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Index

Note: Page numbers followed by ‘b’, ‘f’ and ‘t’ refer to boxes, figures and tables, respectively.

A inflammatory, 841 842 Activation-induced cell death (AICD), 988


ABCD (ATP-binding cassette dependent) CCL21, up-regulation of, 850 851 Activator protein, 222 223, 1291
model, 69f, 1000, 1034 acpA transcriptional activator, 1805 Acyl carrier protein (ACP), 56
Abortion Acquired immune-deficiency syndrome. Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), 236
Borrelia coriaceae, 1896 See AIDS quorum signals, 239
bovine, 1896, 1946, 2034 2035 act gene, 1108 Acyltransferases, 58 59
Clostridium sordellii, 900 901 ActA protein, 1273, 1352 1354 Escherichia coli, 58 59
endometritis, fatal cases of, 171 Actin. See also F-actin Salmonella, 58
in vaginal tract, 171 β/γ-actin, 1005 AddAB family of proteins, 297 298
Coxiella burnetii, 1946 comet tails, 503, 1158 Adenine, 391
Listeria monocytogenes, 1272 cytoskeleton rearrangement, 1701 Adenosine monophosphate, cyclic (cAMP),
AbrB protein, 1804 cytoskeleton remodelling via cellular 1087, 1800
Abscess, metastatic, 980 proteins, 425f receptor protein, 1155, 1356, 1852 1853
Accessory gene regulator (Agr), 655, 666, 804 polymerization, 428, 503, 505, 1353 1354 Adenylate cyclase (AC)
Accessory genome, 338 tails in rickettsiae, 2048 activity, 974 975
AcetoacetylCoA, 209 Actin-based motility, 428, 503 505, 507 508 Bordetella pertussis, 1801
Acetobacter woodii, 204 205 Listeria monocytogenes, 1354 cAMP production by, 319f
N-Acetylaminosugar-1-P, 67 68 Rickettsia genus, 1347 haemolysin, 1511, 1513
Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), 112 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, 237t, oedema factor, 1800
N-Acetylglucosamine dimer, 1102 957 958 Adherence fimbriae, aggregative
O54-specific polysaccharide, homopolymer Actinobacteria, 373, 963 964, 1259 (AAF), 1142
of, 74 75 Actinomyces, 744 748 Adherence/adhesion
N-Acetyl-mannosamine (ManNAc), 74 75 carbohydrate metabolism, 744 alveolar type II cell, 740f
N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, 26 28, 114 classification, 744 Bartonella bacilliformis, 1922 1923
Bacillus subtilis, 20f cystic fibrosis, 882 Bartonella spp, 1921 1922
Streptococcus pneumoniae, 96 diseases, 747 blocking, 417 418
N-Acetylneuramin-lactose, 862 863 fimbriae, type 1 and 2, 747 748 Campylobacter jejuni, 431
acfA genes, 328 growth, 744 colonic mucosal cell, 172
acfD genes, 328 HPLC, CCM and SDS-PAGE analyses, 744 -dependent events, 414
Acid phosphatases, 76, 326, 733 734 occurrence, 744 epithelial, 1373 1374
Acid production, 950 951 oral species, 962 Escherichia coli, 1140
Acid-fast bacteria (AFB), 1639 pathogenicity mechanisms, 747 748 fimbriae, 1712
Acidic polysaccharides, 91, 1548 1549 urease expression in biofilms, 747 GAS to human epithelial cells, 681
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Actinomyces naeslundii, 97, 747 748 GBS pili, 1756
gnnA and gnnB genes, 56 Actinomyces odontolyticus, 747 748 Group B Streptococcus, 1757 1758
Acid-responsive regulation system (ArsRS), Actinomyces oris, 747 748 Helicobacter pylori, 1249
1243 Actinomyces viscosus, 97, 747 748 HEp-2 cells, 1142 1143
Acinetobacter baumannii, 606 Actinomycetales, 106 108, 113 to host cell surface receptors, 361
carbapenem-resistant, 602, 606 Actinomycetes influence of host factors, 1376t
colistin E, 587 588 aerobic, 736 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1548t, 1552
HACEK-group organisms, 1739 filamentous, 163 Listeria monocytogenes, 434
multidrug-resistant, 364 linear plasmids, 1283 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1566, 1573
OXA-51-like β-lactamase genes, 606 mycothiol production, 253 254, 253f Opa-dependent, 1479
OXA carbapenemases in, 607f teichoic acid in, 93 pertactin, 1512
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, 1368 1369 teichuronic acids and teichulosonic acids pneumococci, 1694
Acne in, 91 Proteus mirabilis, 1390 1392
anti-acne agents, 844 Whipple’s disease, 1259 specific microorganism, 640t
-derived Propionibacterium acnes, 841 842 Actinomycetoma, nocardially induced, 736 staphylococcal, 799
genomes, comparison, 848f Actinomycin D, 990 urinary tract infection, 1390 1391
immune response, in skin, 849 851 Actinomycosis, 747 Yersinia enterocolitica, 1330

2097
2098 Index

Adherence-associated lipoproteins (AlpA), invasins, 1106 Aeromonas species, 1107


1249 lipases, 1105 Aeromonas tecta, 1100
Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), miscellaneous infections, 1108 Aeromonas trota, 1100
1127, 1133 1135 morphology and structure, 1100 1103 detection, 1108
Adhesins, 409, 411, 813, 1922 1923 flagella, 1100 1101 Aeromonas veronii, 1100
Bordetella, 1510 1512, 1515 pathogenesis, 1104 1106 blood-borne infections, 1107
Bordetella pertussis, 1510 pili of, 1101 1102, 1101t haemorrhagic septicaemia, 1108
Campylobacter jejuni, 1195, 1195f, 1197 proteases, 1105 Aeromonas veronii strain B565, genome
Candida albicans, 817 818 secretion systems, 1106 sequence of, 1104
capsular polysaccharide/adhesin (PS/A), 798 siderophores, 1106 AgaVWEF cluster, 1323
Enterococcus faecalis, 815 superoxide dismutase, 1106 Agglutination, 9 10, 1521, 1785, 1980
Escherichia coli, 1391 surface polysaccharides, 1102 1103 Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, 75,
fimbrial, 1712 1713 capsule, 1102 237t, 965, 1203 1204
GAS, 684 lipopolysaccharides, 1102 Aggregation substance (AS), 721
Haemophilus influenzae, 1714 1715 Omps, 1103 Agr systems, 666, 981 982
Hap, 1714 1715 S-layer, 1103 Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 307, 357, 1244
Helicobacter pylori, 842 843, 1247 1249 surface α-glucan, 1103 AH26 pilin, 1101 1102
Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1552 1553 treatment and prevention, 1108 1109 AIDS
as lectins, 411 412 wound and soft tissue infections, 1107 cell-mediated immunodeficiency, 651
Neisserial, 438, 1477t Aeromonas allosaccharophila, 1100 disseminated cryptococcal disease in, 652f
Neisseria meningitidis, 1738 Aeromonas aquariorum, 1100, 1104 drug design for treatment, 611
non-fimbrial, 1330, 1573 1575, 1713 Aeromonas australiensis, 1100 enteroaggregative E. coli, 1142
polysaccharide intercellular, 799, 804 805 Aeromonas bestiarum, 1100 hepatotoxicity, 651 652
prediction, 361 Aeromonas bivalvium, 1100 respiratory tract, colonization of, 1141
Proteus mirabilis, 1390 Aeromonas cavernicola, 1100 sporadic diarrhoea, 1142
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 753 754 Aeromonas caviae, 1100 treatment, 611
and receptors, 409 411 Ae398 genome, 1103 1104 tuberculosis, 1639 1640
relationships between, 1198 biochemical characteristics, 1101t AirS gene, 415
Staphylococcus aureus, 97 detection, 1108 D-Ala residue, 105 106, 113
Streptococcus mutans, 948 Aeromonas diversa, 1100 L-Ala-D-iGlu-meso-A2pm, 117
ureaplasmas, 1594 1595 Aeromonas encheleia, 1100 D-Alanine, 93, 585 586
Yersinia enterocolitica, 1331 Aeromonas fluvialis, 1100 Alanine racemase, 584, 2069
Adhesion molecules, intracellular (ICAMs), Aeromonas hydrophila, 439, 1099 1100 D-Alanyl-D-alanine region, 585, 586f
639 640 biochemical characteristics, 1101t Albert’s protein, 589
Adhesion-associated protein (AAP), 800 cholera-toxin-like heat-labile enterotoxins, 975 Alcaligin, 1517
ADP-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose, 63 cytotoxin, 1117 1118 Alditol phosphate, 91 92
ADP-ribosylating toxins, 1005, 1007 detection, 1108 Alginate biosynthesis, 242, 757f
ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity, 482, DNase of, 1105 1106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 757
756, 1295 with eukaryotic cell surfaces, 439 regulation, 757f
microbial toxins, 482, 756, 1295 JMP636, 1106 Alkaline peptone water (APW), 1108, 1112
Adult respiratory distress syndrome, 2024 taxonomy, 1099 Alkaline phosphatase, 215, 1914, 2083 2084
aerA gene, 1108 Aeromonas ichthiosmia, 1100 Alkaline protease (AP), 755, 1556
Aerobactin, 1153, 1172 Aeromonas infection, 1108 Alkyl hydroperoxide reductases (AhpCF), 259
Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1553 Aeromonas jandaei, 1100 Alleles
Aerolysin, 1105 biochemical characteristics, 1101t babA, 1249 1250
Aeromonas hydrophila, 1002 1003 detection, 1108 cBD103, 546
structure, 1003f Aeromonas media, 1100 ctxB, 1080 1081
Aeromonas biochemical characteristics, 1101t E. coli strains, 413
amylases, 1106 Aeromonas molluscorum, 1100 FimH, 413 414
biochemical characteristics, 1100, 1101t Aeromonas motile strains, 1100 iceA1, 1247
blood-borne infections, 1107 1108 Aeromonas piscicola, 1100 macro-MLST model, 343
chitinases, 1106 Aeromonas popoffii, 1100 modH genes, 1242
classification, 1099 1100 Aeromonas rivuli, 1100 multilocus sequence typing schemes, 776, 2064
clinical features, 1107 1108 Aeromonas salmonicida, 1100 MurM, 113
cytotonic enterotoxin, 1104 analysis, 1106 ptxA, 1522
cytotoxic enterotoxin, 1104 flagellin genes, 1101 SNP marker loci, 1814
deoxyribonucleases, 1105 1106 psychrophilic group, 1099 SpeA, 697
diagnosis, 1108 type III secretion systems (T3SS), 1106 Allylamines, antifungal activity, 587
epidemiology, 1106 1107 Aeromonas sanarellii, 1100 α-amylase superfamily, 948 949
gastrointestinal tract infections, 1107 Aeromonas schubertii, 1100 Alpha-C-protein (ACP), 1760
genomes, 1103 1104 detection, 1108 Alpha-like protein family (Alp), 1760
haemolysin, 1105 Aeromonas sharmana, 1100 α-toxin, 483 484, 667, 902 903, 905.
history, 1099 Aeromonas simiae, 1100 See also Clostridium perfringens
human illness, 1101t Aeromonas sobria, 1100, 1116 production regulation, 904 905
Index 2099

alt gene, 1108 community-acquired pneumonia, 882 Anti-adhesive sugars, 418


Alveolar macrophages, 1802, 1803f cystic fibrosis (CF), 882 Antibacterial agents
Bordetella pertussis, 1513 diabetic foot infections, 886 887 biochemical target, choice and validation
Legionella, 1615 fluoroquinolones, 891 of, 614 617
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1700 genital tract, 885 886 antibacterial spectrum, 615
Nocardia, 739 bacterial vaginosis, 885 essentiality, 614
Ambient-temperature fimbriae (ATF), 1391 postpartum endomyometritis, 885 886 genomics, 614
Amblyomma americanum, 2017f, 2018 2019 glycylcyclines, 891 periplasmic and cytoplasmic biochemical
Amidases, 114 head and neck space infection, 880 target sites, 616 617
Amikacin, 1108 1109, 1219 hospital acquired pneumonia, 882 selective toxicity, 614 615
nocardiosis, 738 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 883 884 taxonomic subgrouping, 615
Aminoacyl-tRNA, 588, 595 596 intra-abdominal infections, 882 887 case studies, 619 623
P-Aminobenzoic acid, 838 839, 1658 in intensive care unit, 883 clinical candidate drug, 622 623
L-4-Amino-deoxy arabinose (L-Ara4N), 64 macrolides, 892 DNA gyrase, 619 623, 621f
Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs), microbiome analysis, 875 877 fragment-based approach, 620
1219 penicillins, 891 in vivo efficacy, 621 622
Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs), periodontal infections, 879 880 topoisomerase IV inhibiting drugs, 620
759 pleural infections, 881 882 chemical design approaches, 618 619
Aminoglycosides, 545, 595, 616 pleuropulmonary infections, 881 natural products and chemical libraries, 618
Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109 prevalence of anaerobic bacteria, 879b structure-based design, 618 619
Campylobacter resistance, 1219 relative abundance, 878f design, 611 613
enterococcal resistance, 723 resistance mechanisms, 888 889 drug profile
Neisseria meningitidis, 1730 skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 886 design, 613 614
target cell cytosol access, 595 specimen collection and transport, 888 types, 613
Aminoguanidine, 2052 susceptibility testing, 888 lead compound, 613
Amonabactin, 1106 tetracyclines, 891 ‘make-test’ cycle, 612f
Amoxicillin, 2085t treatment, 889 892 pharmacokinetics and bioavailability,
clavulanate, 891 carbapenems, 890 891 617 618
Moraxella catarrhalis, 1568 chloramphenicol, 891 oral bioavailability, 617 618
Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, 738 nitroimidazoles, 890 solubility, distribution, and free
ampC gene expression, 759f types, 877 879 concentrations of compounds, 617
Ampicillin, 2085t UniFrac measurements, 879f Antibacterial spectrum, 615
Aeromonas infections, 1108 virulence factors, 887 888, 887t Antibiotic meropenem cells, 8f
β-lactamases, 604 605 wound infections Antibiotic resistance, 567
Enterococcus faecium, 722 723 acute, 887 Acinetobacter baumannii, 607f
Escherichia coli, 586 diabetic chronic, 886 acquisition of resistance genes, 602 603
Haemophilus ducreyi, 1443 Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 281, 2033, 2036, animal bacteria, 606 608
Propionibacterium acnes, 844 2038 β-lactamase genes, changes in, 604 605
Salmonella typhi, 601 anaplasmataceae phylogenetic tree, 2034f carbapenem resistance, 605 606
typhoid fever control, 1298 1299 colonization of tick vector, 2038 molecular epidemiology
Vibrio cholerae, 1091 epidemiology, 2033 2034 definitions, 599
Ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), 1108 extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) genotyping, 600 601
Ampicillin-sulbactam, 891 pathway, 2037 multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica,
Amplified fragment length polymorphism HGA clinical features, diagnosis and 601f
(AFLP), 387, 518, 523, 1618 treatment, 2034 2035 mutations, 599
Amputation, 899, 1107, 1442, 1734 HGA immunology and immunobiology, plasmid/bacterium, 599 602
Amylases, 1106 2038 2039 Propionibacterium acnes isolates, 844
Anaerobic bacteraemia, 880 history and phylogenetics, 2033 resistance genes, origins of, 603 604
Anaerobic bacteria, 875, 879b infection, 2035f Streptococcus pneumoniae, 602
Bacteroides spp., 934 microbial colonization, 2035 2038 van resistance genes, 604f
in chronic inflammatory disorders, 934 pathogenesis, 2035 2038 Antibiotic/antimicrobial agents, 181, 935 938.
resistance mechanisms, 888 889 Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, 61 See also specific antibiotics
susceptibility testing, 888 Anionic polymer synthesis, 99 100 Bartonelloses and associated syndromes,
for treatment of infections, 889 892 Annealing temperatures, 387 388, 523 treatment of, 1928t
Anaerobic infections, 875 877 Anthrax, 169 170, 1043, 1820 beta-lactams, 936 937
appendiceal infections, 883 animal models for, 1817 1821 fidaxomicin, 353
bacteraemia, 880 Bacillus anthracis, 169t, 1813 fluoroquinolones, 938
bite wounds, 886 cutaneous, 169 macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin
brain abscess, 880 gastrointestinal, 169 (MLS), 937
cancer, 884 885 inhalational, 169 170 metronidazole, 935 936
cephalosporins, 891 receptors, 1802 rifampicin, 938
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ‘Anthrax-like’ pneumonic disease, 1791 tetracycline, 937 938
(COPD), 882 Anthroponosis, 1237 Antibiotic/antimicrobial therapy, 1670
clindamycin, 891 Anthrose, 1812, 1819 1820 Aeromonas spp., 1108
2100 Index

Antibiotic/antimicrobial therapy (Continued) Anti-inflammatory mediators, 409 Antiporters, 1155, 1792, 1858
Bacillus anthracis, 167 Anti-LcrV, 1855f, 1861 Anti-Pseudomonas approaches, 764 765
bacteriophages as antibiotics, 577t Antimicrobial peptide (AMP), 475, 539, 825 targeting virulence, 764
Campylobacter species, 1213 Haemophilus ducreyi, 1441 vaccines and immunotherapy, 764 765
Chlamydia/Chlamydophila species, 105 Helicobacter pylori, 67 Anti-sense RNA, 614
Chlamydophila pneumoniae, 583 innate immune, 1396 Anti-Yops, 1860 1861
Clostridium difficile, 171 172 neutralization, 665 aph_1235 gene, 281
Clostridium perfringens, 172 Paneth cells, 1314 Apoptosis, 1378, 2020. See also Cell death
Clostridium tetani, 170 Propionibacterium acnes, 850 adenylate cyclase-haemolysin in
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, skin and mucosa, 825 macrophages, 1513
1629 1630 vitamin-D-dependent, 1663 Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 2037
Enterococcus species, 108 109 Antimicrobial phages Bordetella pertussis, 1513
Escherichia coli, 572 573 advantages and disadvantages, 576 578, caspase-dependent, 554 555
Haemophilus influenzae, 43 577t Chlamydia, 505 506, 1457
Helicobacter pylori, 1248 antibiotic resistance, 572 573 Chlamydia trachomatis, 1457
Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1554 bacterial host, sensitivity of, 572 FliY mutant, 1978
Legionella pneumophila, 1619 bacteriophages Hela cells, 1001
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 337 lytic/lysogenic life cycles, 572, 572f Leptospira interrogans, 1983 1984
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1480 morphology, 571f lymphocyte, 2073
NTM infection, 1673 production, 576t macrophages, 239 240
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 30f, 1555 renaissance, 572 573 monocyte-macrophage, 989
Salmonella gallinarum, 567 as scientific tool, 571 572 neutrophil, 239 240, 1755
Salmonella Typhi, 1298 tailed, 571f Orientia spp., 2073
Shigella spp., 337 therapeutics use, 575t polymorphonuclear, 463
Staphylococcus aureus, 250, 382, 401 402 Belgian army, 574 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 554 555, 756
Streptococcus pneumoniae, 337 biocontrol, 574 Rickettsia rickettsii infection, 2049
Vibrio cholerae, 1081, 1090 1091 candidate phages, selective screening of, 579 Shiga toxins-triggered, 483
Antibodies, 990 991 clinical trials, 574 575 SPN-mediated, 694
adherence/adhesion, 1599 1600 discovery, 567 superficial epithelial cells, 1378
against PcrV, 764 early uses, 568 569 TpeL-induced, 1001
against pili, 630 631 early work, 569 570 VacA-induced, 1243 1244
anticapsular, 45, 1177 1178, 1537 genomic size, 579 Arabinogalactan, 116, 587
Coxiella burnetti, 1960 Nestlé, 573 574 Arachidonic acid, 1760
direct fluorescent (DFA), 1616 1617 phage genomics, 578 579 cascade activation, 483 484
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 863 864 phage therapy suitability, 575 576 metabolites, 1696 1697
GQ1b, 1212 protein coding potential, 579 signalling lipids from, 464 465
monoclonal, 213, 841 842, 1138, 1812 re-annotation problem, 579 Arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), 523, 866
natural, 475 regulatory authorities, 574 575 Arc (aerobic respiratory control), 224
polyclonal, 213, 1138 regulatory position, 578 ArcA regulator, 224 225
in Q fever, 1960 return to origins, 580 ArcB-ArcA system, 224 225
Antifungal polyenes, 587 Southwest regional wound care center, 574 ArdA protein, 925
Antigenic variation, 280t work in the east, 570 Arg-177, ADP-ribosylation of, 1007 1008
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 2036 in West, 570 571 Arginine decarboxylase, 1155
Borrelia genus, 477 Antimicrobial resistance, 394 Arginine-288, 75 76
Borrelia turicatae, 1886, 1891 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1567 1568 ArnT proteins, 64 65
LKP fimbriae exhibit, 1713 mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas, 1601 1603 Artemis comparison tool (ACT), 579, 924
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1473 1474 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1535 1536 Arthritis
Neisseria pilin, 1573 urinary tract infections, 1381 1382 adjacent joint, 862
O-antigen, 1089 Antimicrobial susceptibility Chlamydia-induced, 1411
Orientia tsutsugamushi, 2063 Neisseria meningitidis, 1730 Lyme arthritis, 1890, 1895
PorA and FetA sequencing methods, 527 528 Orientia, 2084 2086 primary pyogenic, 1734
VlsE antigenic variation system, 1890 1891 rapidly growing mycobacteria, 1680 rheumatoid, 469, 986
Antigens Antimicrobial therapy, 158, 1335 Yersinia enterocolitica, 1271
colonization factor antigen (CFA), 155 Bartonella, 1927 1928 Arthropod vectors, 2002
conventional, 987 988 Borrelia burgdorferi, 1895 Arylamidases, 1100
detection, 1505, 1648 1649 brucellae, 1786 ‘As Yet Uncultured’ (AYU) bacteria,
group B streptococci, 1693 1694 gas infection, 694 191 192
Mycobacterium leprae, 1664 Legionella, 1618 1619 Asparagine, 112 113, 2045
processing cells, 550 Mycobacterium leprae, 1658 N-linked glycosylation, 1206 1207, 1714
protective, 1799 1800 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1649 1650 Aspergillus flavus, 402
Salmonella Typhi, 1302 Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1481 Aspergillus fumigatus, 402
Staphylococcus aureus, 985 Rickettsia, 2053 Aspergillus niger, 402
staphylococcus toxins, 305 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 116 Aspergillus sydowi, 402
variation, 1891 Vibrio vulnificus, 1178 Aspergillus versicolor, 402
Index 2101

Associated non-toxic proteins (ANTP), 1018, Shigella, 1150 routine microbiological, 1806
1020 1021 syphilis treatment, 1428 similarities and differences, 1805 1806
Asthma Aztreonam, 1108 1109 strain and subspecies differentiation,
Bacillus subtilis, 169t 1809 1810
Moraxella catarrhalis, 1567
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1591
B intoxication of phagocytes by germinating,
1803f
B cell, 45, 1441
Astrakhan strain, of Rickettsia conorii, 2055 ion, 1797
adaptive immune function, 466 467
Atopic dermatitis (AD), 825, 981, 985 mature endospores, 165f
BCR-independent mechanism, 463
ATP synthesis, energy-utilizing reactions, medical and public health importance,
Campylobacter jejuni infection, 1220 1221
201 202 1790 1792
Hemophilus ducreyi invading human
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, outgrowth, 1798
foreskin fibroblasts, 1313
38 40, 72 73, 754, 1531 oxidative stress resistance mechanisms,
in human, 450
comC gene, 1531 258 259
humoral and cellular immune responses,
-dependent polymerization, 41 42 partial rehydration, 1797
1441, 1890
iron acquisition, 677 resistance properties, 1794 1795
IL-6, 458 460
OAg biosynthesis pathway, 72 similarities and differences, 1789 1790
innate-like, 1480
ATP-binding cassette dependent (ABCD) spore germination, 1795 1796, 1796t
mice deficient in, 2024
model, 69f, 1000, 1034 spore probiotics, 168
pathogen-specific, 1313
Attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion, 1130 spore structures, 1794 1795, 1794f
rheumatoid arthritis, 463
Attachment. See also Adherence/adhesion sporulation, 1792
severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)
bacterial capsules, 42 43 stages I-VII, 1793 1794
mice, 2023
Bordetella pertussis, 1511 strain and subspecies differentiation,
babA gene, 1249 1250
Borrelia burgdorferi, 1889 1890 1809 1810
BabA2 outer membrane protein, 1249 1250
Campylobacter concisus, 1196 taxonomy, 1789 1790
Bacillary angiomatosis (BA), 1911 1913
Campylobacter jejuni, 1195, 1201 1202 vaccines, 1814 1817
Bacilli genomes, 1789 1790
Chlamydia trachomatis, 1455 virulence factors, 1798 1805
Bacilliredoxins (Brx), 258
covalent, 116 anthrax toxins, 1799, 1802
Bacillithiol (BSH), 255 256
GAS, 683 684 capsule formation, 1798 1799
biosynthesis, 256f
Mycoplasma hominis, 1594 genetics, 1802 1804
functions, 255 258
Orientia, 2070 2071 lethal factor, 1801 1802
Bacillolysin, 1063
Plesiomonas shigelloides, 1118 lethal toxin, 1799 1800
Bacillus
Treponema pallidum, 1427 oedema factor, 1800 1801
anthrax, animal models for, 1817 1821
attP sequence, 291 oedema toxin, 1799 1800
animal toxin challenge models,
attRS1, 328 protective antigen, 1799 1800
1820 1821
atxA gene transcriptional activator, 1803 1804 quorum sensing, 1805
guinea pigs, 1818 1819
Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) toxin production, timing of, 1802
mice, 1817 1818
strains, 1138, 1140 virulence genes, regulators of, 1804 1805
non-human primates (NHPs), 1819 1820
Auto-immune disorders Bacillus anthracis. See also Anthrax
rabbits, 1819
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis Ames ancestor, 364
applications, 1790t
(EAE), 986 Ames strain, 1812
B. anthracis pathogenesis, 1791 1792
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 986 anthrax toxin, 1791
commitment, 1792 1793
mice stimulated with SEB, 986 antigens, 1791
cortex hydrolysis, 1797 1798
pattern recognition receptors (PRR), anthrolysin O (ALO), 1059
cultivation, 1015
467 468 antibiotic/antimicrobial therapy, 167
diagnosis, 1805 1814
Autoinducers, 764, 926 927, 1084 avirulent strains, 1806
differentiation of species, 1806 1809
Autoinducing peptides (AIPs), 236, 666 bacterial pathogens, 1424
in disease, 1790 1791
Autolysins BshB paralogues BA1557 and BA3888, 256
DPA release, 1797
Atl/AtlE, 668 capsule, 34t, 1798 1799
germinant receptors and nutrient target,
Bacillus licheniformis, 96 expression, 1798
1797t
cell wall, 96, 586 587 genes for expression, 1798
germination initiation, 1796 1797
Staphylococcus aureus, 96 production, 1798
identification and diagnosis, 1805 1814
Zn21 endopeptidases, 668 vaccines, 1798 1799
B. anthracis, detection of, 1810 1813
Autonomously replicating plasmid, 328, collagens, 1812
bacteriophage-based probes, 1813
1954 1955 detection, 1810 1813
biochemical tests, 1806
Autophagy sensitivity, 1810 1813
biosensor detection technologies, 1813
Chlamydia trachomatis, 1457 DPA antibody, 1814
differentiation, 1806 1809
evasion, 502 503 endospore-borne diseases, 169 170
hybrid/combination recognition systems,
inflammatory bowel disease, 468 genome sequencing, 1789 1790
1814
L. monocytogenes, 1354 germinant receptors, 1797t
molecular and immunological-based
Avoparcin, 606, 725 hydrolytic exotoxins, 482
detection techniques, 1806
Azalide antibiotics, 596 identification, 1805 1814
physical and chemical detection,
Azithromycin, 1150, 1300, 1407, 1409, 2085t immunoassays, 1811
1813 1814
anaerobic infections, 892 lethal factor, 1801 1802
presumptive and confirmatory
Orientia, 2084 protein sequence, 1801
differentiation, 1807t, 1808b
2102 Index

Bacillus anthracis (Continued) food poisoning, 169t, 1041, 1049 1050 mature endospores, 165f
Npr599, 1063 antibiotic treatment, 1052 TU-deficient cell walls, 96
nucleic-acid, 168 diarrhoeal, 1050 1051 Bacillus megaterium
oedema factor, 1800 1801 emetic, 1051 1054 applications, 1790t
pathogenesis, 1791 1792 non-emetic, 1051 1054 coenzyme A (CoASH), 253 254
PerR-controlled, 258 259 foods, 1049 1050 diacylglycerol, 94
phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase genetic flow, 1043f presumptive and confirmatory
C, 1805 genomics and other integrative biology differentiation, 1807t
phylogenetic analysis, 1053 studies, 1044 1046 SleL in, 1798
poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA), 34 36 haemolysin BL family, 1056 1059 Bacillus mycoides, 1041, 1789 1790
biosynthesis, 39 40 haemolysins, 1059 1061 DNA homology assessment, 1806 1809
presumptive and confirmatory heat-resistance, 1049 mycelial colonies, 1047
differentiation, 1807t H serotypes, 1054 psychrotrophic, 1042 1043
protective antigen, 1799 1800 identification, 1046 1049 rhizoidal phenotype, 1047 1048
antibodies, 1800 immunochemical assays, 1051 Bacillus pseudofirmus firmus, 204
binding, 1799 1800 infection type, 1053t Bacillus pseudomycoides, 1042, 1048 1049,
pXO1 plasmid, 1802 1803 isolation, 1046 1049 1789 1790
pXO2 plasmid, 1802 1803 meningeal infection, 1054 Bacillus punctatus, 1099
S-layer, 1803 1804 MLST data-based phylogeny, 1048f Bacillus sphaericus, 163
spores, 1816 motility, 1055 Bacillus subtilis, 18, 19f, 24f, 95, 99, 105, 114,
antigens, 1816 necrosis and haemorrhage, 1062 163, 168, 183, 315, 1884
Sterne strain of, 1805 neutropenic leukaemia, 1053 N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase, 20f, 96
strains, 1802 1803 next-generation sequencing (NGS) carboxy-terminal domain, 1953
toxin technologies, 1041 CatR, 262 263
antigens, 1808 non-gastrointestinal, 1052 1054 glycerol teichoic acid, 91 92, 99
expression, 1805 non-haemolytic (NHE) enterotoxin, 1056 HxlR, 262 263
structural genes, 1803 1804 pathogenesis, 1050 1054 HypR, 262 263
vaccines, 1814 1817 pathogenicity islands, 1059 LytR, 39
immune response, 1818 1819 phospholipases, 1061 1062 MarR/DUF24-family regulators as sensors,
virulence, 1798 1805 phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, 262 265
genetics, 1802 1804 1062 MarR/OhrR-type regulators, 260 262
virulence factors, 1798 1805 phospholipase C (PC-PLC), 1061 1062 MraY, 68
VNTR screen, 1809 sphingomyelinase, 1062 O2 and NAD1/NADH, redox-sensors for,
Bacillus azotoformans, 217 218 virulence, 1062 267 269
Bacillus cereus, 164, 1041, 1056 plcR pleiotropic regulator, 1063 1065 peptidoglycan hydrolases, 114
antibiotic treatment, 1052 proteases, 1062 1063 quinone-sensing MhqR, 264f
bacillolysin, 1063 publicly available genomic sequences, reactive chlorine species (RCS), 260 269
β-lactam antibiotics, 1054 distribution of, 1042f PerR regulon genes, 260
β-lactamase, 1054 serotyping, 1049 reactive electrophile species (RES),
chromogenic, 1046 1047 sphingomyelin, 1061 260 269
collagenases, 1056 strains, 1042 reactive oxygen species (ROS), 260 269
colony morphology, 1046 1047 taxonomy, 1042 1044 sporulation mechanism, 166f
control and infection treatment, 1054 toxins, 1056 1059 Spx thiol-redox sensor
CwpFM, 1063 treatment of infections, 1054 for disulphide stress, 265 266
cytotoxin K, 1060 1061 vegetative insecticidal protein (VIP), 1048 WTA and LTA, alanylation of, 96
diarrhoeal enterotoxin, 1055 virulence factors, 1054 1063 YodB protein, 262 263
diarrhoeal food poisoning, 1050 1051 adaptation, pleiotropic regulation of, Bacillus thuringiensis, 163 164, 972t, 1041,
cell culture assays, 1050 1051 1063 1065 1047, 1049, 1790t
commercial immunochemical distribution, 1054 1055 clinical isolates, 1806 1809
assays, 1051 emetic toxin, 1054 1056 detection, 1810
epidemiology, 1050 organisation on chromosome, 1045 DNA homology assessment, 1806 1809
in vivo assays for diarrheal activity, 1050 tripartite toxins, haemolysin BL family of, endospores, 163 164, 168
emetic food poisoning, 1051 1054 1056 1059 gene expression, 1805
assays for, 1051 1052 whole genomic sequence, 1055 homology, 1806 1809
endophthalmitis, 1052 Bacillus coagulans, 94, 1790t immunoassays, 168
epidemiology, 1051 as probiotic, 168 medical and public health importance,
non-gastrointestinal/nonocular infections, Bacillus cytotoxicus, 1041 1042, 1044 1045, 1790 1792
1052 1054 1049, 1056, 1061 parasporin-2 (PS), 1002 1003
endophthalmitis, 1052 Bacillus licheniformis, 91, 258 259 plcR gene, 1064
endospores, 165 applications, 1790t quorum sensing, 1805
borne diseases, 167f catalase KatA, 258 259 strain and subspecies differentiation,
environment, 1049 1050 endospore probiotics, 168 1809 1810
flagella, 1049 food-borne illness, 1791 taxonomy, 1042
FM-1 enterotoxin, 1063 magnesium-dependent enzymes in, 95 toxin crystals, 1790
Index 2103

Bacillus weihenstephanensis, 1041 E. coli, 295f pyruvate metabolism and TCA cycle, 222f
genetic organization and homology, 1056 Hfr-mediated, 297f redox and catalytic centres in cytochrome
identification, 1049 by plasmids, 295 296 oxidases, 215f
taxonomy, 1042 1044 transcriptional activators, 1091 scope, 201
Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus Bacterial DNA, 320 321, 593 Staphylococcus aureus, 230 231
cluster, 655 detection, 2025, 2051 starch utilization, 210
Bacitracin, 112 metagenomic sequencing, 877 two-component systems (TCS), 223f
blood agar plates, sensitive colonies, 676 topology, 320f xylan utilization, 210
ointment, 830 Bacterial energy metabolism, 201 Bacterial fatty-acid-based signalling molecules,
Staphylococcus spp., 980 aerobic/anaerobic metabolism, 220 227 239
Bacteraemia, 640, 1347, 1914 ArcB-ArcA, two-component system, Bacterial gene annotation, 358 360
anaerobic, 880 224 225 Bacterial genomes, 279, 306, 338, 357, 523,
in bloodstream, 642 Fnr-one-component system, 225 572, 630, 681
definition, 644t NarX-NarL two-component system, pan-genome analysis, 360 361
disseminated infection, 642 645 223 224 sequencing methods, 358
enterococcal cases, 720 regulators, 225 submission to GenBank, 360
Enterococcus faecium, 717 regulatory networks, 225 227 Bacterial germination, 26 28
in immunodeficient/immunosuppressed regulatory systems in bacteria, 222 223 Bacterial glycoconjugates, as adhesins,
individuals, 1670 1671 requirement for, 220 222 413 418
molecular diagnosis, 1741 aerobic respiration, 211 216 Bacterial growth, 181 184
polymicrobial, 392 chains, 212f ‘as yet uncultured (AYU)’ bacteria,
and sepsis, 353 respiratory chains, 211 213 191 192
Staphylococcus aureus, 382 anaerobic respiration, 216 220 culturability and viability, 190 195, 191t
Bacteria. See specific bacteria denitrification, 216 FtsZ ring formation in E. coli, 184f
Bacterial adhesions, 416. See also Adherence/ fumarate and trimethylamine oxide functional classification, 194t
adhesion reductases, 220 patterns of, 181 182
molecular interactions with host cells nitrate/nitrite transporter Nark, 216 217 phases, 186t
in, 410t nitrate reductase Nar, 216 217 sources of information, 181 182
Bacterial biofilms, 10, 28 29 nitric oxide reductases (NORs), 217 218 inverted pyramid of knowledge, 195f
formation, 1500 nitrite reductases, 217 molecular information, 182 184
periodontitis, 958 nitrous oxide reductases (NOSs), 218 220 asymmetric cell division, 190
Bacterial capsules, 33 34, 34t ATPase, 203 204 cell division, 183
Aeromonas, 1102 bacterial F1F0 H1-ATPase, 203f dormancy and sporulation, 188 189
Bacillus anthracis, 1798 1799 Bifidobacterium longum, 208f dormant/stationary cellular states, exit
biological functions, 39t, 44 46 butyrate metabolism, in human gut, from, 189 190
biosynthesis, 39 40 209 210 chromosome replication, 183
biosynthetic modes, 39t Campylobacter jejuni, 227 228 global regulatory proteins, 183 184
capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) cellulose degradation, 210 ribosomal RNA, 182 183
immunogenicity, 45 46 chemiosmosis, 201 203 regulatory proteins, 185t
properties, 36 complex carbohydrates, utilization in single cells and populations of
cell surface, attachment of, 42 43 of, 210 bacteria, 186f
chemistry, 34 36 crystal structures of cytochrome caa3/bo3, and stasis, 184 190
electron micrographs, 35f 214f exponential phase, 184 188
genetics, 36 37 cytochrome factors influencing, 188f
Gram-negative bacteria, 37 38 bd oxidases, 215 216 stationary phase, 187 188
as immune evasion factor, 45 bo3, 215 stress responses, 187
modulation caa3 oxidases, 213 Bacterial invaders, systemic. See Systemic
at DNA level, 43 cbb3 oxidases, 213 214 bacterial invaders
at transcriptional level, 43 44 classification, 211f Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence Database
as immune evasion factor, 45 oxidases, 213 (BIDSdb), 521
structures, 35f fermentation, 205 210 Bacterial pathogens, 33, 227 231, 305, 1427,
primary, 34 36 ethanol, 207 1600, 1739
secondary, 36 lactate, 207 208 gene gain and gene loss in, 339 340
as virulence factor, 44 45 mixed acid, 208 209 next-generation sequencing, 337
Wzy-dependent polymerization, 40 41 pathways, 206 207, 207f phosphoproteomics investigations, 284t
Bacterial colony-forming units (CFU), 1366 sugars and polysaccharides, 206 phylogenetic analysis of, 527 532
Bacterial communities, intracellular Fnr homologues and paralogues, 226t clonal complex CC5, single locus
(IBCs), 157 Helicobacter pylori, 228 variants, 529t
Bacterial conjugation, 25, 294 296 Na1-ATPase, 204 205 Haemophilus haemolyticus, 531
bro-1 and bro-2 genes, 1567 1568 Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 228 229 meningococcal population structure,
carbohydrates, 631 Neisseria meningitidis, 228 229 clonality of, 528
chemical conjugation, 46 position weight matrix, 224f Neisseria meningitidis, 527 530
DNA transfer, 294 proton motive force, generation of, 202f serogroup W strains, genetic diversity
between bacterial cells, 294 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 229 230 of, 530f
2104 Index

Bacterial pathogens (Continued) Bacterial ribosomes, 20, 372 373, 595 nucleoid, 315 316
single locus variants within clonal Bacterial spores. See Endospores; Exospores nucleoid-associated proteins, 316 317
complex CC5, 529t Bacterial sporulation, 25 26, 163 SPI1 and SPI2, in Salmonella enterica,
Yersinia pestis history, reconstruction of, Bacterial toxins, 481 321 324
531 532 detection, 991 992 ToxT regulon, 328
superficial gastrointestinal infections, 1128t pathogenic effects, 974 975 Vibrio cholerae, ToxR regulon, 326 328
systemic gastrointestinal infections, 1270t Bacterial ultrastructure Haemophilus ducreyi, 1441 1442
toxin-associated gastrointestinal disease, 972t cell division, 24 infective endocarditis, 815 817
Bacterial pathogens, extracellular, 475, 477 478 general morphology, 7 influence on mammalian hormones, 240
defensive strategies, 476 479 microscopy and microbiology, 29 proteomics applications to, 279b
bacterial camouflage, 476 477 non-membrane inclusions, 21 Bacterial zoonoses, 1771 1772, 1773f
host immune system, modulation of, polysaccharide granules, 21 and climate change, 1775
477 479 volutin granules, 21 companion animals, 1774 1775
innate immune system, 475 476 non-unit membrane inclusions drivers for, 1774f
antimicrobial peptides (AMP), 475 carboxysomes, 21 control and risk reduction, 1776 1777
complement system, 476 gas vesicles, 22 23 dual use, 1775 1776
natural antibodies, 475 lipid bodies, 22 integrated ‘one-health’ approach, 1778f
phagocytosis, 476 photosynthetic systems, 24 lifestyle changes, 1773 1774
offensive strategies, 479 485 outer membrane, 13 14 mapping and predicting, 1776
degradative enzymes, 484 485 periplasm and peptidoglycan gel, 14 17 occupational zoonoses, 1775
microbial toxins, 480 484 cell wall growth, 18 post-genomic impacts, 1772 1773
Bacterial pathogens, intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions, 20 24 Bactericidal/permeability-increasing
Arp2/3 activation, 504f cytoplasmic membrane, 18 19 protein (BPI)
cell death pathways, 505 506 Gram-positive cell wall, 17 18 in azurophilic granules, 1697
cell entry, 492 494 nucleoid, 19 20 Bacteriocins, 351, 539, 951 952, 1054, 1323
in cytosol, 500 505 surface appendages, 8 11 Bacterioferritin-comigratory proteins
actin-based motility, 503 505 capsules, 11 (Bcp), 259
cell-to-cell spread, 505 cell wall, 11 19 Bacteriophages, 140, 347, 658, 1887, 1920
cytosolic replication, 501 502 fimbriae, 9 10 advantages and disadvantages, 577t
evasion of autophagy, 502 503 flagella, 8 biology, 572
vacuole escape, 500 501 glycocalyx, 10 11 functional regions, 571f
cytosolic pathogens, 501f Gram-negative cell wall, 13 17 genomes, 578
endocytic pathway, 498 499 pili, 9 10 integrases, 303 304
F-actin polymerization, 492, 503, 503f, 504f S-layers, 11 lytic/lysogenic life cycles, 572, 572f
GTPase signalling proteins, 495f Bacterial vaginosis (BV), 885, 1487 morphology, 571f
host cell cycle, 506 -associated bacteria, 1487 renaissance, 572 573
host cell reprogramming, 506 507 clinical diagnosis, 1489 1490 as scientific tool, 571 572
immune responses, 506 clinical features, 1487 1488 therapeutics, 573, 575t, 576t
inositol phospholipid species, 497f complications and adverse health outcomes, advertisement for, 569f
Listeria host cell invasion, 495f 1491 1492 formulation, 578
Listeria intracellular infection, 496f genital tract health, 1491 Bacteroides distasonis, 882, 891, 918, 927
non-phagocytic cells, 493f pregnancy, 1491 Bacteroides fragilis, 206, 215 216, 348, 880,
phagosome maturation, interference with, sexually transmitted infections, acquisition 885, 917 919, 923 927, 929f, 932,
496 498 of, 1491 1492 937
phagolysosome, survival in, 499 500 coordination. See Virulence coordination acute wound infection, 887
Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), 494f epidemiology, 1487 1488 cancer, 884
survival strategies of, 491 492, 492f microbiology, 1488 1489 carbapenem resistance in, 889
in vacuole, 494 500 Atopobium vaginae, 1488 endotoxin, 934
Bacterial proteomics, 277 280, 286t BVAB-1/BVAB-2/BVAB-3, 1489 host defences, avoidance of, 933
applications, to bacterial virulence, 279b Gardnerella vaginalis, 1488 identification, 919
combining multiple omics approaches, Mobiluncus species, 1489 intra-abdominal infections, 882, 891
287 288 Mycoplasma species, 1488 1489 NCTC9343, 925
defining virulence determinants, 280t Prevotella species, 1489 Bacteroides spp., 917 918
in vivo perspective, 285 287 molecular diagnosis, 1490 1491 anaerobic bacteria, 934
phosphoproteomics investigations, 284t polymicrobial aetiology, 1489 antimicrobial agents, 935 938
targeted/subcellular analyses, 282 285 risk factors, 1487 1488 beta-lactams, 936 937
targeting post-translational modifications, treatment, 1492 fluoroquinolones, 938
278f, 284 285 Bacterial virulence macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin
targeting recognized virulence-associated coordination of, 315 (MLS), 937
systems, 283 284 gene regulation, hierarchy, 319 321 metronidazole, 935 936
targeting virulence-associated horizontal gene transfer, 317 319 rifampicin, 938
compartments, 282 host cell regulation, Shigella flexneri, tetracycline, 937 938
untargeted/global proteomics analyses, 324 326 classification and taxonomic position,
280 282 nuclear membrane, 315 917 919
Index 2105

degradative enzymes, 928 930 differential, phenotypic characteristics of, CTX-M, 605
enterotoxin, 930 1916t CTX-M-15, 605 606
genetics and horizontal gene transfer, epidemiology and control, 1928 1929 Enterococcus, 723
925 926 genome, 1918 1919 Escherichia coli cytochrome bd oxidase,
integrated chromosomal elements, attributes, 1918t 215 216
925 926 comparative, 1918 1919 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1553 1554
inter-kingdom, 925 haemolysins, 1921 KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae
plasmids, 926 host response, 1925 1926 carbapenemase), 606
host defences, avoidance of, 933 identification, 1915 1917 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1567 1568
identification, 919 924 biochemical tests, 1916 outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs), 1568
inflammatory bowel disease, 934 935 cell morphology, 1916 OXA-51, 606
lipopolysaccharide, 934 cellular fatty acid (CFA) analysis, 1917 signalling molecules for, 114
multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, colony morphology, 1916 TEM-1, 604 605, 605f
938 939 growth requirements, 1915 1916 Beta-lactams, 723, 936 937
opportunistic pathogens, 932 935 polymerase chain reaction, 1916 1917 Beta-toxin, 658, 884 885, 999
outer membrane vesicles, 928 930 restriction-fragment length polymorphism of Clostridium perfringens, 884 885,
in phylum Bacteroidetes, 918t (RFLP), 1917 1060 1061
as part of resident GI tract microbiota, transmission electron micrographs, 1917f gene encoding, 658
930 932 immunity and host response, 1925 1926 hot cold haemolysis, 1062
physiology paracrine loop model, 1926f Staphylococus aureus, 1062
environmental sensing and gene pathogenesis, 1921 1925 bfp operon, 1140
regulation, 926 927 adherence to host cells, 1921 1923 Bi-dentate DNA-binding protein, 317
iron nutrition, 927 colonization of host, 1921 Bifidobacterium longum, 201
oxygen sensitivity and redox, 927 928 host cells, invasion of, 1923 1924 Bile peptone, 1112
structures, 919 924 intracellular growth, 1924 1925 Biofilms
Bacteroides fragilis, 920f phylogenetic analysis, 1915f accumulation, 668 669
capsules, defining, 919 physiology, 1919 1920 adaptation strategies, 951 952
extensive DNA inversion events, 923 924 structure, 1917 1918 -associated diseases, 241t
fragilis inversion cross-over, 922f cell architecture, 1917 1918 chronic infection, cause of, 241
large capsule (LC), 919 920 VirB/ViD4 translocation, 1926f development, 241 242
microcapsule (MC), 921 923 Bartonella bacilliformis, 1925, 1928 1929 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 236f
polysaccharide diversity, 924 925 Bartonella colonies, 1916 formation, 241 242, 721, 1208 1210
polysaccharide patterns, 923f Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), 1919 -related antibiotic tolerance and
small capsule (SC), 921 Bartonella henselae, 338 339, 1922f, 1924f interventions, 242 243
ultrathin sections, transmission electron epidemiology and control, 1929 Biomarkers, 182, 400, 402 403, 782, 1046
micrograph, 920f immunity and host response, 1925 for chlamydial TFI, 1459 1460
systemic inflammatory response syndrome Bartonella quintana, 1925, 1929 Biosensors, 1813
(SIRS), 934 Basal body, flagella family, 136 137 Bite wounds, 886
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, 886, 930 Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Canidae, 886
Bacteroides vulgatus, 923f, 928, 932 933, 935 360 361, 911f Black Death, 3, 531, 1845 1847
capsules, 919 Bca detoxification pathways, 256f Blau’s syndrome, 467 468
intra-abdominal infections, 891 BCG vaccination, 1650 Blood culture, 382, 390, 880, 1278, 1739
Bactoprenol, 112 Bdellovibrio bacterovorus, 127 128 Blood group antigen binding adhesin (BabA),
Bannwarth’s syndrome, 1893 Benzylisothiocyanate, 1108 1109 1249 1250
Bar-coded isogenic UPEC strains, 1378 Benzylpenicillin, 700, 844 Blood-brain barrier (BBB), 1693 1694,
Bartonella, 1915, 1920 β-lactam antibiotics, 97, 105, 585 586, 1733 1734, 1753
antimicrobial therapy, 1927 1928, 1928t 936 937. See also Carbapenems Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
bacteriophages, 1920 and aminoglycosides, 772 (BN-PAGE), 214
bartonellosis, 1911 1914, 1912t, 1928t autolysis, 98 99 Bone marrow, 2022
bacillary angiomatosis (BA), 1913 Bacillus cereus, 1054 culture, 1278
bacillary peliosis, 1913 1914 in Enterococcus faecium, 97 dendritic cells, 1211
bacteraemia, 1914 enzyme confers resistance, 919 toxicity, 1300
Carrión’s disease, 1911 1912 Francisella tularensis species, 1995 Bordetella avium, 1507
heart involvement, 1914 and glycopeptides, 105, 585 586 Bordetella bronchiseptica, 61, 1507, 1512
classification, 1914 1915 meticillin, 980 BteA production, 1514
deformation factor, 1920 β-lactamase GmhB proteins, 61
diagnosis, 1926 1927 BIL-1, 605 innate immune system, 65
bacillary angiomatosis (BA) lesions, 1927 bro-1 gene, 1567 1568 RTX toxin, 1513
bacillary peliosis, 1927 carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides Bordetella hinzii, 1507
bacteraemic syndrome, 1927 fragilis, 889 Bordetella intimin protein, 1514
CSD-skin test, 1927 cefoxitin, 891 Bordetella parapertussis, 1507
endocarditis, 1927 changes in, during antibiotic era, 604 605 genetic diversity, 1507 1509
oroya fever, 1927 chromosomal, 605 lipopolysaccharide, 1514
trench fever, 1927 classification method, 604 pertactin, 1512
2106 Index

Bordetella pertussis, 307, 1283, 1507, 1508f, genome, 1879 1887 relapsing fever, 1870t
1510f, 1517. See also Filamentous B. burgdorferi B31, 1883t ribosomal RNA gene, 1872f
haemagglutinin (FHA) chromosome, 1882 1883 vls system, 1886
apoptosis, 1513 genetic manipulation, 1886 1887 Borrelia burgdorferi, 477, 1867
attachment via FHA, 1511 Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever, amoxycillin, 1895
auto-transporters, 1512 1880t antigenic variation capabilities, 478
bacteriological characteristics, 1510 motility and chemotaxis operons, 1884 antimicrobial therapy, 1895
biochemical, 1510 ospAB operon, 1885 B31, 1886
cultural, 1510 plasmids, 1884 1885 cell diameter, 1872f
clinical characteristics, 1517 1518 ribosomal RNA gene organization, 1884 cell wall, 1873 1874
clinical symptoms, 1518 Vmp/Vmp-like sequence (vls) locus, cultivation, 1893
historical description, 1517 1518 1885 1886 genome size, 1879
control, 1522 1523 identification, 1869 innate immunity, 1891 1892
cytotoxicity, 1512 1514 immunity Lyme disease, 477
adenylate cyclase-haemolysin, 1513 Lyme borreliosis, 1891 1892 Lyme neuroborreliosis, 1700
bacterial components, 1514 relapsing fever, 1892 OspC and Vmp proteins, 1877
bordetella type three secretion system Lyme borreliosis, global distribution of, outer-membrane spanning (Oms) proteins,
effector A, 1513 1514 1895 1896 1878
dermonecrotic toxin, 1513 micrographs, 1872f outer-surface lipoproteins, 1877
lipopolysaccharide, 1514 molecular identification, 1869 1873 rRNA gene cluster, 1884
pertussis toxin, 1512 1513 DNA-DNA homology analysis, 1869 VlsE proteins, 1886
tracheal cytotoxin, 1513 plasmid fingerprinting, 1869 1872 V-type ATPase, 1874 1875
diagnosis, 1519 1520 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Borrelia californiensis, 1870t, 1880t
epidemiology changes, 1520 1521 1869 1872 Borrelia carolinensis, 1870t, 1880t
filamentous haemagglutinin, 1511 1512 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA Borrelia caucasica, 1870t, 1880t
fimbrial proteins, 1511 (RAPD) fingerprinting, 1872 Borrelia coriaceae, 1870t, 1880t
in humans, 1508t ribosomal DNA, 1869, 1872 Borrelia crocidurae, 1870t, 1880t, 1890
interactions with host, 1516 1517 single and multilocus sequence analysis, Borrelia direct repeat (Bdr) protein, 1879
experimental pathogenesis, 1516 1872 1873 Borrelia dugesii, 1870t, 1880t
host immune system, 1516 1517 whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis, Borrelia duttonii, 1870t, 1880t
intimin protein, 1514 1873 genomic sequence analysis, 1869
invasive properties, 1517 morphology, 1873 1874 RF spirochetes, 1889
origin, 1507 1509 dynamics in vivo, 1874 1875 single spirochete, 1889
pertactin, 1512 growth conditions, 1874 1875 TBRF, 1897
pertussis vaccines, 1521 1522 major surface proteins, 1875 1877 Borrelia finlandensis, 1870t, 1880t
phagocytosis, 1517 physiology, 1874 1879 Borrelia garinii, 477, 1870t, 1880t
prevention, 1518 1521 ultrastructure, 1873 1874 Borrelia graingeri, 1870t, 1880t
regulation of expression, 1514 1515 OspC, 1877 Borrelia harveyi, 1870t, 1880t
BvgAS two-component system, OspD, 1877 Borrelia hermsii, 1870t, 1880t, 1887f
1514 1515 OspEF-related proteins, 1877 Borrelia hispanica, 1870t, 1880t
synergy between bordetella virulence pathogenesis, 1889 1891 Borrelia japonica, 1870t, 1880t
determinants, 1515 borrelial virulence determinants, Borrelia kurtenbachii, 1870t, 1880t
virulence determinants, 1510 1515 1889 1890 Borrelia latyschewii, 1870t, 1880t
respiratory tract, adhesion of, 1510 1512 chronic lyme borreliosis, Borrelia lonestari, 1870t, 1880t
virulence factors, 1510t immunopathogenesis in, 1890 Borrelia lusitaniae, 1870t, 1880t
Bordetella resistance, 1512 host cytokine and inflammatory responses, Borrelia mazzottii, 1870t, 1880t
Borrelia, 477, 1867, 1869 1890 Borrelia miyamotoi, 1867, 1870t, 1880t
16 S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic persistence, mechanisms of, 1890 1891 Borrelia parkeri, 1870t, 1878, 1880t, 1894
tree, 1868f process and dissemination, 1889 Borrelia persica, 1870t, 1880t
antimicrobial therapy, 1895 population genetics, 1888 1889 Borrelia recurrentis, 1870t, 1880t, 1895
basic membrane protein (BmpA), 1878 clonality, 1888 FH- and CBP4-binding activity, 478
borrelial persistence in ticks A (BptA), 1878 DNA exchange, 1889 genomic sequence analysis, 1869
burgdorferi proteins, partial listing of, 1876t genetic diversity, 1888 1889 LB and RF borreliae, 1882
characteristics, 1870t porin proteins, 1878 1879 linear plasmids, 1886
control strategies and vaccine development, relapsing fever, global distribution of, 1896 louse-borne, 1867
1896 1897 taxonomy, 1867 1869 relapsing fever, 1700
decorin-binding proteins A and B, 1877 and Treponema pallidum, 1887 Borrelia sinica, 1870t, 1880t
diagnosis variable membrane proteins (Vmps), 1878 Borrelia spielmanii, 1870t, 1880t
B. burgdorferi, cultivation of, 1893 VMP-like sequence (VlsE) Borrelia tanukii, 1870t, 1880t
B. burgdorferi detection, 1893 1894 locus in plasmid lp28-1, 1887f Borrelia theileri, 1870t, 1880t
Lyme borreliosis, 1892 1893 proteins, 1878 Borrelia turcica, 1870t, 1880t
relapsing fever, 1894 1895 Borrelia afzelii, 477 Borrelia turdi, 1870t
serodiagnosis, 1894 Lyme borreliosis, 1870t Borrelia turicatae, 1870t, 1880t, 1891
differential expression and regulations, 1879 Lyme neuroborreliosis, 1700 Borrelia valaisiana, 1870t, 1880t
Index 2107

Borrelia venezuelensis, 1870t, 1880t Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 213 glanders, 771


Borrelia yangtze, 1870t, 1880t Brain abscesses, 880, 1700 melioidosis, 771 772
Borreliacidal antibody, protective, 1892 Brain endothelium, 1755 Burkholderia cenocepacia, 58
Borreliosis. See Lyme borreliosis Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), 58,
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), 171, 1020 912 913 237t, 373, 440 441
abobotulinumtoxinA and Branhamella catarrhalis, 1565 chronic colonization, 1504
incobotulinumtoxinA, 1025 Brasilicardin A, 735 molecular taxonomy, 373, 769 770
anti-BoNT immune globulin, 171 Brazilian clone, 341 342 substrate utilization tests, 778
bacterial pathogens causing toxin-associated bro-1 gene, 1567 1568 Burkholderia identification algorithm, 778f
gastrointestinal disease, 972t bro-1 β-lactamases, 1567 1568 Burkholderia intracellular motility, 504
BLAST analysis, 909 910 bro-2 gene, 1567 1568 Burkholderia mallei, 769. See also
BoNT/A, synaptic vesicle protein (SV2), bro-2 β-lactamases, 1567 1568 Burkholderia pseudomallei
1022 Bronchiectasis, 1500, 1587, 1700 molecular biology, 775 776
BoNT/A-producing strain, 1018 Bronchiolitis, 549, 1502 contributors to virulence, 776
crystal structures, 1023 1024 Bronchitis genome, 775 776
C-terminal domains, 1021 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 1502 mutation studies, 776 777
DNA and protein sequences, 1019t cough and sputum production, 1502 phenotypic characteristics, 770t
foodborne botulism, 171 IgA response, 1578 Burkholderia pseudomallei, 642, 769. See also
food poison, 1016 necrotizing, 1943 Burkholderia mallei
holotoxin, 1026 Brucella abortus, 464, 1784 contributors to virulence, 774 775
infant botulism, 1016 genome, 1782 conventional PCR assays, 779t
LC protease subunits, 1024 infected farm animals, 1787 definitive identification
non-toxic proteins, 1018 1019 milder disease, 1783 1784 gas-liquid chromatography, 778
PDB ID 2VUA, 910f strain S19, 1787 MALDI-TOF mass spectrophotometer, 778
proteolytic cleavage points, 1023t Brucella gene, 1781 PCR-based identification, 778 780
receptors, 1021 antimicrobial therapy, 1786 substrate utilization tests, 778
tetanus toxin, 1023 classification, 1781 future, 782
zinc-dependent mechanism, 1023 diagnosis, 1785 genotyping, 780 782
ribbon diagram, 1020f biochemical tests, 1785 molecular biology, 773 775
serologically distinct, 1017 in vitro culture, 1785 genome, 773 774
botulinum neurotoxins, 1017 nucleic acid tests, 1785 mutation studies, 776 777
serotypes, 1015 1016, 1020 serological tests, 1785 organisms, 769 771
SNARE complex formation, 1023 epidemiology and control, 1786 1787 pathophysiology, 772 773
synaptic vesicle protein (SV2), 1022 genome, 1781 1782 phenotypic characteristics, 770t
synaptotagmin, 1022 immunity, 1786 primary culture and preliminary screening
and tetanus toxin, 1021, 1023 cell-mediated, 1786 methods, 777 778
zinc, removal of, 1023 humoral response, 1786 real-time and PCR assays, 780t
Botulism morphological and biochemical whole-genome alignments, 782
BoNT, 1015 1016 characteristics, 1782 Burkholderia thailandensis, 770t
Clostridium botulinum, 169t pathogenesis, 1783 1784 Buruli ulcer, 833
foodborne, 171 cell biology, 1784 Butyrate esterase, 1739 1740
infant, 1016 pathology, 1783 1784 production, 1565 1566
symptoms, 1016 virulence, regulation of, 1784 Butyrate production, 209
wound, 1016 virulence factors, 1784 BvgAS system, 1515
Botulism immune globulin (BIG), 1017 physiology, 1783 Bvgi phase, 1514
Boutonneuse fever, 2043 2044 acid resistance, 1783 BvgS proteins, 1515
Bowel adaptation to intracellular environment, BvrRS response regulator, 1784
colonization, 1138 1139 1783
inflammatory bowel disease, 883 884
irritable syndrome, 883
erythritol, 1783
nickel uptake, 1783
C
C ring complexes, 136 138, 136f, 139f, 140f,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, 416 structure
1155 1156
microflora, 418 cyclic β(1-2) glucan, 1783
C rod, 140f
phenotypes, 1204 1205 lipopolysaccharide, 1782 1783
C1q, 454, 476, 478
Bowel disease, inflammatory (IBD), 241, 285, outer-membrane proteins, 1783
C2a complex, 476
365, 468 469, 883 884 Brucella melitensis, 1784
C3, 45, 663 664, 1533
Bacteroides spp., 934 Brucella suis, 1784
Neisseria meningitidis, 1735
Campylobacter species, 1191 Brucellosis
tuberculosis, 1700 1701
dysbiosis, 883 884 diagnosis, 1785
C3a, 476
idiopathic, 468 pathogenesis of, 1783 1784
C3b, 476, 478, 664, 690, 1716 1717
luminal/faecal microbiome, 285 Bubonic plague, 1845, 1854, 1862
C4b complex, 476
phenotypes, 365 Bullous impetigo, 826, 826f
C4BP (C4b-binding protein), 690
prevention, 1860 Bundle-forming pilus (BFP), 1136, 1138
C4bp complement component, 1575 1576
Bowel syndrome, irritable (IBS), 883 Burkholderia, 770t
C5a, 476
Bradykinin-generating cascade, 97, 1177 clinical laboratory tests, 777
-mediated neutrophil recruitment, 479
2108 Index

C5a peptidase (ScpA), 691 Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin (cadF) Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), 33, 41f, 43f,
C5b-9 membrane attack complex (MAC), 1551 gene, 1197 1198 108, 774, 1207 1208, 1530
C55-P, 112 Campylobacter coli, 94t, 1202 biosynthetic modes, 39t
Cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) genes resistance patterns, 1217t Campylobacter jejuni, 1207
Helicobacter pylori, 1238, 1244 Campylobacter fetus, 135 136, 363 364, chemistry, 34 36
Cag T4SS proteins, 1244 1245 1188t, 1194t Escherichia coli, 37
cagA gene, 305 Campylobacter hyointestinalis, 1188t Rcs system, 44f
CagA protein, 1244 1245 Campylobacter infections, 1213 serum resistance, 1375
cagPAI locus, 1245 Campylobacter invasion antigen involved in immunogenicity, 45 46
Calcium Intracellular survival (CiaI), 1201 immunological paralysis, 45 46
cytosolic, 2073 Campylobacter invasion antigens (Cia) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1547 1550, 1548t
-dependent endocytosis, 904 proteins, 1196 multi-layered peptidoglycan, 105
intracellular, 1139 Campylobacter jejuni, 34t, 73 74, 110, 115, pneumococcal, 1530 1531
Calcium ions, 483, 1801 227, 237t, 365, 430 432, 842 843, properties, 36
Calladine model, 132 138 1202 1203, 1205 Staphylococcus aureus, 985
Calladine’s mechanical model, 132 133 ABC transporter-dependent polymerization, Streptococcus pyogenes, 42f
Callinectes sapidus, 1119 39t structures, 34 36
Calmodulin, 1513 adherence/adhesion, 431, 1195f as vaccines, 46
-dependent adenylate cyclase, 1801 aminoglycoside resistance, 1219 Wzy-dependent polymerization mechanism,
Camouflage, 476 477 bacterial and viral pathogens, 365 40f
CAMP (cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide) bacterial energy metabolism, 227 228 Capsular synthesis, 37f
gene, 549 biofilm formation, 1208 1209 genes, 36 37
Campylobacter, 1128t, 1187, 1188t, 1189, carboxypeptidase mutants, 110 regulation, 43
1191, 1194 1195, 1210 1213 complete genomes, 1193t Capsules. See Bacterial capsules
adhesins and, relationships between, 1198 -containing vacuole (CCV), 432, 1200 Carbapenemase
animal models, 1220 1221 flagella, 431 432 Acinetobacter baumannii, 607f
antibiotic resistance, 1213 1219 invasion complex (CIC), 1201 1202 Enterobacteriaceae, 606
antimicrobial therapy, 1213 KpsM-deficient mutant, 1208 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 606
drug-resistant strains, 1213 MLST database, 520 Carbapenems, 585 587, 890 891, 936 937
attachment, 1195 nrfHA gene, 217 Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109
bacterial factors, 1200 1201 PglK functions, 74 anaerobic infections treatment, 890 891
biofilm formation, 1208 1210 phosphoproteomics investigations, 284t Carbohydrate fermentation tests, 719
CadF, 1197 1198 PseAc pathway, 1248 Carbohydrate-binding domains (CBMs), 210
clinical manifestations, 1192 1193 resistance patterns, 1214t, 1216t Carboxypeptidases, 114, 724
complete and draft genomes, 1194t Und-PP-linked saccharide, 70 cleavage sites of, 109f
complete genomes, 1193 1194, 1193t virK mutant, 1201 D-alanine, removal, 586
cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), 1130, Campylobacter jejuni invasion complex (CIC), mutants, 110
1203 1205 1201 1202 Carboxysomes, 7, 21
draft genomes, 1194t Campylobacter jejuni-containing vacuole Carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion
epidemiology and disease association, 1187 (CCV), 432, 1200 molecules (CEACAMs), 437,
fibronectinlike protein A (FlpA), 1198 Campylobacter lari, 1188t 1476 1477, 1479, 1732
flagella and motility, 1195 1196 Campylobacter protein A (CapA), 431 Carriers
fluoroquinolone-resistant, 1213 1218 Campylobacter rectus, 880, 958, 1188t acyl carrier protein (ACP), 56
gastroenteritis, 1187 1191 Campylobacter secretes cytolethal distending Brucella abortus, 1787
genomes, 1195t toxin (CDT), 1130 Clostridium difficile, 172
glycoconjugates, 1205 1207 Campylobacter-containing vesicles (CCV), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1151
lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS), 1205 1206 1200 Salmonella typhi, 1295 1296
N-linked glycosylation, 1206 1207 Campylobacteriosis, 1189 Tropheryma whipplei, 1261
O-linked glycosylation, 1206 Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test, 1238 Carrión’s disease, 1911 1912, 1914
host factors in invasion, 1201 1202 Cancer, 884 885 Cat fleas, 1913, 2054
immune responses, 1210 1213 Candida, 382, 644, 817, 1373 Cat gene, 1298
inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Candida albicans, 237t, 764 Catabolite control protein A (CcpA), 678
1191 1192 HNP1, mutational analysis of, 402 403 Catalase-positive staphylococci (CPS), 980
predisposition, 1192 messenger RNA (mRNA), 390 Catalases, 258 259
intracellular survival, 1200 oropharyngeal candidiasis, 441 Bacteroides fragilis, 258 259, 928
invasion, 1198 1203 PCR technology, 386 387 Helicobacter pylori, 1245 1246
JlpA, 1197 quorum signal, 237t KatA, 258 259
list of species serologic response, proteomic profiling, 401 KatB, 258 259, 928
mechanisms of pathogenesis, 1194 1198 Candida glabrata, 817 KatX, 258 259
multidrug-resistant (MDR), 1219 1220 Candida parapsilosis, 817 Nocardia, 743 744
pattern-recognition receptors, 1212 Candida tropicalis, 817 Rickettsial growth, 2052
toll-like receptors (TLRS), 1211 1212 Canine peptide (cBD103), 546 Cathelicidins, 539, 548 555, 550f
toxins, 1203 1205, 1204f Cap locus, 1718f antibacterial function, 551 552
water, 1220 Cap proteins, 137t, 140 antimicrobial function, 552
Index 2109

antiviral function, 552 Shigella, 1150 Cellulitis


cell death, 554 555 Tropheryma Whipplei, 1262 acute, 829, 829f
cell function and differentiation, 553 554 Ceftriazone, 1730 Staphylococcus aureus, 638f
cell proliferation, 554 555 Cefuroxime, 1108 1109 Streptococcus pyogenes, 701
disease association and animal models, Cell cycle, 506 Cellulose degradation, 210
549 550 peptidoglycan synthesis, 117 120 Cellulosome, 210
expression of, 549 Cell death, 505 506, 2020. See also Apoptosis Cementoenamel junction (CEJ), 945
innate immune signalling, modulation of, 553 via apoptosis, 1130 Central nervous system (CNS), bacterial
Catheter encrustation, 1553 cathelicidins, 554 555 infections of
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in host response against infection, 505 506 bacterial meningitis, 1693
(CAUTIs), 1389 1390 prevention, 506 cell injury, effectors of, 1696 1697
Cat-scratch disease (CSD), 338 339, 1913, Salmonella-induced, 1313 1314 clinical features, 1693
1927, 1929 types, 505 host susceptibility factors, 1697 1699
Afipia felis, 1913 Cell wall, 11 19 Haemophilus influenzae, 1698
Bartonella, 1921 N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, 26 28, Listeria monocytogenes, 1697 1698
bartonellosis, 1913 98 99 Neisseria meningitidis, 1697
Caulobacter crescentus, 119, 315 316 autolysins, 96, 586 587 Streptococcus agalactiae, 1699
CBC (chromogenic Bacillus cereus agar), TU-deficient, 96 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1698
1046 1047 Bacillus subtilis, 19f inflammatory responses, 1694 1696
CBF proteins, 431 bacterial sporulation, 26 mechanisms, 1693 1694
CblA gene, 936 937 Borrelia burgdorferi, 1873 1874 spirochetes, 1699 1700
CC17 wild-type strains, 1758 CPS attachment, 39 cerebral abscesses, 1700
CcrM methyl-transferase, over-expression of, C-terminal cell wall-anchoring domain Lyme neuroborreliosis, 1700
1784 (CWA), 434 neurosyphilis, 1699 1700
CD4 T cells, 305, 468 cytoplasm, 583 584 tuberculosis, 1700 1703
CD4 1 T cells, 1480 DNase, 692 Cephalexin, 586
defensins, 546 fatty acid profiles, 373 Cephaloridine, 586
Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2023 Gram-negative, 13 17, 1106, 2072 Cephalosporins, 586, 605, 891
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1640 Gram-positive, 17 18 Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109
Orientia, 2080 growth, 18 anaerobic infections, 891
Staphylococcus aureus, 311 hemicelluloses, 210 benzyl penicillin and narrow-spectrum, 759
CD8 1 T cells, 1358, 1701, 2023 Listeria, 1348 third-generation, 1335, 1409, 1481
immune-mediated injury, 2021 mycobacterial, 92 93, 583, 587 Cephalothin, 844
proliferation, 2080 Mycobacterium Leprae, 1661 1663, Cephamycins, 936 937
CD11b/CD18, neutrophil, 904, 1957 1662f Cerebral abscesses. See Brain abscesses
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 2039 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1590 1591 Cerebral palsy, BoNT therapeutic use, 1025
CD14, 98, 645, 1695 peptidoglycan. See Peptidoglycan Cerebral vascular endothelial cells, 1694
soluble CD14 (sCD14), 645 pneumococcal, 1696 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 1261, 1415 1416
CD181 phagocytes, 1311 1312 polymers, 116 Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2025
CD28 ligation, 466 proteins, 1035 1036 Haemophilus Influenzae, 1710
CD46, 155 156, 688 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 632 meningitis, 1693 1694
CD62E, 2074 Staphylococcus aureus, 116 117 Orientia DNA in, 2075 2076
CD106, 2074 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1694 Cereolysin O (CLO), 1059
Cdc42, 1454 teichoic acids, 91 93, 96 97 in virulence, 1059
GTPase activity, 1201 biological activities, 96 97 Cereulide, 170, 1055
mechanism controlling, 425f Cell-mediated immunity, 461 462, 651, 1699, Cetotaxime, 1108 1109
cDNA, 384 2001 2002 CfiA/ccrA class, 891
in situ PCR, 387 antitumour, 851 CfxA gene, 936 937
library, 365 Brucella, 1786 Chancre, 1414, 1421
RT-PCR, 384 chronic intracellular infections, 651 primary, 832, 1414
Cefepime, 1108 1109 Francisella, 2001 2002 Treponema pallidum, 1414
Cefixime, 1141, 1300 lepromin test, 831 Chancroid, 1419 1420. See also Haemophilus
gonorrhoea treatment, 1413 MHC-1 molecules, 632 633 ducreyi
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 1481 T-cell-mediated immunity, 1959 1960 chancroidal ulcers, 1442
Ng infections, 1413 Treponema pallidum, 1699 control, 1420
Cefotaxime, 586, 605, 1895, 1982 Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), presumptive diagnosis, 1419
Cefoxitin, 891, 1408 1409 2073 2074 treatment, 1420
Ceftazidime, 586, 605, 1108 1109, 1178 Cellular fatty acid (CFA) analysis, 1917 Chancroidal ulcers, 1442
Ceftiazone, 1300 Cellular immune response Chancrum oris, 833
Ceftriaxone, 1300, 1410, 1413, 1420 antigen-specific characterization, 2080 Chaperones
Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109 Borrelia burgdorferi, 1892 conserved residues, 151f, 158
gonorrhoea treatment, 1481 Mycobacterium leprae, 1655 conserved surfaces, 149 151
pelvic inflammatory disease treatment, Orientia infections, 2079 2083 flagellar structure, 139
1408 1409 Treponema pallidum, 1428 necessity, 148 149
2110 Index

Chaperones (Continued) upper genital tract pathology, 1459 Clarithromycin, 2085t


periplasmic, 148 virulence factors, 1457 1459 anaerobic infections, 892
RNA, 1996 IncA-deficient, 1456 leprosy treatment, 1658 1659
-usher pathways, 147 148, 155 pathotypes and serotypes, 1450t resistance, 1687
-usher pilus biogenesis, 153 tissue tropism, 1452 1455 Clavulanic acid, 738, 772
Chaperone subunit complexes, 152 153 chlamydial cytotoxin expression, Bacteroides fragilis, 937
Chaperonin, 1950 1951 1453 1454 β-lactamase-inhibition, 1568
GroES chaperonin domain, 1246 polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmp), Clinafloxacin, 891
Che genes, 1884 variation, 1454 1455 Clindamycin, 596, 1409
Chemiosmosis, 201 203 translocated actin-recruiting phospho anaerobic infections, 891
Chemokines, 458 461, 1695, 2074 protein (TARP) sequence, 1454 Bacillus cereus infections, 1054
gingival epithelial cells, 962 tryptophan synthase, 1452 1453 Clostridium perfringens, 901f
in innate immunity-stationing and vaccines, 1460 Propionibacterium acnes, 844
recruitment, 461 Chlamydia/Chlamydophila species, 105 protein biosynthesis, 596
receptors, 461, 851 Chlamydia-containing vacuole (CCV), 499 Clofazimine, 1658
Chemotaxis, 136, 1884 Chloramphenicol, 596, 891, 1300, 2085t Clonal complexes, 527 528, 657
Borrelia burgdorferi, 1884 Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109 Clonal populations
Helicobacter Pylori, 228 Bacillus cereus infections, 1054 Borrelia, 1888
Vibrio cholerae, 328, 1089 exposure, 294, 596, 1150 Borrelia burgdorferi, 1888
CheY, 138 Haemophilus ducreyi, 1443 meningococcal strains, 528
Chicken carcasses, 992 993 Salmonella typhi, 601, 1298 Neisseria meningitidis, 528
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), 1177, 1203 Shigella strains, 1150 phylogenies, 361
Chitinases therapy, 1298 structure, 528
Aeromonas, 1100, 1106 typhoid fever, 1298 1300 Clonality
Plesiomonas shigelloides, 1119 Chlorobium vesicles, 24 burgdorferi burgdorferi Population, 1888
Chlamydia, 338 339 Cholecystitis, 887 888, 1295 1296 Chlamydia spp., 340
biomarkers for, 1459 1460 Cholera, 975, 1081 1082. See also Vibrio meningococcal population structure, 528
CCV lumen, 499 500 cholerae Clones, 341
cervicitis and urethritis, 1407 1408 Aeromonas, 1107 antibiotic-resistant, 1536
genital chlamydia disease, 1404 1411 antibiotic resistance, 1091 Coxiella, 1951
GFP-expressing cells, 1456 diagnosis, 1089 Escherichia coli, 1147
host chlamydial interaction, 1455 1459 diarrhoea, 1085 hyper-virulence lineages, 528
arthritis, 1411 epidemic, 1083 peptostreptococcal, 961
infertility, 1411 epidemiology, 1079, 1081 1082 PFGE-defined, 1536
intracellular survival, 1451 molecular, 1083 pneumococcal, 1536 1537
Kdo oligosaccharides, 59 pathogenesis, 1086f Shigella, 1147
non-chlamydial, 1419 1420 treatment, 976, 1090 1091 ST-17 infection, 1756
T3SS effectors, 1458 vaccines, 1091 1092 Clorobiocin, 620
Chlamydia pneumoniae, 58, 2001 Cholera toxin (CTX), 283, 306, 310, Clostridial species, 208, 880
Chlamydia psittaci, 1456 1457 481 482, 974 975, 1079, 1081, Clostridial toxins, large (LCTs), 482, 1000
Chlamydia trachomatis, 399, 499, 1449 1451, 1085, 1087 Clostridium, 115 116, 163, 1035
1455, 1491 1492 ADP-ribosyltransferase, 482 characteristics, 164t
challenges, 1460 subunits encoding, 327 endospore-borne diseases, 169
diagnosis, 1459 1460 Choline-binding proteins, 863 864, 1698 endospore coat, 1953
genome and gene expression, 1451 1452 Chondroitin sulphatase, 928, 1177 perfringens infections, 172 173
non-coding RNAs, 1452 Chorioamnionitis, 885, 1594 pneumonia, 882
temporal, 1451 1452 Chorismate, 1453, 1851 1852 rRNA homology group I, 899
transcription regulation, 1452 Chromosomal DNA, fragment of, 295 Clostridium acetobutylicum, 168
in host cells, 1450f Chromosomal DNaseB (DNaseB), 692 693 Clostridium argentinense, 1017 1018
host chlamydial interaction, 1455 1459 Chymotrypsin, 1799 1800, 1815 1816 Clostridium barati, 1017 1018
active infection, 1459 CiaB gene, 1200 Clostridium botulinum, 164, 1015
biomarkers, identification of, CiaB protein, 431 biosynthesis, 1018 1019
1459 1460 Ciliary dyskinesia, primary (PCD), 1500 BoNT DNA and protein sequences, 1019t
cell division and death, 1456 1457 Ciprofloxacin, 592 593, 2085t botulism, 1015 1017
chromosome-encoded virulence factors, Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109 classification, 1017 1018
1458 1459 Campylobacter species, 1213 delivery into circulation, 1020 1021
CPAF visualization in cytosol, 1458 DNA gyrase inhibition, 620 high-affinity binding to motor neurons, 1021
CT135, 1459 resistance, 1150, 1730 neurointoxication, 1019 1020
developmental stages, 1455 1456 Shigella strains, 1150 and neurotoxins, 1015
exiting mechanisms, 1456 typhoid treatment, 1300 recycling synaptic vesicle compartment,
inclusion biogenesis, trafficking and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 1173 internalization into, 1022 1023
interaction with cell organelles, Ciprofloxacin susceptibility, decreased neurotransmitter release, 1023 1024
1455 1456 (DCS), 1299 1300 protease component, 1022 1023
type III secretion system (T3SS), 1458 Citrobacter freundii, 38, 215 therapeutic uses, 1025 1026
Index 2111

toxins, 1017 toxin production, regulation of, 904 905 Haemophilus influenzae, 1710
detection, 1024 1025 TpeL, 999 1001 initiation, 409
gastrointestinal disease, 972t characterization, 1000 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1555
mode of action, 1019 1024 cytotoxicity, 1000 1001 leptospirosis, 1984
Clostridium butyricum, 208, 1017 1018 glucosylation, 1001 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1566
Clostridium difficile, 3, 286, 311, 351, 764, pathogenesis, 999 1000 Neisseria meningitidis, 1732 1733
888, 1031 1032 type D enterotoxaemia, 1002 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1557
and disease, 1031 Clostridium septicum, 884, 905 resistance, 351
potential virulence determinants, 1032 1036 Clostridium sordellii, 171, 744 747, 905 906 subversion of, 351 352
subgroups and demonstration of Clostridium tetani, 164, 170 respiratory mucosa, 1711
microdiversity, 1033f botulinum and tetanus toxins, 910f Streptococcus mutans, 948
toxins, 1032 1035 fragment C Vibrio cholerae, 1085 1086
scanning electron micrograph, 8f axonal transport ability, 912 913 Colonization factor antigen (CFA), 155
Spo0A, 1035 Basic Local Alignment Search Tool Colony overlay test (COT), 795
spores, 1035 (BLAST), 911f Colony-forming units (CFU), 188, 1366
surface determinants hybrid protein β-gal, 912f Colony-stimulating factors, 463
flagella, 1036 neuroprotective nature, 913 914 Communal behaviour, of bacteria, 235
S-layer and other cell wall proteins, tetanus toxin, molecular properties of, Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 882,
1035 1036 911 912 1503, 1614 1615, 1618
sortase and sorted proteins, 1036 molecular structure and clostridial Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA),
toxins, 1034f neurotoxins, 909 911 657, 980, 1503
virulence factors, 1036 Clostridium/Eubacterium species, 1220 1221 Competence, 1531 1535
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), 172, 394, Clotrimoxazole, 1150 natural, 291 292
1031 1032 ClpC proteins, 1046 Competence-stimulating peptide (CSP),
Clostridium novyi alpha-toxin, 1000 ClpP proteins, 1046 236 238, 292, 1531
Clostridium perfringens, 164, 237t, 899, 903f, ClpXP system, 265 266 Competition, 184, 192
997 CLR signalling, 452 Complement, 45
beta-toxin, 997 999 Clumping factor A (ClfA), 478, 660 activation
characterization, 999 Clustered regularly interspaced short classical, 1701
evidencer, 998 999 palindromic repeat (CRISPR), 849 Listeria monocytogenes, 1348
mode of action, 999 Clustering methods, 1041 Staphylococcus aureus, 663 664
pathogenesis, 997 998 4CMenB (4 component meningococcal B Staphylococcus pyogenes, 686, 690
epsilon-toxin, 1001 1004, 1005f vaccine), 1743 alternative pathway, 1736
cellular mechanism of action, 1004 c-Met proteins, 1352 cerebrospinal fluid, 1695
characterization, 1002 Coagulase, 668 evasion strategies in Leptospira, 1984 1985
effect on animals and tissues, 1003 1004 Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS), 985 innate immune system, 476
evidence for involvement, 1002 Coagulation, 811 leptospiral resistance, 1984 1985
pathogenesis, 1001 1002 activation, 2074 meningococcal disease, 1697
structure, 1002 1003 disseminated intravascular, 638f resistance
food poisoning, 170, 971 GAS evasion, 696 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1575 1576
gas gangrene, prevention of, 902 proteins, 1063 streptococcal inhibitor, 693
glucosylating toxins, 1000f Coagulopathy, 647 Complement fixation (CF), 2081
histotoxic clostridia, exotoxins of, 902 906 Coat proteins, 183, 1795, 2075 Complement regulator-acquiring surface
iota-toxin, 1004 1008 Coccidioides immitis, 383 proteins (CRASPs), 1891 1892
characterization, 1005 Coding sequences (CDSs), 1280 Complementary DNA strand (cDNA), 384
effect on animals, 1005 1006 Codon ComX sigma factor, 292f
entry and trafficking, 1006f AUG initiation, 595 Congenital complement deficiencies, 651
mechanism of action, 1006 1007 mRNA, 304 Congenital immunodeficiency syndromes, 651
pathogenesis, 1004 1005 non-synonymous mutations, 1299 Conjunctivitis
structure and function, 1007 1008, 1008f tRNA, 304 cervical lymphadenopathy, 1994
life-threatening clostridial soft tissue Cofilin, 492 493 gonococcal, 1474 1475
infections, 899 902 Colanic acid, 33 Consensus sequence based typing (SBT), 1618
clindamycin, 901f in E. coli K-12, 43 CooA subunit, 155
epidemiology, 900t UDP-glucose, 68 CooB subunit, 155
gynaecological infections, 900 901 Colicin V immunity, 1153 CooC subunit, 155
spontaneous, non-traumatic gas gangrene, Colicins, 483, 587 588, 1058 CooD subunit, 155
900 Colistin E, 587 588 Core oligosaccharide, 55
traumatic gas gangrene, 899 900 Colitis, haemorrhagic, 1141 biosynthesis and assembly, 59 63
perfringolysin O, 1059 Collagen hug, 661, 662f glycosyltransferases, 63
soft tissue infections, treatment of, 901 902 Collagen-binding protein, 678 679, 687, 721 heptoses, 59 63
adjunctive measures, 901 902 Collectins, 454, 543, 1631 ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose-6-
pharmacological treatment, 901 Colonization epimerase, 63
surgical intervention, 901 Bartonella, 1921 isomerization, 61
taxonomy and historical perspective, 899 biofilms, 99 nucleotide-activated heptoses, 61 63, 62f
2112 Index

Core oligosaccharide (Continued) history, 1956 1957 Cystine-tellurite blood agar (CTBA), 1628
phosphatase reaction, 61 humans, 1941 Cystitis, 157
phosphorylation, 61 hyperinflammatory syndrome, 1961 chronic, 1378
Kdo and Kodisaccharide, 59 immune dysfunction with valvular development, 1373 1374
Cortex hydrolysis, 167, 1797 1798 damage, 1961 1962 and urinary tract infection, 1365f
Cortical fragment lytic enzymes (CFLEs), 1798 immunology, 1956 1957 uropathogenic Escherichia coli, 1376 1378
Corynebacterium aquaticum, 108 109 innate immunity, 1957 1959 Cytochalasin D, 1202, 1715, 1923
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 1627 1629 laboratory diagnosis, 1944 1945 Cytochrome
Corynebacterium minutissimum, 829 830 monocytes and macrophages, 1957 1958 bd oxidases, 215 216
Corynebacterium parvum, 851 in pregnancy, 1944, 1946 bo3, 215
Corynebacterium spp., 1630 reasons for persistence, 1961 cbb3 oxidases, 213 214
aetiology, 1627 T-cell-mediated immunity, 1959 1960 oxidases, 213
clinical manifestations, 1627 1628 restriction fragment-length polymorphism Cytochrome bd oxidases (cydABCD),
laboratory identification, 1628 (RFLP), 1951 1952 215 216, 268 269
MALDI-TOF MS system, 1630 1631 routes of transmission, 1947 1948 Cytochrome bo3 oxidase, 204, 215, 221
non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium spp., contaminated aerosols, 1947 Cytochrome cbb3, 213, 220 221
1629 1632 oral, 1947 Cytochrome cd1, 217
C. propinquum, 1630 percutaneous, 1947 1948 Cytochromes, 201, 211, 211f, 221
C. pseudodiphtheriticum, 1629 1630 person-to-person, 1948 Cytochromes c, 211
C. pseudotuberculosis, 1630 sexual, 1948 Cytokines, 647
C. striatum, 1629 vertical, 1948 chemoattractant, 1695
C. ulcerans, 1629 transmission electron micrograph, 1952f Chlamydia trachomatis, 1456 1457
pathogenicity, 1630 1631 vaccines, 1949 enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus
phenotypic identification, 1631 Coxiella’s genome composition, 1954 aureus, 989 990
sequence-based identification, 1631 CP5/CP8, capsular polysaccharide antigens, induction, 98
specimen collection, 1631 993 in leptospirosis, 1984
treatment, 1628 1629 Cpa, for collagen-binding protein, 687 proinflammatory, 458 461, 460t
Corynebacterium ulcerans, 1771 1772 Cpb gene, 1000 Q fever, 1958 1959
Corynebacyerium poinsettia, 108 109 Cpe gene, 1000 Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), 506,
Coryneform organisms, 1631 cps3A gene, 38 1203 1205
Co-trimoxazole, 590 591, 1298 1299, 2026, CpxA genes, 321 322, 1440t Cytolysins
2085t CR3-binding activities, 1511 β-barrel pore-forming, 667 668
Coxiella burnetii, 464, 499 500, 1781, 1927, Cranberry juice, 418 419 Vibrio vulnificus, 1177
1941 1942, 1944 1945, 1947, 1960, Crayfish poisoning, 862 Cytomegalovirus (CMV), 383, 545
2001 C-reactive protein (CRP), 817 PCR, 393
16 S rDNA sequences, 1950f Crohn’s disease (CD), 285, 365, 884, 1191 Cytopathic effects
classification, 1949 1951 Crp genes, 1439 1440 Campylobacter-mediated diseases, 430 431
comparative genomics, 1954 1955 Cryptococcus neoformans, 237t, 441, 1297 chlamydial strains, 1453
dendritic cells, 1958 Cryptosporidium parvum, 1117 Rickettsial toxin, 2048
DNA amplification techniques, 1945 CsgA assembly, 157 TcsL, 171
endospore-like structure, 1953 CsgG functions, 157 Cytophoga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB),
epidemiology, 1948 1949 CsrA genes, 1440t 917 918
gene regulation, 1956 ctxAB operon, 328 Cytoplasmic biochemical target
genome overview, 1954 CtxB alleles, 1080 1081 sites, 616 617
genomic typing methods, 1951 1952 Culturability and viability of bacteria, Cytoplasmic inclusions, 20 24
growth requirements and isolation, 1951 190 195, 191t Cytoplasmic membrane, 18, 587
history, 1941 Culturability of bacteria, 190 191 chromosome organization, 589
inflammatory/anti-inflammatory imbalance, CUP pilus architecture, 148 colistin, 587 588
1958 1959 Curli extracellular nucleation/precipitation daptomycin, 588
innate immunity, 1958 pathway, 156 157 dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, 591
insertion sequences, 1955 Cuz centre, 219 DNA replication, 589
isolation, 1945 CwpFM, 1063 folate antagonists, 590 591
lipopolysaccharide, 1953 1954 CXCL12/CXCR4 signalling, 2039 nucleic acid for selective toxicity, 588
NK cell, 1958 Cyclooxygenase (COX), 1695 precursor synthesis, 589
physiology, 1952 1953 Cycloserine, 112, 584, 584f selective disruption, 587
prevention and control, 1949 Cyclothialidine, 620 sulfonamides, 591
pseudogenes, 1955 1956 Cystic fibrosis (CF), 758, 882, 1500, 1504 combinations, 591 592
Q fever, 1941 1944 Aspergillus fumigatus, 402 tetrahydrofolate, 591f
acute, 1941 1943 lung disease, 230, 239, 550, 1680 transcription, 589
adaptive immunity, role of, 1959 1960 Mycobacterium spp., 1670t translation into protein, 589 590, 590f
antibodies, 1960 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 230, 758 Cytoplasmic membrane-associated KfiA/KfiB/
chronic, 1943 1944 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance KfiC complex, 41 42
coxiellosis in animals, 1946 1947 regulator (CFTR), 753 754, 1087, Cytosine, 391
fatigue syndrome, 1961 1504 Cytosolic pathogens, 500, 503
Index 2113

Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), 305, Dendrogram Campylobacter coli, 1129


1374 Acinetobacter baumannii, 607f Campylobacter jejuni, 1129, 1187 1188
Cytotoxin, tracheal, 1513 Corynebacterium spp., 1630f E. coli O157.H7, 1141
Cytotoxin associated gene product (CagA), OXA carbapenemases, 607f GI anthrax, 169
1244 1245 rRNA gene sequences, 1631 Listeria, 1346
Cytotoxin K, 1041, 1061 Dengue fever, 644 non-typhoidal Salmonella, 1271
and virulence, 1061 Denitrification, 216 217 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 310
Cytotoxin-associated gene A product (CagA), Dental caries, 945 Shigella, 1129
1237 1238 AgI/II structure, 948f breast feeding, protective effect of, 417 418
antibacterial properties of saliva, 953t enterotoxin, 1055
D cariogenic bacteria, 945f
extensive occlusal surface, 946f
Escherichia coli, 975, 1127, 1129 1130
classification and characteristics,
DaaC gene, 1145
host factors, 952 954 1133 1135, 1134t
Dairy products
immunization, 954 genome, 1135
aeromonads, 1109
Lactobacillus species, 947 morphological and biochemical
diarrhoeal syndrome, 1050
polymicrobial communities, 947 948 characteristics, 1135
lactose utilizing bacteria in, 207
in populations, 946 947 listeriosis, 1271
toxin-producing staphylococci, 992 993
Streptococcus mutans, 947 Plesiomonas, 1116
Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP),
acid production, 950f Shigella spp, 351
449, 543
exopolysaccharide production, 949f sporadic, 1142
Dapsone (4,4-diaminodiphenylsulphone), 1658
immunization strategies, 954t watery, 482, 971 973
resistance, 1658
virulence mechanisms, 948 952 cholera, 975, 1085
therapy for leprosy, 1658
teeth, structure of, 945 Clostridium difficile, 482
Daptomycin, 588, 724
types, 946 enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis
Dark-field microscopy, 1417
Dental plaque, 958 (ETBF), 930
Darmbrand, 997 998
Dentin, 945 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), 1080
DD-EPases, mutants lacking, 115
3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid invasive inflammatory colitis, 1143
Defb15 gene, 548
(Kdo), 55 Shigella flexneri infection, 1153
Defensins, 539 548
2 3,3-Deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid toxin-associated gastrointestinal disease,
α-defensins, 542
(KDO), 1550 972t
antibacterial function, 543 545
Deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP), Yersinia enterocolitica, 1271
anti-inflammatory role, 547 548
383 387 Diarrhoeal syndrome, 170, 1050
antiviral function, 545 546
Deoxyribonuclease (DNase), 796, 1100 Diazaborines, 619
β-defensins, 542 543
Aeromonas hydrophila, 1105 1106 Dif locus, 298
fertility, 548
mitogenic factor, 692 Diguanylate cyclases (DGC), 763 764
genes, 540 541
SpnA, 692 Dihydrofolate (DHF), 590 591
genomic organization, 540 542, 542f
Streptococcus pyogenes, 692 693 Dihydrofolate reductase, 1262 1263
human defensin clusters, 542f
Dermatitis inhibitors, 591
immunomodulatory function, 546 548
atopic, 986, 2078 protein crystal structures, 619
peptides, 541t
blistering, 983 Dihydropteroic acid, 590 591, 592f
peptide structure, 540
bovine digital, 1421 Dihydroxyacetonephosphate, 206
pro-inflammatory role, 546 547
Dermatophilus congolensis, 830 Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), 201, 220
Deformins, Bartonella bacilliformis, 1920
Dermonecrotic toxin, 1513 Diphtheria. See also Corynebacterium
Dehydration
Desferrioxamine, 1517 diphtheriae
lethal shock, 985
Dextranase, 948 949 immunization, 627
staphylococcal food poisoning, 985
Dextrans, 110 111 pharyngeal and tonsillar, 1627
treatment, 1090 1091
DfrA28 gene, 1108 1109 vaccine, 1518 1519
Dehydrogenases, 207
Diabetes mellitus Diphtheria toxin, 46, 481 483, 1627 1628,
Deinococcus radiodurans, 11, 13 14
insulin-dependent, 986 1742 1743
hexagonally packed layer (HPI), 13 14, 15f
pathogenesis, 553 554 Dipicolinic acid (DPA), 165, 1793 1794, 1953
S-layer, 11, 15f
spinal epidural abscess, 1700 Disaccharide tetrapeptide, blood-brain barrier
Delousing, 1929
Diabetic foot infections, 886 887 in vivo, 1696 1697
δ-toxin, 664, 795
Diacylglycerol, 94, 483 484, 755 Disaccharide-pentapeptide, 585
cytolytic, 664f
L-2,4-Diaminobutyrate, 108 109 Disseminated infections. See Infections,
encoded by Agr RNAIII, 664
m-Diaminopimelic acid (Dap), 584 disseminated
synthesis, 1041
Diarrhoea, 170, 1050 DNA
Demethylmenaquinone (DMK), 211
Bacillus cereus food poisoning, 168, 170, acquisition, 291
Demineralization, 946
1050 1051 antibiotics against DNA architecture,
Dendritic cells (DCs), 1312 1313, 1957,
cell culture assays, 1050 1051 592 594
2080
commercial immunochemical assays, 1051 nitrofurans, 593 594
Escherichia coli, 816
epidemiology, 1050 nitroimidazoles, 593 594
Listeria monocytogenes, 1348
in vivo assays, 1050 quinolones, 592 593
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 629
bloody, 169 arrays, 781 782
N-linked glycans, 1207
Bacillus cereus, 1061 -based molecular typing methods, 518
producing cytokines, 2001
2114 Index

DNA (Continued) Dns gene, 1105 1106 Edwardsiella tarda, 1117


-binding global regulator, 1804 Donor strand complementation (DSC), 150 151 Ehrlichia
-binding protein, 1209 Donovanosis, 1419 actin-dependent filopodia formation, 2020
damage, 1091 Doripenem, 738, 890 891 Anaplasmataceae phylogenetic tree, 2034f
fragments, 297 Double locus variants (DLV), 1285 1286 developmental cycle, 2016f
ligase, 2, 593 Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), 292, 389, DNA gyrase (gyrA), 2026
probe hybridization, 1673 1920 IgM/IgG, 2025
repair, 936 Doxycycline, 2085t, 2086 immune defences, 2017 2018
replication, 589, 619 lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), 1410 morphology, 2013 2014
antibiotics targeted at, 588t Vibrio parahaemolyticus-associated tick-borne diseases, 2011, 2025 2026
bacterial, 592 gastroenteritis, 1173 toxic shock, 2023 2024
DNA ligase, 619 DppA-E, 678 Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2011, 2017 2020
DNA polymerase, 774 Dps protein, 319 320 developmental cycle, 2016f
homologous recombination, 297f DRES motif, 151 geographic distribution, 2012f
sequencing, 349, 358, 376, 518 522, 1049 Drug-acetylating enzymes, 723 maintenance and transmission of, 2018f
cost, 518 DsrA genes, 1440t in peripheral blood smear, 2013f
next-generation, 391 392 Ducreyi lectin A (DltA), 1441 tandem repeat proteins (TRP) and ankyrin,
technologies, 349, 1049 Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A product 2020
supercoiling, 320f, 1374 (DupA), 1237 1238, 1250 1251 ultrastructure of, 2015f
acfA/acfD promoters, 328 Duplex DNA, 292, 297, 619 620, 1884 1885 Ehrlichia equi, 2033
chromosome, 315 Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), 1243 1244 Ehrlichia ewingii, 2011 2012, 2015f
topoisomerases, 20, 319 320, 589, Dysbiosis, 348 349, 352f Ehrlichia muris, 2023 2024
592 594, 616 Dysentery Ehrlichioses, 2011 2013, 2015f
transcription, 589 Aeromonas gastroenteritis, 1107 bacterial nucleic acid, detection of, 2025
inhibitors, 594 595 bacillary, 279 280 clinical presentation, 2024
regulation, 1452 lamb, 997 diagnosis and treatment, 2024 2026
transfer, 25, 25f treatment, 1150 Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2014f, 2015f
conjugal, 2045 epidemiology, 2018 2019
F-like plasmids, 294
mechanism, 25
E genomic features, 2014 2018
human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, 2013f
Early childhood caries (ECC), 946, 946f
uptake, 147, 292 immunity, 2022 2024
Early endosome antigen 1 (EFA1), 2019
vaccines, 1650 isolation and identification of bacteria, 2025
Early-onset disease (EOD), 1751
in CD1 Swiss mice, 2065 medical and veterinary importance, 2012t
Ecad gene, 1350 1352
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 867 morphology, 2013 2014
Ecad molecule, 1350 1352
gene encoding, 632 633 pathogenesis and pathology, 2019 2022
E-cadherin, 1348
Vibrio cholerae, 1091 peripheral blood smears, 2024 2025
ADAM-10 metalloprotease, 667f
DNA databank of Japan (DDBJ), 360 phylogenetic relationships, 2016f
goblet cells, 1348
DNA gyrase, 320 321, 592, 1091. See also phylogeny, 2014
InlA and, 434 435, 494
DNA; topoisomerases serodiagnosis, 2025 2026
peptidoglycan-linked invasin, 1350
bacteriophages, 1887 ELAM-1 (E-selectin), 1730
transmembrane protein, 694
ciprofloxacin-resistant meningococci, 1730 Elastase, 755, 1100, 1556
zonula adherens protein, 930
Escherichia coli, 620 Electrochemiluminescense (ECL), 1819 1820
EcbD proteins, 1517
Ehrlichia spp., 2026 Electron dense layer (EDL), 921
Echocardiography, transoesophageal (TEE),
gyrA gene, 1299 Electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF),
1944
gyrB gene, 1285 209 210, 212 213
ECM-binding protein (Ebp), 814
molecular assays, 1108 Electrospray ionization (ESI), 991
Ecological niches, 931, 1208, 1992
quinolones, 1218 Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion
colonization, 1323
supercoils, 315, 320f cyclotron resonance MS (ESI-FTICR-
Francisella, 1992 1993
DNA polymerases, 319 320, 321f, 589 MS), 1814
physiology, 1044
of Bacillus species, 1790 Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
Ecology
DNA polymerase I, 589 (ESI-MS), 391, 1686
bacterial morphology, 3
DNA polymerase III, 589 Elek immunodiffusion test, 1628
estuarine, 1173
restriction endonucleases, 1790 Elementary bodies (EB), 1450 1451, 1453
of leprosy, 1663 1665
DnaA protein, 183 Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris
microbial, 392, 1614
DnaB helicase protein, 1950 1951 (EMJH) medium, 1980
Mycobacterium intracellulare, 1674
DNA DNA hybridization, 369, 371 372, 518, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway,
Propionibacterium avidum, 837 838
531, 963, 1100, 1321, 1789 206, 1423, 1569
Vibrio cholerae, 1083 1084
DnaK heat-shock proteins, 2065 Emetic toxin, 170
EcoRI, 866
DNase-positive staphylococci, 793 assays for, 1051 1052
Ecosystems, 876, 1099, 1521
DNases, 692t, 693 Bacillus cereus, 1054 1056
Ecthyma, 700, 826
ATP-dependent, 936 Emm gene, 679
Aeromonas infection, 1108
coagulase-negative staphylococci, 794t Enamel smooth surface caries, 946
Ectopic pregnancy, 1411 1412
molecular identity, 692t Encoding extracytoplasmic function (ECF)
Chlamydia-induced infertility, 1411
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 758 sigma factors, 927
Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, 1459
Index 2115

Endocarditis, 650, 1914 Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF),
infective. See Infective endocarditis (IE) 311, 1129, 1142 1143 930
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), 1087 clinical features, 1142 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC),
Endoscopic retrograde detection, 1142 1143 1127, 1129, 1133 1138
cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), 882 epidemiology, 1142 clinical features, 1135
Endospore-borne diseases, 169 173, 169t pathogenesis, 1142 colonization factors, 1136t
Bacillus anthracis, 169 170 Enterobacter aerogenes, 208 contaminated food, 1138
Bacillus cereus syndromes, 167f, 170 Enterobacter hirae, 97 detection, 1138
Clostridium botulinum, 170 171 Enterobacteriaceae, 148, 428 epidemiology, 1137 1138
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), 171 172 Enterobacterial common antigen, 55 pathogenesis, 1135 1137
Clostridium perfringens infections, 172 173 Enterobacterial fimbriae, 411 Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus,
Clostridium sordellii, 171 Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus 971, 979
Clostridium tetani, 170 sequence (ERIC), 1170 1171 atopic dermatitis, 986
opportunistic infections, 173 Enterobactin, 1517 cell targets and mediators, 986 991
toxic shock syndrome, 171 Enterochelin, 1553 chronic rhinosinusitis, 986
Endospores, 25 26, 163 Enterococcal surface protein (ESP), 721 classification, 979
coat, 166 Enterococci, 717, 724 diagnosis, 991 992
detection, 168 169 antibiotic resistance, 722 724 enzymes, 985
formation, 165 166 acquired resistance, 723 exfoliative toxins, 984 985
-forming bacteria, 164, 169t, 170 171 aminoglycosides, 723 food poisoning, 985
germination, 166 168, 167f β-lactams, 723 genome organization, 980
as therapeutic target, 167 168 daptomycin, 724 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 986
mature, 165f glycopeptides, 724 Kawasaki disease, 986
multilayer morphology, 164 intrinsic resistance, 722 723 multiple sclerosis, 986
structure and resistance, 164 165 linezolid, 724 pore-forming toxins, 984
technology, 168 169 streptogramins, 723 prevention, 992 993
Endotoxin, 480 based on 16 S rRNA sequences, 718t rheumatoid arthritis, 986
Bacillus thuringiensis, 1058 daptomycin, 724 superantigens and virulence factors,
Bacteroides fragilis, 934 epidemiological studies, 724 725 980 985
Borrelia burgdorferi, 1890 habitat, 719 surface antigens, 985
Burkholderia pseudomallei healthcare-associated infections, 720 toxic shock syndrome, 985
lipopolysaccharide, 771 history and classification, 718 treatment, 992
intravascular fibrin deposition, 1697 identification, 718 719 Enterotoxins, 305 306
lipid A, 13 infections, 717, 719 720 accessory cholera, 1090t
lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 469 pathogenicity, 720 722 and virulence factors, 980 985
neisserial, 1736 species, 718t atopic dermatitis (AD), 986
non-culturable cells, 193 Enterococcus faecalis, 237t, 339, 815, 938 Bacillus brevis expression, 867
Salmonella typhi, 644 645 encapsulated serotypes, 477 Bacillus diarrheal, 1051
superantigens, 484 LL-37, microbicidal properties of, 551t Bacteroides fragilis, 930
Energy metabolism, 201, 1452 role of QS in, 237t characteristics, 982t
Campylobacter jejuni, 227 228 Tn916, 296 chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), 986
Helicobacter pylori, 209 Enterococcus faecium, 97, 109 classification, 979 980
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 228 229 ATPGrasp family, 112 113 clinical diseases caused by, 985 986
Neisseria meningitidis, 228 229 β-lactam antibiotics, 97 cytolytic, 1104
Orientia, 2068 MALDI-TOF MS, 401 402 cytotonic, 1104
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 229 230 resistance to glycopeptides, 585 cytotoxic, 1104
‘Energy-transducing intermediate’, 201 202 Enterococcus galinarum, 110 δ-haemolysin, 984
Enteric fever, 2077 Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), diarrhoeal, 1055
blood culture, diagnosis of, 1278 310, 1127, 1129, 1133, 1140 1142 enzymes, 985
fatality rate, 1300 clinical features, 1140 Escherichia coli, 975
Salmonella, 423, 1271 detection, 1141 1142 exfoliative toxins, 984 985
symptoms, 1300 epidemiology, 1141 FM-1 enterotoxin, 1063
Enteric nervous system (ENS), 1137 pathogenesis, 1140 1141 genetic characteristics, 981 982
Enteric pathogens, 418 Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), 1129, genome organization, 980
Clostridium difficile, 1032 1143 1144, 1147 heat-labile, 975
Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1552 detection, 1144 heat-stable, 1137
Plesiomonas shigelloides, 1117 epidemiology, 1144 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 986
Salmonella, 456 pathogenesis, 1143 1144 Kawasaki disease (KD), 986
Yersinia enterocolitica, 1271 Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), morphological, biochemical and pathogenic
Enteritis necroticans 310, 1127, 1133, 1138 1140 features, 980
cause, 997 clinical features, 1138 multiple sclerosis (MS), 986
Clostridium perfringens type-C-induced, detection, 1139 1140 non-haemolytic, 1056
997 998 epidemiology, 1139 Plesiomonas shigelloides, 1117 1118
pigbel syndrome, 884 885 pathogenesis, 1138 1139 pore-forming toxins (PFT), 984
2116 Index

Enterotoxins (Continued) RFLP patterns, 866 dissemination, 641


rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 986 treatment and prevention, 867 868 enteropathogenic, 310
SAgs, 985 986 triple sugar iron (TSI) agar, 864 epididymitis, 1409
Shigella-specific pathogenicity islands Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 830, 859 FtsZ ring formation in, 184f
(SHIs), 1153 clinical manifestation of disease, 861 862 gastroenteritis, 1187 1188
staphylococcal, 484, 985, 988 epidemiology, 860 861 heptose modifications, 67
Staphylococcus aureus, 979, 989 990 isolation and identification, 864 865 homologous recombination, 296 298
surface antigens, 985 nomenclature and taxonomy, 859 860 hypochlorite detoxification, 257
toxic shock syndrome, 985 strain relatedness, 865 867 K5, 477
toxic shock syndrome, 985 treatment and prevention, 867 868 CPS, 45
Vibrio cholerae, 283, 1090, 1136 virulence factors, 862 864 Kdo sugar, 67
Yersinia enterocolitica, 1331 1332 Erysipelothrix selective broth (ESB), 864 lac operon, 319, 319f
Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, 206 Erythema chronicum, 649 LpxA, 56
Environmental Legionella Isolation Techniques Erythema migrans, 1700 LpxD, 58
Evaluation (ELITE) Program, 1614 Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), 1656 nephritogenic, 414 415
Enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 1238 1239 Erythrasma, 829 830 nucleoid, 22f
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Erythritol, 1783 nucleoid-associated proteins, 316
828, 1143, 2081 Erythromycin, 616, 892, 1619, 2085t O8 and O9 synthesis, 72
Enzymes, degradative, 484 485, 1393 anaerobic infections, 892 O104:H4 strains, 339
and outer membrane vesicles, 928 930 Bacillus cereus infections, 1054 pathogenicity islands (PAIs) in, 310 311
Epidemic typhus, 2043, 2054 Campylobacter coli strains, 1220 peptidoglycan, 110
Epidemiology Campylobacter infections, 1218 enzymes, 118t
genomic, 364 CDC-recommended treatment, 1411 synthesis, 120
Haemophilus ducreyi, 1437 chancroid, 1420 peritrichous flagella, 9f
Haemophilus influenzae, 1709 1710 donovanosis, 1419 plasmolysed cell, 21f
Helicobacter pylori, 1239 Corynebacterium ulcerans, 1629 ribosomal RNA, 182 183
Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1547 1548 lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), 1410 Shiga toxin-producing, 310
Legionella species, 1618 MexXY efflux pump, 760 and Shigella, phylogenetic relationships,
Leptospira, 1974 1975 Propionibacterium acnes, 844 1152f
molecular, 341 342 syphilis, treatment of, 1418 1419 Toll-like receptors (TLRs), 1999
Moraxella catarrhalis, 1566 1567 translation of mRNA, 595 in urinary tract infections, 1373
colonization and risk factors, 1566 Vibrio parahaemolyticus-associated acute cystitis, 1367
otitis media, 1567 gastroenteritis, 1173 antimicrobial resistance, 1381 1382
respiratory infections, 1566 1567 Esat6 gene, 1660 antivirulence strategies, 1381 1382
Mycobacterium leprae, 1655 Escherichia coli, 8f, 37, 294, 295f, 310 311 ascending, 1368
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1637 1638 acyltransferases, 58 59 chronic cystitis, 1378
phylogenetic perspective ArcB-ArcA system, 224 covert bacteriuria, 1367
amplification-based methods, 522 524 capsular polysaccharides, 36, 38t epithelial adhesion and pili, 1373 1374
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), 239, attachment, 43f host genetic susceptibility determinants,
432, 543, 754 cell morphogenesis proteins in, 118t 1380 1381
Epidermal necrolysis, 828 chromosome, 293 294, 315 immune response and evasion,
Epidermolytic toxin, 655 656, 826 circular, 316f 1378 1380
Epididymitis, 1409 1410 replication, 183 toxins, 1374 1375
gonococcal, 1412 conjugation, 294, 295f uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC),
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 1307 diarrhoeagenic, 1127, 1128t, 1133 1376 1378
Epithelium gastric cells, 1250 classification, 1133 1135, 1134t vaccine prospects, 1382
Epsilon-toxin, 1001 1004, 1005f clinical manifestations, 1129 virulence determinants, 1375
on animals and tissues, 1003 1004 diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), Escherichia coli, diffusely adherent (DAEC),
cellular mechanism of action, 1004 1144 1145 1127, 1129, 1144 1145
characterization, 1002 enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), clinical features, 1144
evidence for involvement, 1002 1142 1143 detection, 1145
pathogenesis, 1001 1002 enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), epidemiology, 1145
structure, 1002 1003 1140 1142 pathogenesis, 1144 1145
ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Escherichia coli adherence factor (EAF)
1142 1138 1140 plasmid, 1140
Erm gene, 1535 1536 enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), E-selectin, 1694
Ertapenem, 890 891 1135 1138 ‘Essentiality’, 614
Erysipelas, 828f genome, 1135 biochemical target, 614
swine, 860 863 morphological and biochemical and genomics, 614
vaccine, 866 867 characteristics, 1135 Esterases, 1100, 1105
Erysipeloid, 859, 862 pathogenesis, 1130 Ester-linked d-alanine, 96
Erysipelothrix, 860 Shiga toxin-producing enteroaggregative Ethambutol, 587
diagnosis, 864 865 E. coli (STEAEC), 1143 against mycobacteria, 587
vs. Listeria, 860 dimethyl sulphoxide reductase, 220 antimicrobial therapy, 1649 1650
Index 2117

arabinosyltransferase, 587 microorganisms, 2048 Fibronectin (Fn), 684, 2071


chemotherapy, 1675 polymerization, 492, 503, 503f binding proteins (FnBPs), 685f, 689
resistance, 1649 Shigella, 505 CadF and FlpA, 431
Ethanol fermentations, 207 SipC, 425 Campylobacter adhesion, 1195f
Ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA), 1113 vinculin-IpaA complex, 1158 Campylobacter jejuni attachment, 1197
Eukaryotes, 125 Factor for inversion stimulation (Fis), 183, glycoprotein, 2071
Eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinase (Stk1), 225 227, 317 high-molecular-weight glycoprotein, 684
261 262 Factor H binding, 686, 1331 Moraxella catarrhalis binding, 1577
Euprymna scolopes, 235 PorB variants, 1478 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1591
European Centre for Disease Prevention and protein (fHbp), 1697, 1737 Orientia, 2071
Control (ECDC), 717 Faecal bacterial strains, 354 protein A, 1198
European Helicobacter pylori Study Group Fansidar, 591 592 tandem repeats, 661 662
(EHSG), 1238 Farnesyl pyrophosphate, 76, 112 Fibronectin-like protein A (FlpA)
ExbB genes, 2000 2001 Fatty acids in Campylobacter jejuni, 1198
ExbB proteins, 1517 Bartonella infection, 1917 Fil gene, 660
ExbD genes, 2000 2001 Burkholderia pseudomallei, 771 Filamentous actin, 2048
Excitotoxicity, 1696 cellular analysis, 1917 Filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA),
glutamate-mediated, 913 cell walls, 373 1510 1512
Exfoliative toxin A (ETA), 828, 984 985 Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, 399 Bordetella pertussis, 1713 1715
Exfoliative toxin B (ETB), 984 985 Nocardia, 744 Bordetella species, 1510 1511
Exoenzyme S, 1556 residues, 116f type V secretion system (T5SS) genes,
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix O-antigen, short chain, 209 1918 1919
1296 Staphylococcus aureus, 262 FilmArray blood culture identification panel,
Exospores, 163 FbaB protein, 439 390
Exosporium, 165 FbpA gene, 1660 Filopodia
Bacillus anthracis, 1795 Fc receptors, 450, 465 466, 479 Cdc42 GTPase activity, 1201
Bacillus cereus, 165, 1049 Campylobacter jejuni, 1200 cell surface sensory, 429
Exotoxin A, 1556 SSL7 bound, 816 ehrlichiae and, 2020
Exotoxins, 482 Febrile syndrome, 1272 -like structures, 424f
endocytosed, 481 Fem-type transferases, 112 113 Filopodial capture, 429 430
intracellular, 481 482 Fermentations, 207 Fimbriae, 9 10. See also Pilus
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis ethanol, 207 conjugative pili, 9 10
(EAE), 986 lactate, 207 208 fimbrial adhesins, 415
Exponential growth, ‘balanced’, 181 182 mixed acid, 208 209 K88, K99 and P987, 155
Extracellular matrix (ECM), 811, 1573 pathways, 206 207, 207f Prevotella intermedia, 10f, 11f
proteins, 1441, 1573, 1922 of sugars and polysaccharides, 206 Fimbrial adhesins, 1712 1713
Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) Ferredoxin, 593 594 FimF-FimG-FimH polymer, 153 154
firmly, 241 Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), 253, 1245 1246 FimH genes, 413 414
Extracellular polysaccharides, 477 Ferric uptake repressor, 253 Fine sugar specificity
Extracellular serine protein (SprE), 721 Ferrichrome, 1517 fimbrial adhesin, 413
Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) Ferritin proteins, 34, 1857 1858 fimbrial shaft influences, 412 413
pathway, 2037 Fetal infections, 1345, 1347, 1429 Fir gene, 660
Extractable antigen 1 (EA1), 1818 Fetomaternal/neonatal listeriosis, 1272 Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, 1412
Eye Fever Flagella, 8, 775, 1036
gonococcal conjunctivitis, 1474 1475 Bartonella infection, 1918t archaeal, 125
louse-borne disease (LBRF), 1895 continual, 1729 assembly system, 140, 140f
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1474 1475 oroya, 1927 cap proteins, 140
Proteus mirabilis, 1389 1390 Q fever. See Q fever distal growth, 140
spirochete, 1892 relapsing, 1870t morphogenesis, 140
Ezrin proteins, 693, 1733 trench, 1927 axial proteins, 140
typhoid. See Typhoid fever chemotaxis, 125
F F-factor. See F plasmid
Fibrin deposition, 1697, 2074
energy source, 127
export apparatus, 140 141
F pili, 147, 1325
activation, 2074 export gate, switching of, 141
F plasmid, 294 295
Fibrinogen Flil ATPase activity, 140 141
chromosomal DNA, fragment of, 295
-binding protein, 721, 1758 type III secretion system, 140
DNA synthesis, 294
cleavage, 695 filaments, 127 128, 129t, 132, 1036
E. coli, 294, 295f
degradation, 696 function, 126 127, 137t
tra region, 294
rabbit plasma, 991 in Gram-negative bacteria, 128f
F1845 gene probe, 1145
rgfBDAC locus, 1758 -mediated mucin binding, 754
F-actin, 425, 439
Srr1 with C-terminus, 1757 1758 morphological pathway
accumulation, 440f
Fibrinolysin, 696, 796, 1177, 1849 cytoplasm, 141
cytoskeleton, 494
Fibrobacter succinogenes, 210 outside cell, 141 142
intracellular, 2048
Fibro-blast growth factor, 1455 periplasmic space, 141
Listeria, 503
2118 Index

Flagella (Continued) Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Francisella


motility, 436, 1408 883 884 ArnT proteins, 64 65
origin, 142 143 Fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET), diagnosis, 1995
F0F1-ATPase, 143 1113, 1683 gammaproteobacterium, 1950 1951
type III secretion system, 142 143 Fluoride, 953 HACEK-group organisms, 1739
protein structures, 125 Fluoroquinolones, 592 593, 1091, 1299, LPS structures, 1999
rate of rotation, 127 1602t, 2085t NADPH oxidase, 1996
rotation, 126f and anaerobic bacteria, 891 pathogenic lifestyle, 1995 1996
Salmonella, 125 bacterial DNA synthesis, 1299 reactive oxygen species (ROS), 1998
structure, 127 140 Bacteroides, 938 TLR2 signalling, 1999 2000
basal body, 136 137 Campylobacter species, 1213 1218 TLR9 activation, 1999
Calladine model, 132 138 Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2026 type A, 2002
chaperones, 139 in genital mycoplasmas, 1602 Francisella novicida, 1992
C rod, 138 139 resistance, 3, 342, 723 Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), 1998
cytoplasmic (C) ring, 138 -resistant Campylobacter species, Francisella tularensis, 1991
filament helicity, 131 1213 1218 adaptive immunity, 2001 2002
filament structure, 130 131 rickettsiae, 2053 distribution and virulence, 1992t
fliC, 127 128 for typhoid fever, 1300 extracellular phase of infection,
hag, 127 128 Yersinia enterocolitica, 1335 1996 1997
hook, 133 136 Fluxomics, 3 extracellular host defences, 1997
LP ring complex, 137 FMN-dependent oxidoreductases, 265 266 initial infection site, 1996
Mot complex, 139 140 Fn-binding proteins, 684, 812 host infection, gene expression during, 1996
MS ring complex, 138 140 FnbpA and B, 812 infection models, 2002
phase variation, 130 Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), 433 intracellular phase of infection
polymorphism, 131 132 Folate host defence, 1999
rod, 137 138 antagonists, 590 591 immune subversion, 1999 2000
tumbling, 127 biosynthesis, 590 591, 1658 nutritional requirements and defences,
Flagellin, 127 131, 1036, 1999 2000 dapsone, 1658 2000 2001
Aeromonas salmonicida, 1101 false, 591 phagosomal escape, 1998
amino acid, 131 mammalian systems, 589 uptake/entry and survival in phagosome,
asialoGM1, 754 Follicular T helper (TFH) cells, 458 460 1997 1998
Campylobacter, 389 Folylpolyglutamate synthase, 1529 laboratory-acquired tularaemia, 2002b
Campylobacter jejuni, 1206 Food contamination, 164, 1326 Live Vaccine Strain (LVS), 631
circular dichroism (CD) measurements, 128 Food poisoning, 655 656, 1055 pathogenic lifestyle, 1995 1996
Clostridium difficile, 1036 Bacillus cereus, 169t, 1041, 1049 1050 taxonomy, epidemiology and ecology,
filament, 127 131 Clostridium difficile, 169t 1991 1993
glycosylation, 1206, 1248 Clostridium perfringens, 169t, 170, 971 tularaemia, 1993 1995
autoagglutination, 1206 diarrhoeal, 1050 1051 diagnosis, 1995
hook formation, 141 cell culture assays, 1050 1051 swollen lymph node, 1994f
polypeptide, 128 commercial immunochemical symptoms, 1993 1995
Proteus mirabilis, 1395 assays, 1051 therapy, 1995
R-type and an L-type, 131 epidemiology, 1050 types, 1994t
Salmonella species, 130 in vivo assays for diarrheal activity, 1050 vaccine development, 2002 2003
structural and functional protein, 1875 emetic, 1051 1054 whole-genome phylogeny, 1993f
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), 754 assays for, 1051 1052 Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP),
from various bacterial species, 129t endophthalmitis, 1052 1997 1998
Flash photolysis, 216 epidemiology, 1051 Free energy, of hydrolysis, 948 949
Flavoproteins, 201 non-gastrointestinal/nonocular infections, Fructose-6-phosphate, 206
electron-transferring, 209 210, 212 213 1052 1054 FtsZ polymerization, 120, 183, 184f
NADH:disulfide oxidoreductase enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus cell elongation, 119
activity, 259 aureus, 985 by SulA, 183
FlhB-polyhook mutants, 135 non-emetic, 1051 1054 Fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator
FliA-FlgM regulatory system, 135 staphylococcal, 985, 993 (FNR), 267 268
FliG protein, 138 Food-borne diseases, 171, 1187 1188 sensing of O2, 268f
FliK, hook length, 135, 136f Food-borne pathogen Fumarate reductase (FrdA), 227
FliM protein, 138 Bacillus cereus, 1049 1050 Functional type IV pili (Tfp), 1996
FliN protein, 138 Bacillus species, 1791 Fungal infections, diagnosis of, 383
FliN-FliH binding, 141 Listeria monocytogenes, 494 Fur gene, 1175 1176
FliY mutant, 1978 toxins, 1050 Fusidic acid, 595 597, 659 660, 980, 1116
FljB operon, 130 Foreign DNA, 2 Fusobacterium, 879 880, 962
FljB-fljA operon, 130 Forespore membranes, 26, 1793 1794 community-acquired pneumonia, 882
Floppy baby syndrome, 1016 Forward feedback loops (FFL), 166 deep gingival crevices, 880
Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Fosfomycin, 584f suppurative appendicitis, 883
phalloidin, 1138 F-prime, 295 tropical ulcer, 833
Index 2119

Fusobacterium nucleatum, 880 Gastrointestinal infections, superficial Genetic transformation, 33


Fusobacterium ulcerans, 833 bacterial pathogens, 1128t Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1473
Campylobacter, 1129 pneumococci, capacity of, 1531
G clinical manifestations, 1129
pathogenesis, 1130
sequence homologies, 1736
Genetic variations
G protein
diarrhoeagenic E. coli, 1127 Coxiella strains, 1955 1956
-coupled receptors, 1328
clinical manifestations, 1129 genes encoding virulence, 1522
host heterotrimeric, 1201
pathogenesis, 1130 molecular typing methods, 518
TpeL glycosylated Rac1, 1001
Helicobacter pylori, 1129 multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE),
G-actin, 1005 1007
clinical manifestations, 1129 520
Gal gene, 294
pathogenesis, 1130 Neisseria meningitidis, 529
Galabiose, 417 418
Shigella, 1127 1128 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
Galactose, 1782
clinical manifestations, 1129 typing, 522
Campylobacter jejuni, 1212
pathogenesis, 1130 Genital herpes vaccine, 632, 1407
Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A, 801
Tropheryma whipplei, 1129 Genital tract infections, 885 886
truncated LPS molecule deficient, 1722
clinical manifestations, 1129 bacterial vaginosis, 885
Vibrio shiloi, 411
pathogenesis, 1130 postpartum endomyometritis, 885 886
Galactose-alpha-1-4-galactose-specific
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio Genital ulcer diseases (GUD), 1437
receptors, 305
vulnificus, 1129 Genome
Galactose-epimerase (galE) mutation,
clinical manifestations, 1129 Aeromonas spp., 1103 1104
1300 1301
pathogenesis, 1130 Bacteroides fragilis, 924 925
Gallbladder
Gastrointestinal tract, 307, 1271 -based typing, 519t
inflammation, 1295 1296
E. coli, 641, 1382 -based virulence factor prediction, 363 364
Salmonella Typhi, 1296f
fluid and electrolytes, 971 degradation, 1283
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA),
group B streptococci, 1752f Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 860
1150 1151, 1696
infections, 1107 evolution, 361
γ-toxin, 664
mucosal epithelial surfaces, 639 organization, 980
Gas chromatography coupled with mass
O2 tensions, 1156 for propionibacterial species, 845t
spectrometry (GC-MS), 402 403
oral cavity, 744 Propionibacterium acnes, 844
Gas gangrene
tularaemia, symptoms of, 1994 1995 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 793
clostridial, 900 901
type C infection, 997 998 Genome sequence analysis, 932, 1571
Clostridium perfringens, 169t, 899, 997
Vibrio cholerae, 1085 bioinformatics, 361 362
Clostridium septicum, 900
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, 1192 1193 computational methods for, 359t
non-traumatic, 900
GBS hypervirulence, BLAST analysis, 1759 diagnosis, 364
prevention, 902
GCAT (glycero-phospholipid:cholesterol Genome sequencing-based diagnosis, 364
traumatic, 899 900
acyltransferase), 1105 Genome-based typing, 521 522
Gas vacuoles, 7
Gelatinase, 815 816 Genome-wide phylogenetic reconstruction, 527
Gas vesicles, 22 23
Gene gain and gene loss, in bacterial Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism
GASP (Growth Adapted to Stationary Phase),
pathogens, 339 340 loci, 522
188
Gene library, 1714 1715 Genome-wide transcriptomic studies, 506
Gastric adenocarcinoma, 1244
Gene pool, 303 Genomic diagnostic techniques
Gastric carcinogenesis, 1239, 1245
Gene sequencing, ribosomal, 372 373 challenges, 392 394
Gastric ulcers, 1192 1193
General paresis, 1699 antimicrobial resistance, 394
Gastritis
Generation time clinical interpretation, 393
acute, 1129
Bacillus species, 1792 detected sequences, expression of, 394
Campylobacter-like bacterium, 1237
bartonellae, 1920 DNA carryover contamination, 392 393
Helicobacter-pylori, 1192 1193
Coxiella, 1954 mass spectrometry, 391
Gastroenteritis, 1116, 1133, 1187 1188, 1261,
Coxiella burnetii, 1953 microarrays, 389 391
1272, 1348
mycobacteria, 1639 liquid arrays, 390 391
acute infections, 1260
Nocardia asteroides, 732 solid arrays, 389 390
Campylobacter, 1187 1191
for nocardias, 732 molecular typing, 387 389
role in, 1189 1191
Rickettsia prowazekii, 2047 amplified fragment length polymorphism
immunocompetent people, 1297
Genetic drift, 1954 (AFPL), 387
Listeria monocytogenes, 1346
Genetic heterogeneity, 374 multilocus sequence typing (MLST),
NTS serovars, 1289 1292
Genetic manipulation, 281 388 389
Salmonella Typhi, 1293 1294
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 2039 polymorphic DNA, random amplification,
Salmonella typhimurium, 1283
bacteriophages, 1887 387 388
self-limiting, 1291 1292
Borrelia burgdorferi, 1887 pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 387
typical febrile, 1271
Borrelia genome, 1886 1887 repetitive-element polymerase chain
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 1173
Burkholderia pseudomallei, 777 reaction (rep-PCR), 388
Gastrointestinal microbiota, 917
foundation tools, 2 single-locus sequence typing (SLST),
Gastrointestinal anthrax, 169
non-antibiotic-based bactericidal resistance 388 389
Gastrointestinal diseases, 1334
markers, 777 variable-number tandem repeat loci
toxin-associated. See Toxin-associated
Src-inhibitor PP2, 811 812 (VNTR), 388
gastrointestinal disease
2120 Index

Genomic diagnostic techniques (Continued) Glucosyltransferase (GTF), 817 diagnosis and treatment, 1413 1414
next-generation sequencing, 391 392 Cps2E, 68 gonococcal arthropathy, 1413
nucleic acid amplification, 383 387 Streptococcus mutans, 948 949 gonococcal epididymitis, 1412
hybridization probes (HybriProbes), GluP glucose/galactose transporter, 1240 gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, 1413
384 385 Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs, 1245 infection in women, 1412
multiplex PCR, 384 Glutamate pharyngeal gonococcal infection, 1413
nested PCR, 384 -binding protein, 1198 proctitis, 1412
non-specific fluorescent dyes, 384 decarboxylase isozymes, 1155 uncomplicated Ng infection, 1413
probe amplification and signal dehydrogenase pathway, 1571 urethritis and cervicitis, 1412
amplification, 383 -mediated excitotoxicity, 913 GQ1b antibodies, 1212
real-time PCR, 384 386, 386f oxidation, 2045 Gram-negative bacteria, 37 38
reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), 384 transport, 1952 ABC transporter-dependent polymerization,
target amplification, 383 387 Glutamate synthase-glutamine synthetase 41
nucleic acid probe hybridization, 381 383 pathway, 1571 acylated homoserine lactones, 236
bloodstream infections, 382 Glutamic acid, 590 591 adhesive fibres from, 156t
genital infections, 382 Glutamine, oxidation of, 2045 capsular and O-antigenic teichoic acids in,
miscellaneous pathogen detection, Glutamylcysteinyl-glycine or glutathione 94t
382 383 (GSH), 253 254 capsular polysaccharides, 34 36, 42
mycobacteria, 381 382 biosynthesis, 254 cell wall, 16f, 17 18
PCR variations, 385t E. coli, 257 flagellum in, 128f
real-time PCR Glutaredoxin (Grx/GSH/Gor) pathways gut, 720
amplicon detection techniques, 386f protein disulphides, reduction of, 255f inner core synthesis, 63
Genomic epidemiology, 364 Glutathione (GSH), 254 lipopolysaccharide, 55, 59 61, 644 645,
Genomic islands, 775 776, 980, 1322 biosynthesis and functions, 254 255 1102, 1514, 2069 2070
organization of, 304f Glutathione peroxidases (Gpx), 259 membrane impermeability, 760
Genomic library, 1661 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, 206 O antigen, 1395, 1550
Genomic omic techniques, 399 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase outer membrane, 616 617
metabonomics and metabonomic techniques, (GAPDH), 814 pathogenicity island in, 307 311
402 403 D-Glycero-D-talo-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), 311
in molecular medical microbiology, 400t (Ko), 59 enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 310
proteomics and proteomic techniques, Glycerol phosphate, 93 94 Escherichia coli, 310 311
401 402 Glycero-manno-heptose, 59 63 representative list of strains, 308t
transcriptomics and transcriptomic Glycerophospholipid synthesis, 1105, 2068 Salmonella spp., 307 310
techniques, 399 401 Glycocalyx, 1118, 1409 1410 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 310
Genotyping techniques, 601 coating of Macaque sperm, 548 SPI-1, 304, 306 309
Gentamicin, 595, 2085t polysaccharide and protein film, 10 SPI-2, 306 309
Bacillus cereus, 1054 Glycolipid lipoarabinomannan, 496 497 SPI-4, 309
Campylobacter coli strains, 1220 N-Glycolylmuramic acid, 113 SPI-5, 309 310
Ehrlichia chaffeensis, 2026 Glycolysis SPI-6, 310
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1556 classical pathways, 206, 210 SPI-11, 310
resistance, 717, 1108 1109 Orientia, 2068 SPI-16, 310
Ger receptor, 166 167 Streptococcus mutans, 950f Vibrio cholerae, 310
Germ cell wall (GCW), 165 Glycopeptides, 585 Yersinia spp., 307
Germinant receptor operons, 1797 antibiotic resistance, 724 peptidoglycan, 110 111
Germination-specific lytic enzymes (GSLEs), Enterococcus faecium, resistance, 585 permeability barriers, 616
1797 1798 peptidoglycan assembly, 585 pili, 147
GFP-tagged toxin, employing recombinant, Glycophorins, 1105 alternative chaperone-usher pathways, 155
1003 aerolysin and, 1105 assembly proteins and mechanisms,
GGDEF family regulators, 1045 1046 human erythrocyte, 1596 148 151
Gingival epithelium, 962 Glycoside hydrolases, 210 chaperone-usher pathway, 147 148
gene expression, 962 Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored CUP, 148, 155
GlcNAc residue, 73 proteins, 911 curli, 156 157
Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Glycosyltransferases (GTases), 63, 113 in adhesion and disease, 155 156
912 913 Glycylcyclines, 891 interfering with, 157 158
Globoseries glycolipids, 1381 Golden staph. See Enterotoxin-producing subunit structure, 148
Glomerulonephritis Staphylococcus aureus usher, 152 154
post-streptococcal, 701 702, 826 Gonococcal infection secretion systems, 754, 1106
secondary immunologically induced disseminated, 1475 spore-forming, 164t
diseases, 1333 pharyngeal, 1413 TLR4, 1999
Glossitis, 1415 Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum, 1413 Gram-negative intracellular diplococci (GNID),
Glucan binding proteins (GBPs), 948 950 Gonococcal pathogenesis, 1411 1412 1413
Glucokinase, 1240 Gonorrhoea diseases, 1412 1414, 1471 Gram-positive bacteria, 38 39
Glucosamine, 1514 coinfections, 1414 anionic wall polymers, 93t
Glucose-6-phosphate, 207 208, 1060 complicated Ng infections, 1414 autoinducing peptides, 236
Index 2121

capsular polysaccharides, 36 Aeromonas, 1105 Rd genome, 521


capsules, 44 Bacillus cereus, 1059 1061 stages in development, 1710f
cell death, 586 587 Bartonella infection, 1921 tetrameric repeats and catalytic function,
cell wall, 16f, 17 18 coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 794 796 1724
polymers, 116 cytolysins, 1174 type b meningitis, 1710f
head-stalk-type adhesins, 305 Vibrio vulnificus, 1177 vaccine, 1718 1719
pathogenicity island in, 311 Haemolysins of BL (HBL), 1041, 1057f Hafnia alvei, 1139
Clostridium difficile, 311 haemolysis pattern, 1057 1058 Halophilic vibrio species, 1173
Listeria monocytogenes, 311 multicomponent ileal-loop factor, 1058 Hansen’s disease, 1655
Staphylococcus aureus, 311 Haemolytic units (HU), 795 Hap adhesin, 1714 1715
peptidoglycan, 17, 105 106, 111, 583 Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), 310, Haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex, 662
proteins, 116 117 1107, 1133 hCAP18 expression, 549
permeability barrier, 616 Haemophilus ducreyi, 59 61, 1203 1204 Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP),
S-layers, 11 antimicrobial treatment, 1443 1503 1504
spore-forming, 164t clinical infection and disease, 1442 Heat shock proteins (Hsp), 1238 1239, 1246
uropathogens, 1368 1369 epidemiology, 1437 Hsp60, 1459
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (gCSF), host response to infection, 1438 1439 Hsp65, 1681
1378 1379 animal models, 1438 1439 Hsp70, 1650
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating human model, 1439 Heat-labile toxin, 1051 1052, 1800
factor (GMCSF), 1615 1616 pathogenicity, determinants of, 1439 1442 Heat-shock protein A, 1246 1247
Granulocytes adaptive immunity, evasion of, 1441 Heavy chain subunit (HCC), 1021
Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection, bacterial virulence determinants, HEK 293 (human embryonic kidney)
2034 2035 1441 1442 cells, 813
HGA patients, 2038 contribute to virulence in human model of HeLa cell monolayers, 1144
Granuloma inguinale (GI), 1419 infection, 1440t Helicobacter acinonychis, 1246
Granulomatosis infantiseptica, 1272 innate immunity, evasion of, 1439 1441 Helicobacter pylori, 109 110, 237t, 842 843,
Granulomatosis infantisepticum, 1347 physiology, 1437 1438 1127, 1128t, 1237, 1249
Granulomatous disease, chronic (CGD), prevention, 1443 acid resistance, 1243
735 736, 1666 sexually transmitted infections, diagnosis of, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), 67
Green fluorescent protein (GFP-MotB), 139, 1442 1443 bacterial energy metabolism, 228
1887 Haemophilus influenza Rd, 357 358 CagA gene, 1244 1245
Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver stain, 830 Haemophilus influenzae, 2 3, 93, 99, 409, diagnosis, 1238 1239
GroEL-heat shock protein, 1816 1817, 1926 1709 epidemiology and transmission, 1239
GroES chaperonin domain, 1246 adhesin, 1714 1715 genetic variation, 1242 1243
Group B streptococcus (GBS), 521, cap locus, 1718f genome, 1240 1243
1693 1694. See also Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide, 1716 1718 growth requirements and metabolism, 1240
agalactiae biosynthesis, genetics of, 1717 1718 H. pylori adhesin A protein (HpaA),
Grx enzymes, 255 pathogenesis, role in, 1716 1717 1247 1248
GTPase activating protein (GAP), 479, 1328 capsulated and non-encapsulated strains, 1719 H. pylori polyclonal stool antigen (HpSA)
GTPase targeting, 498 499 catalytic function, 1724 test, 1239
Guanine, 391 central nervous system (CNS), 1698 heat-shock protein A, 1246 1247
Guanine exchange factors (GEFs), 424 epidemiology, 1709 1710 IceA, 1247
Guanine nucleotide exchange factors, 492 493 eukaryotic cells, invasion of, 1715 1716 microevolution, 1242 1243
Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), 183 184, fimbrial adhesins, 1712 1713 organization, diversity and regulation,
1996 fimbrial phase variation, 1713 1240 1242
Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), 595, 990 Hap adhesin, 1714 1715 pathology, 1237 1238
Guanylate cyclase, 763 764, 975, 1137 high-molecular-weight surface proteins, polymerase chain reaction, 1238
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), 1192 1713 1714 rapid urease test, 1238
gyr genes, 889 down-modulation, 1714 serology, 1238 1239
gyrA gene, 1299 invasive disease, 1710 1711 structure and morphology, 1237
virulence determinants, 1716 superoxide dismutase and catalase,
H iron and haem acquisition, 1716
lipopolysaccharide, 1719 1724
1245 1246
therapy, 1239
H1-ATPase, 202
phase variation, 1720 1722 urea breath test, 1239
Haem, 1716
structure, 1719 1720, 1720f urease, 1243
Haem oxygenase protein (HemO), 1978
and virulence, 1722 1723 VacA toxin, 1243 1244
Haemagluttinnin protease (HA/P), 1085
non-type band and non-serotypeable strains, virulence mechanisms
Haem-copper (HCO) superfamily, 213
1711 adhesion and outer-membrane proteins,
Haemolysin BL family of tripartite toxin,
pathogenesis, 1711 1712 1249 1251
1056 1059
lgA1, inactivation of, 1711 1712 BabA, 1249 1250
Haemolysin E, 483
respiratory mucosa, colonization of, 1711 dupA gene, 1250 1251
Haemolysin III (HlyIII), 1060 1061
phase variable immunity and outer membrane,
Haemolysin IV (HlyIV), 1061
mechanisms, 1721f 1248 1249
Haemolysins, 1511
virulence determinants, 1723 1724 motility and flagella, 1247 1248
adenylate cyclase-, 1513
2122 Index

Helix-turn-helix (HTH), 260 261 Hook movement during rotation, 134f Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME),
DNA-binding, 1064 Hook-associated protein, 136 2011, 2021f, 2022f
domain, 223 224 Hook-basal body (HBB), 1247 Human oral microbe identification microarray
Hemicelluloses, 210 Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), 291, 315, 317, (HOMIM), 963
Henle-Koch postulates, 181 338, 842 843, 1080 1081, 1241, Human papillomavirus (HPV), 383, 632, 1404
Heparan sulphate (HS), 754 1507 1509 Human toll-like receptors (TLR), 451t
Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs), 754, integration of horizontally acquired DNA, generic signalling cascade, 455f
2070 2071 296f Humoral immunity. See Immunity: humoral
Heparin-binding protein (HBP), 689 lateral gene transfer, 291 Hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule, 686
Hepatitis A virus, 1004 mechanisms, 291f, 1557 Hyaluronidase, 862 863
Hepatitis B virus, 383, 632, 851 Hospital-acquired infection, 642 Hydrogen peroxide, 221, 666, 1245 1246,
Hepatitis C virus, 383 E. coli, prevalence of, 1368 1438, 1441
Hepcidins, 539 urinary tract infection, 1369t, 1558, 1671 Hydrogen sulphide sproduction, 864
Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Host adaptation, 280 281, 2036 Hydrolysis probes (TaqMan), 386
1761 Host cells, 424 Hydrolytic exotoxins, 482
Heptose modifications, 67 adherence of Bartonella spp., 1921 1923 Hydroperoxides, oganic (OHP), 260 261
Herd immunity, 1522 Campylobacter jejuni, 1198 1199 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), 251 252
Herpes simplex virus (HSV), 383, 552 Chlamydia trachomatis, 1450f Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), 901 902
Herpes vaccine, 632 cytokine responses induction from, 415 416 Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 890
HibMenCY-TT vaccine, 46 invasion, 1923 1924 Hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D, 467 468
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments, molecular interactions, 410t Hypersensitivity, 547, 1861, 2079 2080
1115 surface receptors, 361 delayed-type (DTH), 832
High pathogenicity island (HPI), 303 304, Host defence system, 1147, 1373, 2000 T lymphocytes, 2051 2052
1322, 1332 Host immune responses, 2023, 2058 to tuberculin, 832
High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), Hypogammaglobulinaemia, 1596
1243 1244 1204 1205 Hypoglycaemia, 1085
High-molecular-weight (HMW) Listeria monocytogenes infections, 1356 1358 Hypothetical peptidoglycan synthesis, 119f
polysaccharide, 1207 Salmonella, 1314 Hypovolaemia, 975 976
High-performance liquid chromatography Host-cell-dependent bacteria, 1954 HypR protein, 263f
(HPLC), 1679 Host-controlled restriction-modification, 2
HilA protein, 321 322
Histatins, 539
Host pathogen microbiota interactions,
351 353
I
iagA gene, 1759
Histidine kinase (HK), 222 223, 762 colonization resistance, 351
iap gene, 434 435, 1352
Histidine protein kinase, 321 323 subversion, 351 352
ica gene, 800, 802
Histidine-337, 75 76 impact on virulence, 353
icaADBC genes, 802
His-Werner disease, 1912 influence on transmission, 353
iceA gene, 1247
HITChip (human intestinal tract chip), Housekeeping enzymes, 520
ICEPm1-deficient Proteus mirabilis strains,
882 883 Housekeeping genes, 601
1396
HIV-infection, 545. See also AIDS Aeromonas sharmana, 1100
IcsA gene, 1153, 1155
antiretroviral therapy, 1640 1641 allelic profiles, 1286f
IcsA protein, 503
cell-mediated immunity, 1699 energy metabolism, 184
Idiopathic IBD, 468
chancroid, 1419 in MLST, 527, 657
IgAl proteases, 1712
HIV-1 varions, 545 nucleotide sequencing, 841 842
Ilyobacter tartaricus, 204 205
immunodeficient, 1670 1671 role of H-NS, 318 319
Imidazoles, 587
immunosuppressed, 1297 HPAG1 strain, 1240 1241
Imipenem, 738, 890 891, 919, 936, 1557
invasive pneumococcal disease, 1698 Hp-SOD-deficient Helicobacter pylori strains,
Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109
syphilis lesions, 1429 1245 1246
Immature dendritic cells (iDC), 546
HLA-B27-specific human immunologic hsdR gene, 660
Immune complexes, 1701, 1734
leukocyte antigen, 1333 hsp65 sequencing, 1681
in blood vessels, 1414 1415
hlyA gene, 1108 HtrA protease activity, 1199 1200
classical pathway, 476
HlyE families, 1058 HugA outer-membrane receptor, 1118
M2b macrophages, 464
HlyII gene, 1060 HugChip (human gastrointestinal chip), 883
non-SLE-prone population, 468
HlyII synthesis, 1060 Human brain microvascular endothelial cells
Immune resistance, 1403
HNS (Histone-like nucleoid-structuring (HBMEC), 441, 1695
Immune response, 2057
protein), 225 227 Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA),
adaptive, 456 457
Hodgkin’s disease, 1942 2011 2012
evasion of, 697 700
Holotoxin, 1026 serodiagnosis, 2035
in allergic children, 168
Homologous recombination, 296 298, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 1475,
Campylobacter, 1210 1213
340 341 1637
cell-mediated, 651
in bacteria, 296 297 Human microbiota, 347 349
and evasion, 1378 1380
DNA fragmentation, 296 298 studies of, 349 351
innate
DNA replication, 297f study techniques, 350t
evasion of, 662 665, 690 694
L-Homoserine, 108 109 therapeutic target, 353 354
Legionella trigger, 1615 1616
Hook length control, 135 typical phylum-level composition, 348f
Lewis antigen, 74
Index 2123

Listeria monocytogenes infections, Immunoglobulin, intravenous (IVIG), 986 chronic pulmonary, 33


1356 1358 Immunoglobulin A (IgA) clinical manifestations of, 1346 1348
moderator of, 463 anti-Campylobacter jejuni, 1212 Clostridium difficile, 171 172, 394, 1031
modulation of, 506 -binding proteins, 698 Clostridium perfringens, 172 173
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1479 1480 humoral immunity, 698 contemporary GAS, 703f
Orientia infection, 2080 2081 immunoglobulin class switching to, 463 cutaneous mycobacterial, 831 833
Propionibacterium acnes in skin, 849 851 iron-binding protein, 1712 dermal, 1173 1174
quorum signals, 239 240 mucosal, 697 device- and hospital-acquired, 1671
residual memory, 627 proteases, 1693 1694 diabetic chronic wound, 886
T-cell-dependent, 46 Immunoglobulin G (IgG), 362 363, 698 diabetic foot, 886 887
vaccine development, 1577 1578 Ehrlichia, 2025 disseminated gonococcal, 1475
Immunity, 461 462, 651, 1699, 1892, hydrolysis, 699 disseminated meningococcal, 1734
2001 2002 Q fever, 1945 disseminated, 637, 641
adaptive, 449, 464 465, 467 468, 1427 Immunoglobulin M (IgM), 1892 E. coli, in urinary tract, 1381
antigen presentation, 1427 anti-Brucella, 1785 endemic GAS, 704t
Francisella tularensis, 2001 2002 Borrelia burgdorferi-spccific antibodies, enterococcal, 719 720
Haemophilus ducreyi, 1441 1892 female genital tract, 1474
interface with innate immunity, 466 467 Borrelia hermsii infection, 1892 fetal, 1345, 1347, 1429
antigen presentation, 1427 to Coxiella burnetii, 1948 Francisella tularensis, 1996 1997, 1999
antitumour, 851 Ehrlichia, 2025 fungal, 383
Borrelia burgdorferi infection, 1892 isotype, 1925 GAS, 697 698
cell-mediated, 461 462, 651, 1699, Leptospira, 1981 gastrointestinal tract, 1107
2001 2002 Q fever, 1945 genital chlamydial, 1409
antitumour, 851 RF spirochetes, 1892 genital tract, 382, 885 886
Brucella, 1786 Immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, 2051, gonococcal, 1413, 1475
chronic intracellular infections, 651 2083 2084 Gram-negative skin, 830
Francisella, 2001 2002 Immunoperoxidase assay, indirect (IPA), 2081 healthcare-associated, 720
lepromin test, 831 Immunosuppressive therapy, 434, 833 HIV, 545, 1640 1641, 1644 1645, 2024
MHC-1 molecules, 632 633 bacteraemia, 1670 1671 hospital-acquired, 642
T-cell-mediated, 1959 1960 ‘blebs’, 1480 intra-abdominal, 882 887, 1117
Treponema pallidum, 1699 cell-mediated immune responses, 651 appendiceal, 883
chronic intracellular infections, 651 Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, bite wounds, 886
GAS infection, 697 698 1629 1630 cancer, 884 885
homologous protection, 2079 HIV infection, 2024 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 883 884
innate. See Innate immunity immune response, 1598 in intensive care unit, 883
and host response, 1925 1926 Listeria, 1347 -induced periodontal diseases, 957 958
Bartonella bacilliformis, 1925 SEB-induced T-cell expansion, 986 invasive, 484
Bartonella henselae, 1925 Impetigo, 656 Karp strain, 2080
Bartonella quintana, 1925 bullous, 828 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1555
humoral, 1892 non-bullous, 826 latent TB, 1643 1644
Borrelia burgdorferi infection, 1892 Indole alkaloids, 735 Listeria intracellular, 496f
GAS infection, 697 698 Inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS), 2052 Listeria monocytogenes, 1356 1358
homologous protection, 2079 Infection, disseminated gonococcal (DGI), male urethra, acute, 1474
SpyCEP, 692 1475 metastatic, 647 649
lepromin test, 831 Infections mucosal meningococcal, 1734 1735
in Lyme borreliosis, 1891 1892 acute respiratory, 1499 necrotizing clostridial, 899
MHC-1 molecules, 632 633 acute wound, 887 neonatal, 650 651
in relapsing fever, 1892 Aeromonas, 1107 1108 Ng, 1413
SpyCEP, 692 Aeromonas veronii, 1100, 1107 opportunistic, 173
Treponema pallidum, 1699 anaerobic, 875 877 Orientia, 2079 2083
vaccine-induced, 1519, 1522 Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 2034 2035, periodontal, 879 880
Immunoassays, 168, 1051, 1810 1811 2035f pharyngeal gonococcal, 1413
Immunocompromised host Bacillus cereus, 1054 pleural, 881 882
Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection, 2035 Bacteroides fragilis, 887, 891, 917 pleuropulmonary, 881
Bacillus cereus, 170 Bacteroides vulgatus, 891 polymicrobial, 1700
disseminated infection, 651 Bartonella, 1915, 1917, 1920 1921 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 549 550
in special hosts, 651 bloodstream, 382 rabbit, 1422
immunocompetent, 881 Borrelia burgdorferi, 1892 Rickettsia rickettsii, 2049
Mycobacterium leprae, 1664 Borrelia hermsii, 1892 Rickettsia, 2053
shigellosis, 428 Campylobacter, 1213, 1218 sexually transmitted. See Sexually
tuberculosis, 1648 Campylobacter jejuni, 1220 1221 transmitted infection (STI)
Immunocytochemical electron microscopy catheter-associated urinary tract, 1389 1390 Shigella flexneri, 1153
techniques, 20 chronic intracellular, 651 skin and soft tissue. See Skin and soft tissue
Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), 2051 chronic localized, 1260 infections (SSTIs)
2124 Index

Infections (Continued) circumstances of, 1504 Interferon gamma (INF-γ), 461 462
ST-17, 1756 epidemic/sporadic, 1504 CD4 T cells, 484
superficial gastrointestinal. geography and exposures, 1504 Chlamydia trachomatis, 1453
See Gastrointestinal infections, clinical approach, 1499 IL-10 promoter, 1943
superficial Corynebacterium spp., 1630 latent TB infection (LTBI), 1643 1644
superficial, 826 delineating clinical syndrome, 1500 1504 lethal toxic shock syndrome, 981
suppurative, 656 Haemophilus influenzae, 1711 neutrophil oxygen consumption, 755
synergistic/combined, 833 laboratory testing, 1505 rickettsia infections, 2053
systemic gastrointestinal, 1269 medical characteristics of affected patient, SLE pathogenesis, 467
treponemal, 1421 1422 1504 tryptophan starvation, 1453
uncomplicated Ng, 1413 Moraxella catarrhalis, 1566 1567, 1577 tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, 1202
upper respiratory tract, 1568 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1590 1591 Interferon regulator factor (IRF), 453
urinary tract. See Urinary tract infections pathophysiology, 1499 1500 Intergenic transcribed sequences (ITS),
(UTIs) Infective dose, 772, 1516 1517, 1946 182 183
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 1178 Infective endocarditis (IE), 811 Interkingdom signalling, in Pseudomonas
viral, 1503 bacterial adherence to damaged valves, aeruginosa, 236f
in women, 1412 811 812 Interleukin 1 (IL-1)
wound, 656 bacterial virulence factors, 815 817 alpha and beta, 458
zoonotic, 1776 Enterococcus faecalis, 815 816 chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines,
Infections, disseminated, 637, 641 Staphylococcus aureus, 816 817 981
anatomical barriers, 651 viridans group streptococci (VGS), 815 receptor, 452 453, 645
bacteraemia and severe sepsis, 642 645 candidal endocarditis, 817 818 Interleukin 6 (IL-6), 458 460
bacterial components implication, 645t host response to invading pathogens, 817 Interleukin 8 (IL-8), 663
epidemiology, 643 644 mammalian cells, 815 E. coli, in urinary tract infections, 1381
lipopolysaccharide, 644 645 microbial surface components recognizing Interleukin-10 (IL)-10, 1958
pathogenesis, 644 adhesive matrix molecules Interleukin-17 (IL-17), 1695
bacterial colonization in humans, 638f (MSCRAMMs), 812 814 Interleukin 18 (IL-18), 458
cell-mediated immunodeficiency, 651 vegetation formation, 811 Internal transcribed sequence (ITS), 372 373,
colonization and risk, 637 639 viridans group streptococci 1673
environmental factors, 642 (VGS), 814 815 Interpolated Markov models (IMMs), 358
failure of opsonization and bacterial Inflammatory cytokines, polymorphisms in, Intestinal cells, 971
clearance, 651 1697 Intestinal epithelial cells, 973, 1158
in HIV/AIDS, 652f Inhalational anthrax, 169 170 in cell culture models, 1210 1211
host defences, evading, 640t Innate immunity, 456 457, 462f, 849 850, Intestinal tract
host-pathogen interactions, 641 642 1891 1892 Bacteroides fragilis infection, 917
humoral immune deficiency, 651 with adaptive immune system function, colonization, 155, 1016
immunocompromised host, 651 466 467 features, 286
microorganism adherence to host structures, B lymphocytes, 466 467 gastrointestinal anthrax, 1791
640t T helper cell phenotypes, 467 Peyer’s patches, 1272
neonatal, 650 651 T lymphocytes, 466 Proteus mirabilis, 1390
neutropenia, 651 barriers, 457 Shigella, 1153 1154
pathogenesis, 637 642 cytokines, 459f Intravascular coagulation, disseminated (DIC),
penetration and, 639 640 to GAS disease, 690 1173 1174, 1505, 2024, 2074 2075
in special hosts, 650 651 Haemophilus ducreyi, 1439 1441 Invasins, 1106
superantigen-mediated bacterial shock, helminths, 457 Invasion
646 650 and toll receptors, 449 Aeromonas hydrophila, 439
inflammatory mediators, 646 647 INNO-LIPA Mycobacteria kit, 381 Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, 440
metastatic infection, 647 650 Inositol brilliant green bile salts agar Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc),
survival in blood, 640 (IBB), 1112 440 441
Infections, intra-abdominal, 882 887, 1117 Insertion element, 1718f Campylobacter jejuni, 430 432
acute wound, 887 IS1016, 43 cellular invasion process, 432
appendiceal, 883 IS1303, 43 flagella, 431 432
bite wounds, 886 plasmid encodes, 1153 GEFs function and small Rho GTPases, 432
cancer, 884 885 Insertion sequence (IS), 303 host cell receptors and kinases, 432
diabetic chronic wound, 886 characterization, 1507 1509 intracellular trafficking, 432
diabetic foot, 886 887 restriction fragment length polymorphism microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules
genital tract, 885 886 (IS-RFLP), 1674 (MTs), 432
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 883 884 INT-407 cells, 1198 Candida albicans, 441
in intensive care unit, 883 Integrated microbial genomes (IMG) database, CEACAM, 437
skin and soft tissue, 886 520 521 Cryptococcus neoformans, 441
Infections, respiratory tract, 1504, 1566 1567 Integration host factor (IHF), 316 317 Enterobacter sakazakii, 441
Bacillus cereus, 1062 Integrative and conjugative element Escherichia coli, 440f, 441f
bacterial pneumonia, lung biopsy of, 1502f (ICE), 681, 1081 filopodial capture, at intestinal epithelial
chest radiograph of adult patient, 1503f Intense inflammatory response, 464 cells, 429 430
Index 2125

into non-phagocytic host cells, 424f Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), 112 Kupffer cells, 1348 1349
Listeria monocytogenes, 434 436, 435f Ixodes, 477, 1867, 1896 Kussmaul breathing, 1085
cell infection and virulence determinants, Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE) strain, 2023
434 436, 435f
Neisseria, 437f
Ixodes scapularis, different stages of, 2017f
Ixodidae
L
Lactate fermentations, 207 208
pathogenic Neisseria, 436 438 borrelial persistence in, 1878
Lactobacillus casei, 99 100, 207
opacity-associated (Opa) adhesion growth and dissemination in, 1874
Lactobacillus pentoaceticus, 209
proteins, 436 437
Lactobacillus plantarum, 106 108
proteins involved in, 431
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 439
J Lactoferricins, 539
Janus kinase (Jak), 990, 2019 2020 Lactoferrin, 539, 662, 953t, 1478 1479,
Salmonella, 423 428
Japanese river fever, 2058 1499 1500, 1576, 1712, 1716
novel mechanism, 427f
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR), Laennec’s cirrhosis, 1099
outer-membrane protein (OMP) with host
1418 1419, 1700, 1890, 1895, 1982 Laminin-binding protein, 1758 1759
cells, 426 428
Jaundice, 1973, 1979 Langerhans cells, 465, 851, 1439
T3SS-1 role, 426
Jejuni lipoprotein A (JlpA), 1197 Large capsule (LC), expression of, 919 920
trigger and zipper mechanisms, 425f
Josamycin, 2085t Latent TB infection (LTBI), 1643
Shigella spp., 428 430
JUMPstart, 44 diagnosis, 1643 1644
epithelial cells of, 429f
treatment, 1644
type III effectors, 430f
Streptococcus pyogenes, 438 439 K Lateral flow assays (LFAs), 1811
LCP phosphotransferases, 116
cellular signalling, 439 K antigen, 36, 1133, 1547
L-cysteine, 1951
M protein-mediated invasion, 438 439 K88 pili, 155
LD-transpeptidases (LD-TPases), 113 114
protein F1-mediated invasion, 439 K88-expressing organisms, 1135 1136
Lecithinase, 311, 796, 1061, 1064, 1556,
protein FbaB-mediated invasion, 439 K99 pili, 155
1557f
T3SS-1 role in cell invasion, 423 426 Kallikrein pathway, 97
Lectinophagocytosis, 413, 416
SPI-1 coding, for T3SS-1, 423 Kanagawa phenomenon (KP), 1169
Lectins
Yersinia, 432 434 Kanamycin, 595, 777, 1874
adhesins as, 411 412
host cell signalling, 433 Kaposi’s sarcoma, 1913
bacterial, 410t, 411
invasin-mediated internalization, 433 Karp strain infection, 2080
and cognate receptors on animal cells, 410t
M cell targeting, 433 KatA-associated protein (KapA), 1246
sugar specificity, 412t. See also Fine sugar
OTUB1 controls cell susceptibility, Kauffman-White scheme, 1275 1277
specificity
433 434 Kawasaki disease (KD), 828, 981, 985
Legionella, 1612t
outer proteins and cytoskeleton Keratinocyte-derived antimicrobial peptides,
antimicrobial therapy, 1618 1619
modification, 433 850
diagnostics, 1616 1618
Inversion stimulation, factor for (Fis), 183, Keratoconjunctivitis, 667
electron micrograph, 1615f
225 227, 317 Kidney cell lines
immune response, 1615 1616
Iota-toxin, 1004 1008 localization in, 988 989
macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP)
cellular mechanism of action, 1006 1007 PK-15 and ESK, 863
protein, 1615
characterization, 1005 Kinin-generating cascade, 97
microbial ecology, 1614
effect on animals, 1005 1006 Klebsiella aerogenes, 40, 40f
molecular epidemiology, 1618
entry and trafficking, 1006f Klebsiella oxytoca, 604 605
pathogenesis, 1615
pathogenesis, 1004 1005 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 215, 237t, 412 413,
risk factors, 1614 1615
structure and function, 1007 1008, 1008f 416, 606, 1547 1555, 1548t
transmission electron micrograph, 1616f
ipaBCD gene, 1153 adherence factors, 1552 1553
Legionella pneumophila, 65, 1611
Irgasan-ticarcillinpotassium chlorate (ITC), antibiotic resistance, 1553 1554
aerobic bacillus, 498
1334 biofilms, 1554 1555
eukaryotic-like proteins, 299
Iron chaperone-like Poly(rC)-binding proteins, capsular polysaccharides, 1548 1550
innate immune system, 65
255 colonization and systemic infection, 1555
LPE509, 358
Iron-binding proteins epidemiology and regional outbreaks,
and virulence, 1617t
high-affinity, 415, 1716 1547 1548
Legionella trigger, 1615 1616
Klebsiella synthesizes, 1553 host pathogen interaction, 1555
Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV),
in milk, 1712 lipopolysaccharide, 1550 1551
498 499
Moraxella catarrhalis, 1576 outer-membrane proteins, 1554
Legionellosis, 1611 1614
periplasmic, 927 siderophores, 1553
Legionnaire’s disease, 1611, 1614 1615
Iron-cofactored superoxide dismutase (Fe- type III fimbrial genes, 1552f
and pontiac fever, 1613t
SOD), 1245 1246 urease, 1553
Leloir pathway, 1722
Iron-storage proteins, 2000 2001 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC),
Lepromatous (LL) leprosy, 1655 1656
Iron-sulphur clusters, 221 606, 1547 1548
Leprosy, 829, 1655, 1656f
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 883 Koch’s postulates, 181
cutaneous mycobacterial infection, 831f
IS6110 RFLP analysis, 1643 KPC. See Klebsiella pneumoniae
dapsone (4,4-diaminodiphenylsulphone),
Isoelectric focusing (IEF), 1061 carbapenemase (KPC)
therapy for, 1658
Isoleucyl-tRNA, 597 KpsM protein, 42
ecology, 1663
Isoniazid, 587, 1637, 1644 KpsM-deficient mutant, 1208
immunopathologic spectrum, 1657f
antimicrobial therapy, 1649 1650 Campylobacter jejuni, 1208
lepromatous (LL), 1655 1656
2126 Index

Leprosy (Continued) Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), 1350 Lipoproteins


prevention, 1665 1666 Levofloxacin, 620 Borrelia surface, 1892
chemoprophylaxis, 1665 Levulinic acid, 1716 Braun’s, 116f
vaccines, 1665 1666 L-ficolin, 454 Escherichia coli, 1999
Leptospira Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, 97 Neisseria meningitidis, 1737
biological functions, 1977b Line probe assay (LPA), 1649 1650, 1684 spirochetal, 1699
classification, 1975 Linezolid, 724 Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), 99, 683 684, 801,
clearance, 1984 Lipases, 1100, 1105 860, 1533 1534
diagnosis, 1980 1981 and esterase, 796 797 biological activities, 97 99
epidemiology, 1974 1975 Lipid A acyl chains, modification of, 65 67, 66f adhesion, 98
genome architecture, 1977 1978 Lipid A inducing proinflammatory cytokines, cytokine induction, 98
growth conditions, 1977 1159 nitric oxide induction, 98
historical aspects, 1973 Lipid A phosphate groups, modification of, 63 65 soluble teichoic acids in vivo, 98 99
IgM, 1981 covalent modifications, 64 65 glycerol phosphate termini, 93 94
incoculation, 1973 removal, 64 non-covalently attached anionic cell, 91
Leptospira culture, 1980 1981 Lipid A-inner-core oligosaccharide, 63 67 structure and properties, 93 95, 94f
Leptospira IgM-ELISA, 1981 heptose modifications, 67 Listeria, 311, 501 503
leptospiral membrane architecture, 1976f Kdo modifications, 67 Listeria monocytogenes, 106 108, 266 267,
leptospires, electron microscopy of, 1975f lipid A acyl chains, modification of, 65 67 311, 1345, 1346f, 1698
leptospirosis, 1975 lipid A phosphate groups, modification of, cell-to-cell spread, 1353 1354
complement evasion strategies, 1985f 63 65 cellular invasion, 1350 1353
immune evasion in, 1984 1985 covalent modifications, 64 65 host cell invasion, 1350 1352
laboratory diagnosis of, 1980b removal, 64 host cell vacuoles, 1352 1353
leptospiral serum resistance, 1984 1985 phosphate groups, modifications of, 64f clinical manifestations of infection,
renal colonization, 1984 Lipid A-KdO2 biosynthesis, 56 59 1346 1348
treatment, 1981 1982, 1982b Lipid A-KdO2-heptoses, 63 cytosolic bacterial replication, 1353 1354
MAT titre, 1981 Lipid bodies, 7 host cell vacuoles, 1352 1353
membrane architecture, 1976 Lipid IVA biosynthesis host immune responses, 1356 1358
microbiology, 1975 1977 LpxA, 56 -induced actin assembly, 1355f
outer-membrane proteins (OMPs), 1976 1977 LpxBH, 58 InlA- and InlB-dependent pathways, 1351f
periplasmic flagella and motion, 1977 LpxC, 56 57 pathogenesis, 1348 1350
prevention and control, 1982 1983 LpxD, 58 pgdA mutant, 115
cytokines, 1984 LpxK, 58 physical characteristics and distribution,
Leptospira immunity, 1983 1984 Lipoarabinomannan 1346
Leptospira phagocytosis, 1984 analogous polymers, 95 regulation of virulence, 1354 1356
leptospires and pathogen recognition detection of urinary, 1648 successive steps of, 1349f
receptors, 1983 1984 glycolipid, 496 497 translocation, mechanisms for, 1348f
putative leptospiral virulence factors, 1979 Lipo-oligosaccharide/lipopolysaccharide (LOS/ Listeriolysin O (LLO), 435, 1352 1353
clinical manifestations, 1979 LPS), 413 Listeriosis, 311, 434
haemolysins, 1979 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 55, 1080, 1099, fetomaternal/neonatal, 1272
human leptospirosis, clinical description 1615 1616, 1953 1954, 2069 2070 human cases of, 1345
of, 1980b Aeromonas, surface polysaccharides, 1102 invasive, 1271 1272
Lig proteins A and B, 1979 biosynthesis, 56f late-onset perinatal, 1272
LipL32, 1979 Bordetella parapertussis, 1514 mortality rate of, 1345
real-time PCR, 1981 Bordetella pertussis, 1514 non-invasive gastrointestinal, 1271
transmission cycle, 1973 1974, 1974f Brucella gene, 1782 1783 Live Vaccine Strain (LVS), 631, 2002
virulence factors, 1978 1979, 1978b Burkholderia pseudomallei, 771 LL-diaminopimelic acid (DAP), 837
flaA2 mutants, 1979 Coxiella burnetii, 1953 1954 LmtA-mediated modification, 65
FliY, 1978 disseminated infection, 644 645 Locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), 310,
Haem oxygenase protein (HemO), 1978 electrophoretic analysis, 1102 1138 1140
Loa22, 1978 endotoxin, 469 Long central repeat region (LRR), 693
LPS biosynthesis, 1978 1979 genetic controlling of LPS synthesis, 1551 Loop-mediated isothermal amplification,
Leptospira IgM-ELISA, 1981 Haemophilus influenzae, 1719 1724 1648
Leptospira interrogans, 65 phase variation, 1720 1722 Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF), 1894
Leptospiraceae, phylogenetic tree of, 374f structure, 1719 1720, 1720f LPS-binding protein (LBP), 480
Leptospiral serum resistance, 1984 1985 and virulence, 1722 1723 LptA functions, 77
Leptospires, 1973 1974, 1983 Kdo residues, 58 LPXTG peptidoglycan anchoring motif, 1760
colonization, 1984 late acyltransferases, 58 59 LPXTG-anchored proteins, 660
outer membrane of, 1976 lipid A biosynthesis, 57f Lung microbiome, genomic analysis of, 881
Lethal factor Lpt pathway for, 77f Lupus vulgaris, 832
Bacillus species, 1801 1802 outer membrane, export of, 76 77 LuxR family of transcriptional regulators, 236
DNA sequence, 1801 lipid A-core export, 76 77 Lyme arthritis, 1890
hydrolytic exotoxins, 482 periplasm to cell surface transport, 77 Lyme borreliosis, 1870t
type C strains, 997 Rickettsia genus, 2046 Lymphadenitis, 1913
Index 2127

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), 1415, Mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA), Methanococcus jannaschii, 61


1449 1085 Methyl-beta-cycodextrin, 999
Lymphoid antigen, cutaneous (CLA), 986 M-antigen, 33 Methyl-erythritol phosphate pathway, 76
Lysogenic conversion, 1282 MarR/OhrR 1-Cys-type repressor, 261 262 Methylmenaquinone (MMQ), 211
Lysozyme, 13, 114 115, 953t, 1499 1500 Mastoiditis, 1500 1501 Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Lytic enzymes, 586 587 Matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs), 1695 (MRSA), 340 342, 394, 583,
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, 26 28, Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time 601 602, 644, 658, 980
98 99 of flight (MALDI-TOF) community-associated, 655, 657, 992
cortical fragment lytic enzymes (CFLEs), mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 401, hospital-associated, 655, 657, 992
1798 780, 889, 1618 Meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
germination-specific, 1797 1798 proteome analysis, 780 (MSSA), 980, 992
lytic transglycosylases, 114 115 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Metronidazole, 935 936
spore cortex lytic enzymes (SCLEs), 1798 (MALDI), 991, 1529 1530 MexAB-OprM efflux pump, 760
McCoy cells, 1050 1051 MexCD-OprJ efflux pump, 760
M Mce1A gene, 1660
Medical microbiology, 1
MexEF-OprN efflux pump, 760
MexXY efflux pump, 760
M cell differentiation, 1307
development, 1 M-ficolin, 454
MA104 kidney epithelial cells, 426 427
Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF), MG-cross-linked lysine dimers (MOLD),
Macielag, 611 612
2043 2044 251 252
Macrolide and azalide antibiotics, 596
Melioidosis, 769, 771 772 MgPa adhesion protein, 1592 1593
Macrolide antibiotics, 596, 616
Membrane attack complex (MAC), 698 Microbial biofilms, 477
Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogram (MLS)
Membrane cofactor protein, 1476 Microbial fermentations. See Fermentations
resistance, 889
Membrane periplasm accessory protein Microbial surface components recognizing
Macrolides, 892
(MPA), 41 adhesive matrix molecules
Macrophage galactosetype lectin (MGL), 1212
Membrane-degrading extracellular exotoxins, (MSCRAMMs), 478, 801
Macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip)
483 enterococcal, 721
protein, 1615
Membrane-derived oligosaccharides (MDOs), entry into mammalian cells
Macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR), 98
14 16 Staphylococcus aureus, 812 814
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC),
Menaquinone (MQ), 211, 224 viridans group streptococci, 814 815
2001
MenB vaccine, 362 Enterococcus faecalis, 815
Malaria, 644, 1278
Meninges, 1729 Microbial-associated molecular patterns
Malondialdehyde (MDA), 251 252
Meningitis, 650 651, 1117, 1693, 1729 (MAMPs), 1479
Mammalian antimicrobial peptides, 539
-associated E. coli (MAEC), 1127 Microbiome, 347, 364 365, 875 877
cathelicidins, 548 555
meningococcal, 527 528 Microbiota array, 882 883
antibacterial function, 551 552
Meningococcaemia, 1733 Micrococcus luteus, 109
antimicrobial functions, 552
Meningococcal disease, 1734 Micrococcus melitensis, 1781
antiviral function, 552
diagnosis and management, 1738 1743 Microfilaments (MFs), 432
cell death, 554 555
meningococcal therapy, 1742 Micro-immuno-fluorescence assay (MIF),
cell function and differentiation, 553 554
molecular diagnostics for, 1740 1742 2050 2051
cell proliferation, 554 555
stratergy, 1738 1739 MicroRNAs (miRNA), 400
disease association and animal models,
traditional organism identification, Microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 1980
549 550
1739 1740 Microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility
expression, 549
vaccination, 1742 1743 (MODS) assay, 1649
innate immune signalling, modulation of,
Neisseria meningitidis, 1697 Microtubules (MTs), 432, 497 498
553
progression of, 1732 1735 Miller-Fisher syndrome, 1205
LL-37, direct microbicidal properties of,
mucosal colonization, 1732 1733 Minimal infective dose (MID), 1426 1427
551t
mucosal invasion, 1733 Minocycline, 738, 1659, 2085t
properties, 550f
meningococcaemia, 1733 Propionibacterium acnes, 844
defensins, 539 548
mucosal meningococcal infections, MIRU-VNTR analysis, 1643
α-defensins, 542
1734 1735 Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, 213
antibacterial function, 543 545
meningococcal meningitis, 1733 1734 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK),
anti-inflammatory role, 547 548
disseminated meningococcal infection, 990, 1210 1211, 1291
antiviral function, 545 546
1734 Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases
β-defensins, 542 543
sequelae, 1734 (MKK), 482
fertility, 548
Meropenem, 890 891, 919, 936 Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), 304, 338 339,
genomic organization, 540 542, 542f
Meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid (meso-A2pm), 657 660, 658f, 680 681, 2067
human defensin clusters, 542f
105 106, 109f, 584 Mobile resistance genes, 603
immunomodulatory function, 546 548
Mesophilic Aeromonas, 1106, 1117 Modified blood azide medium (MBA), 864
peptide structure, 540
Metabolic profiling, 402 Moesin proteins, 693, 1733
pro-inflammatory role of, 546 547
Metabolite deregulation, 483 Molecular bacteriology, history of, 2 3
Mannosebinding lectin (MBL), 476
Metabonomics, 402 403 Molecular epidemiology, 341 342, 517 518
MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs),
Metagenomics, 3, 364 365 amplification-based methods, 522 524
476
Metastatic infection, 647 649 amplified fragment length polymorphisms
Mannose-resistant/Proteus-like (MR/P)
Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, 204 205 (AFLP), 523
fimbriae, 1390
2128 Index

Molecular epidemiology (Continued) epithelial cell invasion, 1575 Mutagenesis, 152 153, 776 777
arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), 523 genomics, 1568 1572 site-directed, 777
multiple-locus variable number tandem haemagglutinin (Hag), 1575 Mutans streptococci, classification of, 947t
repeat analysis (MLVA), 522 523 identification and biochemical Myalgia, 1693
random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR characteristics, 1565 1566 Mycobacteria, 1639
(RAPD-PCR), 523 immune response and vaccine development, Growth Indicator Tube, 1645
repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR 1577 1578 mycolic acid and arabinogalactan synthesis,
(Rep-PCR), 523 524 iron metabolism, 1571 587
disease emergence and spread, iron uptake, 1576 slowly growing, 1669
reconstructing patterns of, 341 342 McaP, 1575 Mycobacteria, rapidly growing (RGM), 1673
DNA sequencing-based methods, 518 522 metabolism, 1568 1572 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer
16S rRNA gene sequencing, 518 520 central, 1569, 1570f (ITS) region, 1682
genome-based typing, 521 522 iron, 1571 1572, 1572f classification, 1679
multilocus sequencing typing (MLST), 520 nitrogen, 1569 1571, 1571f electropherogram, 1682f
ribosomal multilocus sequence typing MhaC/B1/B2, 1575 hsp65 gene, PRA analysis of, 1684f
(rMLST), 520 521 Moraxella IgD-binding protein (MID), 1575 infections, 1679 1680
genome-wide phylogenetic reconstruction, OMP CD, 1575 INNO-Lipa Mycobacterial V2 line probe
527 outer-membrane proteins, 1574t assay, 1684f
molecular typing methods indexing genetic outer-membrane vesicles, 1576 line-probe assays, 1684 1685
variations, 518, 519t phase variation and cold shock, 1576 1577 MALDI-TOF mass spectrum, 1685f
phylogenetic methods, classes of, 525 526 structure and virulence mechanisms, mass spectrometric techniques, 1685 1686
phylogenetic relationships, assessing support 1572 1577 melt curve (Tm) analysis, 1683f
for, 526 adhesion to host epithelium and molecular methods, 1680 1687
phylogenetic software packages, 527 extracellular matrix, 1573 1575 16S rRNA sequencing, 1681
phylogenetic tree reconstruction methods, lipooligosaccharide (LOS), 1572 1573 hsp65 sequencing, 1681
525 non-fimbriae adhesins, 1573 1575 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE),
pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 524 pili and fimbriae, 1573 1686
reticulate tree reconstruction, 526 527 taxonomy, 1565 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ubiquitous surface proteins (Usp), 1575 (RAPD) markers, 1686
typing, 522 Moraxella IgD-binding protein (MID), 1575 repetitive sequence-based PCR,
Molecular medical microbiology, 1, 3 4, 399 Morbidostat, 181 182 1686 1687
Molecular mimicry, 45 Mosaic genes, generation of, 1532 rpoB sequencing, 1681 1682
Molecular taxonomy, 369 Motile bacteria, 125 multilocus sequencing approaches, 1682
of bacterial genera, 373 376 Mouse fibroblast McCoy cells, 1449 Mycobacterium abscessus and M. chelonae
Burkholderia Cepacia, 373 Mouse footpad model, 1664 real-time PCR methods, 1683 1684
Leptospira, 373 374 Moxifloxacin, 891 PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA),
Leptospiral serovars, in multiple species, M-protein, streptococcal, 697 698 1684
375t vaccine, 705 pyrosequencing, 1683
Mycobacterium avium, 374 376 MsbA-mediated translocation, 77 rapidly growing mycobacteria, 1680t
bacterial species, 370 371 MTR (multiple transferable resistance), 1441 resistance determinants, 1687
history, 369 370 Mucin-degrading enzymes, 1487 Sanger sequencing, 1682 1683
methods for, 371 372 Mucociliary escalator, 1710 transmission, 1679
prokaryotes, classification methods for, 371 Mucoid Yersinia factor (Myf antigen), 1331 treatment, 1680
ribosomal gene sequencing, 372 373 Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) Mycobacterial infections, cutaneous, 831 833
technological advances, 376 lymphoma, 1237 1239 atypical, 833
Monobactams Multidrug-resistant (MDR), 1219 1220 buruli ulcer, 833
Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109 Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), cutaneous tuberculosis, 832, 832f
peptidoglycan assembly, cross-linking of, 340, 866, 1047, 1286 1287, 1731 leprosy, 831 832, 831f
585 587 Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), 372 lupus vulgaris, 832, 832f
Monoclonal antibodies, 1138 Multilocus sequence type (MLST), 388 389, miliary tuberculosis, 832
anti-PA, 1821 520, 841 842, 1032, 1047 1048, primary chancre tuberculous, 832
derived from rheumatic carditis cases (RC- 1083, 1111, 1285, 1472 1473, 1536, scrofuloderma, 832
MAbs), 702 703 1805 1806, 2064 tuberculid reactions, 832 833
Propionibacterium acnes, 841 842 Multilocus variable number tandem repeat verrucous tuberculosis, 832
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP), analysis (MLVA), 522 523, 1083, Mycobacterial interspersed repeat unit variable
817 1618, 1772, 1809 number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR),
Moraxella catarrhalis Multiple antibiotics resistance-type regulators 1674
antimicrobial resistance, 1567 1568 (MarR), 260 261 Mycobacterial-associated cervical
biofilm formation, 1576 Multiple cellular processes, 201 202 lymphadenitis, 1670
complement resistance, 1575 1576 Multiplex PCR, 384 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 375,
epidemiology and infections, 1566 1567 Mupirocin, 597 1669, 1674
colonization and risk factors, 1566 MurA, 112 bacteraemia in immunodeficient/
otitis media, 1567 Muramyl-dipeptides (MDP), 429 430 immunosuppressed individuals,
respiratory infections, 1566 1567 Murine toxin, 1850 1670 1671
Index 2129

cervical lymphadenitis, in children, 1670 antimicrobial therapy, 1649 1650 Mycoplasmas, 1587
device- and hospital-acquired infections, 1671 BCG vaccination, 1644, 1650 antimicrobial resistance, 1601 1603
non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cell wall, 1648 molecular basis, 1602t
antibiotic susceptibility, treatment and chromosome, 182 183 cell biology and pathogenesis, 1589 1596
measurement of, 1673 1674 contagious nature of, 1638 1639 configuration of proteins, 1590f
differential diagnosis, 1671 diagnosis, 1644 1645 Mycoplasma genitalium, 1592 1594
diseases of, 1669 molecular-based, 1645 1649 Mycoplasma hominis, 1594
environmental sources of, 1672 traditional methods, 1644 1645 Mycoplasma pneumonia, 1590 1592
human exposure reduction methods, 1672 diagnostic technologies in development, real-time PCR detection, 1595f
infections and predominant, 1670t 1648 1649 Ureaplasma parvum, 1594 1596
laboratory diagnosis, 1673 antigen detection tests, 1648 1649 ureaplasma strains, genome features of,
physiologic and structural features interferon gamma release assays (IGRA), 1595t
relevant to, 1671 1672 1648 Ureaplasma urealyticum, 1594 1596
pulmonary disease, 1669 1670 serological assays, 1648 classification, 1587 1588
sinusitis and otitis media, 1670 direct repeat (DR) elements, 1643 comparison of genomes, 1593t
phylogenetic tree of, 376f DNA fingerprinting, 1641 1643 culture versus real-time PCR, advantages of,
unique features, 1674 DNA vaccines, 1650 1597t
M. haemophilum, 1675 epidemiology detection characterization, methods for,
M. kansasii, 1674 global, 1637 1638 1596 1599
M. malmoense, 1675 molecular, 1641 1643 Mycoplasma genitalium, 1598
M. marinum, 1675 GeneXpert modules, 1647f Mycoplasma hominis, 1598
M. xenopi, 1675 genome, 1641 Mycoplasma pneumonia, 1597 1598
Mycobacterium bovis, 1354 global epidemiology, 1637 1638 Ureaplasma spp., 1598 1599
Mycobacterium-containing vacuole (MCV), granulysin, 1640 identification, 1588 1589
496 497 great white plague, 1637 isolated from humans, 1588t
Mycobacterium fortuitum, 1671, 1679 1680 H37Rv genome, 1641f molecular typing systems and organism
Mycobacterium haemophilum, 1675 and HIV pandemic, 1640 1641 subtypes, 1599 1601
Mycobacterium kansasii, 1674 host genetic factors, 1640 Mycoplasma genitalium, 1600
Mycobacterium leprae, 282, 1660t host immune response, 1648 Mycoplasma hominis, 1600
antimicrobial therapy, 1658 identification, 1645 Mycoplasma pneumonia, 1599 1600
cell envelope, 1662f immunity, 1639 1640 Ureaplasma spp., 1601
clinical characteristics, 1655 1656 latent TB infection (LTBI) structure, 1589
diagnosis, 1656 1658 diagnosis, 1643 1644 MyD88-dependent pathway, 1212
DNA, 831 832 treatment, 1644 Myelin basic protein (MBP), 986
epidemiology, 1655 macrophages, 1639 1640 Myocarditis, 1914
first-line drugs, 1658 MALDI-TOF mass spectrum, 1685f Myoviridae, 571f
genome, 1659 1660 map of poverty, 1638f Myxococcus xanthus, 114
growth of, 1664f map of tuberculosis, 1638f
host response, 1663 1665
animal models, 1663 1665
meningitis, 1639 1640
micobacteria, 1639
N
Na1-translocating NaDH-ubiquinone reductase
immunocompromised rodents, 1664 microarray technology, 1642f
complex (Na1-NQR), 205
mouse footpad model, 1664 molecular epidemiology, 1641 1643
NAD1-glycohydrolase (NADase), 1007
nine-banded armadillo, 1664 1665 mycobacterial genomics, 1641 1643
NADH dehydrogenase, 212 213
leprosy, 1656f NAATs results, interpretation of, 1646t
NADH/NAD1, rex redox-sensor for, 268 269
chemoprophylaxis, 1665 pathophysiology, 1639
Nalidixic acid, 592, 1150, 1299
immunopathologic spectrum, 1657f perforin, 1640
Nascent phagosomes, 495 496
prevention, 1665 1666 phagocytes, 1639
Natural killer (NK) cells, 1439 1440
vaccines, 1665 1666 phagosomal traffic arrest by, 498f
Necrotizing clostridial infections, 899
pathogen, 1659 1663 and poverty, 1638
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), 701, 832f
phenolic glycolipid 1, 1661 RFLP gel, 1642f
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivostomatitis, acute,
proteome, 1661 1663 spoligotyping, 1643
833
second-line drugs, 1658 1659 strains, 1637, 1641 1642
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 115, 217 218, 228,
strain markers, 1663 structure, 1639
1471
subsequent invasion of Schwann cells, 1662f tuberculosis, contagious nature of,
antimicrobial therapy and resistance, 1481
transcriptome, 1660 1638 1639
mechanisms of, 1481
Mycobacterium malmoense, 1675 vaccines, 1650
biochemical tests, 1472t
Mycobacterium marinum, 1675 Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain, 1644 1645
classification, 1471 1473
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC),
lipo-oligosaccharide, 1472
in animal species, 374 375 375
physiology, 1471 1472
in humans, 374 375 Mycobacterium xenopi, 1675
strain typing schemes, 1472 1473
Mycobacterium smegmatis, 113 Mycoplasma genitalium, 2 3, 1592 1593
clinical manifestations, 1474 1475
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), 215 216, Mycoplasma hominis, 1488 1489
disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI),
337, 464, 842 843, 1660t. See also high-level tetracycline resistance,
1475
Tuberculosis (TB) 1601 1602
female genital tract, infection of, 1474
2130 Index

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Continued) Neonatal disease, 651 Non-gastrointestinal Bacillus cereus infections,
gonococcal conjunctivitis, 1474 1475 Neorickettsia sennetsu, 2011 2012 1052
male urethra, acute infection of, 1474 Nerve growth factor (NGF), 912 913 Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), 1420
co-infection, 1475 Netilmicin, 1108 1109 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1107 1108
diagnosis, 1480 1481 NETosis, 463 Non-intact skin, exposure of, 1679
elicits, 1474 Neuraminidases, 862 863, 930 Non-toxic non-haemagglutinating protein
genetics Neurospora crassa, 2 (NTNH), 1018 1019
genome structure, 1473 Neurotrophin-3, 912 913 Nontreponemal tests, 1417 1418
phase and antigenic variation, 1473 1474 Neutropenia, 651 Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), 1679
gonococcal pathogenesis, 1476f Neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), 463, 664, antibiotic susceptibility, treatment and
gonococcal vaccine, need for, 1481 1482 693 measurement of, 1673 1674
host immune system evasion strategies, Neutrophils, 463, 1379 differential diagnosis, 1671
1478 1480 Next generation sequencing (NGS), 337, 349, diseases, 1669
adaptive immune response, 1479 1480 844 environmental sources, 1672
innate immune response, 1479 bacterial pathogens, 342 343 human exposure reduction methods, 1672
nutritional immunity, 1478 1479 development, 337 infections and predominant, 1670t
multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), technologies, 358, 365, 1041 laboratory diagnosis, 1673
1472 1473 NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NGMMLA), physiologic and structural features relevant
Neisseria gonorrhoeae-specific antibody 2052 to, 1671 1672
response, 1480 Nine Mile (NM) strain pulmonary disease, 1669 1670
neisserial adhesins, 1477t genome analysis, 1955 1956 sinusitis and otitis media, 1670
Opa-dependent association of, 1476 1477 genome sequence, 1955 Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)
pathogenesis, 1475 1478 Nitrate reduction, 216 217 genomes, 360
bloodstream, dissemination into, 1478 Nitric oxide reductases (NORs), 217 218 Non-typhoidal salmonella, invasive (INTS),
mucosal tissues, association with, Nitrofurans, 593 594 1297
1476 1477 Nitroimidazoles, 593 594, 890 Non-typhoidal Salmonella interactions with
Neisseria meningitidis, 93, 228, 237t, 1697, NlpC/P60 family, 1063 host cells, 1307
1729 1732 NncH gene, 1105 1106 epithelial cells and intestinal mucosa,
antimicrobial susceptibility, 1730 Nocardia brasiliensis, 742 743, 743f 1307 1312
classic epidemiology, 1730 1731 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, 742 host cell death, 1313 1314
group B, 37 Nocardia farcinica, 733 inflamed intestine, 1314
historical aspects, 1729 Nocardias, 731 735 intestine
meningococcal disease, 1732 1735, antibiotic-like metabolites, 735 lamina propria, 1313f
1738 1743 characteristics, 732f Salmonella enterica serotype
disseminated, 1734 colonial appearance, 732f typhimurium, 1308f, 1311f
general diagnostic strategy, 1738 1739 comparative ultrastructure, 742f intracellular survival and tissue
meningococcaemia, 1733 diseases caused by, 735 744 dissemination, 1312 1313
meningococcal meningitis, 1733 1734 electron micrographs, 740f SPI-1-encoded type III secretion system, 1309t
meningococcal therapy, 1742 experimental models, 738 SPI-2-encoded type III secretion system,
molecular diagnostics, 1740 1742 filament tip proteins, 734f 1310t
mucosal colonization, 1732 1733 genome, 742 744 Norepinephrine (NE), 239 240
mucosal invasion, 1733 Macaca fasicularius, 739f Norfloxacin, 592 593, 1108 1109
mucosal meningococcal infections, metabolism and physiology, 732 733 Novel interferon gamma release assays
1734 1735 nocardiosis, chemotherapy for, 737 738 (IGRA), 1648
sequelae, 1734 orthologous CDS, distribution of, 743f Novobiocin, 620
traditional organism identification, pathogenicity, mechanisms of, 738 742 Npr599, in Bacillus anthracis, 1063
1739 1740 pathogenic nocardias, proteins of, 733 735 NprR regulon, 1064 1065
vaccination, 1742 1743 predicted functional classification of genes, NreB redox-sensors, with FeS-clusters for O2,
microbiology, 1729 1730 745t 267 268
molecular epidemiology, 1731 1732 primate brain, 739f NTD-plug complex, 152
molecular virulence determinants, 1735 1738 recognition and differentiation, 736 737 N-terminal half of FliK (FliKN), 135
encapsulation, 1735 1736 scanning electron micrographs, 740f Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
factor H binding protein, 1737 site-specific adherence and invasion, 741f techniques, 618
lipooligosaccharide, 1736 1737 taxonomy, 731 732 Nucleic acid amplification assays, 400
minor adhesins, 1738 ultrastructural interactions, 741f Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT),
outer-membrane vesicles (OMV), Nocardiosis, 738 383, 1418, 1459, 1480 1481, 1645
1737 1738 Nod1 (nucleotide oligomerization domain) Nucleic acid probe hybridization, 381 383
porins, 1737 cytoplasmic receptor, 1245 bloodstream infections, 382
Neisserial lipopolysaccharide, 1472 Non-agglutinating fimbriae (NAF), 1390 genital infections, 382
NEMO/IKKg complex, 429 430 Non-antibiotic-based bactericidal resistance miscellaneous pathogen detection, 382 383
Neomycin markers, 777 mycobacteria, 381 382
aminoglycoside antibiotics, 595 Non-core genome, 338 Nucleic acid tests (NAT), 992
in broiler chicken and swine production, Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium spp, 1629 Nucleic-acid-based detection systems, 1100,
1219 Non-enzyme targets, 614 1812
Index 2131

Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), 315 Operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 349 inflammation, coagulation and
Nucleotide metabolism, 2068 2069 Ophthalmia neonatorum, 1411 endothelium, 2074 2075
Nucleotide-activated heptoses, biosynthesis gonococcal, 1413 markers of coagulation and endothelial
of, 62f Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1481 cell perturbation, 2076f
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization Opsonins soluble adhesion molecules, 2073 2074
domain (NOD), 453, 2072 availability, 664 physiology
-like receptors (NLR), 452 453, 1212 degradation, 664 amino acid metabolism, 2069
inflammosome, 453 serum, 416 carbohydrate metabolism, 2068
retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG), 453 Optimal empiric antibiotic treatment, 1091 energy metabolism, 2068
Nugent score, 1490 Oral bacteria, 957 lipid metabolism and cell membrane
Oral rehydration solution (ORS), 976 977 components, 2069 2070
O Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), 976 977
Organizational taxonomic units (OTUs),
metabolism, 2067 2070
nucleotide metabolism, 2068 2069
O antigen (OAg), 55, 480, 774, 923, 1080,
878 879 Rickettsial classification, 2058
1089, 1102, 1151t, 1331, 1514, 1550,
Orientia chuto, 2057 Rickettsial evolution
1782, 1953 1954, 1997
epidemiology, 2061 2062 genomic events during, 2067f
antigenic factors, 1276 1277
pathogen, 2058 2060 metabolic pathways, 2069f
of Coxiella burnetii, 1960
Orientia spp., 2057 2062 scrub typhus, 2058
differences in, 776
antimicrobial susceptibility, 2084 2086 surface proteins and antigens, 2065 2066
ligation, 75 76
azithromycin, 2084 susceptibility of Rickettsia and Orientia,
of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1269, 1319 1320
doxycycline, 2084 2085t
with Shigella sonnei, 1149
fever clearance times, 2085 2086 Orientia surface molecules, 2057
in Shigella species, 1144, 1159
susceptibility testing, 2084 2085 Orientia tsutsugamushi, 2058, 2063,
teichoic acids, 94t
bacterial morphology and membrane 2066 2067
translocase activity, 70
structure, 2064f antimicrobial susceptibility, 2084 2086
Und-PP translocation, 69 71
cell biology, 2057, 2070 2073 azithromycin, 2084
Wzy pathway, 68 72
adhesion to host cells, 2070 2071 Boryong genome, 2066
O157 lipopolysaccharide synthesis-related
apoptosis, 2073 as cause for Scrub typhus, 2058
proteins, 284
escape from host cells, 2071 2072 cell biology, 2070 2073
O3:K6 serotype group, 1170
host cells, 2070 2071, 2072f apoptosis, 2073
O54 biosynthesis gene cluster, 74 75
host-pathogen interactions, 2072 host cells, 2070
O-acetylated peptidoglycan, 115
uptake and intracellular trafficking, 2070f cellular immune response, 2079 2083
OAg assembly, 68 75
cell wall morphology, 2064 2067 clinical symptoms and signs, 2075 2076
ABC transporter-dependent pathway, 72 74
clinical and pathological features, 2057 culture, 2081
pathways, 69f
diagnosis, 2057 diagnostics, 2081
polymerization and chain length regulation,
differential diagnosis, 2057, 2076 2077 differential diagnosis, 2076 2077
71 72
dynamics of disease progression, 2081f doxycycline, 2084
synthase-mediated pathway, 74 75
epidemiology, 2061 2062 epidemiology, 2061 2062
Und-PP-O-antigen translocation, 69 71
eschar in scrub typhus, 2077 2078 fever clearance times, 2085 2086
Wzy-dependent O-antigen assembly pathway,
incidence, 2077t genome, 2066 2067
68 72
fever clearance times, 2086f humoral immune response, 2079
OAg biosynthesis, 67 76
genetic groups, 2059f identification, 2062 2064
polyisoprenyl-phosphate hexose-1-phosphate
genome structure, 2066 2067 conventional staining, 2062
transferases, 68
identification, 2062 2064 immunological identification, 2062
polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-
conventional staining, 2062 in vitro growth, 2062
acetylaminosugar-1-phosphate
immunological identification, 2062 multilocus sequence typing (MLST)
transferases, 67 68
in vitro growth, 2062 schemes, 2064
Obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic
molecular identification, 2062 2063 restriction-fragment length polymorphism
(COPD), 882, 1502, 1669
multilocus sequence typing (RFLP) analysis, 2062 2063
Ofloxacin (4-fluoroquinolone), 1659, 2085t
(MLST), 2064 immunity, 2078 2084
Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109
restriction-fragment length polymorphism immunohistochemistry, 2083 2084
typhoid, treatment of, 1300
(RFLP) analysis, 2062 2063 molecular diagnostics, 2083
Oganic hydroperoxides (OHP), 260 261
immunity natural immune response, 2078 2079
OhrR repressor, 261
cellular immune response, 2079 2083 pathogen, 2058 2060
Omics technologies, 3
humoral immune response, 2079 pathophysiology, 2073 2078
OmpC gene, 1852 1853
immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, cellular tropism, 2073
OmpF gene, 1852 1853
2083 2084 inflammation, coagulation and
OmpR response regulator, 323 324
molecular diagnostics, 2083 endothelium, 2074 2075
OmpR-EnvZ system, 306
natural immune response, 2078 2079 soluble adhesion molecules, 2073 2074
OmpT gene, 1155
Leptotrombidium mite and life cycle, 2060f physiology, 2067 2070
Opa expression, 1473
pathogen, 2058 2060 amino acid metabolism, 2069
Open reading frames (ORF), 358, 681, 1081,
pathophysiology, 2073 2078 carbohydrate metabolism, 2068
1781
cellular tropism, 2073 cell membrane components, 2069 2070
liclA, lic2A and lic3A, 1722
clinical symptoms and signs, 2075 2076 energy metabolism, 2068
lic2A, ksgA, ORF3 and lic2B, 1722
2132 Index

Orientia tsutsugamushi (Continued) Pantothenate, 839f cell membrane, 449 452


lipid metabolism, 2069 2070 PapD chaperone, 148 C-lectin receptors (CLR), 451 452
metabolism, 2067 2070 PapD-PapG chaperone-adhesin complex, 152 extracellular, 450
nucleotide metabolism, 2068 2069 PapG adhesion, 361 human TLR roster, 450 451, 451t
serology, 2081 2083 PapG-elicited ceramides, 415 416 intracellular, 451
structure, 2064 2067 Paracoccus denitrificans, 201, 212 213 toll-like receptors (TLR), 449 450
cell wall morphology, 2064 2065 nitrate reductase complex, 216 cytosolic, 452 453
genome structure, 2066 2067 Parapertussis, 1507 engagement, 456
surface proteins and antigens, 2065 2066 Parasitophorous vacuole, 1951 multiple soluble/cell-bound, 452t
susceptibility testing, 2084 2085 Paratyphoid fever, 1275 representative autoimmune diseases,
transmission, 2060 2061 diagnosis, 1278 468 469
vectors, 2060 2061 ParC genes, 889 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD),
L-Ornithine, 108 109 Parsimony methods, 526 468 469
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, 1174 Pasteurella haemolytica, 1724 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 469
Oropharynx, 1499 1500 Pathogen, food-borne. See Food-borne systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 468
OrthoMCL software, 360 361 pathogen serum-associated, 453 454
O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP), 1151 Pathogen hunting, 1773 collectin family, 454
Otitis media, 1500 1501, 1567 Pathogen proteomics, 277 280. See also pentraxins, 454
acute otitis media (AOM), 1567 Bacterial proteomics Paxillin, 1145
with effusion (OME), 1567 Pathogen-associated molecular patterns Pediculus humanus, 1929
NTM sinusitis and, 1670 (PAMP), 97 98, 449, 543, 553, 632, Pefloxacin, 592 593, 2085t
Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA), 690 691, 1291 1292, 1693 Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID),
1237 1238, 1249 1250 Pathogenic interactions, 694 1408 1409, 1415
Outer membrane-associated accessory protein Pathogenicity island (PAI), 303, 307 311, diagnosis, 1408
(OMA), 41 1130 prevention and control, 1409
Outer-membrane protein (OMP), 72, 288, 361, bacterial evolution, impacts on, 312 epididymitis, 1409 1410
1085, 1088 1089, 1242, 1566, 1783, in bacterial pathogenesis, 303 treatment, 1408 1409
1918, 2014 2016 genomic island, type of, 303 Penicillin G, 2085t
Escherichia coli, 478 in Gram-negative bacteria, 307 311 Borrelia burgdorferi, 1895
Moraxella catarrhalis, 1574t enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), 311 clavulanic acid, 1262 1263
OmpU and OmpT, 1088 1089 enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 310 Penicillinase, 891
PCR assays for Burkholderia pseudomallei, Escherichia coli, 310 311 Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), 109, 586,
779t representative list of strains, 308t 759
type I secretion system (T1SS), 754 Salmonella spp., 307 310 PBP2, 1730
Yersinia secretion (Ysc) locus, 1325 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 310 Penicillins, 570
Outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs), 1152, 1576 SPI-1, 304, 306 309 allergy, 1418
Oxazolidinones, 595 596 SPI-2, 306 309 anaerobic infections, 891
Oxidative stress resistance mechanisms SPI-4, 309 beta-lactam antibiotics, 704
in Bacillus and Staphylococcus, 258 259 SPI-5, 309 310 Propionibacterium acnes, 844
catalases, 258 259 SPI-6, 310 Penicillium marneffei, 1297
peroxide detoxification enzymes, SPI-11, 310 Pentose phosphate cycle (PP), 206
258 259 SPI-16, 310 Peptic ulceration, 1239
peroxiredoxins, 258 259 Vibrio cholerae, 310 Peptidases, 1100
production of protective carotinoids, 259 Yersinia spp., 307 Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) molecules, 382
of bacteria, 249 253 in Gram-positive bacteria, 311 Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ
Bacillus, 250 Clostridium difficile, 311 hybridization (PNA FISH) method, 382
reactive chlorine species, 250 252 Listeria monocytogenes, 311 Peptide-based antibiotics, 544
reactive electrophile species, 250 252 Staphylococcus aureus, 311 Peptides, autoinducing (AIPs), 236, 666
reactive oxygen species, 250 252 organization, 303 306 Peptidoglycan, 105 106, 117 119, 583
Staphylococcus, 250 adhesins, 305 N-acetylglucosaminidase, 106, 1798
direct repeats (DR), 304 N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, 26 28,
P homology to tRNA genes, 304
mobility elements, 303 304
114
alanine racemase, 584, 2069
P30 protein, 1592
secretion systems, 304 305 anionic surface polymers, 116f
Pa vaccines, 1519
toxins, 305 306 architecture, 111
PAI. See Pathogenicity island (PAI)
virulence factors, 304 306 scaffold model, 111
Palmitate, 1875
origin and acquisition, 306 307 autolysin, 721
Pandemics, 432
in plant pathogens, 311 312 biophysical properties, 110 111
cholera, 339, 1083
secretion system, 305f sacculi, elasticity of, 110
N. meningitidis, 528
Pathogenicity mechanisms, 738 sacculus, pores in, 110 111
Y. pestis, 531, 1846 1847
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR), 97 98, thickness, 110
Paneth cells, 931
449 452, 450f, 1479, 1693 biosynthesis, 111 112
Pan-genome analysis, 338, 360 361
in autoimmune diseases and inhibition, 583 584
Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), 664, 816,
autoinflammatory diseases, 467 468 pathway, 584f
826
Index 2133

cytoplasmic steps to UDP-MurNAc periodontitis, aetiopathogenesis of, 961 962 Phospholipids, 587
pentapeptide, 112 subgingival microbes/microbiome, studying, glucosamine-based, 1159
lipid II structure, variation in, 112 113 962 964 Phosphorylated ComE, 1531
lipid-linked precursor, synthesis, 112 systemic diseases, 965 Phosphorylcholine, 984
and modifications, 111 116, 583 584 Periodontal pocket, 960 961 Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs), 1662f
peptidoglycan hydrolases, 114 115 Periodontal strains, 1053 1054 PhyloChip, 882 883
peptidoglycan synthases, 113 114 Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC), Phylogenetic analysis, 1053
secondary modifications, 115 116 989 Phylogenetic methods, 525 526
cell walls, 479 Peritonitis, 887 888 Phylogenetic reconstruction
chemical structure, 105 110 Permeability barriers, 616 genome-wide, 527
fine structure, variation of, 109 110 Peroxiredoxins (Prx), 258 259 maximum-likelihood, 526
glycan strands, 106 108 Peroxynitrite, 1696 Phylogenetic relationships, assessing support
peptide cross-links, 109 PerR for, 526
stem peptides, 108 109 metal-catalysed histidine oxidation, 260f Phylogenetic software packages, 527
deacetylated sugars, 115 peroxide-sensing, 260 Phylogenetic tree reconstruction methods, 525
in E. coli, 118t Pertussis toxin, 1512 1513 PI3 kinase, 434 435, 435f
Fem-type transferases, 112 113 Pesticin, 1849 Pigbel syndrome, 884 885, 997 998
glucosamine, 106 108 Peyer’s patches, 432, 1273, 1293 1294 Pili function, 147, 1101 1102
glycan strands, structural modifications in, P-fimbriate bacteria, 415 Pilins, 1101 1102
107f pfoR gene, 905 Pilus
hydrolases, 114 PglK functions, 74 in adhesion and disease, 155 156
E. coli, 109f Phagocytes, 1802 assembly, 150f
lytic transglycosylases, 114 115 Phagocytic receptors, 1532 assembly proteins and mechanisms,
muramic acid residues, 106 108 Phagolysosomes, 1852 1853 148 151
peptides in, 108f Phagosomes, 1273 chaperone necessity, 148 149
proteins, covalent attachment of, 116 117, acidification of, 1998 conserved chaperone surfaces, 149 151
116f Pharyngitis, 1501 1502 donor strand complementation (DSC),
sacculi, 109 110 Phase variation, 802 149 151
secondary cell wall polymers, covalent Phase-variable opacity-associated (Opa) donor strand exchange (DSE), 151
attachment of, 116 adhesion proteins, 436 periplasmic chaperones, 148
sugar (glycan) chains, 583 Phenolic glycolipids, 1661 chaperone conserved residues and subunit
wall teichoic acids, 98 99 2-Phenylethylisothiocyanate, 1108 1109 binding, 151f
Peptidoglycan assembly Pheromones, 795 chaperone-usher pathways, 155
cross-linking, 585 587 Pho regulon, 99 CUP systems diversity in disease, 155
D-alanyl-D-alanine region, 586f PhoP/PhoQ system, 1291 interfering with, 157 158
glycopeptides and β-lactams, inhibition by, Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), 2038 operon and structural organization, 149f
585 Phosphatases, 64 snapshots of assembly, 154f
transpeptidase, non-cross-linking of, 586f Phosphate groups, modifications of, 64f subunits, 148
Peptidoglycan layer (PL) ring complexes Phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C (PC- structure, 148
electron micrographs, 138f PLC), 1273 ushers, 152 154
Peptidoglycan synthases, 113, 117 119 Phosphatidylethanolamine (PEtn) residues, chaperone-usher pilus biogenesis, current
polymerize lipid II, 111 112 66 67 model of, 153
Peptidoglycan synthesis Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) lipid, 492 493 functions of domains, 152
cytoplasmic stages Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), growing pilus, structural insights into,
fosfomycin and cycloserine, inhibition by, 1210 1211 153 154
584 Phosphatidylinositol mannosides, 1661 pore gating mechanisms, 154
precursor translocation, 585 Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PI- selectivity and potential binding surfaces,
during cell cycle, 117 120 PLC), 1062 1064 152 153
cell elongation and division, 117 119 Phosphodiesterases (PDE), 763 764 Pinocytosis, 1291
peptidoglycan growth, 119 120 Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), 112 Piperacillin
Peptostreptococcal clones, 962 Phosphoethanolamine, 65 Borrelia burgdorferi, 1895
Peptostreptococcus, 959 Phosphofructokinase, 1569 -tazobactam, 891
Perfringolysin O, 998 3-Phosphoglycerate, 431 Pit and fissure and interproximal caries, 946
Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), 1261 Phosphoketolase (PK) pathway, 206 Pitted keratolysis, 830
Periodontal diseases, 957 Phospholipases, 1061 1062 Plague, 531
biofilms, 958 phosphatidylcholine-preferring formation, 2062
bacterial taxa considered as periodontal phospholipase C, 1061 1062 Plague bacilli, 1856 1857
pathogens, 961b phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PI- Plasma cell differentiation, 458 460
infection-induced periodontal diseases, PLC), 1062 Plasmid sequence types (PST), 1298
957 958 phospholipase A2, 282 Plasmids conferring tetracycline resistance,
infections, 879 880 phospholipase C (PLC), 755, 1062 1091
treatment of, 964 965 phospholipase D (PLD), 440 Plasminogen-activation system (PAS), 1889
microbiological diagnosis, 964 sphingomyelinase (SMase), 1062 Plasminogen-binding M protein, 695
pathogens, 958 961, 965 Phospholipid::lipid A palmitoyltransferase, 65 Plasmolysis, 18 19
2134 Index

Platelet-activating factor (PAF), 1137 conventional assays, 779t Probiotics, 168, 172, 353 354, 837 838, 900,
Platelets, 649 digital, 386 387 1492, 1790
Platinum, 7 molecular techniques, 1895 Proctocolitis, 1410
plcR gene, 1063 1064 multiplex, 384 Progenitor toxins, 1018
transcription, 1064 1065 nested, 384 Proinflammatory cytokines, 458 461
PlcR regulon, 1046 quantitative, 400 401, 1262 dendritic cells (DC)-antigen transport,
PlcR-regulated genes, 1064 random amplified polymorphic DNA, 523 465 466
Plesiomonas, 1111 1112 real-time, 384 386, 386f, 1981 inflammation, 461 462
clinical features, 1116 1117 repetitive-element, 388 interleukin 1 alpha and beta (IL-1 α/β), 458
extraintestinal disease, 1116 1117 repetitive extragenic palindromic, 388, 518, interleukin 6 (IL-6), 458 460
gastroenteritis, 1116 523 524, 781 interleukin 8 (IL-8), 663
habitat and ecology, 1114 1116 repetitive sequence-based, 1686 1687, 1731 interleukin 18 (IL-18), 458
morphology and phenotypical characteristics, reverse transcriptase, 384, 385t macrophages, 464 465
1111 1112 technology, 386 387 M1 macrophages, 464
pathogenicity and virulence factors, variations, 385t M2 macrophages, 464 465
1117 1119 Polymicrobial infections, 1700 neutrophil or polymorphonuclear (PMN)
haemolytic activity, 1118 Polymorphic DNA, random amplification by, granulocyte, 462 464
invasiveness, 1118 387 388 tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α),
plasmids, 1119 Polymorphism, 131 132 460 461
tetrodotoxin (TTX), 1119 Polymorphonuclear (PMN) type I interferons, alpha and beta (INF-α/β),
toxins, 1117 1118 granulocyte, 462 463 461
Plesiomonas agar (PL), 1112 leucocytes, 549, 825, 863, 1144, 1272, 1417, Pro-inflammatory mediators, 409
Plesiomonas diarrhoea, 1116 1984 Pro-inflammatory response, 429 430, 430f,
Plesiomonas gastroenteritis, 1116 azurophilic granules, 1697 479, 931 932, 1210 1211, 1292,
Plesiomonas shigelloides, 1111 1112, 1116 macrophage clearance, 463 1479, 1924, 2080
characteristics, 1113t Polymyxins, 587 Prokaryotes, 371
food processing, 1115 Polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP), Prokaryotic DNA, 19 20
laboratory diagnosis, 1112 1114 1716 1717 Proline rich proteins, 747 748, 952
molecular detection and characterization, Polysaccharide Prolyl endopeptidase, 1105
1112 1114 fermentations, 206 Prophages, 1325
PCR assays, characteristics of, 1114t production, 948 949 Propiogenum modestum, 204 205
typing, 1114 -specific transport system, 41f Propionibacteria, cutaneous, 851 852
Pleural infections, 881 882 Polysaccharide adhesin (PS/A), 798 Propionibacteria, therapeutic effects of, 851
Pleuropulmonary infections, 881 Polysaccharide capsule (CPS), 1176 Propionibacterium, 837 841
Pll, 2085t extracellular, 1176 1178 antibiotic resistance, mechanisms
Ploysia, 36 Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), of, 844
Plug domain, 152 804 805 comparison, 848f
pmfA gene, 1391 Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA), 35 36 disease, role in, 841 842
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), 1539 Pontiac fever, Legionnaires’ disease genome data, 845t
Pneumolysin (Ply), 1534, 1696 and, 1613t immunofluorescence microscopy, 839f
Pneumonia, 1502 1503 Pore-forming toxins (PFT), 984 main isolation sites and biochemical
community-acquired, 882, 1503, Porphyromonas gingivalis, 880 differences, 839t
1614 1615, 1618 Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction, ribotype and MLST data, 845t
hospital acquired, 882, 1503 1504 1260 sequence differences, illustration of, 843f
Point mutant flgG (G65V), 138 Post-adhesion events, 409 16S rDNA sequences, 838f
polA gene, 1418 Post-Q fever fatigue syndrome, 1961 virulence factors, 842 844
Poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis whole-genome sequencing, propionibacteria
energy/carbon reserve in, 22 (PSGN), 702 from, 844 849
Polyacrylamide electrophoresis (PAGE), 794 Post-transcriptional control, 325f Propionibacterium acnes, 841, 849f, 851
Polyacrylamide gels, 1512 Potassium, 132, 254, 913 914, 973 974, acne-derived, 841 842
Polyclonal antibodies, 1138 976 977, 1055, 1082 1083, 1085, antimicrobial peptides, 850
Polyethylene imine (PEI), 912 913 1087, 1129, 1135, 1353, 1489, 1796, chemokines and chemokine receptors,
Polyhooks, 135 1850 1851 850 851
Polyisoprenyl-phosphate hexose-1-phosphate Pregnant women, immunizing, 1522 immune response, 849 851
transferases (PHPT), 67 68 Prevotella, 882 keratinocytes, sebocytes and effector
Polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylaminosugar- Prevotella bryantii transcriptomic studies, 210 molecules, 850f
1-phosphate transferases (PNPT), 67 Prevotella distasonis, 891 monoclonal antibodies, 841 842
Polyketides, 1660 Prevotella intermedia, 9 10, 10f, 11f Propionibacterium granulosum, 837 838
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 2 Prevotella melaninogenica, 927 Propionibacterium propionicum, 838, 842
amplicon detection techniques, 386f prfA gene, 1355 1356 Prostaglandin E2, 2001
amplification, 518, 523, 1113, 1175, 1686 Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), 1500 Prostaglandins of E series (PGE), 1137
arbitrarily primed, 523, 866 Pristinamycin, 2085t Proteases, 1105, 1556
-based identification, 778 780 prn gene, 1512, 1515 Protective antigen (PA), 169 170, 1792,
-based methods, 1170 1171 Probe-hybridization techniques, 382 383 1799
Index 2135

Protein biosynthesis, inhibitors of translation Pryoptosis, 453 Pw vaccine, 1519


in, 595 597 P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), 2036 Pyocyanin, 753, 830, 1556
aminocyclitol antibiotics, 595 Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC), 1031 Pyoderma, 656, 702
chloramphenicol, 596 Pseudomonas, 240, 1373 Pyosalpinx, 1412
clindamycin, 596 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 33, 215, 237t, 411, Pyrazinamide, 1649 1650
fusidic acid, 596 597 587 588, 753, 1555 1559, 1956 Pyrimethamine, 591 592
macrolide and azalide antibiotics, 596 anti-Pseudomonas approaches. See Anti- Pyropoptosis, 505
mupirocin, 597 Pseudomonas approaches Pyroptosis, 1157
oxazolidinones, 596 colonization, 1557 Pyruvate formate lyase, 221
retapamulin, 596 epidemiology, in different geographical Pyruvate oxidoreductase (POR), 228
streptogramins, 596 regions, 1556 Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, 593
tetracyclines, 595 596 host-bacterial interaction, 1558 pYV (Yersinia virulence plasmid), 1325, 1327,
Protein F1-mediated invasion, 439 pathogenesis, 753 764 1332 1333
Protein kinase A (PKA), 2039 adhesins, 753 754
Protein kinase C (PKC), 1139, 2039
Protein phosphorylation, 1591
AHL-dependent QS systems, 762
alginate biosynthesis, regulation of, 757f
Q
Q fever, 650, 1772, 1941
Protein post-translational modifications, alginate biosynthesis pathway, 757f
acute, 1941 1943
284 285 ampC gene expression, 759f
hepatitis, 1942
Protein profile analysis, 1875 ampC-mediated resistance to β-lactams, 759
manifestations, 1942
Protein pump, 18 antibiotic resistance, 758 759
pneumonia, 1941 1942
Protein sequence analysis, 1801 biofilm formation, 758
self-limited febrile illness, 1941
Protein serotyping, 675 676 cAMP/Vfr signalling, 763
sequelae, 1942 1943
Protein S-glutathionylation, 254 255 c-di-GMP signalling, 763 764
treatment, 1945 1946
Protein synthesis, 589 590, 590f cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance
adaptive immunity, 1959 1960
Protein toxins, 997, 1000, 1556 regulator (CFTR) receptor, 754
animals, 1946 1947
Protein tyrosine kinases, 432 433, 437, 987, efflux-mediated resistance, 759 760
antibodies in, 1960
1439, 1455 exoenzymes, 754 756
chronic, 1943 1944
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), exotoxin A, structural and functional
endocarditis, 1943 1944
1329 1330 domains of, 755f
hepatitis, 1944
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation, 415 416 flagella-mediated mucin binding, 754
immune response, 1962f
Protein/glycoprotein subunits, 11 GAC regulatory network, 763f
osteomyelitis, 1944
Protein protein interactions, 298 Gac/Rsm regulator pathway, 762 763
treatment, 1946
Proteins, growth-condition-dependent membrane impermeability, 760 761
vascular infections, 1944
expression of, 280 mucoid conversion, 757 758
classification, 1949 1951
Proteolytic exotoxins, 482 pppGpp signals, 763
Coxiella burnetii, persistence of, 1961
Proteomes, 3, 286 288, 769, 1641 4-quinolone-dependent QS system, 762
cytokines, 1958 1959
Proteomics, 230, 261, 401 402 quorum-sensing circuits, 761f
dendritic cells, 1958
bacterial. See Bacterial proteomics quorum sensing regulation, 761 762
epidemiology, 1948 1949
Proteus mirabilis, urinary tract infections resistance genes, 759 761
fatigue syndrome, 1961
caused by, 1389 secreted toxins, 754 756
genetics, 1954 1956
adherence, 1390 1391 toxins directly injected host cells, 756
hepatitis, 1942
crystalline biofilm formation, 1392 1393 type IV pili (T4P), 753 754
history, 1956 1957
fimbriae and flagella, reciprocal regulation virulence genes, regulation of, 761 764
humans, 1941
of, 1392 resistance to antibiotics, 1557 1558
hyperinflammatory syndrome, 1961
horizontal gene transfer, 1396 systemic infection, 1558
identification, 1951
host response, evasion of, 1395 1396 virulence factors, 758, 1557f
immunology, 1956 1957
lipopolysaccharide, 1395 for invasion, 1556 1557
innate immunity, 1957 1959
metal acquisition, 1393 1394 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A
laboratory diagnosis, 1944 1945
motility, 1391 1392 (rEPA), 1302
monocytes and macrophages, 1957 1958
non-E. coli urinary pathogen, 1389 1390 non-toxic, 1151
NK cells, 1958
nutrition acquisition, 1393 Pseudomonas fluorescens, 431
physiology, 1952 1953
swarming and intermicrobial interactions, Pseudomonas pseudomallei, 769
pneumonia, 1942
1392 Psittacosis, 1504, 1775
in pregnancy, 1944, 1946
toxins, 1394 Psoriasis, 547, 550, 553 554, 986
prevention and control, 1949
urease, pH and nitrogen metabolism, Ptx gene, 1512
products, 1953 1954
1394 1395 pTyr proteins, 284
restriction fragment-length polymorphism
Proteus mirabilis fimbriae (PMF), 1391 Pulmonary nocardiosis, 731 732, 735 736
(RFLP), 1951 1952
Proton electrochemical gradient, 202 Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 387,
routes of transmission, 1947 1948
Proton motive force (PMF), 125, 127 524, 656, 724, 781, 812 813,
contaminated aerosols inhalation, 1947
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI), 1238 1239 866 867, 1047, 1083, 1170, 1285,
oral route, 1947
Proton translocation, 204 1536, 1618, 1674, 1806 1809, 1872
percutaneous route, 1947 1948
Protonophores, 205 Purine, 265 266, 502, 631, 1103, 1796, 1816,
person-to-person transmission, 1948
Protoporphyrin, 927, 1571, 1915, 1919 1882, 2000, 2045, 2068
sexual transmission, 1948
PrtF2, 685 686 Putrescine, 951, 1393
vertical transmission, 1948
2136 Index

Q fever (Continued) Reactive oxygen species (ROS), 250 252, Reticulate tree reconstruction, 526 527
T-cell-mediated immunity, 1959 1960 462 463 Retrocyclins (RC2), 540, 545 546
valvular damage, 1961 1962 bacterial detoxification systems, 258f Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), 384,
Quellung reaction, 33 34 generation, 251f 385t
Quiescent intracellular reservoir (QIR), 1378 with iron-sulfur clusters and DNA damage, Reverse vaccinology (RV), 361 363, 630,
Quinol, oxidation of, 216 253 1761
Quinolinate, 1155 with protein thiols, 252 Reversible thiol-modifications, 252
Quinolone resistance determining region redox sensors, 260 269 Rex-regulon genes, 267, 269
(QRDR), 891 Realtime cell analysis (RTCA) assay, 402 rfb encoding region, 1081
Quinolones, 592 593, 891 Real-time PCR (RT-PCR), 384 386 Rhamnolipids, 756
Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109 RecA polymerizing, 296 297 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 469, 986
classification and activity, 594f RecBCD complex, 296 297, 296f Rhinitis, atrophic, 1507
and DNA architecture, 592 593 Recombinant Spa (rSpa) proteins, 863, Rhinosinusitis, chronic (CRS), 981
DNA gyrase, 592, 620 867 868 Rhizobium leguminosarum, 59, 63
resistance phenotypes, 1091 Recombinase-based in vivo expression Rhizosphere, 1049
Quintan fever. See Trench fever technology (RIVET), 815 816 Rhodobacter sphaeroides, 131, 213, 220
Quorum sensing (QS), 230 231, 235 236, Recurrent (secondary) caries, 946 Rhodobacter spp., 127
758, 1084 Red leg disease, 1108 Rhodopseudomonas palustris, 848 849
dependent pathway, 1079 Red-complex species, 960 Ribitol phosphate, 91 92
downstream effects, 1084 Refractory shock, definition of, 644t Ribitol teichoic acids, 91 92
inhibitors (QSIs), 240 RegBA family, 225 Ribosomal dimethyltransferases, 704 705
in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 236f Regulatory sRNAs (RhyB), 221 Ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 381, 892,
regulation, 761 762 Reiter’s syndrome, 1271, 1407, 1411, 1413 1507 1509
Quorum signals RelA gene, 1660 Ribosomal gene sequencing, 372 373
and circuits, 236 238 Relapsing fever, 1894, 1896, 2077 Ribosomal multilocus sequence typing
crosstalk/interkingdom signaling, 239 Borrelia recurrentis, 1700, 1870t (rMLST), 520 521
exploiting to treat disease, 240 clinical signs, 1894 Ribosomal protein encoding genes, 520 521
immune response, 239 240 diagnosis, 1894 1895 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 20, 375 376, 381,
language, 236 238 global distribution, 1896 518, 588, 880, 979, 1259, 1321, 1451
medically important microbes, role in humans, 1896 gene recovery studies, 192
of, 237t Renal failure, in toxic shock syndrome, 989 gene sequencing, 518 520, 1681
Repeat-in-toxin (RTX) family, 483, 1205, 1374 Ribosomes, 7, 20, 594 595
R Repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR), 388, 518,
523 524, 781
Ribotyping, 1170, 1177, 1869
Rickettsia, 500
R-3-Hydroxymyristoyl-ACP pool, 56
Repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP), 388, antimicrobial therapy, 2053
Rab GTPases, 495 496, 1456, 2037 2038
523 524, 781, 1917 classification, 2043 2044
Rab1 GTPase, 429 430
Repetitive sequence-based PCR, 1686 1687, epidemiology and control, 2053 2055
Rabbit infection, 1422
1731 genome, 2044 2045
Rabbit infectivity tests (RIT), 1428
Repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction identification and diagnosis, 2049 2051
Rabbit serum, 1175 1176, 1922 1923
(rep-PCR), 388 growth and plaquing characteristics,
Raetz pathway, 57f, 58
Resistance nodulation division (RND) family, 2050
Rampant caries, 946
759 760, 889, 936 immunological identification, 2050 2051
Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR
Resistant bacteria, clonal dissemination of, 602, staining procedures, 2050
(RAPD-PCR), 523, 781
607 immunity, 2051 2053
analysis, 737, 866
Respiration activated macrophages role and NO, 2052
PCR amplification, 518, 523, 1175, 1686
aerobic, 211 216, 227, 1240 antibody responses, 2052
RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand),
anaerobic, 216 220, 227 cell-mediated immune responses,
1307
molecular oxygen during, 250 2051 2052
rDNA. See Ribosomal DNA (rDNA)
reactive oxygen species (ROS) during, 251f lymphokines, effect of, 2052 2053
Reactive chlorine species (RCS), 43,
Respiratory distress syndrome, acute, 989, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), 2046
250 252
2075 2076 molecular identification, 2051
in E. coli, 44f
Respiratory infections, acute (ARI), 1499 morphological and biological characteristics,
MarR/DUF24-family regulators as sensors,
Respiratory tract infections. See Infections, 2044
262 265
respiratory tract pathogenesis
with protein thiols, 252
Response regulator (RR), 222 223, 762 host cells, invasion of, 2046 2047
redox sensors, 260 269
Restriction endonucleases, 2, 600 intracellular growth, 2047 2049
Reactive Cys sulfenic acids, 252
Restriction enzymes (RE), 518, 866, 1170, invasion-associated proteins, 2047
Reactive electrophile species (RES), 249 252,
1568, 1681, 1684 oxidant-associated injury, 2049
251f
Restriction fragment-length polymorphism transcriptional activation and apoptosis,
MarR/DUF24-family regulators as sensors,
(RFLP), 375 376, 518, 725, 781, 866, 2049
262 265
947, 1642, 1785, 1809, 1869 1872, physiology, 2045
with protein thiols, 252
1917, 1951 1952, 2051, 2062 2063 products, 2045 2046
redox sensors, 260 269
Resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf), 189 proteins, 2045 2046
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), 221,
Retapamulin, 596 Rickettsia felis, 1774, 2044, 2054 2055, 2066
249 250
Index 2137

Rickettsia infections, 2053 infection process in strains, 1289 1295 Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI), 304,
clinical diagnosis, 2049 invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (INTS), 1281 1282
endothelium, 2048 2049 1296 1298 SPI-1, 304, 306 309
Rickettsia parkeri, 2043 2044 linear and other plasmids, 1282 1283 SPI-2, 306 309
Rickettsia phagocytophilia, 2033 with monomorphic structure, 1286 1289 SPI-4, 309
Rickettsia prowazekii, 339 340, 2054 multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), SPI-5, 309 310
Rickettsia spp., 501, 504 506, 1283, 2043 1285 1286 SPI-6, 310
Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. See Orientia myosin II-mediated engulfment, 426 SPI-11, 310
tsutsugamushi nomenclature, 1275 1277 SPI-16, 310
Rickettsia typhi, 282, 1774 non-typhoidal, 1269, 1270t, 1271, 1307 Salmonella serovars, 128 130
Rickettsiaceae, 2017 2018 indirect interactions with host cells, 1314 Salmonella Typhi, 38, 44, 1272, 1275, 1277
Rickettsiae, 2044 2046, 2050, 2053 2054 induction of host cell death, 1313 1314 biofilm formation, model of, 1296f
Ridley-Jopling classification, 1655 1656 intracellular survival and tissue carrier state, 1295 1296
Rifabutin, 1675 dissemination, 1312 1313 classification and nomenclature, 1275 1277,
Rifampicin, 589, 594 595, 938 in NTS serovars, 1289 1292 1276f
antimicrobial therapy, 1649 1650 OMP PagN role, 426 evolution, 1284f
chemotherapy, 1675 OMP Rck role, 426 infection process, 1293 1295, 1293f
Rifampin, 1644, 1658, 2085t OMP with host cells, 426 invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (INTS),
Propionibacterium acnes, 844 pathogenesis, 1272 1273 1296 1298
RNA polymerase (RNAP), 20, 225, 319, 589, pseudogenes, 1283 Minimal Spanning Tree (MS Tree) for
938 Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), 1292f strains of, 1287f
RNase-free DNAase, 400 401 Salmonella typhimurium, detection, 1293f serological classification, 1277t
Rochalimaea quintana, 1912 SPI-1 coding for T3SS-1, 423 TviA-mediated gene regulation, 1294f
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), 2046 T3SS-1 in cell invasion, 424 426 Salmonella typhimurium, 351, 412 413, 423
Root caries, 946 type 3 secretion system (T3SS), 1290f electron micrograph, 142f
Rotating flagella, functional analysis of, 139 typhi and paratyphi, 1271 flagellar filaments, helical parameters of, 131t
Rotating gel electrophoresis (RGE), 524 typhoid, 1269, 1270t Hin, 298
Roxithromycin, 2085t unknown factors, 426 428 microscopic images of polymorphs, 132f
rpoB sequencing, 1681 1682 vaccines, 1300 1302 strain LT2, 1282
rRNA. See Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Salmonella bongori, 1269, 1277 Salmonella Typhisuis, 1276f
Ruminococcus flavefaciens, 210 evolution, 1283 1284, 1284f Salmonella virulence factors, 423
Salmonella enterica, 64 66, 68, 237t, Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), 309,
S 307 310, 341, 402 403, 492 493,
523, 1036, 1269, 1281 1282
321, 323 324, 501, 1292f, 1312
Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs), 1291
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 76, 207, 632,
classification, 1276f Salmonellosis, 254, 307, 1272
817 818
evolution, 1283 1284, 1284f medical importance, 1315
Sacculus, 14 17, 105, 110 111
gene expression profile of, 240 Sanger method, 358, 391 392
S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-responsive
genome evolution, time frame of, 1289 SasG protein, 661
riboswitches, 1355 1356
LpxR, 65 66 S-bacillithiolations, 262 265
Sahnonella typhimurium, 125 126, 135 136,
Minimal Spanning Tree (MS Tree) for ScaC antigen, 2066
236, 254, 307, 412 413, 426,
strains of, 1285 1286, 1286f Scalds, 639
523 524, 930, 1269, 1279 1280,
motility, 240 Schistosoma, 639
1282 1283, 1297
serovar Typhimurium (STm), 288 S-cluster-containing proteins, 253
detection, 1293f
SPI1 and SPI2 virulence gene regulation in, Scrub typhus, 2057, 2061
NTS strains, 1293 1294
321 324 apoptosis, 2073
strains, 1297
temporal and spatial distribution, 1288f azithromycin, 2084
Salicylidene acylhydrazides, 1458
typhimurium, 293 cellular immune response, 2079 2083
Salmonella, 109 110, 130, 140, 142, 156,
Vi antigen production, 38 clinical symptoms and signs, 2075 2076
307 310, 423 428, 491, 603,
Wzx proteins, 69 70 differential diagnosis, 2076 2077
632 633, 1135, 1189
Salmonella enterica serovar Borreze, 74 75 doxycycline, 2084
accessory genome, 1280 1282
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, 38, 240, epidemiology, 2061 2062
acyltransferases, 58
601f, 631, 1036, 1269, 1277, eschar in, 2077 2078
antimicrobials, 1298 1300
1283 1284 humoral immune response, 2079
classification of bacteria in, 1275 1277,
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, immunological identification, 2062
1276f
125, 288, 307, 321 molecular identification, 2063
comparisons of chromosomes, 1280f
Salmonella enteritidis, 1269, 1271 multilocus sequence typing, 2064
detection, 1141
Salmonella Hadar, 1269, 1271 Orientia tsutsugamushi, as cause for, 2058
diagnosis, 1278 1279
Salmonella Heidelberg, 1269, 1271 pathogen, 2058
evolution, 1283 1284
Salmonella I-type flagellin molecule, 129f soluble adhesion molecules, 2073 2074
fluoroquinolones, 1299 1300
Salmonella lineages, 1276 1277 surface proteins and antigens, 2065 2066
genetic variability, 1284 1289
Salmonella live vector technology, 1302 treatment, 2084
genome, 1279 1284
Salmonella montevideo, 1276 1277 SecA protein, 743 744
genomic island, 1281t
Salmonella newport, 1269, 1271 Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI),
Haemolysin HlyE role, 426
Salmonella paratyphi, 1275 1715
host cell reprogramming, 506 507
2138 Index

SEED’s database, of bacteriophages, 579 control and prevention, 1412 phylogenetic classification, 1152 1153
Sensor kinase (SK), 222 223 gonococcal pathogenesis, 1411 1412 treatment and prevention, 1150 1152
Sepsis. See also Severe sepsis granuloma inguinale (GI), 1419 type 1, 418
definition of, 644t non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), 1420 Shigella flexneri, 71, 428, 1354
Septic arthritis, 656, 1108 syphilis, 1414 1419 epidemiology, 1149 1150
Septic shock, 644t, 1107 clinical features and presentations, Flil ATPase activity, 140 141
Septicaemia, 862, 1053, 1117 1414 1419 host cell invasion genes in, 324 326
Sequence diversity, 1170 congenital, 1416 microbiology, 1147 1149
Sequence type 313 (ST313), 1297 diagnosis, 1417 1418 pathogenesis, 1140, 1142
Serine protease autotransporter of epidemiology, 1414 phylogenetic classification, 1152 1153
Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE), 1137 latent-stage, 1415 treatment and prevention, 1150
Serine-aspartate repeat (Sdr) proteins, 801 neurosyphilis, 1415 1416 Shigella resistance locus (SRL), 1153
Serine-rich repeat (Srr) glycoproteins, 1757 pathogenesis, 1416 1417 Shigella sonnei, 215, 372, 1111
Serine-rich repeat proteins (SSRP), 305 primary, 1414 Shigella-specific pathogenicity islands (SHIs),
Serological assays, 1811 secondary-stage, 1414 1415 1153
TB diagnosis, 1648 tertiary, 1415 Shigellosis, 428
Bacillus anthracis, 1811 treatment, 1418 1419 treatment and prevention, 1150 1152
Yersinia Enterocolitica, 1335 virulence, 1153 Shikimate, 502, 520
Serological tests, 773, 1417 1418, 2051 S-Glutathionylated Grx, 255 Shinbone fever, 1912
Serotonin (5-HT), 1137 S-Glutathionylation, biosynthesis and functions Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 209, 351, 352f
Serratia, 371, 1368 1369, 1389 of, 254 255 Short N-terminal repeat region (SRR), 693
Serratia marcescens, 237t Shiga exotoxins, 483 Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), 63
Serum amyloid P (SAP), 454 Shiga toxin-producing enteroaggregative E. Shr/shp/htsABC system, 677
Serum opacity factor (SOF), 675, 686 687 coli (STEAEC), 1129, 1143 Shufflons, 923 924
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Shiga toxins, 483, 1138 Sialidase, 902, 930, 1488, 1490
637 family, 481, 1130, 1140 Sialyltransferase, 43
Severe sepsis, 640 trigger, 483 Sickle-cell disease, 1640
bacteraemia and, 642 645 Shiga/Vero toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Siderophores, 1106
definition, 644t 1140 Sif formation, 497 498
epidemiology, 643 644 Shigella, 505, 1127, 1128t, 1147 SigA gene, 1660
inflammatory mediators in, 646 647 acid resistance systems, 1155 SigB proteins, 1046
nomenclature, 644t biochemical and molecular properties, 1148t SigE gene, 1660
pathogenesis, 644 epidemiology, 1149 1150 Sigma factor, 126, 166, 222, 266, 292, 292f,
Severe-combined immunodeficiency disorder genetics and architecture, 1154f 300, 316 319, 321 322, 326,
(SCID), 986, 1666, 2021, 2023 history, 1147 757 758, 761, 803, 927, 1032 1034,
Sexually transmitted infection (STI), -induced inflammation, 1153 1063 1064, 1423 1424, 1514 1515,
1403 1404, 1475 invasion, 1155 1156 1531, 1591, 1660, 1879, 1952 1953,
CDC-recommended clinical prevention and microbiology, 1147 1149 1956, 1996
control, 1403 pathogenesis, 1155 1159, 1157f Σ-toxin, 794
chancroid, 1419 1420 epithelial layer, crossing, 1156 1157 Signal transduction, 1211 1212
control, 1420 epithelium, invasion of, 1157 1158 cascades, 155 156
treatment, 1420 escaping authophagy, 1159 Signalling molecules, 114, 190, 239, 243,
Chlamydia trachomatis, 1404 1411 host-immune system, circumventing, 249 250, 495 496, 497f, 763 764,
differential diagnosis, 1442 1158 1159 905 906, 1805, 1997, 2069, 2070f,
estimated lifetime cost per case, 1406t intracellular and intercellular spread, 1158 2071
estimated number of incident, 1405t lipopolysaccharide, 1159 Signalling pathways, 239, 305, 316, 429f,
estimated number of new cases, 1406t manipulating epithelial cell turn over, 433 435, 479, 483, 496, 497f, 761
estimated number of prevalent, 1404t 1158 Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM), 287,
estimated total medical costs, 1406t T3SS architecture and secretions, 1390, 1396
features, 1403 1404 1155 1156 Single chain Fv (scFv) antibodies, 1810
genital chlamydial infection, 1406 1411 pathogenomics, 1153 1155 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 361,
chlamydial cervicitis and urethritis, phylogenetic classification, 1152 1153, 364, 369, 390, 522, 919 920, 1083,
1407 1408 1152f 1286 1287, 1663
diagnosis, 1409 1410 protrusion formation, 505 -based genotyping, 1288 1289
lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), 1410 treatment and prevention, 1150 1152 -based typing, 522
neonatal infections, 1411 vaccine candidate, 1151t Single-dose rifampin (SDR), 1665
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), Shigella boydii, 428, 1127, 1147, 1149, Single-locus sequence typing (SLST), 388 389
1408 1409 1152 1153 Sinusitis, 1501
STI-related acute epididymitis, Shigella dysenteriae, 418, 481, 483, 1140 SipB, 304, 494f, 1291
1409 1410 clinical features, 1140 SipC, 425
treatment, 1410 epidemiology, 1149 Sitafloxacin, 891
tubal factor infertility (TFI), 1411 history, 1147 Site-specific recombination, 298
gonorrhoea, 1411 1414 pathogenesis, 1140 by serine recombinases, 300f
and clinical manifestations, 1412 1414 pathogenomics, 1153 1155 tyrosine recombinases, 299f
Index 2139

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 825, Spirochoeta interrogans, 1973 haemolytic activity, 795t
886, 1107 Spore cortex lytic enzymes (SCLEs), 1798 lipase activity, 796t
bacterial virulence factors, 826 Spore germination, 1796 lipase/esterase, 796 797
bullous impetigo, 826f Spore-forming bacteria, 164t proliferation and accumulation
ecthyma, 826 Sporulation, 166, 188 189, 1792 biofilm and cell dispersal, disaggregation
erysipeloid, 830 Spotted fever group (SFG), 2043 of, 803 804
erythrasma, 829 830 Spx homologues, 265 267 biofilm formation, 802 803
Gram-negative skin, 830 Spx thiol-redox sensor, for disulphide stress, proteases, 796
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 830 265 266 slime-associated antigen, 797 798
natural resistance, 825 Src homology-2 phosphatase (SHP-2), 1245 soluble virulence factors, 793 794
non-bullous impetigo, 827f Ssel, 506 staphylococcal cells, 801 802
normal bacterial skin flora, 825 SsrB protein, 322 323 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 797t
pitted keratolysis, 830 Staphopain A (ScpA), 817 staphylokinase (fibrinolysin), 796
superficial, 826 Staphopain B (SspB), 817 toxins and enzymes, 794t
synergistic/combined, 833 Staphylococcal accessory regulator (SarA), 262 virulence factors, 804 805
trichomycosis axillaris, 830 Staphylococcal adherence, 799 Staphylococcus, 267 268
tropical ulcer, 833 Staphylococcal cassette chromosomes encode Staphylococcus aureus, 93, 94f, 108 110, 230,
Slide agglutination test (SAT), 1785 resistance to meticillin (SCCmec), 655 237t, 250, 311, 338 339, 401 402,
Slime-associated antigen (SAA), 797 Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC), 655, 816 817
Small acid-soluble proteins (SASP), 164 165 980, 982 24-kDa N-terminal fragment of GryB, 621f
Small capsule (SC), 921 Staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced illness adaptive immunity, interfering, 665 666
Small GTPases, Rho family of, 432 cell targets and mediators, 986 991 protein A, 665
Small non-coding RNAs, 1996 endothelial cells, 989 superantigen enterotoxins, 665 666
Small regulatory RNA (sRNA), 319 kidney cells, 988 989 adhesins, 97
Smoking, 642, 1614 1615, 1947 localization, 988 989 biofilm, 668 669
SNARE proteins, 1023 toxic shock syndrome, renal failure in, 989 colonization and infection, factors
Social gliding, 125 mediators, 989 991 promoting, 660 666
Soda gene, 1660 antibodies, 990 991 collagen hug, 661
Sodium chloride, 803, 974, 1087, 1100, 1137, cytokines, 989 990 dock lock latch, 661
1169 signal transduction pathways, 990 fibronectin binding-tandem β-zipper,
Sodium ion motive force (NaMF), 127 Staphylococcus aureus identification, 991 661 662
Sodium/potassium ATPase, 973 974 T lymphocytes, 986 988 immune evasion mechanisms, 663f
Sodium-motive force (smf), 204 conventional antigens and superantigens, innate immune responses, evasion of,
Soil bacterium Ktedonobacter racemifer type 987 988 662 665
strain (SOSP1-21), 357 MHC molecules, structure of, 987 Isd proteins, 662
Solexa method, 358 staphylococcal enterotoxins, 988 ligand binding mechanisms, 661 662
Soluble, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, T-cell antigen response, 986 987 neutrophil integrity, 664
attachment protein receptor (SNARE) T-cell receptor, structure of, 987 regulation of virulence factor expression,
family, 1023 toxin detection, 991 992 664f
Soluble CD14 (sCD14), 645 bioassays, 991 surface protein adhesions, 662f
Solute-binding protein (SBP) gene, 851 852 immunological assays, 991 surface proteins, 660 661, 661f
Solventogenic, 209 mass spectrometry (MS), 991 colonization of host, 666 667
SopE protein, 1282 nucleic acid tests (NAT), 992 cheese, contaminated, 979, 992 993
Sortase, 116 117, 684, 1757 treatment and prevention, 992 993 engulfment, 665
Sorting nexin-1 (SNX1), 497 498 Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), 980 981 enterotoxin-producing. See Enterotoxin-
SOS response, 148 149, 183, 193, 666 667, Staphylococcal food poisoning, 993 producing Staphylococcus aureus
1091, 1438, 1682 Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), epidemiology and transmission, 655 657
Southern blot, 795, 798 799, 1599 1600 826 828, 827f antibiotic resistance, 657
spa gene, 326, 389, 656, 867 868, cellulitis, 829f clinical, 655 656
1138 1139, 1143, 1885 1886 erysipelas, 828 829 habitat, 655
SpaA antigen, 863 864 necrotizing fasciitis, 829f identification, 656
Spacious phagosome (SP), 1291 Staphylococcal species, 478 surface and secreted virulence factors, 656f
Sparfloxacin, 592 593, 2085t Staphylococcal superantigen-like (SLL) typing, 656
Spectinomycin, 595, 1730 proteins, 665 666 genome
speG gene, 1155 Staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs), 981 bacteriophages, 658
Spermidine, 253 254, 660, 667, 1155 proteins, 665 666 class I plasmids, 657 658
Sphingomyelin, 415 416, 483, 499, 755 756, Staphylococci, coagulase-negative, 793 composition and organization, 657
842 843, 902, 911, 984, 1061 1062 biofilm formation, 800 802 mobile genetic elements (MGEs),
Sphingomyelinase (SMase), 1062 capsular polysaccharide/adhesin, 798 800 657 660, 658f
Spiral gradient endpoint (SGE) system, 888 cell surface virulence determinants, 797 pathogenicity islands, 658
Spiramycin, 2085t CNS biofilm formation, 800 801 SCCmec elements, 659f
Spirochaeta aurantia, 1884 deoxyribonuclease, 796 staphylococcal cassette chromosome
Spirochaetes, 341, 833, 957 960 esterase, 796 797 (SCC), 658 660
Spirochetal lipoprotein, 1699 haemolysin production, 794 796 transposons and insertion sequences, 658
2140 Index

Staphylococcus aureus (Continued) laminin-binding protein, 1758 1759 GAS infection, prevention and control of,
genomic islands, 660 lifecycle, 1752f 704 706
restriction systems, 660 pili, 1755 1757 antimicrobial therapy and resistance
MarR/DUF24-family regulators as sensors polysaccharide capsule, 1760 mechanisms, 704 705
QsrR for quinone-sensing, 263 265 scanning electron micrograph, 1752f vaccine, 705 706
meticillin-resistant, 394, 583, 644, 980 serine-rich repeat (Srr) glycoproteins, GAS invasion, of soft tissues, 694 696
meticillin-susceptible, 980, 992 1757 1758 plasminogen binding, 694 695
nasal carriage, 825 transmission electron microscopy SpeB, 695 696
O2 and NAD1/NADH, redox-sensors for, micrograph of endothelial cells, 1754f GAS superantigens, 696t
267 269 vaccines, 1761 1762 high-salt environments, osmoregulation in,
oxidative stress resistance mechanisms, virulence factors, 1760 1761 678 679
258 259 Streptococcus gordonii, 110, 237t glycine-betaine synthesis, 679
pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), 658 Streptococcus intermedius, 881 proline synthesis, 678 679
quinone-sensing MhqR, 264f Streptococcus mutans, 67 68, 237t identification, 676
reactive chlorine species (RCS) in caries, 947 innate immune response, evasion of,
PerR as fur-family metal-based peroxide immunization strategies, 954t 690 694
sensor, 260 SloABCR operon, 815 C5a peptidase (ScpA), 691
redox sensors, 260 269 virulence mechanisms, 948 952 DNases, 692 693
reactive electrophile species (RES), Streptococcus pneumoniae, 33, 93 94, 106, GAS infection, 690
260 269 108 109, 237t, 291, 341, 362, 881 hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule, 690 691
reactive oxygen species (ROS), 260 269 aetiological diagnosis of infections, SpyCEP, 691 692
regulation 1538 1539 streptolysin O (SLO), 694
accessory gene regulator (Agr), 666 antimicrobial resistance, 1535 1536 streptolysin S (SLS), 694
saeRS system, 666 competence and pherotype diversity, iron acquisition, 677 678
Rex homologue, 269 1531 1535 MtsABC, 677
small colony variants (SCVs), 667 capsule, 1532 1533 shr/shp/htsABC system, 677
Spx homologues, 266 267 pneumolysin (Ply), 1534 siderophore sequestration, 677 678
staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome reactive oxygen species (ROS), lancefield grouping, 675
(SSSS), 984 985 1534 1535 M and emm typing, 675
taxonomy, 655 teichoic acids, 1533 1534 molecular determinants of virulence,
USA300 strains, 659f Fem-type transferases, 112 113 683 690
virulence factors, 667 668 history and identification, 1529 1530 adhesion and colonization factors,
α-toxin with epithelial cells, 667f in vivo transformation, 2 683 687
β-barrel pore-forming cytolysins, in mice, 2 FbaA, 686
667 668 natural habitat, 1537 1538 FBP54, 686
coagulases, 668 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides and fibronectin-binding proteins, 684
YjbH homologues, 266 267 serotypes, 1530 1531 M protein, 688 690
Staphylococcus epidermidis, 241, 250, 477 pneumococcal clones, 1536 1537 pilus, 687
biofilm-negative mutants, 798 pneumococcal vaccines, 1539 1540 prtF1, 684 685
capsular polysaccharide/adhesion, 798 800 Streptococcus pyogenes, 237t, 416, 438, 826 PrtF2 (protein F2), 685 686
characteristics, 797t acute rheumatic fever, clinical diagnosis of, serum opacity factor (SOF), 686 687
pathogenesis, 804 805 702t SfbX, 686 687
slime-associated antigen, 797 798 classification, 675 676 M protein molecules, 688f
transmission, clinical, 655 656 contemporary GAS infection, 703f non-M protein based GAS vaccinations,
Staphylokinase, 664 CovR/S activation, 684t 705t
Stationary phase cell, 188 DNases produced by GAS, 692t nutrient acquisition, 678
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 237t emm cluster amino acid uptake, 678
Stool antigen test (SAT), 1239 of GAS core genome, 679t carbohydrate metabolism, 678
Stool enrichment, in alkaline peptone water, genetic composition and architecture, 677f starvation response, 678
1089 endemic GAS infection, 704t pathogenesis, 700 703
Streptococcal Fn-binding proteins, 684 evasion of adaptive immune response, autoimmune sequelae, 701 703
Streptococcal protective antigens (SPAs), 697 697 700 invasive infections, 701
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, 697 GAS infection, humoral immunity, 697 698 superficial infection, 700
Streptococcal superantigens (SAgs), 484, 696 immunoglobulin-A-binding proteins, 698 transmission, 700
Streptococcal surface dehydrogenase (SED), immunoglobulin-G-binding proteins, physiology, 676 679
695 698 699 tissue tropism, 676 677
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), immunoglobulin proteases, 699 700 prophage-encoded virulence factors, 682t
701, 829 FCT region, genomic arrangement of, 680f receptor-ligand interactions, 689t
Streptococcus agalactiae, 338, 360, 1751 GAS fibronectin-binding proteins, 685f Sic molecule, structure and domain
β-haemolisin/cytolysin, 1754 1755 GAS immunoglobulin binding proteins, 699t organization of, 694f
fibrinogen-binding proteins, 1758 GAS infection, epidemiology of streptococcal superantigens (SAgs),
glycosyltransferase contemporary GAS infection, 703f 696 697
lipoteichoic acid (LTA), 1759 1760 rise of M1T1 clone, 703 704 SpeA, 697
hypervirulent GBS adhesin (HvgA), 1759 severe GAS infection, resurgence of, 703 T and SOF typing, 675 676
Index 2141

two-component signal transduction systems clinical features and presentations, Tellurite, 1141
(TCS), 683 1414 1419 Tet genes, 885
CovR/S, 683 congenital, 1416 Tetanus, 170. See also Clostridium tetani
FasBCAX system, 683 diagnosis, 1417 1418, 1428 Tetanus toxin, 909 910
virulence factor expression, regulation of, epidemiology, 1414 fragment C
681 683 latent-stage, 1415 axonal transport ability of, 912 913
Mga (multiple gene activator of GAS), neurosyphilis, 1415 1416 molecular properties of, 911 912
681 682 pathogenesis, 1416 1417 Tethered-cell method, 135f
RALP family, 683 primary, 1414 Tetracyclines, 595 596, 891, 937 938, 2085t
stand-alone response regulators, 681 683 secondary-stage, 1414 1415 Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109
virulence factor genetic architecture, sexually transmitted, 1429 Bacillus cereus infections, 1054
679 681 tertiary, 1415 Campylobacter coli strains, 1220
core genome-associated virulence factors, treatment, 1418 1419 Haemophilus ducreyi, 1443
679 680 Treponema pallium, 1975 Shigella strains, 1150
emm cluster, 679 visceral, 1415 syphilis treatment, 1418 1419
FCT region, 679 680 Syphilis chancre, 1421, 1442 Tetrahydrofolate (THF), 590 591
ICE elements, 681 Syphilitic meningitis, acute, 1699 biosynthesis of, 591f
mobile genetic elements (MGEs), Systemic bacterial invaders, 1269 1271 Tetrahydrogenated menaquinones, 837
680 681 clinical features, 1271 1272 Tetratrico peptide repeats (TPRs), 1064
phage-associated virulence factors, Listeria monocytogenes, 1270 1273 Tetrodotoxin (TTX), 1119
680 681 non-typhoidal Salmonella, 1271 Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus,
prophage-associated virulence factors, 681 Salmonella, 1272 13f
Streptodornases. See DNases Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi, 1271 Thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH), 1130
Streptogramins, 596, 723 typhoid and non-typhoidal Salmonella, 1269 Thermus aquaticus, 938
Streptolysin O (SLO), 694, 903 904 Yersinia enterocolitica, 1269, 1271 1272 Thermus thermophilus, 619 623
Streptomyces cattleya, 606 Systemic gastrointestinal infections, 1269 Theta-toxin, 904
Streptomycin, 595 bacterial pathogens causing, 1270t production regulation, 904 905
Vibrio cholerae, 1091 Systemic inflammatory response syndrome Thiamphenicol, 2085t
Stress-responsive genes, 187 (SIRS), 934 Thiol(s)
Stx prophage, 1153 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 468 -based redox sensors, 265 266
Subacute erysipelas, 861 Systemic nocardiosis, 736 low-molecular-weight, 250, 253 258
Subcellular localization prediction, 361 peroxidases, 259
Sugar backbone, 14 16
Sugar nucleotides, 584
T Thioredoxin (TrxAB), 255f
Thiosulphate-citratebile salts-sucrose (TCBS)
T cell antigen receptor (TCR), 456 457
Sugars, fermentation of, 206 agar, use of, 1169 1170
T helper 17 (Th17) cells, 457
Sulfamethoxazole resistance, 1150 Thoracic actinomycosis, 747
T lymphocytes, cytotoxic (CTL), 987
Sulfonamides, 591 Thrombin, 477, 668, 2074
T regulatory cells (Treg), 466
combinations, 591 592 Thromboplastin, 811
Talin, 97
Haemophilus ducreyi, 1443 Thromboxane, 1695
Tamm-Horsfall protein, 415
Sulforaphane, 1108 1109 Thylakoids, 24
Tandem repeat protein (TRP), 2014 2016
Superantigens, 484, 646, 989 990 Thymidylate, 589
Taq polymerase, 1683
conventional, 987 988 Thymine, 391
Targeted secretion inhibitor (TSI), 1026
enterotoxins, 665 666 Ticarcillin-clavulanate, 891
Targeting type III secretion system (T3SS),
staphylococcal, 981 984 Tick vector, colonization of, 2038
764, 1172
clinical diseases, 985 986 Tick-borne fever (TBF), 2033 2034
Tazobactam, 733, 891
streptococcal, 484, 696 697 Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF), 1894 1897
T-cell
Supercoiling-induced duplex destabilization Tigecycline, 738, 1619
assays, 1657
(SIDD), 317 Tight junctions, 25, 425 426, 657, 667f, 930,
Campylobacter jejuni infection, 1220 1221
Superdormancy, risk of, 1797 1021f, 1085
differentiation, into Th1 cells, 1441
Superficial gastrointestinal infections. Tilmicosin, 1218
humoral and cellular immune responses,
See Gastrointestinal infections, Tip proteins, 734f
1890
superficial Tissue anoxia, 887
-mediated immunity, 1959 1960
Superoxide dismutase (SOD), 258, 733 Tissue hypoxia, 647
proliferation, 816
Superoxides, 1696 Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-
severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)
Suppurative infections, 656 1), 1695
mice, 2023
Swarming motility, 125, 1391 1392, 1407 Tissue invasion, 639, 1854
TcpC protein, 1380
Swine erysipelas, 859 861 Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), 694
TcsL cytopathic effects, 171
Symbiont-associated molecular patterns tmRNA, 1917f
Teichoic acids, 91 93
(SAMPs), 352f TNF superfamily ligands, 463
anionic polysaccharide, 17
Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis Tobramycin, 240, 615, 723
biological activities, 96 97
(SAPHO) syndrome, 841 842 Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR), 454 455, 455f
cellular roles, 95 96
Synthase-dependent polymerization, 42 Toll-like receptors (TLR), 97 98, 449 450,
synthesis, 99
Syphilis, 1414 1419 849 850, 1291 1292, 1957, 1999
Teichuronic acids (TU), 91
cardiovascular, 1415 engagement, 456
Teicoplanin, 583
2142 Index

Toll-like receptors (TLR) (Continued) Transmembrane electrochemical proton host genetic factors, 1640
pattern recognition receptors, 449 450 gradient, 202f latent, 1639, 1643 1644
signalling, 454 456 Transport proteins, 216 217, 227, 287, 645, meningitis, 1639 1640, 1702
TLR2, 2019 2020 1106, 1660 multidrug-resistant (MDR), 1637
TLR-4, 1312 Transposable elements, 1323 1324 prevalence, 1648 1649
-mediated responses, 64 Transposase, 478, 937, 1858 reactivation of, 1638
TLR5, 754 Transposition, 303 304, 602 603 resistance, 1637
and vaccines, 469 470 Trench fever, 1912 1913, 1918t, 1927 resurgence, 1637
TonB genes, 2000 2001 Treponema denticola, 958, 1421 risk factors, 1643
TonB protein, 1478 1479, 1517 Treponema pallidum, 125, 1423, 1884 vaccines, 1650
Tongue, flora, 964, 1325 endemic treponematosis, 1975 Tubular polymer, lattice structure of, 130f
Topoisomerases, 20 syphilis, 1975 Tubulin, 117 120, 183, 432
Topoisomerase I, 320 321, 320f Treponematoses, endemic, 1428 1430 Tularaemia, 1993
Topoisomerase II, 589 Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), 1569 Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), 481, 1958
Topoisomerase IV, 592 Trichomonas vaginalis, 382 Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNRF), 911,
Tosufloxacin, 592 593 Trichomycosis axillaris, 830 2022 2023
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), 828 Trimethoprim, 591, 592f, 601, 738 Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 97
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), 655 656, 985 Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), 546
Clostridium sordellii, 169t 157, 1116 tviA expression, 1294 1295, 1294f
non-menstrual, 95, 985 Aeromonas spp., 1108 1109 Twitching motility, 147, 242, 756, 1573, 1921
Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1), 484, Vibrio cholerae, 1091 Two-component signal transduction systems
665 Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) reductase, 220 (TCS), 222 223, 683, 1996
Toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS), 438, 2011 Triose phosphate isomerase, 1062 Two-partner secretion system (TPS), 1511
Toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP), 155, 306, Tripartite toxin, haemolysin BL family of, Tylosin, 1218
1079, 1085 1056 1059 Campylobacter infections, 1218
Toxin-associated gastrointestinal disease, 971 Triple sugar iron (TSI) agar, 864 Type 3 secretion system-1 (T3SS-1),
bacterial toxins, pathogenic effects of, tRNA genes, 182 183, 304 1281 1282
974 975 Tropheryma whipplei, 192, 1127, 1128t, 1129, Type I secretion system (T1SS), 754
clinical manifestations, 975 976 1259 Type II O-antigen polysaccharide (O-PS), 774
intestinal physiology and fluid balance, classification, morphology and genome Type III secretion system (T3SS), 306, 423,
971 974 organization, 1259 1260 479, 1106, 1281 1282, 1327
major bacterial pathogens causing, 972t clinical features, 1260 1261 Type six secretion system (T6SS), 1283 1284
treatment, 976 977 asymptomatic infections, 1261 Type V secretion system (T5SS) genes,
Toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), 306, 1079, chronic localized infections, 1260 1918 1919
1085 classic WD, 1260 Typhimurium genes, 1291
Toxin-encoding genes, 980 985, 1079 gastroenteritis, 1261 Typhoid fever, 1272
Toxin-producing nosocomial pathogens, 720 diagnosis, 1261 1262 antibody/antigen detection, 1278 1279
Toxin-related gene clusters, 1322 1323 epidemiology, 1260 antimicrobials, 1298 1300
Toxoids, 1 2, 627, 1518 1519 history, 1259 control, 1298 1300
Toxoplasmosis, 1911 pathogenesis, 1261 diagnosis, 1278 1279
ToxR regulatory network, 1088 treatment, 1262 1263 first-line antimicrobials, 1298 1299
ToxT expression, 1088 Tropheryma whipplei infectious endocarditis fluoroquinolones, 1299 1300
toxT gene, 327 328 (TWIE), 1260 isolation of pathogen, 1278
ToxT protein, 306, 327 Tropomyosin, 913 nucleic acid amplification, 1279
ToxT regulon, 328 Trypsin-generated fragments of PA, Salmonella Typhi, use of, 1302
tpeL gene, 999 1000 1815 1816 technical tools, 1279
TpeL glycosylated Rac1, 1001 Tryptone soya broth plus 0.6% Yeast Extract toxins, 1295
Tra proteins, 1199 1200 (TSBYE), 1113 1114 vaccines, 1300
Tracheobronchitis, 1502 Tubal factor infertility (TFI), 1412 candidate vaccines being tested,
Transcription, 589 Tuberculoma, 1702 1703 1301 1302
Transcriptomics, 399 401 Tuberculosis (TB), 1637, 1700. See also Ty21a, 1300 1301
Transducing particles, 293 294 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Vi capsular polysaccharide, 1301
Transduction, 293 294 AIDS, 1640 whole-cell, 1300
bacteriophage-mediated, 293f central nervous system, 1700 1703 Typhoidal Salmonella, 1275, 1284 1285,
Transepithelial resistance (TER), 1006 1007 contagious nature, 1638 1639 1296 1297
Transfer RNA (tRNA), 358 control, 1637 Typhus group (TG), 2043
Transferrin, 1576 diagnosis, 1644 1645 Typhus-like illnesses, 2057
receptors, 2019 DNA fingerprinting, 1641 1643 Tyrosine phosphorylation, 415 416, 432,
in serum, 1716 drug resistance, 1638 1639 911 912
Transferrin binding proteins (Tbps), 1576, 1716 epidemiology proteins, 284, 1139
Transformation, bacterial, 291 293, 776 global, 1637 1638
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), 1696,
2001
molecular, 1641 1643
HIV infection, 1640 1641, 1644 1645
U
Ubiquinol (UQH2), 215
Transmembrane channels, 1105 HIV pandemic, 1640 1641
Ubiquitous surface proteins (Usp), 1575
Index 2143

UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine in childhood, 1368 Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1),


phosphoanhydride bond, 58 prostatitis, 1368 811
UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide, 111 112 cystitis and UTI, incidence of, 1365f Vascular endothelial cell growth factor
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-G), 584 defence mechanisms, 1367t (VEGF), 1922
Ulcerative colitis (UC), 365, 468, 884 enterococcal, 719 Vascular grafts, 1945 1946
Ulceroglandular tularaemia, 1994 diagnosis, 1369 1370 Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), 974, 1137
Umbilical cord, 1403 quantitative and semi-quantitative VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein),
Uncultivable pathogenic treponemes, 1421 methods, 1370 2048
causes, 1422t screening methods, 1370 Vaxign, 363 364
classification, 1421 E. coli.. See Escherichia coli: in urinary tract Ventilator-associated pneumonia, 1504
diagnosis and therapy, 1428 infections Verapamil, 1801
epidemiology, control and prevention, 1429 haematogenous, 1369 Verruga peruana, 1911 1912
genetic and genomic analyses, 1424 1426, hospital-acquired, 1368 1369 Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP),
1424t pathogenesis, 1370 1023
host susceptibility, 1427 1428 pathogens, 1368 VAMP2, 1022
inter- and intrastrain recombination events, significant bacteriuria, 1365 1366 Vi vaccine, 1302
1426f spectrum, 1367 1368 Viability of bacteria, 191t, 193 194, 194t
origin of syphilis, 1430 acute cystitis, 1367 Viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) bacteria,
pathogenic treponemes acute pyelonephritis, 1367 1368 193 195, 1084, 1178, 1237, 1614
evolution, 1430 chronic pyelonephritis, 1368 Vi-antigen, 1294
genome parameters, 1425t covert bacteriuria, 1367 Vibrio alginolyticus, 127
predicted antigens and virulence factors, 1426t uropathogens, 1369t Vibrio cholerae, 237t, 298, 310, 317 318,
syphilis stages, diagnosis and infectivity, Uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA), 1390 326 327, 1079
1428t Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), 147, 1373 antibiotics, 1090 1091
treponemal immunology, 1427 1428 Uroplakins, 415 resistance, 1091
treponemal infections, 1421 1422 Uro-Vaxom, 1382 cholera toxin, 1087
bejel, 1422 Usher protein, 152, 1331 clinical manifestations and pathogenesis,
fribourg-blanc strain, 1422 Usher selectivity, 158 1085 1089
pathogenesis of, 1426 1427 colonization, 1085 1086
pinta, 1422
syphilis, 1421
V molecular mechanisms, 1085
toxigenic, 1085
vacA gene, 1244
venereal spirochetosis, 1422 CT and TCP, genetic structure of,
VacA toxin, 1243 1244
yaws, 1421 1422 1087 1088
Vaccine-induced immunity, 1519, 1522
treponemal metabolism, 1423 1424 diagnosis, 1089 1090
Vaccines
Treponema pallidum strains, 1425f accessory virulence factors, 1090t
history, 627
treponematoses, 1430 conventional microbiologic methods, 1089
immunology
Und PP-linked OAgs, 75 molecular diagnostics tests, 1090
developments and challenges, 629 630
Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (Und-PP), 65 rapid immunochromatographic tests,
discovery in Omics era, 630 631
MurNAc-pentapeptide, 112 1089 1090
new vaccine delivery approaches and
synthesis and recycling, 76 DNA damage, 1091
adjuvants, 632 633
Und-PP-linked O-units, 68, 71 electron micrograph, 1087f
research in present day, 627 633
Undulant fever, 1781 environmental V. cholerae, 1083 1084
toll-like receptors, 469 470
Upper respiratory tract infections, 1568 epidemic cholera, 1083
types, 628t
Uracil, 1475, 1592, 1874, 1980, 2068 epidemiology, 1081 1084
Vaccinia, 453
Uranyl acetate, 7, 18 genome, 1081
Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), 1130,
Ureaplasmas, 1587, 1589 1590, 1594 1596, gold standard method, 1089
1237 1238
1601 history, 1079
Vacuoles, 1352 1353
antimicrobial resistance in, 1602t hyperinfectivity, 1089
vag genes, 1515
Urease infection, individual risk factors for, 1082
Vaginal microflora, 650
Actinomyces, 747 lipopolysaccharide, 1089
Vaginitis, 1487 1488
genes, 1598 1599 molecular epidemiology, 1083
Valinomycin, 1055
Helicobacter pylori, 228, 1130, 1243 nomenclature and classification,
VanA and VanB phenotype, 724
Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1553 1079 1081
Vancomycin, 1054
urinary tract infections, 1394 1395 comma-shaped V. cholerae, electron
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), 353,
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 1171 1172 micrograph of, 1080f
363f, 588, 717, 725
YstA enterotoxin, 1332 O1, biotype designation of, 1080
Variable large proteins (VLPs), 1878
UreI protein, 1243 O1, serotype designation, 1080
Variable major lipoprotein(Vmps), 1878
Uridine monophosphate (UMP), 112 O1 El Tor strains, 1080 1081
Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)
Urinary ecosystem, 1366 1367 organism, 1079
sequences, 1663
defence mechanisms, 1367 serogroup designation, 1080
Variable small proteins (Vsps), 1878
susceptibility factors, 1366 1367 pathogenesis, 155, 1086f
Variable-number tandem repeat loci (VNTR),
Urinary tract infections (UTIs), 641, 1127, prevention, 1091 1092
388
1345, 1365, 1389 vaccines, 1091 1092
Varicella, 578
ascending, 1368 1369 quorum sensing, role of, 1084
Variolation, 627
2144 Index

Vibrio cholerae (Continued) Viridans group streptococci (VGS), 814 Wzm proteins, 73
seventh pandemic, genomic analyses of, VirS/R system, 904 905 Wzx proteins, 70 71
1083 Virulence coordination Wzy pathway, 68 72, 69f
ToxR regulon, 1088f gene regulation, hierarchy, 319 321 Wzy/Wzx-dependent pathway, 69 70
transmission, 1082 1083 horizontal gene transfer, 317 319 Wzy/Wzx-exported O-polysaccharides, 73
treatment, 1090 1091 host cell regulation, Shigella flexneri, Wzy-dependent polymerization, 40 41
virulence 324 326 CPS synthesis, 40f
factors, 1089 nuclear membrane, 315 Wzy-dependent synthesis systems, 39
regulation, 1088 1089 nucleoid, 315 316 Wzz homologues, 72
Vibrio fischeri, 225 nucleoid-associated proteins, 316 317 Wzz proteins, 71
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 1127, 1128t, 1129 SPI1 and SPI2, in Salmonella enterica,
antimicrobial therapy, 1173
associated gastroenteritis, 1173
321 324
ToxT regulon, 328
X
Xanthomonas campestris
biochemical identification, 1170 Vibrio cholerae, ToxR regulon, 326 328
MarR/OhrR-type regulators, 260 262
chromosomes and molecular typing, Virulence correlated gene (vcg), 1175
Xenobiotics, 250
1170 1171 Virulence factors, 1081
Xenophagy, 2000
direct genome restriction analysis Virulent polysaccharide, 1301
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP),
(DGREA), 1170 Vlp genes, 1886
2037
multilocus sequence typing (MLST), 1171 Vmp-like sequence (vls) locus, 1886
Xpert MTB/RIF, 1646
multiple-locus variable-number tandem Voges-Proskauer (VP), 1919 1920
Xylose-lysine-desoxycholate (XLD) agars,
repeat analysis (MLVA), 1171 Von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp),
1147 1148
PCR-based fingerprint methods, 668
D-Xylulose 5-phosphate, 206
1170 1171 Von Willenbrand factor (vWF), 812 813
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Vsp genes, 1886
1170 Y
ribotyping, 1170
classification, 1169
W YadA (Yersinia adhesin A), 1272
attachment-invasion locus (Ail) adhesin,
WaaC analogues, 63
diagnosis, 1172 1173 1331
WaaL proteins, 75 76
epidemiology and control, 1173 cell adhesion molecules, 433, 1325
Wall teichoic acids (WTA), 91, 860
immunity, 1172 non-fimbrial adhesin, 1330
biological activities, 96 97
infection, 1178 surface adhesin, 1862
glycerol phosphate termini, 93 94
isolation and identification, 1169 1170 yadA gene, expression of, 1330
linkage, 92f
pathogenesis/virulence traits ybt locus, 1852f
structure, 91 93
siderophores, 1172 Yeasts, 211
WbaP gene, 919 920
TDH-related haemolysin (TRH), 1171 eukaryotes, 211
WbdD protein controls
thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), in lung tissue, 383
chain-terminating, 73
1171 phagocytosis, 454
Wegener’s granulomatosis, 986
type III secretion system (T3SS), 1172 probiotics, 172
Weil’s disease, 1973
urease production, 1171 1172 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 76
Weil-Felix assay, 2083
Vibrio pathogenicity island (VPI), 1081 Yersinia, 432 434
Weil-Felix OX-K agglutination reaction, 2081
Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS), 1084 adenitis and septicaemia, 432
Wernicke’s encephalopathy, 1260
Vibrio vulnificus, 237t, 1127, 1128t, adhesin A. See YadA (Yersinia adhesin A)
Whipple’s disease (WD), 1259 1261, 1263
1173 1179 Caf system, 152 153
White blood cell count, 1347
antimicrobial therapy, 1178 host cell signalling, 433
Whole genome sequence (WGS), 3, 372, 1083,
biotypes, 1175t invasin-mediated internalization, 433
1321, 1536
chromosomes, biotypes and genotypes, M cell targeting by, 433
challenges and opportunities, 365 366
1174 1175 OTUB1 mutant and, 433 434
microbiome and metagenomics, 364 365
classification, 1173 1174 outer proteins and cytoskeleton modification,
phylogenetic tree analysis, 361
diagnosis, 1178 433
reverse vaccinology, 361 363
epidemiology and control, 1179 PAI function, 307
Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, 363f
immunity, 1177 1178 type III secretion system (T3SS), 479
subcellular localization and adhesin,
isolation and identification, 1174 virulence determinants, 1334
prediction of, 361
pathogenesis/virulence traits, 1175 1177 Yersinia enterocolitica, 65 66, 237t, 426,
Whole-genome analysis, 430, 1596
capsular polysaccharide, 1176 1117, 1188, 1319, 1330
Whooping cough, 1517 1518
flagella, pili, 1177 antimicrobial treatment, 1335
Widal test, 1278
haemolysin/cytolysin, 1177 biochemical scheme, 1320t
Willebrand factor (vWF), 2075
lipopolysaccharide, 1176 1177 biotype, serotype and pYV-virulence
Winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH), 224 225
plasmids, 1177 plasmid carriage, 1320t
Wolhynia fever, 1912
serum iron, needs, 1175 1176 chromosomal genome, 1322 1325
Wolinella succinogenes, 202 203, 218 219
Vibrionaceae, 1099 chromosomally encoded virulence
Wound infections, 656
Vir-activated gene protein, 1512 determinants, 1331 1333
acute, 887
Viral infections, 1503 92-kDa invasin (Inv), 1331
diabetic, 886
VirB T4SS, 1924 attachment-invasion locus (Ail) adhesin,
-infiltrating immune cells, 242
virF gene, 325 1331
Wzm polypeptides, 74
Index 2145

lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1331 Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), 433 safety and containment, 1861
mucoid Yersinia factor (Myf antigen), 1331 Yersinia pestis, 148, 153, 1845 structure, 1853 1854
urease (Ure), 1332 anabolism, 1851 1852 T3SS-dependent protein translocation,
Yst (Yersinia heatstable toxin) annotation, 1849 proposed model for, 1859f
enterotoxin, 1331 1332 bubonic plague, in murid rodents, 1854 taxonomy, 1846
circular representations, 1324f catabolism, 1851 vegetative growth, 1858
clinical manifestations, 1333 1334 chromosomal determinants, 1860 virulence factors, 1856 1857
diagnosis, 1334 1335 chromosomal size and number of insertion visceral invasion, 1857
effector proteins YopE, 1329f sequence (IS) elements, 1850t YopP/J, 1330
enterocolitica-specific virulence factors, chromosome, 1848 1849 Yops, 1859
1332 1333 diagram comparing of selected Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, 423, 1319, 1330,
epidemiology and control, 1325 1326 genes, 1853f 1854
genetic and structural organization, 1332f disease, 1854 1857 Yersinia secretion (Ysc) locus, 1325
genome sequencing, 1321 1325 epidemic and enzootic strains, 1847 1848 Yersinia spp., 307
properties, 1322t epidemiology, 1845 1846 Yersiniae ferric uptake, 1857
virulence factors, comparative analysis of, favoured in vivo niches, 1854 1856 Yersiniosis diagnosis, 1334 1335
1323t FE31 assimilation, 1857 1858 Yesinia pestis, 3
high pathogenicity island (HPI) carries flea vector, 1861 YjbH homologues, 266 267
genes, 1332 genomes, 1847 1848, 1848f YodB protein, 262 265
LpxR, 65 66 global phylogeny schema, 1847f Yop effector proteins, 1326f
palearctica-specific virulence factors, 1333 global regulation, 1852 1853 Yop proteins, 1327f
pathogenesis, 1326 1333, 1326f history, 1846 1847 YopO/YpkA, 1328
and pathogenic activity in humans, 1329t human plague, 1856 Ysa (Yersinia secretion apparatus),
phylogenetic tree, 1321f identification, 1862 1332 1333
pYV plasmid, 1325 immunity, 1860 1861 Yst (Yersinia heatstable toxin), 1331 1332
taxonomy and phylogeny, 1319 1321 influence of phenotypic traits, 1851t
virulence-associated determinants,
1327 1330
inhibition of inflammation, 1854
invasion of tissues, 1854
Z
Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain, 1644 1645
plasmid-encoded virulence determinants, LcrV, 1859 1860
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 831 832
1327 1330 major determinative differences, 1849t
Zinc
Ysc T3SS, 1327 1330, 1327f mouse liver, 1856f
biofilm accumulation, 669
YadA, 1330 non-specific host defence mechanisms,
catalytic mechanism, role in, 1023
YopH, 1329 1330 resistance to, 1857
Cys730, 257 258
YopM, 1330 organization and regulation, 1858 1860
endopeptidases, 1023
YopQ/YopK, 1330 pCD and, 1858
phospholipase C, 902
Ysa T3SS, 1332 1333 pCD 1 /pCD , distribution of, 1855f
proteolytic activity, 910f
Yts1 T2SS, 1333 physiology, 1850 1851
Zipper phagocytosis, 493 494
Yersinia enterocolitica chromogenic medium plasmids, 1849 1850
Zipper-like internalization process, 433
(YeCM), 1334 1335 plasminogen activator, 1857
Zoonotic infections, 1776
Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN, expression
Zymomonas mobilis, 207
1325 of, 1855f