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Video 7.

1
Vijay Kumar

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Control of Affine Systems

State

Input

State equations

Output

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Lie Derivative

Function

Vector Field X

Lie derivative of f along X

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Lie Derivative
Lie derivative of f along X

Example: n=2

q m

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Example: Controlling a Single Output
Output

Want

or

Need derivative of the output function

Lie Derivatives

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Single Input, Single Output, First Order Dynamics

State equations

Output

Rate of change of output

Control law

Closed loop system behavior Error exponentially


converges to zero

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Input Output Linearization

v u y

nonlinear original
feedback system

new system

Nonlinear feedback transforms the original nonlinear system to a new linear system
Linearization is exact (distinct from linear approximations to nonlinear systems)

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Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Output Rate of change of output

Control law

(rate of change of output is independent of u)

Explore higher order derivatives of output nonzero?

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Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Output Rate of change of output

Control law

(rate of change of output is independent of u)

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Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Output Rate of change of output

Control law

Closed loop system behavior

Error exponentially converges to zero


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Affine, Single Input Single Output
State x

Input u

State equations

Output …

Relative degree, r The index of the first nonzero term in the sequence
r=k+1

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Video 7.2
Vijay Kumar

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Example 1. Single degree of freedom arm

m
r=2
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Affine, SISO
Linear control,
model independent
r=1
feed forward

feedback
r=2

r=3

General form of control law

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Single degree of freedom arm

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Input Output Linearization
Single Input, Single Output, Relative degree r

v u y

nonlinear original
feedback system

new system

Nonlinear feedback transforms the original nonlinear system to a new linear system

Linearization is exact (distinct from linear approximations to nonlinear systems)

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Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems

State x

Input u

Output

Assume each output has relative degree r

Nonlinear feedback law

leads to the equivalent system

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Fully-actuated robot arm
(n joints, n actuators)

Dynamic model
‣ M is the positive definite, n by n inertia matrix
‣ is the n-dimensional vector of Coriolis and centripetal
forces
‣ N is the n-dimensional vector of gravitational forces
‣ t is the n-dimensional vector of actuator forces and torques

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Fully-actuated robot arm (continued)

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Fully-actuated robot arm (continued)

Relative degree is 2

Control law

Method of computed torque Inverse dynamics approach to


(Paul, 1972) control (Spong et al, 1972)
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Under Actuated Systems

The number of inputs is smaller than the number


of degrees of freedom!

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Kinematic planar cart
State equations, inputs
2 inputs, 3 degrees of
freedom

Outputs

Relative degree is 1

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Planar Quadrotor

2 inputs, 3 degrees of
freedom

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Three-Dimensional Quadrotor

4 inputs, 6 degrees of
F3
freedom
M3
F2
F4 w3 M2
M4
w2
F1
w4
M1

w1

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