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KHAIRY SAYED1, AHMED M. KASSEM1, EMAD EL-ZOHRI2 and AMAL M. ABDEL-HAMED2

1

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering

2

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Education

Sohag University, Sohag, EGYBT

Phone: 01090213783

Emails: khairy_fathy@yahoo.ca, Kassem_Ahmed53@hotmail.com

Emad.elzohri@yahoo.com, el.hamed41@yahoo.com

Abstract: This paper gives the feasibility analysis of PV- A Solar photovoltaic (PV) have advantages of no

Battery system for an off-grid power station in Sohag city. moving parts and without generating any noise or

Hybrid PV-battery system is used for supplying a pollution. They must be mounted in an unshaded area.

combined pumping and residential load. A simple cost Rooftops, carports, and ground mounted arrays are

effective method for sizing stand-alone PV hybrid systems common mounting locations. The amount of energy

was introduced. The aim of sizing hybrid system is to produced by PV array depends on several factors,

determine the cost effective PV configuration and to meet including the type of collector, the tilt and azimuth of the

the estimated load at minimum cost. This requires collector, the temperature, the level of sunlight, and

assessing the climate conditions which determine the weather conditions [5]. A study was made perform

temporal variation of the insolation in Sohag city. Sizing simulations of hybrid (solar PV/wind) systems for street-

of the hybrid system components was investigated using lighting applications, in Greater Toronto Area, Canada [6].

RETscreen and HOMER programs. The sizing software A feasibility study of a solar and wind hybrid system is

tools require a set of data on energy resource demand and procedure for highway energy requirements, such as

system specifications. The energy cost values of the hybrid lighting, billboard …etc. [7].

system agrees reasonably with those published before. A residential size hybrid system powered by wind

and solar energy has been developed to supply a small

Key-words: Renewable energy source, energy cost, PV, building through net metering [8]. Since solar and wind

battery, HOMER, RETscreen. energy mainly depend upon statistical parameters with

regard to climate change and environment, focus on hybrid

generation system design increases the availability of the

1. Introduction power generation system. The hybrid system also reduces

The energy from sunlight reaching the earth is a huge the dependence on one environmental parameters thus,

potential that can be exploited and used for generating providing the consumer with reliable and cheap electricity.

electricity. Among several available technologies, solar Therefore optimal combination and sizing design of hybrid

photovoltaic (PV) is the most promising, PV technology generation system considering the battery have a very

converts sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity. important role in the use of renewable energy effectively

When light falls on the active surface of the solar cell, and economically. Several approaches were developed to

electrons become energized and a potential difference is achieve the optimal configurations of the hybrid systems

established, which drives a current through an external such as the least square method, the trade-off method and

load [1]. However, deeper spread of renewables in the the probabilistic approach method [9]. A hybrid energy

overall energy portfolio poses a new set of challenges. system consists of two or more energy systems, energy

Renewable energy sources are intermittent due to inherent storage system, power conditioning equipment, and a

variability in the source itself, the wind does not always controller [10].

blow, and sunlight is not always available [2]. A RETscreen uses a number of built in algorithms in

renewable energy resources become very popular and combination with user provided data, such as monthly

commonly used nowadays. As a result of using PV as a solar radiation values, temperature, and PV module

renewable energy resource, components of PV such as an specifications, to calculate expected energy production

inverter become widely used for this purpose [3]. The from the PV power plant [11]. RETscreen is a renewable

photovoltaic systems applications have developed rapidly energy decision support and capacity building tool to make

in many fields [4]. sizing of Renewable Energy source. This standardized and

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integrated renewable energy project analysis software Table 1 Electrical parameters of solar PV module

evaluates the energy production, life-cycle costs and GHG Rated Power 250 W

emission reductions for various types of RETs [12]. The Voltage at Maximum power (Vmp) 29.65V

Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables

Current at Maximum power ( Imp) 8.51A

(HOMER), is most widely used, freely available and user

friendly software. The software is suitable for carrying out Open circuit voltage ( Voc) 37.22V

quick prefeasibility, optimization and sensitivity analysis Short circuit current ( Isc) 8.51 A

in several possible system configurations [13]. Total number of cells in series (Ns) 36

This paper presents the feasibility analysis of PV- Total number of cells in parallel (Np) 1

battery system for an off-grid power station in Sohag city.

The power demand combined pumping and residential 2.2. Sizing of hybrid system components

load. The power demand is served by PV-Battery hybrid Sizing of the hybrid system is to meet the estimated

power system. Sizing of the hybrid system components is load at minimum cost. This calls at first for assessing the

to investigate the cost of producing energy for system. climate conditions which determine the temporal variation

of the insolation in Sohag city. The sizing of the hybrid

2. Economic Feasibility Study system is determined by using RETscreen and HOMER.

2.1. Proposed Hybrid PV/ Battery System Used introduces two concepts underlying the rest of this

The components of the proposed hybrid system paper the accuracy the methodologies used by HOMER

include solar PV panels, storage batteries, DC/DC and RETscreen in estimating PV energy output.

converter, inverter, etc. as shown in Fig. 1. Descriptions of HOMER and RETscreen in [14] and [15].

3. Meteorological resource

The purpose of the study is that the data for solar

DC-DC

load resource was obtained from the National Aeronautics and

PV converter

Solar panel Space Administration (NASA) Surface Meteorology and

Solar Energy web site [16]. The specific geographical

location Sohag city is at a location of 26 o.6 N latitude and

31o.7E longitude. Meteorological data base of RETscreen

software is used for simulation in HOMER software also.

On the basis of the project location and local

Battery

meteorological data, the scaled annual average value of

solar radiation is, pumping and residential load 100 KW,

Fig. 1 General block diagram of PV system 5 KW respectively the maximum power of the load is

105 KW. The scaled annual average value of monthly

The PV modules circuit parameters are given in Table 1. average daily total Global Solar Radiation (GSR) using

The electrical specifications are under test conditions of RETscreen is 6.08 KWh/m2/d, the highest values of GSR

irradiance of 1 kW/m2, spectrum of 1.5 air mass and cell are gained during the months of May to August with a

temperature of 25co. maximum of 8.13 KWh/m2/d, as can be seen from Fig. 2.

The monthly solar radiation in Sohag city using Homer is

shown in Fig. 3.

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8 1.0

Daily Radiation (kWh/m²/d)

0.8

6

Clearness Index

0.6

4

0.4

2

0.2

0 0.0

Jan Feb M ar Apr M ay Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

D aily R adiat ion C learnes s I ndex

4. Load Modeling

An estimate of the pumping load is of annual

average of 2,400 KWh/day. The average power

consumption throughout the operation period is almost

fixed and The daily curve of the pump load with a peak

of 100 KW load is give in Fig. 4 [17]. The daily load

curve of the residential load with a peak of 5 KW load is

give in Fig. 5 [18]

Fig. 4 Load Profile for pumping

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Operation cost of year of project = 2539$/yr.

eq (1) gives the factor of capital recovery, which is an

important factor in economic analysis and abbreviated as

CRF (capital recovery factor).

Fig. 6 Homer System Model

CRF= = (1)

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),

Where i is the interest rate and N is the project life

USA developed the software HOMER which helps to

time in years.

design off-grid and grid- connected systems. It provides a

Total cost = NPC + O&M Cost (2)

method for finding the least-cost system design on the

Total cost = 84171 + 24288= 108459$

Where; basis of a given load size, system components and data for

NPC is the minimum Net Present Cost, which includes PV energy sources. The optimization results it gets by Homer

cost, Battery cost and Inverter cost. System Modeling Fig. 6 and corresponding to the total

O&M Cost is the operation and maintenance cost. minimum cost is shown in Fig. 7.

Total annualized cost.

Cann = CRF(i,Rproj ) . C NPC (3)

= 0.0782 108459 = 8481.5 $

COE (Cost Of Energy) = Cann ,tot / E served (4)

= 8481.5 / (25 365 24) = 0.039$

HOMER calculates the discount factor fd using the

following equation:

fd = = = 0.23 (5)

where i Real Interest Rate, %. N: Number of years.

Global radiation should be in daily values in HG

kwh/m2/d if monthly values are available monthly average

values can used in order to calculate the daily average

value , using (eq. 6). The irradiation on the module surface

is. HG,t = (1.1 to 1.5 ) HG (6)

Where HG: Daily average global irradiation received by

the PV array surface (kwh/m2) [19].

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7.1. Results using of Homer

The models are simulated using Homer. The purpose Base case power system

Grid type Off-grid

of the simulations is to evaluate and compare the use of

Technology Grid electricity

PV and battery terms of efficiency and capital cost. The Fuel rate $/kWh 1.500

optimization results of the system are summarized as Capacity kW 100.00

shown in Fig. 7. The cost of the numbers of units which is Annual O&M cost $ 8,613

used during operating hours was specified. The Economic Electricity rate - base case $/kWh 1.837

inputs allow entering the interest rate, project lifetime, and Total electricity cost $ 46,938

other inputs that affected the system as a whole, rather

than a single component of the system. System costs Fig. 8 Base case power system

include the net present cost (life-cycle cost) and cost of

energy is based on the assumption that the project would Compared to base case power system, the

operate for 25 years. The annual real interest rate is 6%. proposed power system of the project uses PV, as

Furthermore, the annual capacity shortage penalty is not shown in Fig 9. The amount of electricity delivered

considered results optimized show the hybrid system of to load is 98%, to Data of PV of proposed system

25kW of PV panel, 40 batteries and 100kw power Fig. 10.

converter to be purchased as a suitable system and the Proposed case power system

Inverter

The optimization results show that the optimal PV battery Capacity kW 2.5 Peak load - annual - AC

Efficiency % 90%

hybrid has lowest net present cost (NPC) 84,171$ with Miscellaneous losses % 0%

Days of autonomy d 3.0

2,539$/yr as homer. Voltage V 24.0

Efficiency % 85%

Maximum depth of discharge % 60%

Charge controller efficiency % 95%

7.2. Results using of RETscreen Temperature control method Ambient

Average battery temperature derating % 1.4%

The base case of power system, which is an off-grid Capacity Ah 100 16,222

fuel rate is 1.5$/L and the total electricity cost is 46938$. Peak load power system

In general, it’s not easy for the typical clients to afford to

Technology Grid electricity

these high fees [20]. As shown in Fig. 8, with the used

Fuel rate $/kWh 1.500

renewable sources considered, all configurations

contributing to 100% renewable energy and reduced Charger efficiency % 95.0%

emission is an advantage because of no need for diesel Suggested capacity kW 50.0

generator. Capacity kW 100 200.0%

Electricity delivered to load MWh 25.0 98.0%

Fig. 9 Proposed case of Hybrid PV power system

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Photovoltaic

Type mono-Si Financial viability

Power capacity kW 0.25 0.5% Pre-tax IRR - equity % 31.4%

Manufacturer Lumin

Model mono-Si - LDK-250D-20 1 unit(s) Pre-tax IRR - assets % 12.5%

Efficiency % 15.3%

Nominal operating cell temperature °C 45

Temperature coefficient % / °C 0.40% After-tax IRR - equity % 31.4%

Solar collector area m² 1.6

Control method Maximum power point tracker After-tax IRR - assets % 12.5%

Miscellaneous losses % 0.0%

Capacity factor % 23.2%

Electricity delivered to load MWh 0.51 2.0% Equity payback yr 3.6

Annual life cycle savings $/yr 7,093

From the financial analysis, the total cost of

renewable energy is lower than that of non-renewable

Benefit-Cost (B-C) ratio 6.33

energy considerably. Even though the renewable system

Debt service coverage 2.13

invests much in the construction and equipment's

Energy production cost $/MWh

management and operation cost less relatively. A project

GHG reduction cost $/tCO2 No reduction

life is 25 years, the annual savings and income is

Fig. 12 Financial viability

46,938$/yr, the Net Present Value (NPV) is 82,655$, the

annual life cycle savings is 7,093$ while the Internal Rate The Net Present Value is found 82,655$. While the

of Return (IRR) is 31.4%. At the same time, the benefit- Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is found to be more than the

cost ratio (B-C) is 6.33 and the simple payback is 7.2 yr. discount rate which is 31.4%. The benefit to cost ratio (B-

In a word, as compared to other systems, its project C) is found equals to 6.33, Fig. 13 shows that pay back

payback peaks to the maximum, as shown in Fig 11. The duration becomes 3.6yr, which indicates feasible results

financial viability as shown in Fig. 12, and the cumulative compared to previous financial viability.

cash flows graph is shown in Fig. 13.

Cumulative cash flows graph

300,000

Project costs and savings/income summary

Initial costs

Feasibility study 9.7% $ 5,000

250,000

Development 1.9% $ 1,000

Engineering 48.4% $ 25,000

Power system 12.8% $ 6,591

Heating system 0.0% $ 0 200,000

Cooling system 0.0% $ 0

Cumulative cash flows ($)

User-defined 0.0% $ 0

Energy efficiency measures 0.0% $ 0 150,000

Balance of system & misc. 27.2% $ 14,054

Total initial costs 100.0% $ 51,645

100,000

Incentives and grants $ 70

O&M $ 210 50,000

Fuel cost - proposed case $ 39,540

Debt payments - 12 yrs $ 3,471

Total annual costs $ 43,221 0

User-defined - yrs $ 3,000

$ 0 -50,000

End of project life - credit $ -30,987

Fuel cost - base case $ 46,938 Fig. 13 Cumulative cash flows graph

Electricity export income $ 0

GHG reduction income - 5 yrs $ 0

Customer premium income (rebate) $ 0

Other income (cost) - yrs $ 0 In terms of risk analysis, the most critical factor is fuel

CE production income - yrs $ 0

Total annual savings and income $ 46,938

cost. However, the reduction of fossil fuel and the cost of

the system are able to lessen investment risk and

Fig. 11 Project costs and savings/income summary. sensitivity.

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softwares [1] Md. Alam Hossain Mondal and A.K.M. Sadrul

A comparison of two widely used softwares Islam,"Potential and viability of grid-connected solar

HOMER and RETscreen is shown in this section. PV system in Bangladesh", journal homepage:

HOMER and RETscreen have some similarities like www.elsevier.com/locate/rser, pp.1869-1874, 2010.

both take only global irradiation as input, and synthesize [2] Arnab Bhattacharya and Jeffrey P. Kharoufeh,

the diffuse irradiation internally. RETscreen uses "Optimal Microgrid Energy Storage Strategies in the

Microsoft Excel to perform analysis based upon Presence of Renewables", Industrial and Systems

statistical monthly averages with lots of meteorological Engineering Research Conference, 2014.

and geographical inbuilt information. RETscreen uses [3] M. H. Albadi, R. S. Al Abri, M. I. Masoud, K. H. Al

Evans electrical model with month averaged ambient Saidi, A. S. Al Busaidi, A. Al Lawati, K. Al

temperature and the PV panel material characteristics Ajmi,and I. Al Farsi,"Design of a 50 kW solar PV

data to calculate power output, whereas HOMER uses rooftop system", International Journal of Smart Grid

basic relation model. Main strength of RETscreen is the and Clean Energy, vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 402_409,

detailed economic analysis and strong database whereas October 2014.

HOMER is better suited for more advanced user and can [4] Socrates Kaplanis, Nikolaos Papanastasiou,and

handle a much denser simulation which makes HOMER Antonis Spiroianoulous, "A combined sizing and

one of the most widely used hybrid system optimization LCC analysis to obtain the most cost effective PV-

tool [13]. configuration", University of Patra, Greece, pp. 362-

370.

Table 2 Comparison between system components sizing [5] K. Burman, J. Keller, and B. Kroposki, "Renewable

by HOMER and RETscreen. Power Options for Electrical Generation on Kaua’i:

Economics and Performance Modeling", National

Homer‘s result RETscreen‘s result

Renewable Energy Laboratory (Technical Report),

Net present cost Net present value (NPV) is pp. v-38, November 2011.

(NPC) 84,171$ 82,655$ [6] S.E. Sadique, Ahad Ali, and D. Wang, "Virtual

Operating cost Annual savings and income Optimization of a Wireless, Solar PV/Wind Hybrid

2,539$/yr is 46,938$/yr System Controller for Street-Lighting Applications

Capital cost 51,720$ Total initial costs 51,645$ based on Environmental Conditions in Greater

Toronto Area", International Conference on

Industrial Engineering and Operations Management,

9. Conclusion pp. 2286-2295, 2012.

This paper aimed the feasibility analysis of PV/ [7] S. Taskin, B. Dursun and B. Alboyaci, "Performance

Battery system for an off-grid power station in Sohag Assessment of a Combined Solar and Wind System",

city. The project life time is taken as 25 years and the The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering,

Vol. 34, No. 1B, pp. 217-227, April 2009.

annual real interest rate as 6%. According to results [8] O. A. Soyal and H. S. Soyal, "A Residential Example

shown before, the hybrid system composed of 25kW of Hybrid Wind- Solar Energy System: WISE",

of PV panels, with 100kW power converter and 40 extracted from a work supported by the Maryland

batteries. Results show that the optimal PV battery Energy System Administration under contracts #

2007-02- B043J and # 2007-01-B0310.

hybrid has lowest net present cost (NPC) 84,171$ [9] Jong Hwan Lim, "Optimal Combination and Sizing

with cost of energy (COE) 0.151$/KWh and of a New and Renewable Hybrid Generation

operating cost 2,539$/yr. The use of the Homer and System", International Journal of Future Generation

Communication and Networking, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp.

RETscreen has been presented to evaluate the

43-60, June 2012.

economic value of the proposed technique. In [10] Satish Kumar Ramoji and B. Jagadish Kumar,

addition, the use of PV-battery hybrid system "Optimal Economical sizing of a PV-Wind Hybrid

economically suitable. Sizing of the hybrid system Energy System using Genetic Algorithm and

Teaching Learning Based Optimization",

agreed satisfactory with that obtained using the International Journal of Advanced Research in

RETscreen and HOMER. Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation

Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, pp. 7352-7367,

February 2014.

[11] Elizabeth S. Harder, "The Costs And Benefits of

Large Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Production In

AbuDhabi, UAE", A thesis submitted to the faculty

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pp. 1-51, 2010.

[12] S. Thompson, B. Duggirala, "The feasibility of

renewable energies at an off-grid community in

Canada", www.elsevier.com/locate/rser, pp. 2740-

2745, 2009.

[13] Sunanda Sinha, S.S. Chandel, "Review of software

tools for hybrid renewable energy systems",

www.elsevier.com/locate/rser, pp. 192-205, 2014.

[14] Version 2.81, available from NREL website,

www.nrel.gov/homer, last accessed July 2007.

[15] Version 4, available from Canada’s Natural

Resources website, www.retscreen.net, last accessed

July 2007.

[16] NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy:

Methodology, eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/, last

accessed October 2006 .

[17] H. S. Alganahi, K. S, M. A, A. M. Haidar & A.

Abdalla, "Experimental study of using renewable

energy in Yemen," Australian Journal of Basic and

Applied Sciences, vol. 3, (4) pp. 4170-4174, 2009.

[18] Mazen Abdel-Salam, Adel Ahmed, Hamdy Ziedan,

Khairy Sayed, Mahmoud Amery and Mohamed

Swify, "A Solar-Wind Hybrid Power System for

Irrigation in Toshka Area", IEEE Jordan Conference

on Applied Electrical Engineering and Computing

Technologies AEECT, pp:38-43, 2011.

[19] Mohamed Ibrahim, " straight forward technique for

sizing stand –alone PV hybrid systems" , 20th – EU-

PUSEC,Barcelna, spain, 6-10 Jun 2005.

[20] Liu Liqun and Liu Chunxia , "feasibility analyses of

hybrid wind –PV- battery power system in

dongwangsha, shanghai", Taiyuan University of

Science & Technology, przeglad elektotechniczny,

pp. 239-242, 2013.

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