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# Video 7.

1
Vijay Kumar

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 1

Control of Affine Systems

State

Input

State equations

Output

Lie Derivative

Function

Vector Field X

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 3

Lie Derivative
Lie derivative of f along X

Example: n=2

q m

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 4

Example: Controlling a Single Output
Output

Want

or

Lie Derivatives

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 5

Single Input, Single Output, First Order Dynamics

State equations

Output

Control law

## Closed loop system behavior Error exponentially

converges to zero

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 6

Input Output Linearization

v u y

nonlinear original
feedback system

new system

Nonlinear feedback transforms the original nonlinear system to a new linear system
Linearization is exact (distinct from linear approximations to nonlinear systems)

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 7

Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Control law

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 8

Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Control law

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 9

Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Control law

## Error exponentially converges to zero

Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 10
Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Output …

Relative degree, r The index of the first nonzero term in the sequence
r=k+1

11

Video 7.2
Vijay Kumar

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 12

Example 1. Single degree of freedom arm

m
r=2
Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 13
Affine, SISO
Linear control,
model independent
r=1
feed forward

feedback
r=2

r=3

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 14

Single degree of freedom arm

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 15

Input Output Linearization
Single Input, Single Output, Relative degree r

v u y

nonlinear original
feedback system

new system

Nonlinear feedback transforms the original nonlinear system to a new linear system

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 16

Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems

State x

Input u

Output

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 17

Fully-actuated robot arm
(n joints, n actuators)

Dynamic model
‣ M is the positive definite, n by n inertia matrix
‣ is the n-dimensional vector of Coriolis and centripetal
forces
‣ N is the n-dimensional vector of gravitational forces
‣ t is the n-dimensional vector of actuator forces and torques

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 18

Fully-actuated robot arm (continued)

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 19

Fully-actuated robot arm (continued)

Relative degree is 2

Control law

## Method of computed torque Inverse dynamics approach to

(Paul, 1972) control (Spong et al, 1972)
Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 20
Under Actuated Systems

## The number of inputs is smaller than the number

of degrees of freedom!

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 21

Kinematic planar cart
State equations, inputs
2 inputs, 3 degrees of
freedom

Outputs

Relative degree is 1

22

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 22

2 inputs, 3 degrees of
freedom

## Property of University of Pennsylvania, Vijay Kumar 23

4 inputs, 6 degrees of
F3
freedom
M3
F2
F4 w3 M2
M4
w2
F1
w4
M1

w1