your right palm on the Charavalo to symbolize touching Guru's feet and
continue reciting the sutra as follows:

jam kiµchi apattiam, para-pattiam; bhatt®, p¡¸®;


vi¸a®, v®y¡vachch®; ¡l¡v®, sanl¡v®; uchch¡sa¸®, sam¡sa¸®;
antara-bh¡s¡®, uvari-bh¡s¡®;
jam kiµci majjha vi¸aya-parih¢¸am, suhumam v¡, b¡yaram v¡;
tubbh® j¡¸aha, aham na j¡¸¡mi;
tassa michchh¡ mi dukka·am.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj, please voluntarily give me permission to ask for your forgiveness for
any wrongdoings that I may have done to you during the day. (Guru Mahārāj now will
say, “Please do so”)

I accept your permission. I beg your pardon for all the wrongdoings that I may have
committed during the day. I may have caused unhappiness or bitterness to you in regards
to food or water. I may have disrespected you or may not have taken proper care of you. I
may have disrespected you by sitting at a higher level or at the same level as you. I may
have interrupted you while you were talking, talked back to you, or tried to prove you
wrong. I may have exhibited major or even minor discourteousness to you, of which I am
not aware but you may be. Now Therefore, I beg for your forgiveness for all such
wrongdoings and wish that they might be undone.

Now, recite following sutra for further reverence to Guru Mahārāj

Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, while giving up all sinful activities to the best of my ability, I
want to bow down to you. So, please allow me to come close to you and touch your feet
with respect.

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Please forgive me if my touching your feet causes any discomfort to you. Has your day
been mostly comfortable and without much distress? Is your journey through ascetic life
going smoothly without obstacles?

Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, I repent and beg your pardon if I have committed mistakes while
performing the essential rites during the day. I ask for your forgiveness if during the day I
have lapsed in your reverence in any of the 33 ways. I may have committed these lapses
by delusion, evil thinking, evil speech, evil deeds, anger, ego, deceit, and greed. Oh!
Forgiving Gurudev, I censure and condemn myself for these mistakes and repent for the
lapses in performance of religious practice that I might have committed by incorrectly
practicing religious rites or practicing religion against the teachings of Jina.

Pratikraman: The Fourth Āvashyak

Now we begin the fourth essential, known as Pratikraman. For this purpose, we
enumerate the 8.4 million species of living beings and repent for hurting any of them.

There are 700,000 earth-bodied species, 700,000 water-bodied species, 700,000 lustrous
species, 700,000 air-bodied species, 1,000,000 plant species that have one soul in one
body (Pratyek Vanaspatikāy), 1,400,000 plant species that have an infinite number of
souls in a single body (Sādhāran vanaspatikāy), 200,000 species of two-sensed living
being, 200,000 species of three-sensed living being, 200,000 species of four-sensed living
being, 400,000 kinds of heavenly beings, 400,000 kinds of infernal beings, 400,000
species of animals, and 1,400,000 species of human beings. If I have hurt or killed any of
these 8.4 million species, asked others to hurt them, encouraged others to hurt them, or
praised those who hurt them, either mentally, verbally, or physically, I repent and ask for
forgiveness.

Tassa Michchhāmi Dukkadam.

Now we will enumerate the 18 ways of committing sin and repenting for committing
them.

1) Violence
2) Lying
3) Stealing
4) Sensuous indulgence
5) Accumulation (of wealth and other worldly things, beyond necessity)
6) Anger
7) Arrogance
8) Deceit
9) Greed
10) Attachment
11) Resentment,
12) Disputes
13) Allegation
14) Slander and backbiting
15) Liking and disliking
16) Gossiping

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17) Deceitful lying and,
18) Wrong faith.

If I have committed any of these 18 sins, asked others to commit them, encouraged others
to commit such sins, or praised those who commit them, mentally, verbally, or
physically, I repent ask for forgiveness.

Now we recite Pratikraman Sutra, which is also known as Vandittu Sutra. This sutra
explains the ways in which one may violate the 12 vows of a householder, spiritual
codes, and restraints pertaining to thoughts, speech, and body. In this sutra, we
enumerate and repent for such lapses and ask for forgiveness.

Oh! Forgiving Gurudev, I wish to atone the wrongdoings that I might have committed
during the day, such as speaking contrary to scriptures or acting contrary to the scriptures.
I repent for improper conduct, inappropriate activities, inauspicious meditation,
inauspicious contemplation, breaking vows, desiring undesirable tangible and non-
tangible things, improper behavior, acting against right knowledge, acting against right
faith, acting against Jain principles, improper performance of rites and rituals including
Sāmāyika, indulgence in four passions (anger, ego, deceit, and greed), and violating the
12 minor vows of Shrāvak.

If I have thought of committing such sins, prepared for committing such sins, attempted
to commit such sins, or actually committed such sins, then, with the Arihantas, the
Siddhas, the Āchāryas, the four-fold Jain Sangha, the Jain principles, and my soul as
witnesses, I wish to repent such actions and ask for forgiveness. Tassa Michchhā Mi
Dukkadam.

Reflecting on Transgression of Codes of Conduct

Jnānāchār (Codes of Conduct Pertaining to Right Knowledge)


I repent for whatever violations I might have committed regarding knowledge, faith,
conduct, and worship.

I might have contradicted, not duly respected and/or not learned the right knowledge. I
might have been ungrateful to the Gurus. I might have wrongly disputed with a learned
person. All these acts are the causes of knowledge obscuring karma.

In the presence of Arihantas and Siddhas, I repent and pray for forgiveness if I have
committed any indulgence, fault, or violation; while studying, learning, and
contemplating in any of the following ways:

• Reciting text incorrectly, carelessly, or inaccurately,


• Reciting and handling text disrespectfully, leaving books scattered anywhere and
everywhere, or leaving them on the floor instead of on the stand or bookshelf.
• Misinterpreting, laughing at, or ignoring the words of the scripture, due to
obstinacy, wrong insistence, impudence, as well as evil intention, caused by
perversity.
• Giving knowledge to an unworthy person, or

93
• Reciting scriptures at improper time, and at improper place.

If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses by mental, verbal, or physical
activities directly or indirectly, either knowingly or unknowingly, I pray that my faults be
dissolved.

Everyone recite together


Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Darshanāchār (Codes of Conduct Pertaining to Right Faith)


I desire to know the true and perfect meaning of the Holy Scriptures; to develop faith
towards true God, Guru, and Religion. I desire to serve, and to associate with Gurus, who
have studied the Holy Scriptures in depth. I desire to abandon the hypocrites who
consider sinful acts as religious. I also want to disassociate from those, who have deserted
religion in spite of attaining right faith. I wish to become a follower of the saints and keep
faith in the followers of true religion as established by Arihantas. I reflect on and confess
the wrong doings (Atichār) related to observing the right faith.

In the presence of Arihantas and Siddhas, I pray for forgiveness if I have committed
lapses or violations in observation of Darshanāchār in any of the following ways:

I might have asked for a worldly favor from a guru or Tirthankar. I might have
considered a good monk to be the evil and vice versa; a duty as a non-duty and a non-
duty as a duty; and a wrong path to liberation to be the right path and the right one to be
the wrong one. I might have contradicted, looked down upon or offended a virtuous
person.

Following are five major violations pertaining to right faith:

• To doubt the words of the Jina,


• To follow wrong faith,
• To doubt the fruits of one's religious actions,
• To accept (or be impressed by) and praise the wrong religious philosophy
• To maintain relationship with people who promote wrong philosophy

If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses by mental, verbal, or physical,
activities, directly or indirectly, either knowingly or unknowingly, then I pray that my
faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Chāritrāchār (Codes of Conduct Pertaining to Right Conduct)

In the presence of Arihantas and Siddhas I repent and pray for forgiveness for the
violations I might have committed during the day in observation of eight-fold codes of
conduct pertaining to right conduct as preached by Arihanta Bhagawān. Following are
the lapses and violations of Chāritrāchār:

1. Violations and Lapses Related to Movements:

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• Trampling, crushing, killing or otherwise hurting other living beings
while moving around, sitting or standing up.
• Disrupting ant-burrows, destroying bird nests or walking on lawn,
grass, and vegetation.
• Pushing and shoving to get ahead of the line and thereby hurting
others.

2. Violations and Lapses Related to Speaking:


• Killing minute living beings by spit while talking.
• Hurting the feelings of others by careless speech.
• Lying, lying with malice, gossiping, and spreading rumors.
• Wrongfully criticizing others, or becoming angry with others.

3. Violations and Lapses Related to Obtaining Food and Water:


• Obtaining food and water carelessly.
• Killing small insects while cutting vegetables.
• Ingesting small insects due to failure to inspect food before
consumption.
• Disposing hot water before allowing it to cool down and thus killing
small living beings by scalding
• Consuming food produced by significant violence to living beings.
• Wasting food and water or consuming more than necessity.
• Disposing of food carelessly in a way that it becomes a breeding place
for insects.

4. Violations and Lapses Related to Taking and Placing Articles:


• Reckless pulling, pushing, lifting or laying of articles and thus, hurting
other living beings.
• Putting heavy articles without inspecting the floor and thereby
crushing small living beings.
• Putting down hot articles carelessly and thereby burning and scalding
small living beings.

5. Violations and Lapses Related to Disposal of Bodily Waste:


• Carelessly disposing of bodily waste, which might hurt or kill small
living beings.
• Not keeping toilets clean which can become breeding places of small
insects that might be killed or hurt.

6. Violations and Lapses Related to Control of Mental Faculty:


• Getting mad at others
• Wishing evil for others
• Wishing for objectionable and un-desirable things.
• Not remaining in equanimity and not doing Sāmāyika in spite of time
and capability.
• Not doing meditation and study of religious scriptures.
• Mentally indulging in sensual objects and pleasures.

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7. Violations and Lapses Related to Control of Speech:
• Speaking excessively or when it is not needed.
• Speaking sinfully.

8. Violations and Lapses Related to Control of Body:


• Indulging in adoration of body.
• Using perfumes and wearing flashy clothes.
• Not taking due and proper care of health by being lazy.
• Carelessly removing small bugs from the body.

If I have committed any of the above eight categories of sins either knowingly or un-
knowingly, I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Tapāchār (Codes of Austerities)


In the presence of Arihantas and Siddhas, I repent and pray for forgiveness for the
violations I might have committed during the day in observation of codes of conduct
pertaining to austerities as preached by Arihanta Bhagawān.

Following are the lapses and violations of Tapāchār:

• Any wrong doings related to penance of a long or short duration.


• Not performing external penances in spite of ability. There are six recommended
ways to do external penance namely, fasting, consuming less food than needed,
consuming fewer food items, giving up tasty food, voluntarily enduring physical
hardships, and occupying bare minimum space for sustenance.
• Not performing internal penances in spite of ability. There are six recommended
ways to do internal penance, namely, repenting for sins, being polite, being of
service to ascetics, study of scriptures, meditation, and giving up of bodily
activities.
• Doing austerities for worldly happiness, or with the hope of becoming famous
• Performing austerities out of jealousy.
• Feeling proud for doing austerities or resorting to self-praise after doing
austerities.

If I have indulged in any of the above faults or lapses by mental, verbal, or physical
activities, directly or indirectly, I pray that my faults be dissolved. Tassa Michchhā Mi
Dukkadam.

Viryāchār (Codes of Exercising Energy or Vigor)


In the presence of Arihantas and Siddhas, I repent and pray for forgiveness for whatever
violations I might have committed during the day in observation of codes of conduct
pertaining to exercise of mental, verbal and physical strength as preached by Arihanta
Bhagawān.

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Following are the lapses and violations of Viryāchār:

• Not following to the fullest possible four codes of conduct regarding knowledge,
faith, conduct, and austerities in accordance with the mental, verbal and physical
strength.
• Not performing religious activities as preached by Tirthankar Bhagawān

If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses by mental, verbal, or physical
activities, directly or indirectly, I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Five Anu Vratas (Five Minor Vows)

1. Ahimsā (Non-Violence)

First Minor Vow: Sthul-Prānātipāt Viraman Vrata


Abstaining from intentionally hurting mobile living beings, through the activities of
mind, speech, or body, either directly or through somebody.

Shrāvaks cannot completely commit to non-violence but can at least minimize violence
by being careful and thoughtful.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of non-violence:

• Not considering Ahimsā as the key element in the whole scheme of the ethical
discipline of the Shrāvak and the monk.
• Being violent towards others and toward own-self because of passions or
carelessness
• Encouraging or appreciating violence caused by others
• Unnecessarily wasting earth, water, fire, air, and vegetations
• Not giving protection or expressing compassion towards mobile living beings
• Consuming or using harmful and illicit substances. (e.g. drugs, liquor, or food
obtained thru gross violence)
• Exposing mind to violence by watching violent movies, reading books depicting
violence, or associating with violent people
• Imposing own thoughts on others or manipulating others for self benefit
• Needlessly confining animals and birds
• Using animal drawn carriages or needless riding on animals
• Making animals carry heavy loads
• Depriving animals and birds of shelter
• Using dairy products obtained from animals that have not been properly cared for.

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If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

2. Satya (Truthfulness)

Second partial Vow (Anuvrata): Sthul-Mrushāvāda Viraman Vrata


Abstinence from unnecessary lies and lying for the benefit of self, family, and friends.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of truth:

• Untruthfulness toward others and toward own-self.


• Encouraging or appreciating non-truthfulness
• Exaggerating, distorting or falsifying the facts for personal gain or to harm
others
• Spreading rumors, disclosing someone’s secrets, and breaching someone’s
trust
• Using flattery or behaving pretentiously to get what is desired
• Speaking out truth which causes pain, hostility or violence to others
• Using obscene or mean language.
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses, either mentally, verbally or
physically; either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who
commit them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

3. Asteya (Non-stealing)

Third Vow (Anuvrata): Sthul-Adattādāna Viraman Vrata


Abstinence from stealing and cheating. Stealing means to take something, which is not
duly given, what is not earned legitimately, or what is not inherited. Following are the
major lapses and violations of the vow of non-stealing:

• Stealing or taking what is not duly offered.


• Encouraging or appreciating others for stealing or buying stolen goods
• Accepting or offering bribe, committing fraud, smuggling goods, selling illegal
goods, violating Government rules relating to taxes, imports, exports etc.
• Cheating on quantity or quality of goods that are sold
• Causing anguish, pain, or even death to someone by depriving someone of his/her
own property.
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

99
4. Brahmacharya (Celibacy)

Fourth partial Vow (Anuvrata): Svadārā Santosh Vrata


To be monogamous with your lawfully married spouse.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of celibacy:

• Being unfaithful to own spouse


• Indulging in illicit sensual activities
• Encouraging, appreciating, or manipulating lustful behavior in others
• Engaging in premarital and extramarital relation
• Intensifying passions by consuming intoxicating substances (like alcohol,
marijuana, opium, illicit drugs etc.), watching provocative movies or shows;
reading provocative magazines or books; or listening to provocative songs or talk.

If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses either mentally, verbally or
physically; either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who
commit them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

5. Aparigraha: Non-Possession/Non-Attachment)

Fifth partial Vow (Anuvrata): Ichchhā Parimāna or Parigraha-Parimāna Vrata


Limiting wants, needs, and possessions.

For Shrāvak and Shrāvikā absolute renunciation of Parigraha is not possible; he/she
should lay limitations to the acquisition and possession.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of non-possessiveness:

• Being greedy or possessive and accumulating things beyond preset limit


• Encouraging or appreciating acquisition and possessiveness in others
• Accumulation of real estate, garments, jewelry, house ware, furniture or any
other personal items beyond predetermined limit
• Making more than customary profit in business
• Possessive attachments to people or worldly objects

If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

100
Three Guna Vrata (Auxiliary Vows)

Next three vows are auxiliary vows, which strengthen the quality of the first five partial
vows.

6. Dig Parimāna Vrata (Restraints of Geographical Limitations)


A vow not to travel beyond predetermined limits. By fixing the limits in all the ten
directions (eight horizontal directions, up, and down), one's greed, which is at the root of
Parigraha, is curtailed.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of geographic limitation:

• Traveling or communicating for social, personal or business purpose outside


the predetermined activity area
• Cutting down the limit in one direction to extend in other direction
• Proceeding beyond the limit in spite of having known of the same
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses either mentally, verbally or
physically; either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who
commit them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

7. Bhogopabhoga-Parimān vrata (Limitation on consumption and, refraining from


forbidden occupations)
In this vow, a householder puts limitations on the articles of Bhoga, (consumption of
items that can be used only once, like food etc.) and Upbhoga (use of articles that can be
used repeatedly) in order to develop self-restraint and will-power.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of limitation on consumption
and forbidden occupations:

• Exceeding the preset limit of quantity and number for the use of consumable
things like beverages, ghee, oil, milk, yogurt, vegetables, fruits etc.
• Exceeding the preset numeric limit in the use of non-consumable goods like
cosmetics, ornaments, flowers, number of vehicles, footwear, etc.
• Consumption of animate things or using inanimate things that have been in
contact with animate things
• Consuming food that is cooked in cruel way
• Consuming food in which there is less to eat and more to discard
• Involving in occupations dealing with furnaces, occupations involving
destruction of plant or animal life, polluting environment and natural
resources, trading or renting animals and birds, animal testing, leather, fur,
ivory, silk, meat, honey, liquor, pesticides, toxic substances and prostitution
• Breaching the vows of not eating root vegetables, and not eating at night.

101
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

8. Anarthadanda Vrata (Restricting Purposeless Violence)


This vow is for renouncing avoidable violence and purposeless activities.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of restricting purposeless
violence:

• Thinking of or talking evil of others


• Being inconsiderate while walking. For example walking on vegetation,
plucking flowers, or leaves unnecessarily etc.
• Being careless in ordinary behavior. For example keeping water or oil
containers open, keeping the leftover foods open, keeping lamps and stoves
burning which can kill or otherwise hurt small living beings
• Meditating on evil, cruel, or mournful thoughts, engaging in meaningless talk,
gossiping, engaging in useless listening, reading, and watching useless TV
shows
• Being reluctant towards righteous or good deeds
• Manufacturing, selling, distributing and/or keeping weapons and devices that
cause violence
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Four Shikshā Vrata (Four Disciplinary Vows)


Next four vows are Shikshā Vratas that pertain to the specific spiritual activities, which
should be practiced as often as possible. These vows strengthen the practice of
spirituality.

9. Sāmāyika Vrata (Equanimity)


The importance of the Sāmāyika is explained in the beginning of this section.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of Sāmāyika:

• Violation of the Sāmāyika vow by not staying in meditation for 48 minutes,


by not doing Sāmāyika with enthusiasm and according to the recommended
ritual
• Violation of the vow of Sāmāyika by not being vigilant and by not
dissociating self from worldly affairs
• Not maintaining spiritual harmony of body, mind and speech during Sāmāyika

102
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

10. Desāvakāsika (Stricter Geographical Limitations)

This Vrata is similar to Digvrata but has stricter limits. By taking this vow we elect to
stay within a limited area (in a room or in house or closely defined area) for a day or
more, detached from worldly affairs, and spending our time spiritually during that period.

• Violating preset restriction in regards to material, directions, time, desire and


activities
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

11. Paushadha Vrata (Practicing Life of Sādhu/Sādhvi


By taking this vow, the aspirant spends one or more days, as if he/she is a Sādhu/Sādhvi
and observes equanimity during that time.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the Paushadha Vrata:

• Violation of any of the five great vows of a Sādhu/Sādhvi during Paushadha


• Not doing Paushadha according to the set formalities, doing Paushadha
without enthusiasm and interest or, doing Paushadha for worldly gain
• Being careless and thereby causing harm to living beings while getting food,
walking, sitting or handling objects
• Not restraining mental, verbal, or physical faculties
• Not spending all the time spiritually and engaging in worldly affairs or, not
being free of passions
• Not doing Paushadha on auspicious days
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally, or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

12. Atithi Samvibhāg Vrata (Vow of sharing with venerated and needy)
This vow is a vow of giving food, water, and other things necessary for existence to
Sādhus, Sādhvis, and to the needy according to one’s ability and means. This should be
done with a feeling of selflessness, love, and respect.

Following are the major lapses and violations of the vow of sharing with venerated and
needy:

103
• Carelessness in giving food, clothes, and medicine to Sādhu and Sādhvi
• Not welcoming, giving due respect or praising Sādhu and Sādhvi while giving
• Offering food that is not suitable for Sādhu or not offering when needed by
them
• Offering food or other things without faith, devotion, contentment, enthusiasm
or, offering with ill will, jealousy, ego, and for worldly gain
• Not offering things even though being able to do so
• Not taking care of needy people and not donating to them in spite of being
able to do so
If I have committed any of the above faults or lapses mentally, verbally, or physically;
either myself; have asked others to commit them; or have praised those who commit
them, I repent and ask for forgiveness. I pray that my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

If a person who has attained right faith (Samyak Darshan) commits a sinful activity, the
resultant karmic bondage will be a loose bondage, because he does not commit that
activity with passion and/or because of carelessness.

Just as a well-trained physician cures a disease, a person who has attained right faith,
immediately gets rid of his Karma by atonement, by repentance and, by resorting to the
auxiliary restraints.

Just as a knowledgeable mystic or a physician having such expertise removes poison


from the body, similarly a real Shrāvak quickly gets rid of eight types of Karma acquired
due to craving and aversion by atonement and repentance.

Just as one becomes light by taking off the load from his head, a person, who has
committed sins, becomes relieved of the guilt of committing sins by atoning and
repenting in front of Guru.

The Shrāvak, even though heavily burdened by Karma, can end his misery in no time by
resorting to doing this essential rite of Pratikraman.

There are many other lapses and violations of codes of conduct and twelve vows of
Shrāvak. If I have missed any of those lapses and violations during this Pratikraman, I
repent, hate, and abhor for the same.

I am now awakened for observing the religion propounded by the omniscient Tirthankar
Bhagawān and I am free of all obstacles for doing so. While atoning for my sins
committed by mind, speech and body, I bow to the twenty-four Tirthankar Bhagawān.

While being here, I bow down to all the idols of Jineshvar Bhagawān present anywhere in
the heaven, lower realm of the universe or in the middle realm of the universe (known as
Manushya Loka)

104
Sādhu Mahārāj and Sādhviji Mahārāj do not commit any sinful activity either in their
thoughts, speech or physically; they do not cause others to do the same; nor they praise
others who commit sinful activity. I bow down to all such Sādhu Mahārāj and Sādhviji
Mahārāj, present anywhere in Bharat Kshetra, Airāvat Kshetra and in Mahā Videha
Kshetra.

Let my days pass in contemplation of words preached by the omniscient Bhagawān. The
preachings of Tirthankar Bhagawān destroy the sins committed from the time
immemorial and bring an end to millions of life cycles.

The Arihanta Bhagawān, Siddha Bhagawān, sages, scriptures and, the religion preached
by Jina are blissful to me. Let these enlightened entities bestow peace, and right faith
unto me.

When one does something that is forbidden or, fails to do what he needs to do or, if he
loses the right faith or, if he indulges in anything contrary to the precepts; he should do
the Pratikraman

To be recited by all together







Meaning:
I forgive all living beings, let all beings forgive me. I have friendship for every living
being; and I have no enmity for any one.

I have atoned myself, hated, and abhorred myself in front of Guru and thus, I have
appropriately repented for the lapses and wrong deeds by mind, speech and body. I bow
to the 24 Jineshvar Bhagawān.

At this time ask for forgiveness from everybody; friends, family, neighbors and
especially from those with whom they have had a problem and hard feelings, and all
living beings.

Everyone recite together


Michchhā Mi Dukkadam to entire Sangha

105
Kāusagga: The Fifth Āvashyak

Now we come to the 5th essential. Earlier in the Pratikraman, we did two short
Kāusagga. Now we will do Kāusagga as a separate essential. For that purpose, we will
first recite the Navakār Mantra.
nam° arihant¡¸am.
nam° siddh¡¸am.
nam° ¡yariy¡¸am.
nam° uvajjh¡y¡¸am.
nam° l°® savva-s¡h£¸am.
®s° paµcha-namukk¡r°, savva-p¡va-ppa¸¡sa¸°;
ma´gal¡¸am cha savv®sim, pa·hamam havai ma´galam.
Now we will recite the English translation of other Sutras

I repent and abhor myself, if I have committed any faults, lapses and violations by acting
against the scriptures, by acting against the right path preached by Jina, by doing
undesirable activities, by evil thinking, by evil behavior, by doing immoral acts, or any
activity unworthy of Shrāvak; anytime during the day, either mentally, verbally, or
physically

I repent for committing any faults, lapses and violations in regards to, right knowledge,
right faith, right conduct, scriptural knowledge, Sāmāyika, following three restrains,
control of four passions and, observing twelve vows of Shrāvak. I now request that all my
sins be dissolved.

For the sake of atonement, repentance, purification, removing obstacles, and uprooting
the sinful activities, I will now, therefore, do Kāusagga.

I shall now engross myself in complete Kāyotsarga (meditation) except for breathing in
and out, coughing, sneezing, yawning, belching, letting bodily gas out, episode of
dizziness or fainting and, subtle movements of body, phlegm and eyes.

I shall terminate my Kāyotsarga by offering obeisance to Arihanta Bhagawān (by saying,


“Namo Arihantānam” aloud). Until then I shall not speak, be motionless in the same
place and, renounce all other bodily and mental activities.

Now mentally recite Logassa Sutra four times or Navakār Mantra sixteen times. We will
end the Kāusagga by saying Namo Arihantānam aloud.

Now this is the time for pondering over the wrong doings and sins committed during the
day or whole year and contemplating about the ways to repent and to atone for the same.
Devote at least 3 minutes pondering about this for the daily Pratikraman and 10 to 15
minutes for the Samvatsari Pratikraman. We have atoned for many transgressions while
enumerating them. There could however, be other transgressions too. Recall them and
think about their atonement. The atonement is usually laid down in terms of fasting or

106
avoiding some meals. But it does not necessarily consist only of abstaining from food.
Vowing to cultivate modesty, to render service to Sādhu, Sādhvi, and the needy, to resort
to meditation, etc. can also serve the purpose. So, think over the modes that best serve
your purpose.

Now we conclude this essential of Kāusagga by reciting Shānti Stotra and Logassa Sutra.










Meaning:
May the entire universe attain bliss; may all living beings be oriented to the interest of
others; let all faults be eliminated; and may people be happy everywhere.











Meaning:
I forgive all living beings; let all living beings forgive me. I am on friendly terms with all.
I have no enmity towards anybody.








107
Meaning:
Whenever Jineshvar Bhagawān is worshipped all the troubles disintegrate, the shackles of
obstacles break, and the mind achieves a blissful state











Meaning:
Jain Darshan and Jain way of life are most auspicious. They are the cause of ultimate
bliss (Moksha). They are the best and the greatest amongst all religious philosophies.

Now everybody will recite following Shānti Stotra (prayer for universal peace), after the
person leading the Pratikraman

Sr¢-shrama¸ sanghasya Sh¡ntirbhavatu

Sr¢-shrama¸ sanghasya Sh¡ntirbhavatu,


Sr¢-janapad¡n¡m Sh¡ntirbhavatu
Sr¢-raj¡dhip¡n¡m Sh¡ntirbhavatu,
Sr¢-rajasannivesh¡n¡m Sh¡ntirbhavatu
Sr¢-goÀtik¡n¡m Sh¡ntirbhavatu,
Sr¢-paura-mukhy¡n¡m Sh¡ntirbhavatu
Sr¢-paura-janasya Sh¡ntirbhavatu,
Sr¢-brahma-lokasya Sh¡ntirbhavatu
Om sv¡h¡, Om sv¡h¡, Om Sri-P¡rshva-n¡th¡ya Sv¡h¡

Meaning:
Let there be peace for the Jain Sangha. Let there be peace in the world. Let there be peace
for the kings. Let there be peace in the kings' palaces. Let there be peace for the religious
leaders. Let there be peace for the leading citizens as well as the common people. Let
there be peace in the entire universe.

108
l°gassa sutra

l°gassa ujj°a-gar®, dhamma-tittha-yar® ji¸®.


arihant® kittaissam, cauv¢sam pi k®val¢.........................1.
usabha-majiam ca vand®,
sambhava-mabhi¸anda¸am ca sumaim ca.
pauma-ppaham sup¡sam, ji¸am ca canda-ppaham vand®...2.
suvihim ca puppha-dantam, s¢ala-sijjansa-v¡su-pujjam ca.
vimala-ma¸antam ca ji¸am, dhammam santim ca vand¡mi. .3.
kunthum aram ca mallim,
vand® mu¸i-suvvayam nami-ji¸am ca.
vand¡mi ri¶¶ha-n®mim, p¡sam taha vaddham¡¸am ca........4.
®vam ma® abhithu¡, vihuya-raya-mal¡ pah¢¸a-jara-mara¸¡.
cau-v¢sam pi ji¸avar¡, tittha-yar¡ m® pas¢yantu...............5.
kittiya-vandiya-mahiy¡, j® ® l°gassa uttam¡ siddh¡.
¡rugga-b°hi-l¡bham, sam¡hi-vara-muttamaÆ-dintu............6.
cand®su nimmala-yar¡, ¡icc®su ahiyam pay¡sa-yar¡.
s¡gara-vara-gambh¢r¡, siddh¡ siddhim mama disantu........7.

Meaning:
I eulogize and worship the 24 Tirthankars of this current descending half phase of the
time cycle. They have achieved Keval-jnān and the distinction of an Arihanta. They
enlighten the entire universe and establish the four-fold Jain Sangha.

I offer my obeisance and bow down to, Bhagawān Shree Rushabhadev, Ajit-nāth,
Sambhav-nāth, Abhinandan-swāmi, Sumati-nāth, Padmaprabha-swāmi, Supārshva-nāth,
Chandraprabha-swāmi, Suvidhi-nāth (also known as, ‘Pushpadanta-swāmi’), Shital-nāth,
Shreyāns-nāth, Vāsupujya-swāmi, Vimal-nāth, Anant-nāth, Dharma-nāth, Shānti-nāth,
Kunthu-nāth, Ara-nāth, Malli-nāth, Munisuvrat-swāmi, Nami-nāth, Nemi-nāth, Pārshva-
nāth, and Mahāvir-swāmi.

Oh! All 24 Tirthankaras, your souls are free from the bondage of karmic particles, and
thus you are free of old age as well as cycles of birth and death. You have propagated the
religious order. I praise all of your virtues, offer my obeisance to you, and worship you.
Please bestow upon me the sense to attain perfect knowledge (Keval-jnān), which shall
lead to ultimate liberation.

You have achieved liberation and therefore, entire universe praises you, worships you,
and offers obeisance to you. Please bestow upon me the right faith (Bodhi-lābh), perfect
spiritual health, and the highest state of contemplation.

109
Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you are purer than the full moon, brighter than the sun and,
more serene and deeper than the ocean. Oh! Siddha Bhagawān, please bestow upon me
the ultimate Siddhatva (salvation).

110
Conclusion of Pratikraman

I have done Pratikraman with right faith. I now offer obeisance to 24 Tirthankaras –
mentally, verbally, and physically.

Thus, I have repented for my sins, reverted back from the sins, criticized my sins, and
purified my soul. I have done this Pratikraman with the true and deep feelings of remorse.
By the virtue of Pratikraman, I have made my soul free of threefold pain caused by
practicing religion without right faith, practicing religion just for the show and practicing
religion for worldly gains. I now repeatedly apologize to Arihantas, Siddhas, Teachers,
Preceptors, Sādhus and Gurus for all the sins committed by me.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Oh Bhagawān! I have completed all six essential activities; Sāmāyika, Chauvisattho,


Vandanā, Pratikraman, Kāyotsarga, and Pachchakkhān.

During this Pratikraman, if any letter, word, or verse has been under-said, over-said, or
said otherwise, then in the presence of Arihantas, and infinite Siddha Bhagawān, I pray
that the said lapses be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Pratikraman done with false belief is like living without vows, and the one done with
reluctance is like indulging in passions. In such cases, Pratikraman is tainted with lapses
and violations. If I am involved in thinking of committing such violations, if I was about
to commit such violations, if I attempted to commit such violations, or if I actually
committed the violations, knowingly or unknowingly, then in the presence of Arihantas
and infinite Siddha Bhagawān, I pray that all my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam.

Regarding repentance of the past sinful deeds, stopping the present sinful deeds, and
taking vows for the future, if any sins or lapses are knowingly or unknowingly
committed, then in the presence of Arihantas, and infinite Siddha Bhagawān, I pray that
all my faults be dissolved.
Tassa Michchhā Mi Dukkadam

Conclusion of Sāmāyika

All this time we have been in the vow of Sāmāyika. For concluding Sāmāyika, we first
bow down while reciting:

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful
activities to the best of my ability and I am bowing down my head to you.

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iriy¡vahiy¡ sutra
ichchh¡-k¡r®¸a sandisaha bhagavan! iriy¡vahiyam
pa·ikkam¡mi? iccham, icch¡mi pa·ikkamiuî........................1.
iriy¡vahiy¡®, vir¡ha¸¡®....................................................2.
gama¸¡gama¸®...............................................................3.
p¡¸a-kkama¸®, b¢ya-kkama¸®, hariya-kkama¸®, °s¡-utti´ga-
pa¸aga-daga-ma¶¶¢-makka·¡-sant¡¸¡-sa´kama¸®...............4.
j® m® j¢v¡ vir¡hiy¡..........................................................5.
®gindiy¡, b®indiy¡, t®indiy¡, caurindiy¡, paµcindiy¡..........6.
abhihay¡, vattiy¡, l®siy¡, sa´gh¡iy¡, sa´gha¶¶iy¡,
pariy¡viy¡, kil¡miy¡, uddaviy¡, ¶h¡¸¡° ¶h¡¸am sa´k¡miy¡, j¢viy¡°
vavar°viy¡,
tassa micch¡ mi dukka·am...............................................7.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj, please voluntarily give me permission to apologize and repent (to do
Pratikraman) for the sins that I may have committed while moving around. (Now Guru
Mahārāj will say, ‘Please do so”)

I accept your permission. Now I want to apologize and repent (to do Pratikraman).

While walking, I may have trampled upon living beings, seeds, green vegetation, dew,
ant burrows, moss, wet soil and spider webs. Or, I may have hurt one-sensed, two-sensed,
three-sensed, four-sensed or five-sensed living beings; by kicking them, covering them
with dirt, trampling them, colliding them with each other, touching them. Or, I may have
by causing trouble to them by distressing them, frightening them, displacing them from
one place to another, or by killing them.

I therefore, repent and apologize for all these sins that I may have committed.

tassa uttar¢ sutra


tassa uttar¢-kara¸®¸am, p¡yachchhitta-kara¸®¸am,
vis°h¢-kara¸®¸am, visall¢-kara¸®¸am, p¡v¡¸aÆ kamm¡¸am
niggh¡ya¸a¶¶h¡®, ¶h¡mi k¡ussaggam.
Meaning:
I now want to absolve all those sins committed by me (as mentioned in previous sutra) by
repentance. To purify my soul and to make it free of the pain (caused by practicing
religion without right faith, practicing religion just for the show and practicing religion
for worldly gains.) and to completely destroy all the sins committed by me, I shall now
perform Kāyotsarga.

112
annattha-s£tra
annattha-£sasi®¸am, n¢sasi®¸am, kh¡si®¸am, chh¢®¸am,
jambh¡i®¸am, u··u®¸am, v¡ya-nisagg®¸am, bhamal¢®,
pitta-muchchh¡®. ...........................................................1.
suhum®him a´ga-saµc¡l®him, suhum®him kh®la-saµc¡l®him,
suhum®him di¶¶hi-saµc¡l®him. ......................................2.
®vam¡i®him ¡g¡r®him, a-bhagg° a-vir¡hi°,
hujja m® k¡ussagg°.........................................................3.
j¡va arihant¡¸am bhagavant¡¸am,
namukk¡r®¸am na p¡r®mi...............................................4.
t¡va k¡yam ¶h¡¸®¸am m°¸®¸am jh¡¸®¸am,
app¡¸am v°sir¡mi.

Meaning:
I shall now engross myself in complete Kāyotsarga (meditation) except for breathing in
and out, coughing, sneezing, yawning, belching, letting bodily gas out, episode of
dizziness or fainting and, subtle movements of body, phlegm and eyes.

I shall terminate my Kāyotsarga by offering obeisance to Arihanta Bhagawān (by saying,


“Namo Arihantānam” aloud). Until then I shall not speak and be motionless in the same
place, shall not speak and renounce all other bodily and mental activities.
l°gassa sutra
l°gassa ujj°a-gar®, dhamma-tittha-yar® ji¸®.
arihant® kittaissam, chauv¢sam pi k®val¢.......................1.
usabha-majiam cha vand®,
sambhava-mabhi¸anda¸am cha sumaim cha.
pauma-ppaham sup¡sam, ji¸am cha chanda-ppaham vand®..2.
suvihim cha puppha-dantam, s¢ala-sijjansa-v¡su-pujjam cha.
vimala-ma¸antam cha ji¸am, dhammam santim cha vand¡mi..3.
kunthum aram cha mallim,
vand® mu¸i-suvvayam nami-ji¸am cha.
vand¡mi ri¶¶ha-n®mim, p¡sam taha vaddham¡¸am cha......4.
®vam ma® abhithu¡, vihuya-raya-mal¡ pah¢¸a-jara-mara¸¡.
chau-v¢sam pi ji¸avar¡, tittha-yar¡ m® pas¢yantu.............5.
kittiya-vandiya-mahiy¡, j® ® l°gassa uttam¡ siddh¡.
¡rugga-b°hi-l¡bham, sam¡hi-vara-muttamaÆ-dintu............6.
chand®su nimmala-yar¡, ¡ichch®su ahiyam pay¡sa-yar¡.

113
s¡gara-vara-gambh¢r¡, siddh¡ siddhim mama disantu........7.

Meaning:
I eulogize and worship twenty-four Tirthankars of this current descending half phase of
the time cycle. They have achieved Kevaljnān and the distinction of that of Arihanta.
They enlighten the entire universe and they establish the four fold Jain Sangha.

I eulogize and worship twenty-four Tirthankars of this current descending half phase of
the time cycle. They have achieved Kevaljnān and the distinction of that of Arihanta.
They enlighten the entire universe and they establish the four fold Jain Sangha.

I offer my obeisance to and bow down to, Bhagawān Shree Rushabhadev, Ajit-nāth,
Sambhav-nāth, Abhinandan-swāmi, Sumati-nāth, Padmaprabha-swāmi, Supārshva-nāth,
Chandraprabha-swāmi, Suvidhi-nāth (also known as, ‘Pushpadanta-swāmi’), Shital-nāth,
Shreyāns-nāth, Vāsupujya-swāmi, Vimal-nāth, Anant-nāth, Dharma-nāth, Shānti-nāth,
Kunthu-nāth, Ara-nāth, Malli-nāth, Munisuvrat-swāmi, Nami-nāth, Nemi-nāth, Pārshva-
nāth, and Mahāvir-swāmi.

Oh! All twenty-four Tirthankaras, your souls are free from the bondage of karmic
particles, and thus you are free of old age as well as cycles of birth and death. You have
propagated the religious order. I praise all of your virtues, offer my obeisance to you,
and, worship you. Please bestow upon me the sense to attain perfect knowledge
(Kevaljnān), which shall lead to ultimate liberation.

You have achieved liberation and therefore, you are praised, worshipped and offered
obeisance to, by the entire universe. Please bestow upon me the right faith (Bodhi Lābh),
perfect spiritual health, and the highest state of contemplation.

Oh! Tirthankar Bhagawān, you are purer than the full moon, brighter than the sun and,
more serene and deeper than the ocean. Oh! Siddha Bhagawān, please bestow upon me
the ultimate Siddhatva (salvation).

Now bow down while reciting:

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful
activities to the best of my ability and I am bowing down my head to you.

Now we ask for a permission to inspect Muhapatti by saying:

“Ichchhākāren sandisah Bhagawān! Muhapatti Padilehu?”

Meaning:
“I wish to have your honor’s permission to inspect Muhapatti.”

114
If Guru Mahārāj were present, he would give permission by saying:

“Padilehe a.”

Meaning:
Please do so.

Now we accept the permission by saying:

“Ichchham”

Meaning:
I accept your permission. Now unfold Muhapatti and inspect it as previously explained.

Now bow down while reciting:

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful
activities to the best of my ability and I am bowing down my head to you.

Now ask:
“Ichchhākāren Sandisaha Bhagawān Sāmāyika Pāru?”

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj, may I please conclude Sāmāyika?

Guru Mahārāj will say,

“Puno Vi Kāyavvam”

Meaning:
You should do Sāmāyika over and over again

Now bow down while reciting:

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful
activities to the best of my ability and I am bowing down my head to you.

Now say,

“Yathāshakti”

115
Meaning:
I shall do the same, as and when I can

Now again bow down while reciting:

ichchh¡mi kham¡-sama¸°! vandium, j¡va¸ijj¡®


nis¢hi¡®?, mattha®¸a vand¡mi.

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj! I wish to offer my obeisance to you. I am giving up all sinful
activities to the best of my ability and I am bowing down my head to you.

Now say,

“Ichchhākāren sandisaha Bhagawān Sāmāyika Pāryu”

Meaning:
Oh! Guru Mahārāj, with your kind permission I am now concluding my Sāmāyika

Guru Mahārāj now will say,

“Āyāro Na Mottavvo”

Meaning:
Please do not forget the benefits of Sāmāyika

Now say,

“Tahatti”

Meaning:
Yes, Guru Mahārāj, I shall do the same

Now, while laying the right hand down, first recite Navakār Mantra.
nam° arihant¡¸am.
nam° siddh¡¸am.
nam° ¡yariy¡¸am.
nam° uvajjh¡y¡¸am.
nam° l°® savva-s¡h£¸am.
®s° paµcha-namukk¡r°, savva-p¡va-ppa¸¡sa¸°;
ma´gal¡¸am cha savv®sim, pa·hamam havai ma´galam.

116
Keep your right hand down and now recite the following Sutra.

s¡m¡iya-vaya-jutt° s£tra
s¡m¡iya-vaya-jutt°, j¡va ma¸® h°i niyama-saµjutt°.
chinnai asuham kammam, sam¡iya jatti¡ v¡r¡.....................1.
s¡m¡iyammi u ka®, sama¸° iva s¡va° havai jamh¡.
®®¸a k¡ra¸®¸am, bahus° s¡m¡iyam kujj¡...........................2.
s¡m¡yika vidhi s® liy¡, vidhi s® p£r¸a kiy¡,
vidhi m®î, j° k°¢ avidhi hu¢ h°,
una sabak¡ mana-vacana-k¡y¡ s® micch¡ mi dukka·am.......3.
dasa mana k®, dasa vacana k®, b¡raha k¡y¡ k®--
ina batt¢sa d°À°î meî s® j° k°¢ d°Àa lag¡ h°,
una sabak¡ mana-vacana-k¡y¡ s® micch¡ mi dukka·am.......4.

Meaning:
As long as someone observes the vow of Sāmāyika, and maintains full control over his
mind, his bad karmas (sins) are eradicated. Moreover, whenever a person is under the
vow of Sāmāyika, he is just like a monk. Therefore, one should do Sāmāyika over and
over again.

I took the vow of this Sāmāyika according to the prescribed method and I shall terminate
the vow of Sāmāyika also in the prescribed method. I ask for your pardon, if I have
deviated from the prescribed method mentally, verbally, or physically.

If I have committed any of the 10 breaches of mental activity, 10 breaches of speech or


12 breaches of bodily actions, respectively through my mind, speech, or body, I
apologize for the same and ask for your pardon.

In the end, extend your right hand with right palm facing you and recite Navakār-
mantra.

nam° arihant¡¸am.
nam° siddh¡¸am.
nam° ¡yariy¡¸am.
nam° uvajjh¡y¡¸am.
nam° l°® savva-s¡h£¸am.
®s° paµcha-namukk¡r°, savva-p¡va-ppa¸¡sa¸°;
ma´gal¡¸am cha savv®sim, pa·hamam havai ma´galam.

117
This is the end of Pratikraman. Before completing this ritual, let us mention a few words
about Michchhā Mi Dukkadam. Michchhā means ‘Be undone.’ ‘Mi’ means mine, and
‘Dukkadam’ means ‘Evil action’. So, the phrase means: ‘Whatever wrong doings I might
have committed, they may be deemed as undone.’ The intention is to get rid of the
violence or unfriendliness towards any one and, to extend the sense of amity for all. Let
us now extend it to every one by reciting once again,












Meaning:
I forgive all living beings; let all living beings forgive me. I am on friendly terms with all.
I have no enmity towards anybody.

This is the message we convey to every one without any exception, with
utmost sincerity. That is the heart of Pratikraman and of Jainism.

118
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References

1. Pratikraman Sutra with Explanation. A Hindi text by Muni Shree Nirvān Sagar.
Published by Shree Arunoday Foundation, Koba, India

2. Shree Shrāddha-Pratikraman Sutra – Prabodha-tikā. A Gujarati text researched by


Panyās Shree Bhadrankar Vijayji Mahārāj and Muni Shree Kalyān Prabha Vijayji
Mahārāj and, compiled by Amritlal Doshi. Published by Jain Sāhitya Vikās
Mandal, Ville Parle, Mumbai, India

3. Jain Tattva Prakāsh. A Gujarati text compiled by Shree Dhirajlal D. Mehta.


Published by Jain Dharma Prasāran Trust, Surat, India

4. Pratikraman. An English text published by JAINA, 1992. Originally written by


Mahā Satiji Dharma-shilāji and Dr. Nilesh Vora and published by Shree
Sthānakvāsi Jain Shrāvak Sangha, Ghatkopar, Mumbai. Revised and re-written by
Mr. Narendra Sheth and Mrs. Sonal Sheth, San Diego, California, U.S.A.

5. Shree Pratikraman Sārth. A Gujarati text published by Shrimad Yasho-vijayji Jain


Sanskrit Pāthshālā and Shree Jain Shreyaskar Mandal, Mehsānā, India

6. English Pratikraman, by Shree Manubhai Doshi, Chicago

7. English Pratikraman, by Shree Harendra Shah, California

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