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Code Requirements

for Nuclear Safety Related

Concrete Structures(AC1 349-97)
and Commentary-AC1 349R-97

Reported by AC1 Committee 349

american concrete institute

P.O. BOX 9094

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= Obb2949 0538055 403

First printing, February1998

Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety-Related Concrete Structures (AC1 349-97)

and Commentary-ACI349R-97

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STD.ACI 347-ENGL 1777 0662747 0538056 3 4 T

AC1 349-97

Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related

Concrete Structures(AC1 349-97)

Reported by AC1 Committee 349

Charles A. Zalesiak

Hans G. Ashar GUM= A. Harstead Richard S. OIT

Ranjit Bandyopadhyay Christopher Heim Robert B.Pan
Ronald A. Cook Charles J. Hookham Julius V. Rotzt
Jack M. Daly John C. Hughes John P.Russ
Fadi M. Diya Richard E. Klingner Robert W. Talmadge
Arobindo Dutt Sandra L. Lee Chen P. Tan
Branko Galunic Timothy J. Lynch Richard E. Toland
Dwaine A. Godfrey Frederick L. Moreadith Donald T. Ward
H e m L. Graves III Dragos A. Nuta Alkrt Y.C. Wong

This standard covers the pmper design and construction of concrete strue- (concrete and steel); composite construction (concrete to concrete); com-
lures which form part of a nuclear power plant and which have nuclear pressive strength; concrete construction; concretes; concrete slabs; con-
safety relatedfuncrions. but does not cover concrete reactor
vessek and con- struction joints; continuity(structural);cover;cracking(fracturing);
crete contaiqwnt structures (asaéjüted by ACI-ASME Committee359).
creepproperties;curing;deep beams; deflection;drawings(drafting):
The structures coveredby the code include concrete structuresimide and earthquakeresistantstructures;edgebeams;embeddedserviceducts;
outside the containment system.
flexuralstrength; floors; foldedplates;footings;formwork(construc-
This code may be referenced and applied subject
to agreement betweenthe tion); frames; hot weather construction; inspection; joists; loads (forces);
Owner and the Regulatory Authority.
load tests (structural); mixing; mix proportioning; modulesof elasticity;
The format of this Code is based on the “Building Code Requirementfor moments;nuclearpowerplants;nuclearreactorcontainments;nuclear
ReinforredConcrete(AC1 318-89) (Revised 1992)” and incorporates
reactors; nuclear reactor safety; pipe columns; pipes (tubes): placing; pre-
recent revisionsof that standard. exceptfor Chapter 12, which is based on
AC1 318-95. cast concrete; prestressed concrete; prestressing steels; quality control;
reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; roofs; safety; serviceability; shear
Keywords: admixtures; aggregates; anchorage (structural); beam-column strength; shearwalls; shells(structuralforms);spans;specifications;
frame; beams (supports);buildingcodes;cements;cold weathercon- splicing; strength; strength analysis; structural analysis; structural design;
struction; columns (supports); combined stress; composite construction T-beams; temperature; torsion; walls; water; welded wire fabric.

AC1 349-97 was revised by the Expedited StandardizationRocadure and became

Copynght Q 1998. American ConcreteInstitute.
1 AU rights resewed including riahts of rewoduction and usc in any form or by any

This standardwas submittedto letter ballotof the committeeand was means, kcluding the makingof-copies bi any photo p o c e s s , or-by eledrohc Ór
approvedinaccordancewithInstitutestandardizationprocedures. mechanical device. printed, written,or oral, or recordingfor sound oc visual reproduc-
tion or for use in any Laowledge or retrieval system or device. unless Dermission in

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PART 1 4 E N E R A L Chapter 7-Details of Reinforcement. ...p. 349-18
Chapter l-General Requirements ......
p. 349-5 7.1-Standard hooks
1.1"scope 7.2-Minimum bend diameters
1.2-Drawings, specifications,and calculations 7.3-Bending
1.3-Inspection and record keeping 7.4-Surface conditions of reinforcement
1.4-Approval of special systems of design or construction 7.5-Placing reinforcement
1S-Quality assurance program 7.6-Spacing limits for reinforcement
7.7-Concrete protection for reinforcement
Chapter 2-Definitions ................ p. 349-6 7.8-Special reinforcing details for columns
PART 24TANDARDS FOR TESTS AND 7.10-Lateral reinforcement for compression members
MATERIALS 7.1 l-Lateral reinforcement for flexural members
Chapter 3"aterials. ................. p. 349-8 7.12-Minimum reinforcement
3.1-Tests of materials PART A E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS
3.3-Aggregates Chapter &-Analysis and Design:
3.kWater General Considerations.. ........... p. 349-23
3.5-Metal reinforcement 8.0-Notation
3.6Admixtures 8.1-Design methods
3.7-Storage and identificationof materials 8.2-Loading
3.8-Standards cited in this Code 8.3-Methods of analysis
8.4-Redistribution of negative moments in continuous
PART 3"CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS nonprestressed flexural members
8.5-Modulus of elasticity
Chapter 4"Durability Requirements. ., . p. 349-12 8.6-Stiffness
4.0-Notation 8.7-Span length
4.1-Water-cementitious materials ratio 8.8"columns
4.2-Freezing and thawing exposures 8.9-Arrangement of live load
4.3-Sulfate exposures 8.lO-T-beam construction
4 . A o m o s i o n protection of reinforcement 8.1 l-Joist construction
8.12-Separate floor finish
Chapter !+Concrete Quality, Mixing,
and Placing. ...................... p. 349-13
Chapter +Strength and Serviceability
5 . l-General
Requirements ..................... p. 349-25
5.2-Selection of concrete proportions 9.I-General
5.3-Proportioning on the basis of field experience and/or 9.2-Required strength
trial mixtures 9.3-Design strength
5.4-Proportioning by water-cementitiousmaterials ratio 9.4-Design strength for reinforcement
5.5-Average strength reduction 9.5"control of deflections
5.6Evaluation and acceptance ofconcrete
5.7-Preparation of equipment and place of deposit
Chapter 10-Flexure and Axial Loads ... p. 349-29
5.9-Conveying 10.1-Scope
5.1 &Depositing 10.2-Design assumptions
5.1 I-Curing
10.3"General principles and requirements
5.12-Cold weather requirements
10.4-Distance between lateral supports of
5.13-Hot weather requirements
flexural members
Chapter 6-Formwork, Embedded Pipes, 10.5-Minimum reinforcement of flexural members
and Construction Joints ............ p. 349-16 10.6-Distribution of flexural reinforcement inbeams and
6.1-Design of formwork one-way slabs
6.2-Removal of forms and shores 10.7-Deep flexural members
6.3-Conduits, pipes, and sleeves embedded in concrete 10.8-Design dimensions for compression members
6.4-Construction joints 10.9-Limits for reinforcement of compression members

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lO.l&Slenderness effects in compression members 13.4-Slab reinforcement
10.1 1-Approximate evaluation of slenderness effects 13.5”openings in slab systems
10.12-Axially loaded members supporting slab system 13.6-Direct design method
10.13-Transmission of column loads through floor system 13.7-Quivalent frame method
10.14-Composite compression members
10.15-Bearing strength Chapter 14-Walls. .................. .p. 349-57
Chapter 1l a h e a r and Torsion ........ p. 349-34 14.1-S~0pe
11.&Notation 14.2-General
11.1-Shear strength 14.3-Minimum reinforcement
11.2-Lightweight concrete 14.4-Walls designed as compression members
11.3-Shear strength provided by concretefor 14.5-Empirical design method
nonprestressed members 14.&Nonbearing walls
1l . M h e a r strength providedby concrete for prestressed 14.7-Walls as grade beams
11.5-Shear strength providedby shear reinforcement Chapter 15-Footings. ............... .p. 349-58
11A-Combined shear and torsion strengthfor 15 .O-Notation
nonprestressed members with rectangular or 15.l-Scope
flanged sections 15.2-Loads and reactions
11.7-Shear-friction 15.3-Footings supporting circular or regular polygon
11.8-Special provisions fordeep flexural members shaped columnsor pedestals
11.9-Special provisions for brackets and corbels 15.4-Moment in footings
11.1 &Special provisions for walls 15.5-Shear in footings
11.11-Transfer of moments to columns 15.6-Development of reinforcement in footings
11.12-Special provisions for slabs and footings 15.7-Minimum footing depth
15.8-Transfer of force at base of column, wall, or
Chapter 12-Development and Splices reinforced pedestal
of Reinforcement.. ................. p. 349-44 15.9-Sloped or stepped footings
12.0-Notation 15.1O-Combined footings and mats
12.1-Development of reinforcement: General
12.2-Development of deformed bars and deformed wire
in tension
Chapter 1 -recast Concrete. ........ .p. 349-60
12.3-Development of deformed barsin compression 16.2-Design
12.4-Development of bundled bars 16.3-Precast wall panels
12.5-Development of standard hooks in tension 16.4-Details
12.LMechanical anchorage 16.5-Identification and marking
12.7-Development of welded deformed wire fabric 16.6-Transportation, storage, and erection
in tension
12.8-Development of welded plain wire fabricin tension Chapter 174omposite Concrete
12.9-Development of prestressing strand Flexural Members. ................. .p. 349-60
12.10-Development of flexural reinforcement: General 17.0-Notation
12.11-Development of positive moment reinforcement 17.1-S~0pe
12.12-Development of negative moment reinforcement 17.2-General
12.13-Development of web reinforcement 17.3-Shoring
12.14-Splices of reinforcement: General 17.4-Vertical shear strength
12.15-Splices of deformed bars and deformed wire 17.5-Horizontal shear strength
in tension 17.+Ties for horizontal shear
12.1 &Splices of deformed bars in compression
12.17-Special splice requirements for columns
12.1 &Splices of welded deformed wire fabric in tension
Chapter 18-Prestressed Concrete. ....
.p. 349-61
12.19-Splices of welded plain wire fabric in tension 18.1-Scope
18.4-Permissible stresses in concrete: Flexural members
Chapter 13-Two-way Slab Systems .... p. 349-51 18.5-Permissible stresses in prestressing tendons
13.0-Notation 18.6-Loss of prestress
13.1-Scope 18.7-Flexural strength
13.2-Definitions 18.8-Limits for reinforcementof flexural members
13.3-Design procedures 18.9-Minimum bonded reinforcement
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18.10-Statically indeterminate structures 21.6-Structural walls, diaphragms, andtrusses

18.1l-compression members: Combined flexure and 2 1.7-Frame members not proportioned to resist forces in-
axial loads duced by earthquake motions
18.12-Slab systems
18.13-Tendon anchorage zones
18.1U o r r o s i o n protection for unbonded prestressing APPENDICES
18.15-Post-tensioning ducts APPENDIX A-Thermal Considerations. . p. 349-75
18.1& G r o u t for bonded prestressing tendons A.1-Scope
18.17-Protection for prestressing tendons A.2-Definitions
18.18-Application and measurement of prestressing force A.3-General design requirements
18.19-Post-tensioning anchorages and couplers A . A o n c r e t e temperatures

Chapter 19-Shells.. ................ p. 349-66 APPENDIX B-Steel Embedments ......

p. 349-76
19.0-Notation B.0-Notation
19.1-Scope and definitions B.1-Scope
19.24eneral B.2-Definitions
19.3-Design strength of materials B.3-General requirements and loading combinations
19.4-Section design and reinforcement requirements B.4-Design requirements for concrete
B.5-Anchorage requirements
B.6-Design requirements for embedment steel
Chapter 2 M t r e n g t h Evaluation B.9-Grouted embedments
of Existing Structures .............. p. 349-68 B.10-Fabrication and installation
20.1-Strength evaluation: General
APPENDIX C-Special Provisions for Impulsive
20.2-Analytical investigations: General
20.3-Load tests: General
and ImpactiveEffects.. .............
p. 349-83
20.4-Load tests of flexural members
20.5-Members other than flexural members
C.2-Dynamic strength increase
Chapter 21“Special Provisions for C.4”Requirements to assure ductility
Seismic Design.. .................. p. 349-69 C.5-Shear strength
2 1 .&Notation C.6-Impulsive effects
21.1-Definitions C.7-Impactive effects
2 1.2-General requirements C.8-Impactive and impulsive loads
21.3-Flexural members of frames
21.4-Frame members subjected to bending and axial load APPENDIX M I Metric Equivalents
21.5-Joints of frames of U.S. Customary Units. ............ p. 349-86

About the presentation: AC1 349-97 is organized in the format of “Building Code Requirements
for Reinforced Concrete (AC1 318-89)(Revised 1992),” which is the basis for the 349 code. To
aid the reader in distinguishing between original 3 18 language and material revised or added by
Committee 349, all material not derived directly from AC1 318-89 (Revised 1992)is marked with
a sidebar to the left of the column.

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Chapter l-General Requirements 1.3-lnspection and record keeping

13.1 The Owner is responsible for the inspectionof con-
1.l"scope :rete construction throughout all work stages. The Owner
This Code provides the minimum requirements for the de- shall require compliance with design drawings and specifi-
signandconstruction of nuclearsafetyrelated concrete :ations and keep records required for quality assurance of
structures and structural elements for nuclear power generat- :onstruction,fabrication,manufacture or installation,and
ing stations. Safety related structures and structural elements for traceability.
subject to this standard are those concrete structures which 1.3.2 The Owner shall be responsible for designating the
support, house, or protect nuclear safety class systems or records to bemaintainedandthedurationofretention.
component partsof nuclear safetyclass systems. Records pertinent to plant modifications or revisions, in-ser-
Specifically excluded from this Code are those structures vice inspections, and durability and performance of struc-
covered by "Code for Concrete Reactor Vessels and Con- tures shallbe maintained for thelife of the plant. The Owner
tainments,"ASME Boiler
VesselCode shall be responsibleforcontinuedmaintenance of the
Section III, Division 2, and pertinent General Requirements records. The records shallbk maintained at the power plant
(AC1 Standard359). site, or at other locations as determinedby the Owner. As a
minimum, thefollowing installatiodconstruction records
1.2"Drawings, specifications, and calculations shall be considered for lifetime retention:
1.2.1 Copies of structural drawings, typical details, and a) Check-off sheets for tendon and reinforcing
specifications for all reinforced concrete construction shall steel installation
be signed bya licensed engineer.These drawings (including b) Concrete cylinder testreports and charts
supplementary drawings to generate the as-built condition),
c) Concrete design mix reports
typical details, and specifications shall be retained by the
Owner, or his designee, asa permanent recordfor the life of d) Concrete placement records
the strucke. As a minimum, these drawings, details, and e) Material property reports on reinforcing steel
specifications together shall show: f ) Material property reports on reinforcing steel
a) Name and dateof issue of code and supplement to mechanical connection material
which the design conforms g) Material property reports on steel embedments
in concrete
b) Live load and other loads used inthe design
h) Material property reports on tendon and anchorage
c) Specified compressive strengthof concrete at stated fabrication material and corrosion inhibitors
ages or stages of construction for which each part of
i) Reports for periodic tendon inspection
structure is designed
d) Specified strengthor grade of reinforcement 1.4-Approval of special systems of design or
e) Size and location of all structural elements and construction
reinforcement Sponsors of any system of design or construction withii
the scope of this Code, the adequacy of which has been
f) Provision for dimensionalchanges resulting from creep,
shown by successful use or by analysis or test, but which
shrinkage, and temperature
does not conform to or is not covered by this Code, shall
g) Magnitude and locationof prestressing forces have the right to present the data on which their design is
h) Anchorage length of reinforcement and location and based to the Regulatory Authority for review and approval.
length of lap splices The Regulatory Authority may investigate the data so sub-
mitted, andmay require tests and formulate rules governing
i) Type and location of welded splices and mechanical the design and constructionof such systems to meet the in-
connections of reinforcement.
tent of this Code.
1.2.2 Calculations pertinent to the design (including the
results of model analysis, if any) shall be retained by Own- 1S-Quality assurance program
er or hisdesignee, as a permanent record for the life of the A quality assurance program covering nuclear safety re-
structure. Accompanying these calculations shall be a lated structures shall
be developed prior to starting any work.
statement of the applicable design methods. When com- The general requirements and guidelines for establishing and
puter programs are used, design assumptions and identi- executing the quality assurance program during the design
fied input and output data maybe retained in lieu of and construction phases of nuclear power generatingstations
calculations. Model analysis shall be permitted to supple- are established by Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regula-
ment calculations. tions, Part 50 (lOCFRSO), Appendix B.
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STD.AC1 34S-ENGL L997 m 0662949 0538061 707


Chapter 2-Definitions Eflective prestress-Stress remaining in prestressing ten-

2.1 The following terms are defined for general use in this dons afterall losses have occmed excluding effects of dead
Code. Specializeddefinitions appear in individual chapters. load and superimposed load.

Admixture-Material other than water, aggregate, or hy- Ernbedment-Structural componenttypically cast into a
draulic cement, used as aningredient of concrete and add- concrete structure, that translates applied forces and mo-
ed to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its ments from attached equipment and other sources into the
properties. structure.

Aggregde-Granular material, such as sand, gravel, Embedment length-Length of embeddedreinforcement

crushed stone, and iron blast-furnace slag, used with a ce- provided beyonda critical section.
menting medium to form a hydraulic-cement concrete or
mortar. Engineer-The licensed professional engineer, employed
by the Owner-contracted design authority or other agency,
Anchorage-In post-tensioning, a device used to anchor responsible for issuing design drawings, specifications, or
tendon to concrete member; inpretensioning, a device used other documents.
to anchor tendon during hardening of concrete; as used in
Appendix B, a means by which force is transferred to the Evaluation-An engineering review of an existing safety
concrete. related concrete structure with the purpose of determining
physical condition and functionality. This review may in-
Bonded tendon-Prestressing tendon that is bonded to con- clude analysis, condition surveys, maintenance,testing, and
crete either directlyor through grouting. repair.
Cemenririous material-Materials as specified in Chapter3 Jacking force-In prestressed concrete, temporary force
that have cementing value when used in concreteor by them- exerted by device that introduces tension into prestressing
selves, suchas portland or blended hydraulic cements,or in tendons.
combination withfly ash and/or raw or calcined natural poz-
zolans. Lax& dead"Dead weight supportedby a member (without
load factors).
Column-Member with a ratio of height-to-least-lateraldi-
mension of 3 or greater used primarilyto support axial com- Load, fùctored--load, multiplied by appropriate load fac-
pressive load. tors,used to proportionmembers by the strengthdesign
method of this code. See 8.1 and 9.2.
Composite concrete flexural members-Concrete flexural
members of precast and/or cast-in-place concrete elements had, live-Live load specified by the Engineer (without
constructedinseparateplacementsbut so interconnected load factors).
that all elements respondto loads as a unit.
Load, sustained-Dead load and the portions of other nor-
Concrete-Mixture of portland cement or any other hydrau- mal loads in 9.1.1 which are expected to act for a sufficient
lic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water, with period of time to cause time-dependent effects.
or without admixtures.
Massive concrete-Mass of concrete of sufficient dimen-
Concrete, specified compressive strength of, (f >)"Com- sions to produce excessive temperatures due to heat of hy-
pressive strengthof concrete usedin design and evaluated in drationunlessspecialprecautions are takenregarding
accordancewithprovisionsofChapter 4, expressed in concrete placement temperatures, placing rate, or heat re-
pounds per square inch (psi). Whenever the quantity f is moval. Portionsof the structure to be treated as massive con-
under a radical sign, square root of numerical value only is crete shall be so identifiedonthedesigndrawings or
intended, and result has units of pounds
per square inch(psi). specifications.
Creep-Stress-induced, time-temperature dependent strain. Modulus of elasticity-Ratioofnormalstress to corre-
sponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below
or curves
Curvaturefriction-Friction resulting from bends
in the specified prestressing tendon profile. proportional limitof material. S e e 8.5.

Deformedreinforcement-Deformedreinforcingbars,bar Operating basis earthquake-Theoperatingbasisearth-

and rod mats, deformed wire, welded smooth wire fabric, and quake (OBE) for a reactor siteis that which produces the vi-
welded deformed wire fabric conforming 3.5.3.
to bratorygroundmotionforwhichthosefeatures ofthe
nuclear plant necessary for continued operation without un-
Development length-Length of embedded reinforcement due risk to the health and safety ofthe public are designed to
required to develop the design strength of reinforcementa at remain functional.
critical section. See 9.3.3.
Operating basis wind-Wind velocities and forces required
Eflective depth of section (d)-Distance measured From ex- for the design of a structure in accordance withASCE 7-93
treme compressionfiber to centroidof tension reinforcement. for a 100 year recurrence interval.
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Owner-The organizationresponsible for the operation, Stirrup-Reinforcementusedtoresistshearandtorsion
maintenance, safety, and power generation of the nuclear stresses in a structuralmember;typicallybars,wires, or
power plant. welded wire fabric (plain or deformed) bent into L, U, or
rectangular shapes and located perpendicular to or at an an-
Pedestal--Upright compression member with a ratio of un- gle to longitudinal reinforcement. (The term “stirrups” is
supported height to average least lateral dimension of less
usually appliedto lateral reinforcement in flexural members
than 3.
and the term “ties”to those in compression members,) See
Pkzin concrete4oncrete that does not conform to defini- also Tie.
tion of reinforced concrete.
Strength, design-Nominal strength
by a
Plain reinforcement-Reinforcement that does not conform strength reduction factor$. See 9.3.
to definition of deformed reinforcement.
See 3.5.4.
Strength, nominul-Strength of a member or cross section
Post-tensioning-Method of prestressing in which tendons calculated in accordance with provisions and assumptions of
are tensioned after concrete has hardened. the strength design methodof this code before applicationof
any strength reduction factors. See 9.3.1.
Precast concrete-Plain or reinforced concrete element
elsewhere than its final position inthe structure. Strength, required-Strength of a member or cross section
required to resist factoredio& or related internal moments
Prestressed concrete-Reinforced concrete in which inter- and forces in such combinations as are stipulated in this
nal stresses havebeen introduced to reduce potential tensile
code. See 9.1.1.
stresses in concrete resulting from loads.
Stress-Intensity of force per unit area.
Pretensioning-Method of prestressing in which tendons
are tensioned before concreteis placed. Stress rekàx&n-A phenomenon in which loss of stress
occurs when a constant strain is maintained at a constant
RegUrCrtory Author$y-The governmental agency or agen-
cies having legaljurisdiction over the design, construction,
and operationof nuclear power generatingstations to assure Tendon-Steelelementsuchaswire,cable,bar, rod, or
public health and safety. strand, or a bundle ofsuch elements, used to impart prestress
Reinforced concrete-Concrete containing adequate rein- to concrete.
forcement, prestressed or nonprestressed, and designed on Tie--LOOp of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal
the assumption that the two materials act togetherresisting
reinforcement. See also Stirrup.
Transfer-Act of transferring stressin prestressing tendons
Reinforcement-Material that conforms to 3.5, excluding
from jacks or pretensioning bed to concrete member.
prestressing tendons unless specifically included.
Unbondedtendons-Tendons in whichtheprestressing
Safe shutdown earthquake-A safe shutdown earthquake
steel is permanently free to move relative the
to surrounding
(SSE) for a reactor siteis that which produces the maximum
vibratory ground motionfor which those features of the nu- concrete towhich they are applying their prestressing forces.
clear power plant necessary to shut down the reactor and WuU-Member, usually vertical, used
to enclose or separate
maintain the plant ina safe shut down condition withoutun- spaces.
due risk tothe health and safety of the public
are designed to
i remainfunctional. Wobblefiction-In prestressed concrete, friction caused by
unintended deviationof prestressing sheathor duct from its
Shrinkage-Time-temperature-humidity dependent volume
specified profile.
reduction of concrete asa result of hydration, moisture mi-
gration, and drying process. Yield strength-Specified minimum yield strength or yield
point ofreinforcementinpoundspersquareinch.Yield
Span length-See 8.7.
strength or yield pointis determined in tension accordingto
Spiral reinforcement-continuously wound reinforcement applicable ASTM specifications as modified by 3.5 of this
in the form ofa cylindrical helix. Code.

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S T D - A C 1 3Y9-ENGL L997 Obb2949 0538Ob3


Chapter 3”aterials 33.4-Testing requirements Tests for full conformance withthe appropriate
3.0”Notation specification, including tests for potential reactivity, shall
fy = specifiedyield strength ofnonprestressed be performed prior to usage in construction unless such
reinforcement,psi tests are specifically exempted by the specifications as not
being applicable.
3.1-Tests of materials
3.1.1 The Ownershall have theright to order testing of any A daily inspection control program shall be
materials used in concrete constructionto determine if mate- carried out during concrete production to determine and
rials are of quality specified. control consistency in potentially variable characteristics
3.1.2 Tests of materials and of concrete shall be made in such as water content, gradation, and material finer than
accordance withstandards listed in 3.8. No. 200 sieve.
3.1.3 A complete record oftests of materials and of con- 33.43 Tests for conformancewith ASTM C 131,
crete shall be available for inspection as requiredby ASTM C 289, and ASTM C88 shall be repeated whenever
Section 1.3.2. there is reason to suspect a change in the basic geology or
mineralogy of the aggregates.

I land
3.2.1 Cement shall conform to one of the following speci-
a) “Specification for Portland Cement” (ASTM C 150).
3.4.1 Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and
free frominjurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, or-
b) “Specification for Blended Hydraulic
Cements” ganic materials, or other substances that may be deleterious
(ASTM C 5 9 3 , excluding Types S and SA which are to concrete or reinforcement.
notintended as principal cementing constituents of 3.4.2 Mixing water for prestressed concrete or for con-
structural concrete. crete that will contain aluminum embedments, including
3.2.2 Cement usedin the work shall correspond to that on that portion of mixing watercontributed in the form offree
which selection of concrete proportions was based.See 5.2. moisture on aggregates, shall notcontain deleterious
3.2.3 Every shipmentof cement shall be accompanied by amounts of chloride ion. See 4.3.1.
a certified mill test report stating the results of tests repre- 3.4.3 Nonpotable water shall not be used in concrete un-
senting the cement in shipment and the ASTM specifica- less the following are satisfied:
tion limits for each item ofrequired chemical, physical, and
optional characteristics. No cement shall beusedinany a) Selection of concrete proportions shall be based on con-
structural concrete prior to receipt of 7 daymill test crete mixes using water fromthe same source.
strengths. b) Mortar test cubes made with nonpotable mixing water
shall have 7-day and 28-day strengths equal to at least
3.3”Aggregates 90 percent of strengths of similar specimens made with
3.3.1 Concrete aggregates shall conformto one of the fol- potable water. Strength test comparisonshall be made on
lowing specifications: mortars, identical except for the mixing water, prepared
a) “Specification for Concrete Aggregates” (ASTM C 33). and tested in accordance with “Method of Test for Com-
b)“Specification for Aggregates for Radiation-Shielding pressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using
Concrete” (ASTM C637). 2-inch or 5 0 ” Cube Specimens)” (ASTMC 109).
3.3.2 Aggregates failing to meet ASTM C 33 but which
have been shownby special testor actual service to produce 3.5-Metal reinforcement
concrete of adequate strength anddurability may be used for 3.5.1 Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement, ex-
normal weight concrete where authorizedby the Engineer. cept that plain reinforcement maybe used for spirals or ten-
3.3.3 Nominal maximum size of coarse aggregateshall not dons; and reinforcement consisting of structural steel, steel
be larger than: pipe, or steel tubing shall be permitted as specified in tlus
a) thenarrowestdimensionbetween sides of forms, nor code.
b)thedepthof slabs, nor 3.5.2 Reinforcement to be weldedshall be indicatedon the
c) 3/4 the minimum clear spacing between individual rein- drawings, and welding procedure to be used shall be speci-
forcing bars or wires, bundles of bars, or prestressing fied. ASTM steel specifications, except for ASTM A706, shal
tendons or ducts. be supplementedto require a report of material properties nec-
These limitations may be waivedif, in the judgment of the essary to conform to welding procedures specified in “Struc-
Engineer, workabilityand methods of consolidationare such tural Welding Code-Reinforcing Steel“ (ANSI AWS D1.4)
that concrete can be placed without honeycombor voids. i of the American Welding Society.

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STD.ACI 349-ENGL L997 0662949 0 5 3 8 0 6 4 4Lb

35.3-Deformed reinforcement c) Strand

conforming to “Specification for
Uncoated Deformed reinforcing bars shall conform one to Seven-Wire Stress-Relieved Strand for Prestressed Con-
of the following specifications: crete” (ASTM A 416).
a) “Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-SteelBars d) Barsconformingto “Specification for Uncoated High-
for Concrete Reinforcement” (ASTM A 615). StrengthSteelBarforPrestressingConcrete“(ASTMA722).
b) “Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed Bars for 35.5.2 Wire, strands, and barsnot specifically listed in
Concrete Reinforcement” (ASTM A 706). ASTM A 421, A 416, or A 722 are permitted provided they
35.3.2 A minimum of one tensile test shallbe required conform to minimum requirements of these specifications
for each50 tons of each bar size produced from each heat of and do not have properties that make them less satisfactory
steel. than those listed in ASTM A 421, A 416, or A 722. Specified yield strength fy for deformed rein- 35.6-Structural steel, steel pipe, or tubing
forcing bars shall not exceed 60,OOO psi. 35.6.1 Structuralsteel used withreinforcingbars in
35.3.4 Bar mats for concrete reinforcement shall con- composite compression members meeting requirements of
form to “Specification for Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar 10.14.7 or 10.14.8 shall conform to one of the following
Mats for Concrete Reinforcement” (ASTM A 184). Rein- specifications:
forcement used in bar mats shall conform to one of the spec- a) “Specification for Structural Steel” (ASTM A 36).
ifications listed in b) “Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural
35.3.5 Deformed wirefor concrete reinforcement shall Steel” (ASTM A 242).
conform to “Specification for Deformed Steel Wire for Con- c) “Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-
crete Reinforcement” (ASTMA 496), except that wire shall Vanadium Steels of Structural Quality” (ASTM A572).
not be smaller than size D4. d) “Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Welded plain wire fabric for concrete reinforce- Steel with 50,000 psiMinimumYieldPointto 4 in.
ment shall conformto “Specification for Welded Steel Wire Thick” (ASTM A 588).
Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement” (ASTMA 185). Weld- Steel pipe or tubing for composite compression
ed intersections shall not be spaced farther apart than 12 in. members composed ofa steel encased concrete core meeting
in direction of calculated stress, exceptfor wire fabric used requirements of 10.14.6 shall conform to one of the follow-
as stirmps in accordance with 12.13.2. ing specifications: Welded deformed wire fabric for concrete re-
a) Grade B of “SpecificationforPipe,Steel,Blackand
inforcement shall conform to “Specification for Welded
Hot-Dipped,Zinc-Coated, Welded
Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for Concrete Reinforcement”
(ASTM A 53).
(ASTM A 497). Welded intersections shall not be spaced
farther apart than 16 in. in direction of calculated stress, b) “Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless
except for wire fabric used as stirrups in accordance with Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Roundsand Shapes”
12.13.2. (ASTM A500).
35.3.8 Epoxy-coatedreinforcingbarsshallcomply c) “Specification for Hot-FormedWeldedandSeamless
with“Specification for EpoxyCoatedReinforcingSteel Carbon Steel Structural Tubing” (ASTM A501).
Bars” (ASTM A775). TheEngineer shall evaluate the suit-
ability of coated reinforcing steel for the expected service 3.6-Admixtures
3.6.1 Admixtures to be used in concrete shall be subject to
environment in each application. Epoxy-coated reinforcing
prior approvalby the Engineer.
steel shallalso conform to one of the specifications listed in
3.6.2 An admixture shall be shown capableof maintaining
essentially the same composition and performance through-
35.4-Plain reinforcement
out the workas the product used in establishing concrete pro-
35.4.1 Plain bars for spiral reinforcement shall conform portions in accordance with 5.2.
to the specification listed in 3.5.3.l(a) including additional
3.6.3 Calcium chloride or admixtures containing chloride
requirements of
from other than impurities from admixture ingredients shall
35.4.2 Smooth wire for spiral reinforcement shall con- not be used in prestressed concrete, in concrete containing
form to “Specification for Cold-Drawn Steel Wire for Con- embedded aluminum, or in concrete cast against stay-in-
crete Reinforcement” (ASTM A 82). place galvanized metal forms. See 4.2.2 and 4.3.1.
35.5-Prestressing tendons 3.6.4 Air-entraining admixtures shall conform
to “Specifica- Wire, strands, andbarsfortendons in pre- tion for Air-Fmtraining Admixtures
stressed concrete shall conform to one of the following (ASTM C 260).
specifications: 3.6.5 Water-reducing admixtures, retarding admixtures,
a) Wire conforming to “Specification for Uncoated Stress- accelerating admixtures, water-reducing and retarding ad-
Relieved Wire for Prestressed Concrete” (ASTM A421). mixtures, and water-reducing and accelerating admixtures
b) Low-relaxationwireconformingto“Specification for shall conform to “Specification for Chemical Admixtures
UncoatedStress-RelievedSteelWireforPrestressed for Concrete” (ASTM C 494) or “Specification for Chemi-
Supplement“Low-Relaxation cal Admixtures for Use in Producing Flowing Concrete”
Wire” (ASTM A 421). (ASTM C 1017).
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3.6.6 Fly ash or other pozzolans used as admixtures shall A 497-!Na Standard Specification for Welded Deformed Steel
conform to“Specification for Fly Ash and Rawor Calcined Wire Fabricfor Concrete Reinforcement
Natural Pozzolans for Use in Portland Cement Concrete” A 500-90 Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and
(ASTM C 618). Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds
and Shapes
3.6.7-Testing Tests forcompliance with the specification for A 501-89 Standard Specification for Hot-Formed Welded and
Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing
each admixture shall be required prior to initial shipment
A 572 Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-kuloy
and acceptance on site forusage in construction. A572M-88 Columbium-Vanadium Steels of An infrared spectrum trace of the conformance Structural Quality
test sample ofair-entraining and water-reducing admixture A 5881 Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-AUoy
shall be furnished with the conformance test results. A588-88 Structural Steel with50,000 psi
Minimum Xeld Point to4 in. Thick
3.7-Storage and identification of materials A 615-90 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Bil-
let-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
3.7.1 Measures shall be established to provide for storage
of all materials so as to prevent damage or deterioration. A 7061 Standard Specificationfor Low-Alloy Steel
A706M-90 Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
When necessary for particular products, special protective
A 722-90 Standard Specification for Uncoated High-Strength
environments such as inert gas atmosphere, specific mois- Steel Barfor Prestressing Concrete
ture content levels, and control temperatures shall be pro- C 3 1-90 Standard Methodof Making and Curing
vided. Concrete Test Specimens in the Field
All storedmaterials shall be properly tagged or labeled to c 33-90 Standard Specification for Concrete
permit identification. Aggregates
3.7.2 Cementitious materials and aggregate shall be C 39-86 Standard Method of Test for Compressive Strength
stored in sucha manner asto prevent deterioration or intru- of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
sion of foreign matter. C 42-87 Standard Method of Obtaining and Testing Drilled
3.7.3 Reinforcing material shall be stored in such a man- Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete
C 88-76 Standard Methodof Test for Soundnessof Aggre-

ner as to permit inventory control and to preclude damage
or degradation of properties to less than ASTM Reinforce- gates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or
Magnesium Sulfate
ment requirements.
Reinforcing steel, by groups of bars or shipments, shall
c 94-90 Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed
be identifiable by documentation, tags, or other means of
C 109-88 Standard Method of Test for Compressive Strength
control, to a specific heat number or heat code until review of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-inch50-or
of the Material Test Report has been performed. nun Cube Specimens)
3.7.4 Prestressing system materials shall bestored in C 131-81 Standard Test Method for Resistance to
such a manner as to insure traceability to the Material Test
Report during production and while in transit and storage. I Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate
by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
C 144-89 Standard Specification for Aggregate for Masonry
3.8-Standards cited in this Code
C 150-89 Standard Specification for Portland Cement
3.8.1 Standards of the American Society for Testing and
Materials referred to in this Code arelisted below withtheir C 172-90 Standard Method of Sampling Fresh Concrete
serial designations, including year of adoption or revision, C 192-90a Standard Method of Making and Curing
and are declared to be part of this Code as if fully set forth Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory
herein. C 260-86 Standard Specificationfor Air-Entraining Admix-
tures for Concrete
Steel Standard Method of Test for Potential
I c 289-81 Reactivity of Aggregates (Chemical Method)
C 494-86 Standard Specification for Chemical
Stainless Steel Pipe Admixtures for Concrete
A82-90aStandardSpecificationforCold-DrawnSteelWire C 595-89 Standard Specificationfor Blended Hydraulic
for Concrete Reinforcement Cements
A 1841 StandardSpecificationforFabricatedDeformed
A184M-90 Steel Bar Mats for Concrete
Reinforcement I C 597-83 Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through
(1991) Concrete
C 618-89a Standard Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Cal-
A 185-90a Standard Specification for Welded Steel Wire Fabric cined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admix-
for Concrete Reinforcement ture in Portland Cement Concrete
A2421StandardSpecificationforHigh-StrengthLow-Alloy Standard Specification for Aggregates for
A 416-90a Standard Specification for Uncoated Seven-Wire
I c 637-73 Radiation-Shielding Concrete
C 685-90 Standard Specification for Concrete Made by Volu-
Stress-Relieved Steel Strand for metric Batching and Continuous Mixing
Prestressed Concrete
A 42 1-90 Standard Specification for Uncoated Stress-Relieved C 1017-85 Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for
Steel W~refor Prestressed Concrete Use in Producing Flowing Concrete
Standard Test Method for Water Soluble
A 496-90a Standard Specification for Deformed Steel Wire for
Concrete Reinforcement I c1218-92 Chloride inMrtar and Concrete

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3.8.2 “Structural
Steel” Code of Federal Regulations (Published
(AWS 01.4-92) of the American Welding Society is de- by Office of the Federal Register)
clared to be part of this Code asif fully set forth herein. 10 CFR 50 Domestic Licensing of Production and
3.8.3 Requirements of the United States Nuclear Regula- Utilization Facilities, AppendixB-Quality
Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Power
tory Commission referred to in this Code are listed below. Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants
Where applicable, they shall be considered a part of this 10 CFR 100 Reactor Site Criteria, Appendix A-Seismic
Code the same as if fully setforth elsewhere herein. and Geologic Siting Criteria

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S T D m A C I 34S-ENGL L997 Ob62949 0538067 125



Chapter 4"Durability Requirements 4.2.2 Concrete that willbe subject to the exposures given
in Table 4.2.2shall conform to the Corresponding maximum
4.0-Notation water-cementitious materials ratiosof that table.In addition,
f : = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi concrete that willbe exposed to deicing chemicals shall con-
form to the limitations of 4.2.3.
4.1-Water-cementitious materials ratio
Table 4.2.2-Requirements for special exposure
4.1.1 The water-cementitious materials ratios specified in conditions
Tables 4.2.2 and 4.3.1 shallbe calculated usingthe weight of Maximum.
cementmeetingASTM C 150 or ASTM C 595plus the water-cementltlous
materials ratio, Minimum f i ,
weight of fly ash andother pozzolans meetingASTM C 618, by weight, normal weight
normal weight aggregate
except as noted in 5.4.2 and silica fume meeting ASTM C aggregate concrete,
Exmsure condition concrete DSi

1 I
1240, except as limited by 4.2.3.
Concrete intendedto have low
when 0.50 4000
4.24reezing and thawing exposures to water
4.2.1 Normalweightconcreteexposed to freezing and Concrete exposed to freezing
and thawingin a moist 0.45 4500
thawing or deicer chemicals shall be air entrained with air condition orto deicing
content indicatedin Table 4.2.1. Tolerance on air content as chemicals
For corrosion protectionof
delivered shall be k 1.5 percent. For specified compressive reinforcement in concrete
strengthf L greater than5000 psi, air content indicatedin Ta- exposed to chlorides from
de-icing chemicals,salt,
ble 4.2.1 may be reduced l percent. brackish water, or spray
from these sources.
Table 4.2.1-Total air content for frost-resistant
concrete 4.2.3 For concrete exposed to deicing chemicals, the max-
Air content, percent
imum weightof fly ash or other pozzolan that is included in
Nominal maximum* the calculation of water-cementitious materials ratio shall
aggregate size,in. Severeexposure I Moderateexposure not exceed the following percentages of the total weightof
portland cement plusfly ash and other pozzolans.
The combined weight of fly ash and other pozzolan,con-
formingtoASTM C 618 andsilicafumemeeting
1 I 6 I 4'12
ASTM C 1240,shallnotexceed25percent of the total
weight of cementitious materials. Thefly ash and other poz-
1'I, 5'12 4'12 zolanpresentin a Type1Por 1PMblendedcement,
2t 5 4 ASTM C 595, shall be included in the calculated percentage.
3+ 4v2 3'12
4.3Culfate exposures
* See ASTM C 33 for tolerance on oversize for various nominal maximum
size designations. 4.3.1 Concrete to be exposed to sulfate-containing solu-
These air contents applyto total mix, as for the preceding aggregate sizes. tions or soils shall conformto requirements of Table 4.3.1or
Whentesting these concretes,however,aggregatelargerthan 1V2 in. is
removed by handpickingorsievingandaircontent is determinedonthe be made with a cement that provides sulfate resistance and
minus IVz in. fraction of mix (tolerance on air contentas delivered appliesto used in a concrete mix design with maximum water-cemen-
this value.). Air contentof total mix is computed from value determined theon
minus IVz in. fraction. titious materialsratio from Table 4.3.1.

Table 4.3.1-Requirements for concrete exposed to sulfate-containing solutions

Water soluble water-cementitious
sulfate (SO,) materials ratio, Minimum f i ,
in soil, Sulfate (SO,) by weight, normal weight
Sulfate percent by in water, normal welght aggregate concrete,
exposure weight PPm Cement type aggregate concrete* psi'
0.00-0.10 0-150 - - -
II, IP(MS),IS(MS), P(MS), I(PM)(MS),
Moderatet 0.10-0.20 150-1500 0.50 4000
Severe 0.20-2.00 1500-10,000 V 4500 0.45
Very severe Over 2.00 Over 10,OOO V plus pozzolan* 0.45 4500
* A lower water-cementitious materials ratio or higher strengthbe
may of embedded items orfreez-
required for low permeability or for protection against corrosion
ing and thawing (Table4.2.2).

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4.3.2 Calcium chloride as an admixture shall notbe used 5.2-Selection of concrete proportions
in concrete to be exposed to severe or very severe sulfate- 5.2.1 Proportions of materials for concrete shall
be estab-
containing solutions,as defined in Table 4.3.1. lished to provide:
a) Workability and consistency to permit concreteto be
4.4-Corrosion protection of reinforcement worked readily into forms and around reinforcement
4.4.1 For corrosion protection, maximum water soluble under conditionsof placementto be employed, without
chlorideionconcentrationsinhardenedconcreteatages segregation or excessive bleeding.
from 28 to 42 days contributed fromthe ingredients includ- b) Resistance to special exposum as requiredby Chapter 4.
ing water, aggregates, cementitious materials, and admix- c) Conformance with strength test requirementsof 5.6.
tures shall not exceed limits
the of Table 4.4.1. When testing
5.2.2 Where different materials are to be used for differ-
is performed to determine water soluble chloride ion content,ent portions of proposed work, each combination shall be
test procedures shall conform ASTMto C 12 18. evaluated.
Table 4.4.1-Maximum chloride ion contentfor 5.2.3 Concrete proportions,includingwater-cementi-
corrosion protection of reinforcement tious materials ratio, shall be established on the basis of
field experience andor trial mixtures with materials to be
Maximum water soluble
chloride ion (Cl-) employed (Section 5.3), except as permitted in 5.4 or re-
in concrete, quired by Chapter 4.
percent by weight
Type of member of cement
5.3"Proportioning on the basis of field experience
I Prestressedconcrete 0.06
andlor trial mixtures
I Reinforced concrete exposedto
chloride inservice 0.15 53.1Ctandard deviation Where a concrete production facility has test
records, a standarddeviationshallbeestablished.Test
4.4.2 When reinforced concrete will be exposed to deicing records from which a standard deviation is calculated shall:
salts, brackish water, seawater,or spray from these sources,
a) Represent materials, quality control procedures, and
requirements of Table 4.2.2 for water-cementitious materials
conditions similar to those expected and changes in
ratio and concrete strength, and the minimum concrete cover
materials and proportions within the test records shall
requirements of 7.7 shall be satisfied. See 18.14 for unbond- not have been more restricted than thosefor proposed
ed prestressing tendons. work.
b) Represent concrete produced to meet a specified
Chapter M o n c r e t e Quality, Mixing, strength or strengthsf: within lo00 psi of that specified
and Placing for proposed work, and
c) Consist of at least 30 consecutive testsor two groups of
5.0-Notation in
consecutive tests totalingat least 30 tests as defined
f: = specified Compressive strength of concrete, psi, except as provided in
flr = required average compressive strengthof concrete Where a concrete production facility does not
used as the basis for selection of concrete
propor- have test records meeting requirementsof, butdoes
tions, psi have a record based on 15 to 29 consecutive tests, a stan-
I s = standarddeviationofcompressivestrength,psi dard deviation shall be established as the product ofthe cal-
culated standard deviation andmodification factor of
5.1-General Table To be acceptable, test record shall meet re-
5.1.1 Concrete shallbe proportioned to provide an average quirements (a) and @) of, and represent onlya sin-
compressive strength as prescribed in 5.3.2 as well as satisfy gle record ofconsecutive tests that spana period of not less
the durability criteria of Chapter 4. Concrete shall be pro- than 45 calendar days.
duced to minimize frequency of strengths belowf: as pre-
Table factor for standard
scribed in deviation when less than30 tests are available
5.1.2 Requirements forf: shall be based on tests of cylin-
Modification factorfor
ders made and tested as prescribed in 5.6.2. NO.of tests' standard deviation+
5.1.3 Unless otherwise specified, f: shall bebased on Less than 15 Use table
28-day tests.If other than 28 days, test ageforfi shall be as 15 1.16
indicated in design drawings or specifications.
20 1.O8
5.1.4 Splitting tensile strength tests shall notbe used as a
25 1 .O3
basis for field acceptanceof concrete.
30 or more 1.o0
5.1.5 Design drawings shall show specified compressive
* Interpolatefor intermediate numbersof tests.
strength of concretef; for which each part of the structure t Modifiedstandarddeviationto be used to determinerequiredaverage
is designed. strength ;f from

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53.2-Required average strength c) Trialmixtures shall be designed to produceaslump

53.2.1 Required average compressivestrengthf ir used within f 0.75 in. of maximum permitted, and for air-
as the basisfor selection of concrete proportions shall be the entrained concrete, within f 0.5 percent of maximum
larger of Fq. (5-1) or (5-2) using a standard deviation calcu- allowableair content.
lated in accordance with d) For each water-cementitious materials ratio or cement
content, at least three test cylinders for each test age
fir = fi+ 1.34s (5-1) shall be made and cured in accordance with “Method
of Making and CuringConcrete Test Specimens in the
or Laboratory” (ASTM C 192). Cylinders shall be tested
at 28 days or at test age designated for determination
fir = fi + 2.33s - 500
(5-2) off ;.
e) From results of cylinder tests a curve shall be plotted When a concrete production facility does not
showing relationship between water-cementitious mate-
have field strength test records for calculation of standard
r i a l s ratio or cement content and compressivestrength at
deviation meetingrequirementsof or,re-
designated test age.
quired average strength f I , shall be determinedfrom
Table and documentation of average strength shall be f) Maximum water-cementitious materials ratio or mini-
in accordance with requirements of 5.3.3. mum cementcontent for concrete to be used in proposed
work shall be that shown by the curve to produce the
Table average compressive average strength required by 5.3.2, unless a lower water-
strength when dataare not available to establish a cementitious materials ratio or higher strength is
standard deviation required by Chapter 4.
Required average compressive
Specified compressive strength, strength, 5.4-Proportioning by water-cementitious
f;, psi f;, PSI
materials ratio
Less than3000 psi f; + 1000 5.4.1 Mix proportioning by water-cementitious materials
3000 to 5000 f; + 1200 ratio shall not be permitted withoutfield experience orlabo-
ratory trial batches in accordance with 5.3 and 5.4.
Over 5000 f; + 1400
5.4.2 When the total volume of cement and fly ash (or oth-
er pozzolan) in concrete
a mix exceedsthe volume of cement
53.3-Documentation of average strength in a proportioned mix withoutthe pozzolan but having equal
Documentation that proposed concrete proportions will strengths at the specified age, the mixes shall be considered
produce an average compressivestrength equal to or greater to have equal water-cementitious materials ratios irrespec-
than required average compressive strength (Section 5.3.2) tive of the proportioning of cement andfly ash.
shall consist of a field strength test record, several strength
test records, or trial mixtures. 5.5-Average strength reduction
53.3.1 When test records are used to demonstrate that As data becomeavailable during construction, amount by
proposed concrete proportions will producethe required av- whichvalue off mustexceed specified value off may
erage strength f (Section 5.3.2), such records shall repre- be reduced, provided:
sent materialsand conditions similar to those expected. a) 30 or more test results are available and average of test
Changes in materials,conditions, and proportions within the results exceeds that required by, using astandard
test records shall not have been more restrictedthan those for deviation calculated in accordance with,or
proposed work. For the purpose of documenting average
b)15to 29 test results are available and average of test
strength potential, test records consisting of less than 30 but
results exceeds thatrequired by using a standard
not less than 10 consecutive tests are acceptable provided
test records encompass a period of time lessnot
than 45days. deviation calculated in accordance with, and
Required concreteproportions shall be permitted to be estab- c) special exposure requirements of Chapter are 4 met.
lished by interpolation between the strengths and propor-
tions of two or more test records each of which meetsother 5.6-Evaluation and acceptance of concrete
requirements of this section. 5.6.l-Frequency of testing When an acceptable record of field test results is Samples for strength tests of each class of con-
not available,concreteproportions may be establishedbased crete placed each dayshall be taken notless than once aday,
on trial mixtures meetingthe following restrictions. nor less than once for each 150 yd3 concrete,
of nor less than
a) Combinationof materials shall be those for proposed once for each5000 ft2 of surface area for slabs or walls.
work. On a givenproject, if total volume of concrete
b)Trialmixtureshaving proportions and consistencies is such that frequency of testing required by would
required for proposed work shall be made using at least provide less than five strength tests for a given class of
threedifferent water-cementitious materials ratios or concrete, tests shall be made from at least five randomly
cement contents that will produce a range of strengths selected batches or from each batch if fewer than five
encompassing the required averagestrengthfl., . batches are used.

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S T D O A C I 349-ENGL L997 0662947 0538070 7LT W
NUCLEAR SAFEfY STRUCTURESCODE 349-15 When total quantity ofa given classof concrete From the area in question may be required in accordance with
is less than 50 yd3, strength testsmay be waived by the En- ”Method of Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed
gineer if the Engineer has been provided adequate evidence Beams of Concrete” (ASTM C 42). In such case,three cores
of satisfactory strength. shall be taken for each strength test more than 500 psi below A strengthtestshall be theaverage of the specified valueoff:.
strengths of two cylinders made from the same sample of If concrete in the structure will be dry under
concrete and tested at 28 days or at test age designated for service conditions, cores shall be a u dried (temperature60
determination off:. to 80 F, relative humidity less than 60 percent) for 7 days
5.6.2-Laboratory-cured specimens before test and shall be tested dry. If concrete in the struc- Samples for strength tests shall be taken in ac- ture will be more thansuperficially wet under service con-
cordance with “Method of Sampling Freshly Mixed Con- ditions, cores shall be immersed in water forat least 40 hr
crete” (ASTM C 172). and be tested wet. Cylinders for strength tests shall be molded and Concrete in an area represented by core tests
laboratory-cured in accordance with “Practice for Making shall be considered structurally adequate if the average of
and CuringConcrete Test
Specimens in
Field” three coresis equal to at least85 percent off: and if no sin-
(ASTM C 3 1) and tested in accordance with “Test Method gle core is less than 75 percent off:. Additional testing of
for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Speci- cores extracted from locations represented by erratic core
mens” (ASTM C 39). strength results shall be permitted within limits established Strength level of an individual class of con- by the Engineer.
crete shall be considered satisfactory if bothof the follow- If the criteria of are met, and if structural
ing requirements are met: adequacy remains in doubt, the Engineer may order load
a)Averageofallsets of three consecutive strength tests tests as outlined in Chapter 20to further assess adequacyor
equal or exceedf . may take other appropriate action.
b) No individual strength test (average of two cylinders)
falls belowf: by more than 500 psi.
5.7-Preparation of equipment and place If either of the requirements of are not of deposit
met, steps shall be taken to increase the average of subse- 5.7.1 Preparation before concrete placement shall include
quent strength test results. Requirements of 5.6.4shall be ob- the following:
served if requirement of is not met.
5.6.3-Field-cured specimens shall be clean. The Engineer may require strength tests of cyl- All debris and ice shall be removed from spaces to be
inders cured under field conditions to check the adequacy
occupied by concrete.
of curing and protection of concrete in the structure. The
Engineer may use non-destructive testing to confirm the Forms shall be properly coated.
accuracy of strength testing completed on field-cured Masonry filler units that will be in contact with concrete
specimens. shall be well drenched. Field-cured cylinders shallbe cured under field Reinforcementshall be thoroughlycleanedoficeor
conditions in accordance with “Practice for Making and Cur- other deleterious coatings.
ing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field”(ASTM C 3 l).
Water shall be removed from place of deposit before
5.6.33 Field-cured test cylinders shallbe molded at the
concrete is placed unlessa tremie isto be used or it shall
same time and from the same samples as laboratory-cured
be displaced by methods that shall exclude incorpora-
test cylinders.
tion of additional water in the concrete during place- Procedures for protecting and curing concrete
ment and consolidation.
shall be improved when strength of field-cured cylinders at
test age designated for determination off: is less than 85 Laitance and other unsound material shall be removed
percentofthat of companion laboratory-cured cylinders. beforeadditionalconcrete is placedagainsthardened
The 85 percentlimitationshallnotapply if field-cured concrete. The method for cleaning joints shall be stated
strength exceedsf: by more than 500 psi. in the specification.
5.6.4-Investigation of low-strengthtest results If any strength test (Section of laborato- 5.8-Mixing
ry-cured cylindersfalls below specified valueoff: by more 5.8.1 All concrete shall be mixed until there is a uniform
than 500 psi (Section5.6.2.3(b)] or if tests of field-cured cyl- distribution of materials and shall be discharged completely
indicate deficiencies in protection
curing before mixeris recharged.
(Section, steps shall be taken to assure that load-car- 5.8.2 Ready-mixed concrete shallbe mixed and delivered
rying capacity of thestructure is not jeopardized. in accordancewithrequirements of “Specificationfor If the likelihoodof low-strength concreteis con- Ready-Mixed Concrete” (ASTMC 94) or “Specification for
firmed and computations indicate that load-carrying capaci- ConcreteMade by VolumetricBatchingandContinuous
ty may have been significantly reduced, tests of cores drilled Mixing” (ASTMC 685).

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5.8.3 Job-mixed concrete shall be mixed in accordance tions shall be limited to only those made in limited areas of
with the following: specific difficulty and subjectto the approval of the Engineer
Mixing shall be done in a batch mixer of type approved as to location, mix proportioning,or alteration of this mix.
by the Engineer.
Mixer shall be rotated at a speed recommended by the 5.1 l-Curing
5.11.1 Concrete (other than high-early-strength) shall be
maintained above 50 F and in a moistcondition for at least
Mixing shall be continued for at least IV2 min after dl the first 7 days after placement, except when cured in accor-
materials are in thedrum, unless a shorter timeis shown to dance with 5.1 1.3.
be satisfactory by the mixing uniformity testsof “Specifi- 5.11.2 High-early-strength concrete shall be maintained
cation for Ready-Mixed Concrete” (ASTM C94). above 50 F and in a moist condition for at least the frst 3
Materials handling, batching, and mixing shall conform days, except when cured in accordance with1.3. 5.1
to applicable provisions of “Specification for Ready- 5.11.3-Accelerated curing
Mixed Concrete” (ASTM C94). 5.113.1 Curing by highpressure steam, steam at atmo-
A detailed record shall be kept to identify: spheric pressure, heat and moisture, or other accepted pro-
(1) number of batches produced; cesses, shall be permitted to accelerate strength gain and
(2) proportions of materials used; reduce time ofcuring.
(3) approximate location of final deposit in structure; 5.113.2 Accelerated curing shall provide a compressive
strength of the concrete at the load stage considered at least
(4) time and date of mixing andplacing.
equal to required design strength at that load stage.
5.1133 Curing processshall be such as to produce con-
5.9-Conveying crete with adurability at least equivalent to the curing meth-
5.9.1 Concrete shall be conveyed from mixerto place of
final deposit by methods thatwill prevent separation or loss odof5.1l.l or5.11.2.
of materials. 5.11.4 Wherea liquid membrane curing compound is
used, particular attention shall be given to its compatibility
5.9.2 Conveying equipmentshall be capable of providing
a supply ofconcrete at site of placement withoutseparation with anyprotective coatings that are to be applied following
curing efforts.
of ingredients and without interruptions sufficient to permit
loss of plasticity betweensuccessive increments.
5.115 The method of curing shall be stated in the con-
struction specifications.
5.9.3 Aluminum pipe shall not be used to convey concrete.
5.12-Cold weather requirements
5.10-Depositing 5.12.1 Adequate equipment shall be provided for heating
5.10.1 Concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practical
concrete materials and protecting concrete duringfreezing or
in its final position to avoidsegregation due to rehandling or
5.12.2 Concrete materials and all reinforcement, forms,
5.10.2 Concreting shall be carried on at such a rate that
fillers and ground with which concrete is to come incontact
concrete is at all times plastic and flows readily into spaces
shall be free from frost.
between reinforcement.
5.12.3 Frozen materials or materials containing ice shall
5.10.3 Concrete that has achieved initial set or has been not be used.
contaminated by foreign materials shall not be deposited in
the structure. 5.13-Hot weather requirements
5.10.4 Retempered concrete shall not be used. 5.13.1 During hot weather, proper attention shall be given
5.10.5 After concreting is started, it shall be carried on as to ingredients, production methods, handling, placing, pro-
a continuousoperation until placing of a panel or section, as tection, and curing to prevent excessive concrete tempera-
defined by its boundaries or predetermined joints, is com- tures or waterevaporationthatcouldimpair required
pleted except as permitted or prohibited by 6.4. strength or serviceability of the member or structure.
5.10.6 Top surfaces of vertically formed lifts shall be gen- 5.13.2 The method of controlling concrete temperatures
erally level. shall be specified in the construction specification.
5.10.7 When constructionjoints are required, joints shall
be made in accordance with6.4.
Chapter &Formwork, Embedded Pipes,
5.10.8 All concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated by and Construction Joints
suitable means during placement and shall be thoroughly
worked around reinforcement and embedded fixtures and 6.1-Design of formwork
into comersof forms. 6.1.1 Forms shall result in a final structure that conforms
5.10.9 Where conditions make consolidation difficult, or to shapes, lines, and dimensions ofthe members as required
where reinforcement is congested, batches may be repropor- by the design drawings andspecifications.
tioned to exclude the larger of the coarse aggregate gradations. 6.1.2 Forms shall be substantial and sufficiently tight to
Where the coarse aggregate is furnished in only one gradation,prevent leakageof mortar.
batches of mortar containing approximately the same propor- 6.1.3 Forms shall be properly braced or tied together to
tions of cement, sand, and water may be used. Such substitu- maintain position and shape.

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6.1.4 Forms and their supports shallbe designed so as not Engineer, provided theyare not considered to replace struc-
to damage previously placed structure. turally the displacedconcrete except as definedin 6.3.6.
6.1.5 Design of formwork shall include consideration of 63.2 Aluminum conduits, pipes, and sleeves shall not be
the following factors: embedded in structural concrete unless effectively coatedor
a) Rate and method of placing concrete. covered to prevent aluminum-concrete reaction or electro-
b)Constructionloads,includingvertical,horizontal,and lytic action between aluminum and steel.
impact loads. 6 3 3 Conduits, pipes, and sleeves passing through a slab,
c) Specialformrequirementsforconstruction of shells, wall, or beam shall not impair significantly the strength of
folded plates, domes, architectural concrete, or similar the construction.
types of elements. 6.3.4 Conduits, pipes and sleeves with their fittings, em-
6.1.6 Forms for prestressed concrete members shall be de- bedded within a column shall not displace more than4 per-
signed and constructed topermit movement of the member cent ofthe area ofcrosssection on whichstrength is
without damage during application of prestressing force. calculated or which is required for fire protection.
6.1.7 When using steel liners as formwork, special atten- 6 3 5 Except when design (or shop) drawings for conduits
tion shallbe given: and pipes are approved by the Engineer, conduits and pipes To liner supports to provide the required toler- embedded within a slab, wall, or beam (other than those
ances for penetrations. merely passing through) shall satisfy the following: To the depth of placement in order to limit the 63 .5.1 They shall not be larger in outside dimension
deformation of the liner. than 1/3 the overall thickness of slab, wall, or beam in which
6.1.8 Where coating systemsare to be applied tothe con- they are embedded
crete, formwork shall be compatible with the coating system. They shall not be spaced closer than 3 diameters
on center
6.2-Removal of forms and shores 63.5.3 They shall not impair significantly the strength
6.2.1 No construction loads shall be supported on, nor any of the construction.
shoring removed from, any part of the structure under con- 63.6 Conduits, pipes, and sleeves shall be permitted to be
struction except when that portion of the structure in combi- considered as replacing structurally in compression the dis-
nationwithremainingformingandshoringsystem has placed concrete provided:
sufficient strength to support safely its weightandloads They are not exposed to rusting or other dete-
placed thereon. rioration. Sufficientstrengthshall be demonstrated by 63.6.2 They are of uncoated or galvanized ironor steel
structural analysis considering proposed loads, strength of not thiiner than standardSchedule 40 steel pipe.
formingandshoringsystem,andconcretestrength data. 63.6.3 They have a nominal inside diameter not over
Concrete strengthdata may be based on testsof field-cured 2 in. and are spaced not less than3 diameters on centers.
cylinders or, when approved bythe Engineer, on other pro-
63.7 Pipes and fittings shall be designedto resist effects
cedures to evaluate concrete strength. Structural analysis and
of the material, pressure, temperatureto which they will be
concrete strength test data shall be furnished to the Engineer
when so required.
63.8 All piping and fittings except as provided in
6.2.2 NO construction loads exceeding the combination of
shall be tested asa unit for leaks before concrete placement.
superimposed dead load plus specified live load be shall
Pressure tests shall be in accordance withthe applicable p i p
ported on any unshored portion of the structure under con-
ing code or standard. Where pressure testing requirements
struction,unlessanalysis indicates adequatestrength to
are not specified in a code or standard, pressure testing shall
support suchadditional loads.
meet the following requirements: (1) The testing pressure
6.2.3 Forms shall be removed in such manner as not to im- above atmospheric pressureshall be 50 percent in excess of
pair safety and serviceability of the structure. All concreteto
pressure to which piping and fittings may be subjected, but
be exposed by form removal shall have sufficient strength
minimumtestingpressureshallnot be lessthan150psi
not to be damaged thereby.
above atmospheric pressure. (2) The test pressure shall be
6.2.4 Formsupportsforprestressedconcretemembers held for4 hours with no drop in pressure allowed, except that
shall not be removed until sufficient prestressing has been whch may be caused by a drop in air temperature.
applied to enable prestressed members to carry their dead Drain pipes and other piping designedfor pres-
load and anticipated constructionloads.
sures of not more than1 psi above atmospheric pressure need
6.25 Where coating systems are to be applied to the con-
not be tested as requiredin 6.3.8.
crete only those hardeners, additives, and form release agents
which are compatible with the coatifig system shall be used. Pipes carrying liquid, gas, or vapor thatis explo-
sive or injurious to health shall again be tested as specified
in 6.3.8 after the concrete has reached its required 28-day
6.3-Conduits, pipes, and sleeves embeddedin
concrete strength.
63.1 Conduits,pipes,andsleeves of anymaterial not 63.9 No liquid, gas, or vapor, except water not exceeding
harmful to concrete and within limitations of 6.3 shall be 90F nor 50 psi pressure, shall be placed in the pipes until the
permitted to be embedded in concrete with approval of the concretehas attained a compressive strength of at leastloo0 psi.
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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL 2997 0538073 429


6.3.10 In solidslabs the piping, unless it is for radiant heat- 6.4.6 Beams, girders, haunches, drop panels, and capitals
ing or snow melting,shall be placed betweentop and bottom shall be placed monolithicallyas part of aslab system, unless
reinforcement. otherwise shown in design drawings or specifications.
63.11 Concretecover for pipes, conduits, and fittings
shall not beless than l1I2in. for concrete exposed to earth or Chapter 7-Details of Reinforcement
weather, nor 3/4 in. for concrete not exposedto weather or in
contact with ground. 7.0-Notation
63.12 Reinforcement with an area not less than 0.002 A = effective tensile area ofconcretesurrounding the
times the area of concrete section shall be provided normal reinforcing bars and havingthe same centroid as
to piping. that reinforcement, divided bythe number ofbars,
sq in. Whenthe reinforcement consists of several
63.13 Piping and fittings shall be assembled accordingto
bar sizes, the number ofbars shall be computed as
the construction specifications. Screw connections shall be
the total steel area divided bythe area of the largest
bar used
6.3.14 Piping and conduit shall be so fabricated and in-
A, nrin= minimum reinforcementfor massive concrete ele-
stalled that cutting, bending, or displacement of reinforce-
ment from its specified location, beyond the limitations of ments (See 7.12.2), will notbe required. d = distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
6.3.15 All piping containing liquid, gas, or vapor pressure troid of tensionreinforcement,in.
in excess of 200 psi above atmospheric pressure or tempera- db = nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing
ture in excessof 150 F shall be sleeved, insulated, or other- strand, in.
wiseseparatedfrom the concrete and/orcooled to limit
concrete stressesto allowable designvalues and to limit con-
crete temperatures to the following:
I f, = stress inreinforcing steel, psi
f; = specified tensile strength of concrete, psi.
fy = specifiedyield strength ofnonprestressedrein-
For normal operation or any other long-term period, the forcement,psi
temperaturesshallnotexceed150 F, except for local /d = development length, in. (See Chapter12)
areas which are allowed to have increased temperatures
not to exceed 200F. 7.1-Standard hooks
For accident or any other short-term period, the temper- The term “standardhook” as used in this code shall mean
atures shall not exceed 350 F for the interior surface. one of the following:
However, local areas are allowed to reach 650 F from 7.1.1 180-deg bendplus 4db extension, but not less than
fluid jets in the event of a pipe
failure. 2 If2 in. at freeend of bar.
Higher temperatures than given in Items (a) and (b) may 7.1.2 90-deg bendplus 12db extensionat free end of bar.
be allowed in the concrete if tests are provided to evalu- 7.1.3 For stirrup and tie hooks*
ate the reduction in strength and this reduction applied
is a) No. 5 bar and smaller, 90-deg bend plus 6 4 extension at
to thedesignallowables.Evidenceshall also be pro- free end of bar,or
vided which verifies that the increased temperatures do b) No. 6,7, and 8 bar, 90-deg bend plus 1 2 4 extension at
not cause deterioration of the concrete either with or free end of bar, or
without load.
c) No. 8 bar and smaller, 135-deg bend plus 6 d b extension
at free end of bar.
6.4-Construction joints
6.4.1 Surface of concrete construction joints shall be
7.2-Minimum bend diameters
cleaned andlaitance removed. 7.2.1 Diameter of bend measuredon the inside of the bar,
6.4.2 Immediately before new concrete is placed, all con- other than for stinups and ties in sizes No. 3 through No. 5,
structionjoints shall be wetted andstanding water removed. shall not be less than the values in Table 7.2.
6.4.3 Construction joints shall be so made and located as

not to impair the strength of the structure. All construction Table 7.2-Minimum diameters of bend
joints shall be indicated on the design drawings or shall be
Bar size diameter
approved by theEngineer. Provision shall be made for trans-
fer of shear and other forces through constructionjoints. See No. 3 through No. 8
1 1.7.9. No. 9, No. 10, and No. 11
6.4.4 Construction joints in floors excluding slabs on
No. 14 and No. 18 1Odb
grade shall be located within the middle third of spans of
slabs, beams, or girders. Joints in girders shall be located a
minimum distance of two times the width of intersecting 7.2.2 Inside diameter of bends for stirrups and ties shall
beams. not beless than 4db for No: 5 bar andsmaller. For bars larg-
6.4.5 Beams, girders, or slabs supported by columns or
walls shall notbe cast or erected until concrete in the vertical * For closed ties and continuously wound ties defined as hoops inChapter 21,
a 135-deg bend plus an extension of at least 6 d b hut not less than 75 mm. (See
support members is no longer plastic. definition of “hoop” in 21.1)

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NUCLEAR 349-19

er than No. 5, diameter of bend shall be in accordance with 75.2.2 Tolerance for longitudinal location of bends and
Table 7.2. ends of reinforcement shallbe k 2 in. except at discontinuous
7.2.3 Inside diameter of bends in weldedwire fabric ends of members where tolerance shall be f in.
(smooth or deformed) for stirrups and ties shall not be less 7 5 3 Welded wire fabric (with wire size not greaterthan W5
than 4db for deformed wire larger than D6 and 2db for all or D5) used in slabs not exceeding10ft in span may be curved
other wires. Bends with inside diameter lessofthan 8db shall from a point near the top of slab over the
supportto a point near
not be less than4db from nearest welded intersection. the bottom of slab midspan,
at provided such reinforcementis
either continuous over, or securely anchored at, support.
7.3-Bending 75.4 Welding of crossing bars shall not be permitted for
73.1 Reinforcement shall be bent cold, unless otherwise assembly of reinforcement unless authorized by the Engineer.
permitted by the Engineer. 75.5 Bars may be moved as necessary to avoid interfer-
ence with other reinforcing steel, conduits, or embedded
7.3.2 Reinforcement partially embeddedin concrete shall
items subject to the approval of the Engineer. If bars are
as shown on the design drawingsor
not be field bent, except
moved morethan one bar diameter,or enough to exceed the
permitted by the Engineer.
above tolerances, the resulting arrangement of bars shall be
subject to approval by the Engineer.
7.4-Surface conditions of reinforcement
7.4.1 At time concreteis placed, metal reinforcement shall 7.6-Spacing limits for reinforcernent
be free from mud, oil, or other nonmetallic coatings that de- 7.6.1 The minimumclear spacing between parallel bars in
crease bond. Epoxy coatings of bars, in accordance with a layer shallnot be lessthan db nor 1 in. See also
standards in this code, are permitted if the coating is quali- Section 3.3.2.
fied for service conditions (i.e., temperature and radiation), 7.6.2 Where parallel reinforcement is placed in two or
as well as fabrication conditions(i.e., damaged epoxy coat- more layers, bars in the upper layers shall be placed directly
ings shall be repaired). above bars in the bottom layer with clear distance between
7.4.2 Metal reinforcement, except prestressing tendons, layers not less than 1 in.
with rust, millscale, or a combination of both shall be con- 7.6.3 In spirally reinforced or tied reinforced compression
sidered satisfactory, provided the minimum dimensions (in- members, clear distance between longitudinal bars shall not
cluding heightof deformations) and weightof a hand-wire- be less than 1.5db nor 11/*in. See also 3.3.2.
brushed test specimen are not less than applicable ASTM 7.6.4 Clear distance limitation between bars shall apply
specification requirements. also to theclear distance betweena contact lap splice and ad-
7.4.3 Prestressing tendons shall be clean and free of jacent splices or bars.
oil, dirt, scale, pitting, and excessive rust. A light oxide 7.6.5 In walls and slabs otherthan concrete joist construc-
is permissible. tion, primary flexural reinforcement shall notbe spaced far-
ther apart than threetimes the wall or slab thickness, nor18 in.
7.6.6-Bundled bars
7.5-Placing reinforcement
75.1 Reinforcement, prestressing tendons, and ducts shall Groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in
be accurately placed and adequately supported before con- contact to act as a unit shall be limited to four in any one
crete is placed, and shall be secured against displacement
7.5.2. Bundled bars shall be enclosed within stirrups
within tolerances permitted in
or ties.
7.5.2 Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer, rein- Bars larger than No. 11 shall not be bundledin
forcement, prestressing tendons, and prestressing ducts shall
be placed within the following tolerances: Individual bars within a bundle terminated with- Tolerance for depth d , and minimum concrete in the span of flexural members shall terminate at different
cover in flexural members, walls and compression members points withat least Mdb stagger.
shall be as follows: Where spacing limitations and minimum con-
crete cover are based on bar diameterdb, a unit of bundled
Tolerance on bars shall be treated as a single bar of a diameter derived
minimum from the equivalent totalana.
Tolerance on d concrete m e r
7.6.7-Prestressing tendons and ducts
d 5 8 in. ìV8in. -3/8 in. Clear distance between pretensioning tendons at
d I 2 4 in. * in. -Il2 in. each end ofa member shall not be less than 4 4 for wire, nor
3 4 for strands. See also 3.3.2. Closer vertical spacing and
d > 24 in. I * I in. I -'I2 in.
bundling of strands may be permitted in the middle portion
of a span.
Except that tolerancefor the clear distance to formed sof- Post-tensioning ductsmay be bundled if shown
fits shall be minus in. and tolerance for cover shall notex- that concrete can be satisfactorily placed and if provision is
ceed minus 1/3 the minimum concrete cover required in the made to prevent the tendons, when tensioned, from breaking
design drawingsor in the specifications. through the duct.

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7.7-Concrete protection for reinforcement 7.7.3-Prestressed concrete

7.7.1-Cast-in-place concrete (nonprestressed) 7.73.1 The following minimumconcrete cover shall be
The following minimum concrete covershall be provid- provided for prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement,
ed for reinforcement: ducts, and end fittings, except as provided in and
Minimum cover, in. Minimm cover, in.
a) Concretecast against and a) Concrete cast against and
permanently exposed toearth ............................... 3 permanently exposedto earth. .............................. 3
b) Concrete exposedto earth or weather: b) Concrete exposedto earth or weather:
No. 6 through No. 18 bar...................................... 2 Wall panels,slabs,joists .......................................... 1
No. 5 bar, W31 or D31 wire, and Other members........................................................ 1112
smaller ................................................................. 192
c) Concrete not exposedto weather or
c) Concrete not exposedto weather or in contact with ground
in contact with ground:
Slabs, walls, joists ..................................................... 314
Slabs, walls, joists: Beams, columns:
No. 14 andNo. 18 bars ......................................... 1Il2 Primary reinforcement............................................. 1
No. 11 bar andsmaller.......................................... 3/4 Ties, stirrups, spirals................................................ 1
Beams, columns: Shells, folded plate members:
Primary reinforcement,ties, stirrups, spirals...........1112 No. 5 bar, W3 1or D31 wire, and smaller.............318
Other reinforcement .............................................
Shells, folded plate members: but not less than 3/4
No. 6 bar and larger.............................................. 14
, No. 5 bar, W3 1 or D31wire,and smaller.............. 12 1 For prestressed concrete members exposed to
earth, weather, or conosive environments, andin which per-
7.7.2-Precastconcrete(manufacturedunderplant missible tensile stress of 18.4.2(b) is exceeded, minimum
control conditions) cover shall be increased 50 percent.
The following minimumconcrete cover shall be provided 7.7.33 For prestressedconcrete members manufactured
for reinforcement: under plant control conditions, minimum concrete cover for
nonprestressedreinforcement shall be as required in
Minimum cover, in.
Section 7.7.2.
a) Concrete exposedto earth or weather: 7.7.4-Bundled bars
For bundled bars, minimumconcrete cover shall be equal
Wall panels:
to the equivalent diameter of the bundle, but need not be
NO. 14 andNO. 18 bars ......................................... 1'12 greater than 2 in.; except for concrete cast against and per-
No. 11 bar and smaller.......................................... 14 manently exposed toearth, minimum cover shall be3 in.
Other members: 7.7.Eorrosive environments
In corrosive environments or other severe exposure con-
No. 14 and No. 18 bars ......................................... 2
ditions, amount of concrete protection shall be suitably in-
No. 6 through No. 11 bars..................................... l1I2 creased, anddensenessandnonporosityof protecting
No. 5 bar, W3 1 or D3 1 wire, andsmaller.............1'14 concrete shall be considered, or other protection shall be
b) Concrete not exposedto weather or 7.7.6-Future extensions
in contact with ground: Exposed reinforcement, inserts, and plates intended for
Slabs, walls, joists: bonding with futureextensions shall be protected from cor-
No. 14 andNo. 18 bars ......................................... 1
No. 11 bar and smaller.......................................... 5
'8 7.8-Special reinforcement details for columns
Beams, columns: 7.8.1-0ffset bars
Offset bent longitudinal bars shall conformto the following:
Primary reinforcement Slope of inclined portion of an offset bar with
but not less than 5 / 8 axis of column shall not exceed in1 6.
and need not exceed1'I2 Portions of bar above and below an offset shall
be parallel to axis of column.
Ties, stirrups, spirals................................................ 3/8 Horizontal support at offset bends shall be pro-
Shells, folded plate members: vided by lateral ties, spirals, or parts of the floor construc-
No. 6 bar and larger .............................................. 5B' tion. Horizontal support providedshall be designed to resist
No. 5 bar, W3 1 or D3 1 wire, andsmaller............. 3I8 1'I2 times the horizontal component of the computed force in

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the inclined portionof an offset bar. Lateral ties or spirals, if Clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed
used, shall be placed not more 6than in. from pointsof bend. 3 in., nor be less than 1 in. See also 3.3.2. Offset bars shall be bent before placement in the Anchorage of spiral reinforcement shallbe pro-
forms. see 7.3. vided by l 'I2extra turns of spiral bar or wire at each end of Where a column face is offset 3 in. or greater, a spiral unit.
longitudinal bars shall not be offset bent. Separate dowels, 7.10.45 Splicesinspiralreinforcementshall be lap
lap spliced with the longitudinal bars adjacent to the offset splices of 48 db but not less than12 in., or welded.
column faces, shallbe provided. Lap splices shall conform to Spirals shall extend from top of footing or slab
12.17. in any story to level of lowest horizontal reinforcement in
7.8.2-Steel cores members supported above.
Load transfer in structural steel cores of composite com- Where beams or brackets do not frame into all
pression members shallbe provided by the following: sides of a column, ties shall extend above termination of spi- Ends of structural steel cores shall beaccurate- ral to bottomof slab or drop panel.
ly finished to bear at end bearing splices, with positive pro- In columns with capitals, spirals shall extend to
vision for alignment ofone core above the other in a level at which the diameteror width of capital is two times
concentric contact. that of the column. Spirals shall be held firmly in place and true At end bearing splices, bearing shall be consid-
to line.
ered effective to transfer not more than 50 percent of the total For spiral bar or wire smaller than '/* in. diam-
compressive stress in the steel core.
eter, a minimum of two spacers shall be used for spiralsless
7.8.23 Transfer ofstress between column base and foot- than 20 in. in diameter, three spacers for spirals20 M 30 in.
ing shallbe designed in accordance with 15.8.
in diameter, andfour spacers for spirals greater than Base of structural steel section shallbe designed diameter.
to transfer the total load from the entire composite member For spiral bar or wire 5/8 in. diameteror larger,
to the footing; or, the base may be designed to transfer the a minimum ofthree spacers shall be used for spirals 24 in. or
load from the steel core only, provided ample concrete sec- less in diameter, and four spacers for spirals greater than
tion is available for transferof the portion of the total load 24 in. in diameter.
carried by the reinforced concrete section to the footingby
compression inthe concrete andby reinforcement.
Tie reinforcement for compression members shall con-
form to the following:
7.105.1 All nonprestressed bars shall be enclosed by
7.9.1 At connections of principal framing elements (such
No. 3 in size for longitudinal barsNo. 10
lateral ties, at least
as beams and columns), enclosureshall beprovided for
or smaller, and at least No. 4 in size for No. 11, No. 14,
splices of continuing reinforcement and for end anchorage
No. 18, and bundled longitudinal bars. Deformed wire or
reinforcement terminating in such connections.
welded wire fabric of equivalent area may be used.
7.9.2 Enclosure at connections may consist of external Vertical spacingof ties shall not exceed16 lon-
concrete or internal closed ties, spirals,or stirrups.
gitudinal bar diameters,48 tie bar or wire diameters,or least
dimension of the compression member.
7.1 &Lateral reinforcement for compression 7.10.53 Ties shall be arranged such that every comer
7.10.1 Lateral reinforcement for compression members and alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral support pro-
shall conform to the provisions of 7.10.4 and 7.10.5 and, vided by the comer of a tie with an included angle of not
where shear or torsion reinforcement is required, shall also more than 135 deg and no bar shall be farther6 than in. clear
conform to provisionsof Chapter 11. on each side along tie thefrom sucha laterally supported bar.
Where longitudinal bars are located around the perimeter of
7.10.2 Lateral reinforcement requirements for composite
a circle, a complete circular tie may be used.
compression members shall conformto 10.14. Lateral rein- Ties shall be located vertically not more than
forcement requirements for prestressing tendons shall con-
one-half a tie spacing above the top of footing or slab in any
form to 18.1 1.
story, and shall be spaced as provided herein to not more
7.10.3 Lateral reinforcement requirements of 7.10, 10.14,
than one-halfa tie spacing belowthe lowest horizontal rein-
and 18.11 may be waived where tests and structural analysis
forcement in slab or drop panel above.
show adequate strength and feasibility of construction. Where beamsor brackets frame into all vertical
7.10.4-Spirals faces of a column andif at least three quarters of each face is
Spiral reinforcement for compression members shall con- covered by the framing member, ties may be terminated not
form to 10.9.3 and tothe following: more than 3 in. below lowest reinforcement in shallowest of Spirals shall consist of evenly spaced continu- such beamsor brackets.
ous baror wire of such size and so assembled to permithan-
designed 7.11-Lateral reinforcement for flexural members
dimensions. 7.11.1 Compression reinforcement in beams shall be en- For cast-in-place construction, size of spirals closed by ties o; stinups satisfying the size and spacing
not be less than 3/8 in. diameter.tions
in 7.10.5 or by weldedwire
fabric of equivalent
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Such tiesor stirrups shall be provided throughout thedistance ment to gross concrete area of 0.0012 in each direction at
where compression reinforcement is required. each face.
7.11.2 Lateral reinforcement for flexural framing mem- 7.123 For concrete sections havinga thickness of 48 in.
bers subject tostress reversals or to torsion at supports shall an area A ,' in each
or more, such reinforcement shall provide
consist of closed ties, closed stirrups, or spirals extending direction at eachface given by
around the flexural reinforcement.
7.113 Closed ties or stirrups may be formed in one piece
by overlapping standard stirrup or tie end hooks around a A s min '' A but need not exceed A h 0 0
longitudinal bar, or formed in one or two pieces lap spliced fs
with a Class B splice (lap of 1.3 4)).or anchored in accor-
dance with 12.13. The minimum reinforcement size shall be No. 6 bars. In
lieu of computation, f, may be taken as 60 percent of the
7.12"Minimum reinforcement specified yield strengthf,.
7.12.1 All exposed concrete surfaces shall be reinforced 7.12.4 For concrete sections having a thickness of 72 in.
with reinforcement placed intwo approximately perpendic- or more, no minimum reinforcement is required for members
ular directions.For the purposeof the requirementsof 7.12, constructed by the principles andpractice recommended by
concrete surfaces shall be considered to be exposed if they AC1 Committee207 for nomeinforcedmassive concrete
are not castagainst existing concrete or against rock. The re- structures.
inforcement shall bedeveloped for its specifiedyield 7.125 On a tension face of a structural slab, wall,or shell,
strengthinconformancewith Chapter 12. The minimum where a calculated reinforcement requirement exists, the ra-

area of suchreinforcement shall beinaccordancewith tio of reinforcement area provided at the tension faceto gross
7.12.2,7.12.3 or 7.12.4. This requirement may be met in to- concrete area shall not be less than 0.0018 unless the area of
tal or in part by reinforcement otherwise required to resist reinforcement provided at the tension face is at least one-
design loads. Reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart third greater than that required by analysis. All other exposed
faces of the structural slab, wall,or shell shall be reinforced
than l8 in.For concretesections less than 48 in. thick such re- to meet the minimum requirements of 7.12.1, 7.12.2
7.12.2 and
1 inforcement shall provideat least a ratio of area of reinforce- 7.12.3.

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STD.ACI 349-ENGL 1’7’77 Ob62949 0538078 T O O



Chapter+AnalysisandDesign: beamsandone-wayslabs(slabsreinforced to resistflexural

Considerations stresses
in one direction),
a) There are two or more spans,
8.O-Notation b) Spans are approximately equal, with the larger of two
A, = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement,sq in. adjacent spans not- greater than the shorter
by more than
A : = area of compression reinforcement,sq in. 26 percent,
b = width of compression face of member, in. c ) Loads are uniformly distributed,
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid d) Unit live load does not exceed 3 times unit dead load,
of tension reinforcement, in. and
E, = modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi. e) Members are prismatic,
See 8.5.1
E, = modulus of elasticityof reinforcement, psi.
See 8.5.2 and 8.5.3 Positive moment
fl. = specified compressive strengthof concrete, psi End spans
f y = specified yield strength of nonprestressed end unrestrained ........
Discontinuous wu/,2111
reinforcement, psi
Discontinuous end integral
h = clear spanfor positive momentor shear and average with
port ................................... ~,/,~114
of adjacent clear spansfor negative moment
nominal shear strength provided by concrete spans .......................................
Interior ~,/,~/16
factored load per unit length of beam or per unit area Negative moment at exterior face
of slab of first interior support
unit weight of concrete,lb per CU ft Two
spans ............................................ w,/,2/9
factor defined in10.2.7.3
Morethan two spans............................ W&/ 10
ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement
Negative moment at otherfaces of
A,lbd interior supports....................................... w,/,2/ll
ratio of nonprestressed compression reinforcement Negative moment at faceof all
A l l bd supports for:
reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain Slabs with spans not exceeding10 ft;
conditions. See 10.3.2 and Beams where ratioof sum of
strength reduction factor.See 9.3 column stiffnessesto beam stiffness
exceedseieht ~at_ _each
~ ___
end of the SDan... w , / , 2 / 12
8.1-Design methods Negative moment at interior faceof exte-
In design of reinforced concrete structures, members shall rior support for members built integrally
with supports
be proportioned for adequate strength in accordance with
provisions of this code, using load factors and strength re- Wheresupport is aspandrelbeam ........ w,h2/24
duction factors$ specified in Chapter9.
Where support is a column................... ~,,/,~116
Shear in end members at faceof first
8.2-Loading support .........................................
interior 1.15wu/,2/2
Design provisionsof this Codeare based on the assump-
tion that structures shall be designed to resist all applicable Shearatface of allothersupports ............. W, 4212
loads. The loads shall be in accordance with the generalre-
quirements of 9.1.
8.4-Redistribution of negative momentsin
8.3”Methods of analysis continuous nonprestressed flexural members
83.1 All members of frames or continuous construction 8.4.1 Except where approximate values for moments are
shall be designed for the maximum effects of factored loads. used, it is permitted to increase or decrease negative mo-
The maximum effects of factored loads shall be determined ments calculatedby elastic theoryat supports of continuous
by the theory of elastic analysis, except as permitted by 8.3, flexural members for any assumed loading arrangementby
8.4, and Appendices A, B, and C. Simplifying assumptions not more than*
of 8.6 through 8.9 may be used.
8.3.2 Except for prestressed concrete, approximate meth-
ods of frame analysis are permitted for buildings of usual 20 1” ( ”,P’) percent
types of construction, spans, and story heights.
8.3.3 In lieu of frame analysis,the following approximate
* For criteriaon moment redistributionfor prestressed concrete members,
moments and shears are permitted for designof continuous see 18.10.4.

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= 0662949
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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL L997 0538079 947


8.4.2 The modified negative moments shall be used for immediately above and belowthe given floor in proportion
calculating moments at sections within the spans. to the relative column stiffnesses and conditions of restraint.
8.4.3 Redistribution of negative moments shall be made
only when thesection, at which momentis reduced, is so de- 8.9-Arrangement of live load
signed that p or p - p’ is not greater than 0.50 pb, where 8.9.1 It is permissible to assume that:
a) The live load is applied only to the floor or roof under
consideration, and
b) The far ends of columns built integrally with the struc-
ture are considered to befixed.
8.9.2 Arrangement of live load may be limited to combi-
8.5-Modulus of elasticity nations of:
8.5.1 Modulus of elasticity E, for concrete may be taken
as wc 1*5 3 3 f l (in psi) for values of W , not exceeding 155 i) Factored dead load on all spans with full factored live
lb per CU ft. For normal weightconcrete, E, may be taken as load ontwo adjacent spans, and
57,mE. b) Factored dead load on all spans with full factored live
8.5.2 Modulus of elasticity E, for non-prestressed rein- load onalternate spans.
forcement maybe taken as 29,000,000 psi.
8.53 Modulus of elasticity E, for prestressing tendons 8.1 &T-beam construction
shall be determined bytests or supplied by the manufacturer. 8.10.1 In T-beam construction, the flange and web shall
be built integrally or otherwise effectively bonded together.
8.6-Stiff ness 8.10.2 Width of slab effective as a T-beamflange shall not
8.6.1 Use of any set of reasonable assumptions is permit- exceed 1/4 the span length the of beam, and theeffectiveover-
ted for computing the relative flexural and torsional stiff- hanging flange width on side eachof the web shall not exceed:
nesses ofcolumns, walls, floors, androofsystems.The a) 8 times the slab thickness, nor
assumptions adoptedshall be consistent throughout analysis. b) the clear distance to the nextweb.
8.6.2 Effect of haunchesshall be considered both in deter- 8.103 For beams with a slab on one side only, the effec-
mining moments and in design of members. tive overhanging flange width shall not exceed:
a) 1/12 the span length of the beam,
8.7-Span length
8.7.1 Span length of members not built integrally with b) 6 times the slab thickness, nor
supports shall be considered the clear span plus depth of c) the clear distance to the next web.
member but need not exceed the distance between centers of 8.10.4 Isolated beams, in which the T-shape is used to
supports. providea flange for additional compression area, shall
8.7.2 In analysis of frames or continuous construction for have a flange thickness not less than 1/2the width of web
determinationof moments, spanlength shall be taken as the and an effective flange width not more than 4 times the
distance center-to-centerof supports. width of web.
8.7.3 For beams built integrally with supports, design on 8.10.5 Where primaryflexural reinforcement in a slab that
the basis of moments at faces of support is permitted. is Considered as a T-beam flange (excludingjoist construc-
8.7.4 Solid or ribbed slabs built integrally with supports, tion) is parallel to the beam, reinforcement perpendicularto
with clear spans not more than10 ft, are permitted to be an- the beam shall be provided in the top of the slab in accor-
alyzed as continuous slabs on knife edge supports with spans dance with the following:
equal to the clear spans of the slab and width of beams oth- 8.105.1 Transverse reinforcement shall be designedto
erwise neglected. carry the factored load on the overhanging slab width as-
sumed to act as a cantilever. For isolated beams, the full
8.8-Columns width of overhanging flange shall be considered. For other
8.8.1 Columns shall be designed to resist the axial forces T-beams, only the effective overhanging slab width needbe
from factored loads on all floors or roof and the maximum considered.
moment from factored loads on a single adjacent span of Transverse reinforcement shall not be spaced
the floor or roof under consideration. Loading condition farther apart than 5 times the slab thickness, nor 18 in.
giving the maximum ratio of moment to axial load shall
also be considered. 8.11 4 o i s t construction
8.8.2 In frames or continuous construction, consideration 8.11.1 Joist construction consists of a monolithic combi-
shall be given tothe effect of unbalanced flooror roof loads nation of regularly spaced ribs and a top slab arranged to
on both exterior and interior columns and of eccentric load- span in one direction or two orthogonaldirections.
ing dueto other causes. 8.11.2 Ribs shall not be less than 4 in. in width; and shall
8.8.3 In computing gravity load moments in columns,it is have a depthof not more than3 ‘/2 times the minimum width
permitted to assume as fixed far ends of columns built inte- of rib.
grally with thestructure. 8.113 Clear spacing betweenribs shall not exceed30 in.
8.8.4 Resistanceto moments at any floor or roof level shall 8.11.4 Joist construction not meeting the limitations of
be provided by distributing the moment between columns 8.1 1.1 through 8.1 1.3 shall be designed as slabs and beams.
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8.11.5 Removable forms shallbe used and slab thickness h = overallthicknessofmember, in.
shall not be less than the clear distance between ribs, nor H = loads due to weight and pressure of soil, water
less than 2 in. in soil, or other materials,or related intemal
8.11.6 Reinforcement normalto the ribs shallbe provided moments and forces
in the slab as required for flexure, considering load concen- Zcr = moment of inertia of cracked section transformed
trations, if any, but not lessthan required by 7.12. to concrete
8.11.7 Where conduits or pipes as permitted by Z, = effective moment of inertia for computation
Section 6.3 are embedded within the slab, slab thickness of deflection
shall be at least1 in. greater thanthe total overall depthof the Z, = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about
conduits or pipes at any point. Conduits or pipes shall not im- centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement
pair significantlythe strength of the construction. t = span length of beam or one-way slab, as defined
8.11.8 For joist construction, contribution of concrete to in 8.7; clear projectionof cantilever, in.
shear strength V, is permitted to be 10 percent more than l/n = length of clear span in long direction of two-way
that specified in Chapter 11. It is permitted to increase construction, measured face-to-face of supports
shear strength using shear reinforcement or by widening in slabs without beams and face-to-faceof beams
the ends of ribs. or other supports in other cases
L = live loads, or related internal moments and forces
8.12-Separate floor finish M, = maximum moment in member at stage deflection
8.12.1 A floor finish shall not be included as part of a is computed
structuralmemberunlessplacedmonolithicallywiththe Mcr = cracking moment.See
floor slab or designed in accordance with requirements of P, = differential pressure load, or related internal
Chapter 17. moments and forces, generated by a postulated
8.12.2 It is permitted to consider all concrete floor finishes pipe break
as part of required coveror total thickness for nonstructural Pb = nominal axial load strength at balancedstrain
considerations. conditions. See 10.3.2
P, = nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity
Chapter H t r e n g t h and Serviceability Pu = factored axial loadat given eccentricity 5 $P,
Requirements Ra = piping and equipment reactions,or related internal
moments and forces, under thermal conditions gen-
9.O-Notation erated by a postulated pipe break and including R,.
A, = gross area of section, sq in. R, = piping and equipment reactions,or related internal
I A, = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, sq in. moments and forces, which occur under normal
A i = area of compression reinforcement, sq in. operating and shutdown conditions, excluding dead
load and earthquake reactions
cf = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid
Ta = internal moments and forces caused by temperature
of compression reinforcement, in.
distributions within the concrete structure occumng
d, = distance from extreme tension fiber to centroid of as a result of accident conditions generated by a
tension reinforcement, in. postulated pipe break and including T,

I D = dead loads, or related internal moments and forces,

including piping and equipment dead
E, = modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi.
T, = internal moments and forces caused by temperature
distributions within the concrete structure occurring
as a result of normal operatingor shutdown
See 8.5.1 conditions
E , = load effectsof operating basis earthquake (OBE), or U = required strength to resist factored loads or related
related internal moments and forces, including internal moments and forces
OBE-induced piping and equipment reactions W , = unit weight of concrete, lb per CU ft
E,, = load effects of safe shutdown earthquake (SSE), or W = operating basis wind load (OBW),or related internal
related internal moments and forces, including moments and forces
SSE-induced piping and equipment reactions W, = loads generated by the design basis tomado (DBT),
f L = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi or related internal momentsand forces. These
include loads due to tomado wind pressure, tomado
E=square rootof specified compressive strength created differential pressures, and tomado generated
of concrete, psi missiles
f,. = modulus of rupture of concrete, psi 3 = jet impingement load, or related internal moments
fy = specifiedyieldstrengthofnonprestressed and forces, on thestructure generated by a
reinforcement, psi postulated pipe break
F = loads due to weight and pressures of fluids with Y,,, = missile impact load,or related internal moments and
well-defined densities and controllable maximum forces, on the structure generated by a postulated
heights, or related internal moments and forces pipe break, such as pipe whip
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9.2-Required strength

Y, = loads, or related internal moments and forces, on the
structure generated by the reaction of the broken 9.2.1 The required strength U shall be at least equal to the
pipe during apostulated break greatest of the following:
y, = distance from centroidal axis of gross section, 1. U = 1.4D+ 1.4F+ 1.7L+ 1.7H+ 1.7R0
neglecting reinforcement,to extreme fiber in tension
2. U = 1.40 + 1.4F + 1.7L + 1.7H + 1.7E0 + 1.7R0
a = ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural
stiffness of a width ofslab bounded laterally by 3. U = 1.40 + 1.4F + 1.7L + 1.7H + 1.7W + 1.7R0
center line of adjacent panel (if any) on each side
4. U=D+F+L+H+To+R,+Ess
of beam. See Chapter 13
cr, = average value ofa for all beams on edgesof a panel 5. U = D + F + L + H + T , + R , + W ,
ß = ratio of clear spans in long to short direction of 6. U = D + F + L + H + T a + R a + 1 . 2 5 P ,
two-way slabs
R, = ratio of length of continuous edgesto total perimeter 7. U = D + F + L + H + T a + R a + 1 . 1 5 P a
of a slab panel + l.O(Y,+ yi + Y,) + 1.15E0
y = ratio of the bending moments of factored loads
to unfactored loads 8. U=D+F+L+H+T,+R,+l.OP,
+ = strengthreductionfactor. See 9.3 + 1.O(Y, + yi + Y,) + 1.OEss
h = multiplier for additional long-time deflection as
9. U = 1.05D + 1.05F + 1.3L + 1.3H + 1.05T0 + 1.3R0
defined in
l, = time-dependent factor for sustained load. 10. U = 1.05D + 1.05F + 1.3L + 1.3H + 1.3E0 + 1.05T0 +
See 1.3R0
p' = reinforcement ratio for nonprestressed compression 11. U = 1.05D+ 1.05F+ 1.3L+ 1.3H+ 1.3W+ 1.05T0+1.3R0
reinforcement, A L / bd
9.2.2 Where the structural effects of differential settle-
9.1-General ment, creep, or shrinkage may be significant, they shall be
9.1.1 Structures and structural members shall be designed includedwith the deadload D in LoadCombinations 4
to have designstrengths at all sections at least equal to the re- through 1 1. Estimation of these effects shall be based on a re-
quired strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces alistic assessment of sucheffects occurring in service.
in such combinations as stipulated for the following loads 9.2.3 For the Load Combinationsin 9.2.1, where any load
combined in accordance with the provisions specified in 9.2. reduces the effects of other loads, the corresponding coeffi- loads cient for that load shall be taken as 0.9 if it can be demon-
Those loads whichare encountered during normal plant strated that the
load is always present or occurs
operation and shutdownincluding D , L,F, H, T,, and R,. simultaneously with the other loads. Otherwise, the coeffi-
9.1.1.ZSevere environmental loads cient for that load shall be takenas zero.
Those loads that couldinfrequently be encountered dur- 9.2.4 Where applicable, impact effects of moving loads
ing the plant life includingE, and W. shall be included withthe live load L. environmental loads 9.2.5 In Load Combinations6,7, and 8, the maximum val-
Those loads which are credible but are highly improba- ues of P,, Ta, R,, Yi. Y,, and Y,,,, including an appropriate
ble including E,, and W,. dynamicload factor, shall beused unless an appropriate
time-history analysis is performed to justify otherwise. loads
9.2.6 Load combinations5,7, and 8 shall be satisfied first
Those loads generated by apostulated high-energy pipe
without the tomado missile load in 5 , and withoutY,, y i , and
break accident including P,, T,, R,, Yr, and Y,,,.
Y,,, in 7 and 8. When considering these concentrated loads,
9.1.2 Members also shall meet all other requirements of local sections strengths and stresses may be exceeded pro-
this Code to ensure adequate performance at normal load vided there will be noloss of intended function of anysafety
levels. related systems. For additional requirements related to im-
9.1.3 In the design for normal loads, consideration shall pulsive and impactiveeffects, refer to Appendix C.
be given to the forces due to such effects as prestressing, 9.2.7 If resistance to other extreme environmental loads
crane loads, vibration, impact, shrinkage, creep, unequal set- such as extreme floods is specified for the plant, then an ad-
tlement of supports, construction, and testing. ditional load combination shall be included with the addi-
9.1.4 In the determination of earthquake loads, consid- tional extreme environmental load substituted for W,in Load
eration shall be givento the dynamic response characteris- Combination 5 of 9.2.1.
tics of the concrete structure and its foundationand
surrounding soil. 9.3-Design strength
9.1.5 The determination of impulsive and impactive loads, 9.3.1 Design strength provided by a member, its connec-
such as the loads associated with missile impact, whipping tions to other members, and its cross sections, in terms of
pipes, jet impingement, and compartment pressurization, shall flexure, axial load, shear, and torsion, shall be taken as the
be consistent withthe provisions of Appendix C. nominal strength calculated in accordance with requirements

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and assumptions of this Code, multiplied by a strength re- When deflection limits more stringent than those speci-
duction factor $. fied in Table 9 3 a ) are required to insure the proper fûnc-
93.2 Strength reductionfactor I$ shall be as follows: ’ tioningof certain nonstructuralsystems,theminimum
thicknesses specified in Tables 9 3 b ) and 9.5(c) shall not ap-
93.2.1 Flexure, withoutaxial load .......................... 0.90
93.2.2 Axial load, and axial load with flexure. (For ax- ~ ply and the members shall be sized such that the calculated
ial load with flexure, both axial load and moment nominal deflections are within the required limits.
strength shallbe multiplied by appropriate single value of$) Table 9.5(b)”inimum thickness of beams or one-
a) Axial tension, and axial tension with flexure........... 0.90 way construction unless deflections are computed
b) Axial compression, and axial compression with flexure:
Members with spiral reinforcement conforming
Oneend Both ends
1 1
to 10.9.3.................................................................. 0.75 Solid one-way
construction /I1 2 /I1 5 fi19 /I5
Other reinforced members ........................................ 0.70
Beams or ribbed
Except that for low values of axial load,Q may be increased one-way slabs /I1 o /I1 3 /I1 6 /I4
in accordance with the following: The values given shall be used directly for nonprestressed reinforced
concrete members made with normalweight concrete(W = 145 pcf)
For membersin whichfy does not exceed@,O00 psi, with
symmetric reinforcement, and with -
(h d‘-d,)/h not less than
and Grade 80 reinforcement.
For nonprestressedreinforcemqt having yield strengthsless than 6 0 , O O O
psi, the v a l u e s in thistable shall be multipliedby (0.4 + f, ,/lOO,OOo).
0.70, $ may be increased linearly to 0.90 as $ P,,decreases
The thickness of any one-way construction shallnot be less than 6 in.
from O. lof: A, to zero.
For other reinforced members,$ may be increased linearly
to 0.90 as Q P,,decreases from O. lof: A, or $Pa,whichever
is smaller, to zero. Table Od(c)”inimum thickness of two-way
93.23 Shear and torsion......................................... 0.85 construction unless deflections are computed
93.2.4 Bearing on concrete
18.13) ( S e e also ...........................................
93-25 Flexure in plain concrete ............................. 0.65
I Minimum thickness,h
Ratio of clear span in

9 3 3 Development lengths specified in Chapter12 do not

require a $-factor.

9.4-Design strength for reinforcement 0 /J1 9

ßs= /J21
Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of rein- a,S 1.0 .
forcement4 in excess of60,000 psi, except for prestressing Ps= 1 /J22 /J25
tendons. The values given in this table shall be used directíy for nonprestressed
reinforced concrete members made with normal weight concrete.
(W = 145 p d ) and Grade 60 reinforcement. For nonprestressed
9.5-Control of deflections reinforcement having yieldstrengths less than 6 0 , O O O psi. the values
be multiplied by (800 + 0.005fy)/l100.
n this table shall
95.1-General For other valuesof a,, ß ,, and p, the minimumlh~dvressmay be linearly limits interpolated.
The thidtness of any two-way construction shall not be less than 6 in.
Reinforced concrete members subject to flexure shall be
designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections or
any deformations which may adversely affect the strength conditions
and serviceabilityof structural and nonstructural elements. When deflectioncomputationsareperformed,these
One-way construction, two-way construction, and computations shall be based on the loading condition critical
shored composite construction shall satisfy the minimum for flexure.
thicknessrequirements specified in this chapter. Pre- 9.5.1.SFactored load computations
stressed concrete and unshored composite construction The deflectionlimits specified inthis chapter are for un-
shall satisfy the deflection limits indicated in Table 9.5(a). factored loads. Deflections may be computed by factored
Lesser thicknesses may be used if it isdetermined by com- load analysis and divided by a factor y to obtain the deflec-
putation that the resulting deflections will not adversely af- tions corresponding to unfactored loads. Unless otherwise
fect strength and serviceability. determined by computation, the factor y shall be as follows:
Table 9.5(a)--Maximum deflections for unfactored a) For load combinations 1 through 3, y = 1.5
loads b) For load combinations4 through 8, y = 1.O
number c) For combinations
load 9 through 11, y = 1.2.
(Section 9.2.1) Slabs” to be considered
Eq. U ) , (2),and (3) /I320
When minimum thickness requirements are satisfied, a
Eq. (4) and (5) /I250 /I200 deflection
given in Table 9 3 a ) may
/shall be replaced by consideredfor
of elements.

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A C 1 349-ENGL
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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL 1997 Obb2949 0538083 378


When calculations are performed, the sum of the long- from creep and shrinkageflexural
of members shall be deter-
time deflection due to all appropriate sustained loads, and mined by multiplying the immediate deflection caused by
the immediate elastic deflection due toall appropriate non- the sustained load considered, by the factor
sustained loads shall be considered. Due consideration
shall be givento the effective moment of inertia at each of
these stages. (9-10)
The long-time deflection shall be determined in accor-
dance with,,or, but maybe reduced to
the amount of long-time deflection that occurs after the at- where p ' shall be the value at midspan for simple and contin-
tachment of the nonstructural elements or the leveling of uous spans and at support for cantilevers.It is permitted to as-
equipment. This amount of long-time deflection shall be de- sume the time-dependent factor 6 for sustained loads equal to
termined on the basis of accepted engineering data relating 5 years or more................................................ 2.0
to the time deflection characteristics of members similar to 12 months........................................................ 1.4
those being considered. 6 months.......................................................... 1.2
95.2-One-way construction (nonprestressed) 3 months .......................................................... 1.O
95.2.1 Minimum thickness stipulated in Table 9 3 b ) 95.2.6 Deflection computed in accordance with
shall apply for one-way construction unless computation of hrough shall not exceed limits stipulated in the de-
deflection indicates a lesser thickness may be used without ;ign specification.
adverse effects. 9.5.3-Two-way construction (nonprestressed)
95.2.2 Where deflections are to be computed, deflec- For two-way construction, the minimum thick-
tions that occur immediately onapplication of load shall be less stipulated in Table 9.5(c) shall apply unlessthe compu-
computed by usual methods or formulas for elastic deflec- ation of deflection indicates that lesser thickness may be
tions, considering effects of cracking and reinforcement on sed without adverse effects.
member stiffness. 95.3.2 For slabs without beams, but with drop panels
9.5.23 Unless stiffness values are obtained by a more zxtending in eachdirection from center line of support a dis-
comprehensive analysis, immediate deflection shall be com- m c e not less than 1/6the span length in that direction mea-
puted with the modulus ofelasticity E, for concrete as spec- sured center-to-center of supports, and a projection below
ified in 8.5.1 and with the effective moment of inertia as the slab at least the slab thickness beyond the drop, thick-
follows, but notgreater than Zr ness required by Table 9.5(c) may be reduced by10 percent.
9.5.33 At discontinuous edges, an edge beam shall be
I, = (27Ig+-($,'II..
[l (9-7)
provided with a stiffness ratio 01 not less than 0.80; or the
minimum thickness required by Table9 3 c ) or, shall
be increased by at least 10percent in the panel with adiscon-
tinuous edge.
95.3.4-Computation of immediate deflection
Where deflections are to be computed, those whichoc-
M,, = f-
r', cur immediately on application of load shall be computed by
Y, the usual methods or formulas for elastic deflections and as
specified in this chapter. These computationsshall also take
and into account the size and shape of the panel, the conditions
of the support, and the nature of restraints at the panel edges.
For such computations,the modulus of elasticity, E,, of the
(9-9) concrete shall be as specified in 8.5.1. The effective moment
of inertia shall satisfy the provisionsof Section; other
When the values of M , are obtained from factored load values maybe used if theyresult in predictions of deflection
analysis. these values shall be dividedby the factor y as spec- in reasonable agreement with theresults of comprehensive
ified in tests.
Where the computation of deflection isbetobased onle,the of long-time deflections
Zg may be used, if the
deflection calculated by an analysis using Unless values are obtained by a more comprehensive
deflection thus calculated is increased by a factorZgof/le. analysis or test, the additional long-time deflection for nor- For continuous members, effective moment of mal weight two-way construction shall be computed in ac-
inertia may be takenas the average of values obtained from cordance with
Q. (9-7) for the critical positive and negative momentsec- 95.3.6Allowable deflection
tions. For prismatic members, effective moment of inertia The deflection computed in accordance with and
may be taken as the value obtained from Eq. (9-7) at mid- shall not exceed the limits stipulated in the design
span for simple and continuous spans, and at support for specification.
cantilevers. 9.5.APrestressed concrete construction

I Unless values are obtained by a more compre-

hensive analysis, additional long-term deflection resulting For flexural membersdesignedinaccordance
with provisions of Chapter18, immediate camber and deflec-

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tion shall be computed by usual methodsor formulas for elas- Ag = gross area of section, sq in.
tic deflections, and the momenti nofd a of the gross concrete A, = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, sq in.
section may be used for uncracked sections. When members Ask = area of skin reinforcement per unit height in one side
are cracked, a bilinear moment-curvature methd shall be face, in2& See 10.6.7.
used. I, as provided in Eq. (9-7) maybe used for this purpose. A , = total area of longitudinal reinforcement,
95.4.2 Additional long-time camber and deflection of (bars or steel shapes),sq in.
prestressed concrete members shallbe computed takinginto A, = area of structural steel shape, pipe., or tubing
account stresses and strain in concrete and steel under sus- in a composite section, sq in,
tained load and including effects of creep and shrinkage of
A l = loaded area
concrete and relaxationof steel.
95.4.3 Deflection computed in accordance with A2 = the area of the lower baseof the largest frustumof
and not exceedlimits stipulated in Table 9.5(a). a pyramid, cone,or t a p e d wedge contained wholly
within thesupport and havingfor its upper base the
9.5.5-Composite construction
loaded area, and havingside slopes of 1 vertical to2
95.5.1"Shored construction
If compositeflexuralmembers are supportedduring
construction so that, after removal of temporary supports, b = width of compression face ofmember,in.
dead load is resistedby the full composite section, itis per- c = distance from extreme Compression fiber to neutral
mitted to consider the composite member equivalent to a axis, in.
monolithically cast member for computation of deflection. C,,, = a factor relating actual moment diagramto an
Fornonprestressedmembersconsideredequivalentto a equivalent uniform moment diagram
monolithically cast member, the values given in d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid
Table 9.5(b), or Table 9.5(c) as appropriate, shall apply. If of tension reinforcement, in.
deflection is computed, account should be taken of curva- d, = thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme
tures resulting from differential shrinkage ofprecastand tension fiberto center of bar or wire located closest
cast-in-place components, and of axial creep effects in a pre- thereto, in.
stressed concrete member. E, = modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi. See 8.5.1
9.552-Unshored construction E, = modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi.
If thethickness of a nonprestressedprecastflexural See 8.5.2 or 8.5.3
member meets the requirements of Table 9 3 b ) or EI = flexural stiffness of compressionmember.
Table 9.5(c),as appropriate, deflection need not be comput- See Eq. (10-10) and Eq.(10-11)
ed. If the thickness of a nonprestressed composite member f: = specified compressive strength of concmte, psi
meets the requirements of Table 9 3 b ) or Table 9.5(c), as ap-
f, = calculated stress in reinforcement at sustained
propriate, deflection occurring after the member becomes
loads, ksi
composite need not be computed, but the long-time deflec-
tion of the precastmember shouldbe investigated for magni- f'. = specified yield strength of nonprestressed
tude and duration ofload prior to beginning of effective reinforcement, psi
composite action. b = overallthickness ofmember,in.
95.53 Deflection computed in accordance with Ig = moment of inertia of gross concrete section about
and shall not exceedlimits stipulated in Table 9.5(a). centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement
9.5.6-Walls I,, = moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal
Walls subjected to transverse loads shall also satisfy the axis of member cross section
requirements as specified in this chapter for nonprestressed Z, = moment of inertia of structural steel shape, pipe, or
one-way or nonprestressed two-way, prestressed construc- tubing about centroidalaxis of composite member
tion, or composite construction, as appropriate. cross section
Æ = effective length factor for compression members
Chapter 10-Flexure and Axial Loads pC = height of column, center-to-center of floors or roof
4 = unsupportedlengthofcompressionmember
a = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block as Mc = factored moment to be usedfor design of
defined in 10.2.7 compression member
A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding the M , = factored moment at section
flexural tension reinforcement and having the same M, = value of smaller factored end moment on a compres-
centroid as that reinforcement, divided by the num- sion member due to the loads that result in no appre-
ber of bars or wires, sq in. When the flexural rein- ciable side-sway, calculated by conventionalelastic
forcement consistsof different bar or wire sizesthe frame analysis, positiveif member is bent insingle
number of barsor wires shall be computed as the curvature, negativeif bent in double curvature.
total area of reinforcement divided by the area of the Mu = value of larger factored end momenton compres-
largest baror wire used sion members due to loads which result no in appre-
A, = area of core of spirally reinforced compression mem- ciable side-sway, calculated by conventionalelastic
ber measured to outside diameterof spiral, sq in. frame analysis
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S T D m A C I 3V9-ENGL 1997 W 0 b b 2 9 4 9 0538085 140


valueof larger factored endmomentoncompression 10.25 Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in
memberdue to loadswhich result in appreciable axial and flexural calculationsof reinforced concrete, except
side-sway, calculated byconventional elastic when meeting requirements of 18.4.
frame analysis. 10.2.6 Relationship between concrete compressive stress
nominal axial load strength at balanced strain distribution and concrete strain may be assumed to be rect-
See angular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other shape that re-
critical load. See Eq. (10- 9) sults in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with
nominal axial load strength at given eccentricity results ofcomprehensivetests.
nominal axial load strength at zero eccentricity 10.2.7 Requirementsof10.2.6 are satisfied by an equiva-
factored axial load at given eccentricity I Q P, lent rectangular concrete stress distribution definedby the
radius of gyration of cross section ofacompressionfollowing:
member Concrete stress of 0.85f; shall be assumed
quantity limiting distribution of flexural uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone
by of the cross sectionaand straight line lo-
factor defined in 10.2.7 cated parallel to the neutral axis at a distance a = Blc from
ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maxi- the fiber of maximum compressive strain.
mumtotalfactored axial load, where the load is due Distance c from fiber ofmaximum strain to the
to gravity effects only in the calculation of P, in neutral axis shall be measured in a direction perpendicular to
Eq. (10-7), or ratio of the maximum factored that
sustained lateral load to the maximum total 10.2.73 Factor B1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete
factored lateral load
in that story in the strengths f: up to and including 4OOO psi. For strengths
calculation of P, in Q. (10-8). above 4OOO psi, R1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of
momentmagnification factor for framesbraced 0.05 for each loo0 psi of strength in excessof4000psi,but
againstside-sway to reflect effects ofmember fil shall notbetaken less than0.65.
curvature between ends of compression members
momentmagnification factor for framesnotbraced 10.3-General principlesandrequirements
againstside-sway to reflect lateral drift resulting 10.3.1 Designof crosssectionsubjecttoflexure or axial
from lateral gravity
and loads combined
toor flexure and
shall be
ratio of
nonprestressed tension reinforcement basedon stress and strain compatibility using assump-
= A,/bd tions in 10.2.
Pb = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain 10.3.2 Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section
conditions. See 10.3.2 when tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding
ps = ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total to its specified yield strengthf, just asconcrete in compres-
volume of core (out-to-out of spirals) of a spirally sion reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0.003.
reinforced compression member 10.3.3 For flexural members, and for members subject to
4 = strengthreductionfactor. See 9.3 combined flexure and compressive axial load when the de-
sign axial loadstrength $P, is less than the smaller of
10.1 -Scope O. lof: A, or $ Pb, the ratio of reinforcement p provided
Provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply for design of mem- shall not exceed 0.75 ofthe ratio Pb that would produce bal-
bers subject to flexure or axial loads or to combined flexure anced strain conditions for the section under flexure without
and axial loads. axial load. For members with compression reinforcement,
the portion of Pb equalized by compression reinforcement
10.2-Design assumptions
10.2.1 Strength design of members for flexure and axial need not be reduced by the 0.75 factor.
loads shall be based on assumptions given in 10.2.2 through 10.3.4 Compression reinforcement in conjunction with ad-
10.2.7, and on satisfaction of applicable conditions of equi- ditional tension reinforcement may be used to increase the
librium and compatibility ofstrains. strength of flexural members.
10.2.2 Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be as- 10.3.5 Design axial load strength $P, of compression
sumed directly proportional to the distance from theneutral members shall not be takengreater than the following:
axis, except for deep flexural members with overall depth 10.3 5. 1 For nonprestressed members with spiral rein-
to clear span ratios greater than */s for continuous spans forcement conformingto 7.10.4 or composite members con-
and 4 / ~for simple spans, a nonlinear distribution of strain forming to 10.14:
shall be considered. See 10.7.
10.2.3 Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete com-
pression fiber shall be assumed equal to 0.003.
10.2.4 Stress in reinforcementbelow specified yield
10.35.2 For nonprestressed members with tie reinforce-
strength fy for grade of reinforcement usedshall be taken as
ment conformingto 7.10.5:
E, times steel strain. For strains greater thanthat correspond-
ing tofy, stress in reinforcement shall be considered inde-
pendent of strain andequal to fy.
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103.53 Forprestressedmembers,designaxialload inforcement at sustained loadsf, (kips /in?)shall be comput-
strength $ P, shall not be taken greater than 0.85 (for mem- ed as the moment dividedby the product of steel area and the
bers with spiral reinforcement) or 0.80 (for members with tie internal moment arm. In lieu of such computations,f,may be
reinforcement) of the design axial load strengthat zero ec- taken as 40percent of thespecifîed yield smngthfJ. The sus-
centricity @ P,. tained loads shall include those loads identified in Load
103.6 Members subjectto compressive axial load shall be Combination 9,9.2.1, withthe load factors takenas unity.
designed for the maximum moment that can accompany the 10.6.5 Provisions of 10.6.4 are not suficient for structures
axial load. The factored axial load P,,at given eccentricity subject to very aggressive exposureor designed to be water-
shall not exceed that given in10.3.5. The maximum factored tight. For such structures, special investigations and precau-
moment M,,shall be magnified for slenderness effects in ac- tions are required.
with 10.6.6 Where flanges of T-beam ten- construction
in are
sion, part of the flexural tension reinforcement shall be dis-
10.4-Distance between lateral supports of tributed over an effective flange width as defined in 8.10,or
flexural members a width equal to the span, whicheveris smaller. If the ef-
10.4*1 Of lateral for a beam not ex- fective flange width ex& IIlo the span, mme longitudinal
ceed 50 timesthe least width b ofcompressionflange or reinforcement shall be provided in the outer of the
10.4.2 Effects of lateral eccentricityof load shallbe taken
10.6.7 If the depthof a web exceeds3 ft, longitudinal skin
into account in determining spacing of lateral supports.
reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed along both side
faces of the member for a distance d/2 nearest the flexural
10.5-Minimum reinforcement of flexural members
105.1 At any section of a flexural member, exceptas pro- tension reinforcement. The area of skin reinforcement Ask
vided in 10.5.2 and 10.5.3, where positive reinforcement is per foot of heighton each side face shall be 2 0.012 (d - 30).
required by analysis, the ratio p provided shall not be less The maximum spacing of the skin reinforcement shall not
than that given by exceed the lesser of d 6 and 12 in. Such reinforcementmay
be included in strength computations if a strain compatibility
analysis is made to determine stresses in the individual bars
or wires. The total area of longitudinal skin reinforcement in
Y' both facesneed not exceed one-half of the required flexural
tensile reinforcement.
In T-beams and joists where the webis in tension,the ratio
p shall be computed for this purpose using width of web.
10.7-Deep flexural members
105.2 Alternatively, areaof reinforcement provided at ev- 10.7.1 Flexural members with overall depth to clear span
ery section, positive or negative, shall be at least one-third ratios greater than 't5 for continuous spans,or 4t5for simple
greater than that required by analysis. spans shall be designed as deep flexural members taking into
10.5.3 For structural slabsof uniform thickness, minimum account nonlinear distribution ofstrain and lateral buckling.
area and maximum spacing of reinforcement in the direction (Seealso 12.10.6)
of the span shallbe as required for minimum reinforcement 10.7.2 Shear strength of deep flexural members shall be in
according to 7.12.

10.6-Distribution of flexural reinforcementin

I accordance with 11.8.
10.73 Minimum flexural tension reinforcement shall con-
beams and one-way slabs form to 10.5.
10.6.1 Thissectionprescribesrules for distributionof 10.7.4 Minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement in
flexural reinforcementto control flexural crackingin beams the side faces of deep flexural members shallbe the greater
andinone-wayslabs(slabsreinforcedtoresistflexural of the requirements of 11.8.8, 11.8.9 and 11.8.10 or 14.3.2
stresses in onlyone direction). and 14.3.3.
10.6.2 Distribution of flexural reinforcement in two-way
slabs shall be as required by 13.4. 10.8-Design dimensions for compression
10.6.3 Flexural tension reinforcement shallbe well distrib- members
uted within maximum flexural tension zones of a member 10.8.1-1'solated compression member with multiple
cross section as required by 10.6.4. spirals
10.6.4 When design yieldstrength4 for tension reinforce- Outer limits of the effective
cross section of a compression
ment exceeds 40,000 psi, cross sections of maximum posi- member with twoor more interlocking spirals shall be taken
tive and negative moment shallbe so proportioned that the at a distance outside the extreme limits of thespirals'equalto
quantity z given by the minimum concretecover required by 7.7.
10.8.2-Compression member built monolithidly
with wall
2 = fs3$3 Outer limits of the effective cross section of a spirally re-
inforced or tied reinforced compression member built mono-
does not exceed 175 kips per in. for interior exposure and lithically with a concrete wall or pier shall be taken not
I 145 kips per stress in re-
in. for exterior exposure. Calculated
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10.83-Equivalent circular compression member 10.11.2-Effective length of compression members

In lieu of using full gross area for design, a compression Forcompressionmembersbraced against
member with asquare, octagonal, or other shaped cross sec- side-sway, effective length factor & shall be taken as 1.O, un-
tion may be considered as a circular section with a diameter less analysis shows that a lower valueis justified.
equal to the least lateral dimension ofthe actual shape. Gross For compression members not braced against
area considered, required percentage of reinforcement, and side-sway,effective length factor & shall be determined with
design strength shall be based onthat circular section. due consideration of effects of cracking and reinforcement
10.8.4-Limits of section on relative stiffness, and shall be greater than 1.O.
For a compression member with larger
a cross section than 10.11.SRadius of gyration
required by considerations of loading, a reduced effective Radius of gyration r may be taken equalto 0.30 timesthe
area Ag not less than one-half the total area may be used to overall dimension in the direction stability is being consid-
determine minimum reinforcement and design strength. ered for rectangular compression members, and 0.25 times
the diameter for circular compression members. For other
10.9-Limits for reinforcement of compression shapes, r may be computedfor the gross concrete section.
members 10.11.4-Consideration of slenderness effects
10.9.1 Area of longitudinalreinforcement for noncompos- For compression members not braced against
ite compression members shall not be less than0.01nor
side-sway, effects of slenderness may be neglected when
more than0.08 times gross area Ag of section.
&/,/ris less than 34 - 12 Mu I Ma.
10.9.2 Minimum number oflongitudinal bars in compres-
sion members shall be 4 for bars within rectangular or circu- For compression members not braced against
lar ties, 3 for bars within triangular ties, and 6 for bars side-sway, effects of slenderness may be neglected when
enclosed by spirals conforming to 10.9.3. &/U / r is less than 22.
10.9.3 Ratio of spiral reinforcement ps shall not be less For all compressionmemberswith k/,/ r
than the value given by greater than 100, an analysis as defined in 10.10.1 shall be
10.11.S”oment magnification
(10-5) Compression members shall be designed us-
ing the factored axial load P,,from a conventional frame
analysis and a magnifiedfactored moment M, defined by
wheref,, is the specified yield strength of spiral reinforce-
ment but not more than60,OOO psi.
Mc = 8bM2b + ‘ s M h (10-6)
10.1O-Slenderness effects in compression
members where
10.10.1 Design of compression membersshall be based on
forces and moments determined fromanalysis of the struc-
ture. Such analysis shall take into account influence of axial 6, = -2 1.0 (10-7)
loads and variable moment of inertia on member stiffness
and fixed-end moments, effect of deflections on moments
and forces, and theeffects of duration of loads.
10.10.2 Inlieuof the procedure prescribed in10.10.1,
slenderness effects in compression members may be evalu- 1
6, = 2 1.0 (10-8)
ated in accordance withthe approximate procedurepresent- CPU
edin 10.11. 1”
10.10.3 The detailed requirements of 10.1 1 need not be ap-
pliedif slenderness effects in compressionmembers are
evaluated in accordance with 10.10.1. and

10.11-Approximate evaluation of slenderness

effects ( 10-9)
10.11.1-Unsupported length of compression members Unsupported length 4 of acompression mem-
ber shall be taken as the clear distance between floor slabs, W,, and W,are the summations for all columns in a sto-
beams, or other members capable of providing lateral sup- ry. For frames not bracedagainst side-sway, both 8, and ss
port for that compression member. shall be computed.For frames braced against side-sway, 8, Wherecolumn capitals or haunches are shall be taken as 1.0. In calculation of P,, k shall be com-
present, unsupported length shall be measured to the lower putedaccording to for 6, andaccording to
extremity of capital or haunch in the plane considered. for 8.,

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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL 1997 W 0662947 0538088 95T
NUCLEAR SAFEPl STRUCTURES CODE 349-33 In lieu of a more accurate calculation, EI in tem, transmission of load through the floor system shall be
Eq. (10-9) may be takeneither as provided by one of the following.
10.13.1 Concrete ofstrength specifiedfor the column shall
be placed inthe floor at the column location.Top surface of
the column concrete shall extend 2 fi into the slab from face
of column. Column concrete shall be well integrated with
or conservatively floor concrete and shall be placed in accordance with 6.4.5
and 6.4.6.
EcI,/2.5 10.13.2 Strength of a column through floora system shall
EI = (10-11) be based on the lower valueof concrete strengthwith vertical
dowels andspirals as required. In Eq. (10-7), for membersbraced against 10.133 For columns laterally supported on four sides by
side-sway and withouttransverse loads between supportsC, beams of approximately equal depth or by slabs, strength of
may be takenas the column maybe based onan assumed concrete strength in
the column joint equal to 75 percent of column concrete
strength plus 35 percent of floor concrete strength.
C, = 0.6 + 0.4-M l b (10-12)
10.1M o m p o s i t e compression members
but not less than 0.4. 10.14.1 Composite compression members shall include all
For all other cases, C,,,shall be taken as 1.0. such membersreinforced longitudinallywith structural steel
10.115.4If computations showthat there is no moment shapes, pipe, or tubing with or without longitudinal bars.
at both endsof a braced compression memberor that com- 10.14.2 Strength of a composite member shall be comput-
puted endeccentricities are less than (0.6 + 0.03h) in., M u ed for the same limiting conditionsapplicableto ordinary re-
in Eq. (10-6) shall be based on a minimum eccentricity of inforced concrete members.
(0.6 + 0.03 h) in. about each principal axis separately. Ratio 10.14.3 Any axial load strength assigned to concrete of a
M u I M u in Eq. (10-12) shall be determined by either the of composite member shall be transferred to the concrete by
following: members or brackets in direct bearing on the composite
a) When computedend eccentricities are less than member concrete.
(0.6 + 0.03 h) in., computed end moments may be used 10.14.4 All axial load strength not assigned to concrete of
to evaluate Mu I Ma in W.(10-12). a composite member shall be developed by direct connection
b) If computationsshowthat there is essentially no to the structural steel shape, pipe, or tube.
moment at bothends of acompressionmember, the 10.14.5 For evaluationof slendernesseffects, radius of gy-
ratio Mu I M s shall be taken equalto one. ration of a composite section shall not be greater than the
10.115.5 If computations show thatthere is no moment value givenby
at both ends of a compression member not braced against side-
sway, or thatcomputedendeccentricities are less than
(0.6+ 0.03h) in., M a in Eq. (10-6) shall be based on amini- (10-13)
mum eccentricity of (0.6 + 0.03 h) in. about each principal
axis separately.
10.11.6-Moment magnification for flexural members In lieu of a more accurate calculation, E l in Eq. (10-9)
In frames not bracedagainst side-sway, flexural members may be takeneither as Eq. (10-11) or
shall be designed for the total magnified end moments the of
compression membersat the joint.
10.11.7-Moment magnifier 6 for biaxial bending (10-14)
For compression members subject to bending about both
principal axes, moment about each axis shall be magnified
10.14.6-Structural steel encased concrete core
by 6, computed from corresponding conditions of restraint
about thataxis. For a composite member with concrete core
encased by structural steel, thickness of the steel encasement
10.12-Axiallyloadedmemberssupporting slab shallnotbe less than
Axially loaded members supporting a slab system includ-
within the scope of 13.1 shall be designed as provided in b B s for each face of width b
Chapter 10 and in accordance with the additional require-
ments of Chapter 13.
10.13-Transmission of column loads through
floor system
Whenthe specified compressive strength of concreteain for circular sectionsdiameter
of h
column isgreater than 1.4 times that specified for a floorsys-
COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services Longitudinal bars located within the encased A, = gross area of section, sq in.
concrete core may be consideredin computing A, and I,. Ah = area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural
10.1474piral reinforcement arwnd structuralsteelcore tension reinforcement, sq in.
A composite member with spirally reinforced concrete A/ = total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist
around a structural steel core shall conform tothe following. torsion, sq in. Specified compressive strength of concrete A, = area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting
f L shall not be less than 2500 psi. tensile force Nuclsq. in. Design yield strength of structural steel core Aps = area of prestressed reinforcementin tension zone,sq in.
shall be the specified minimum yield strength for grade of A, = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, sq in.
structural steel used but notto exceed 50,000 psi. A, = area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting torsion Spiral reinforcement shall conform to 10.9.3. within adistance s, sq in. Longitudinal bars located within the spiral A, = area of shear reinforcement within adistance s, or
shall not be less than 0.01 nor more than0.08 times net area area of shear reinforcement perpendicularto flexural
of concrete section. tension reinforcementwithii a distance s for deep Longitudinal bars located within the spiral flexural members,sq in.
may be considered in computingA, and It. Ad = area of shear-frictionreinforcement, sq in.
10.14.PTie reinforcement around structuralsteel core Avh = area of shear reinforcement parallelto flexural
A composite member with laterally tied concrete around a tension reinforcement within distance
a , in.
s ~ sq
structural steel core shall conform to the following. b = width of compression face ofmember,in. Specified compressive strength of concrete bl = width of the critical section defined in
f: shall not be less than 2500 psi. measured inthe direction ofthe span for which Design yield strength of structural steel core moments are determined, in.
shall be the specified minimum yield strength for grade of bz = width of the critical section defined in
structural steel used but notto exceed 50,000 psi. measured inthe direction perpendicularto bl, in. Lateral ties shall extend completely around bo = perimeter of critical section for slabs and footings, in.
the structural steel core. b, = width of that part of cross section containing the Lateral ties shall have a diameter not less closed stirrups resisting torsion
than times the greatest side dimension of composite b, = web width, or diameter of circular section, in.
member, exceptthat ties shall not be smaller thanNo. 3 and bI1 = total length of thatportion of perimeterbo for which
are not required to be larger than No. 5. Welded wire fabric Velis computed
of equivalent area is permitted. = total length of thatportion of perimeterbo for which Vertical spacing oflateral ties shall not exceed VCzis computed
16 longitudinal bar diameters, 48 tie bar diameters, or cl = size of rectangular or equivalentrectangularcolumn,
times the least side dimension of the composite member. capital, or bracket measured in the direction of the Longitudinal bars located within the ties shall span for which moments are being determined,in.
not be less than 0.01 nor more than 0.08 times net area of e2 = size of rectangular or equivalentrectangularcolumn,
concrete section. capital, or bracket measured transverse to the A longitudinal bar shall be located at every direction of the span for which momentsare
comer of a rectangularcross section, with other longitudinal being determined, in.
bars spaced notfarther apart thanI/, the least side dimension C, = factor relating shear and torsional stress properties
of the composite member. Longitudinal bars located within the ties may
- "
- _ b,d
be considered in computing A, for strength but not in com-
puting I, for evaluation of slendernesseffects. d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid
of longitudinal tension reinforcement,but need not
10.1%Bearing strength be less than 0.80h for prestressed members, in.
10.15.1 Design bearing strength on concrete shall not ex- (For circular sections, d need not beless than the
ceed I$ (0.85 f LAl), except when the supporting surface is distance from extreme compression fiber to
wideronall sides than the loaded area, designbearing centroid of tension reinforcement in opposite
strength on the loaded area may be multiplied by ,/mi, half of member.)
but not more than 2. fL = specified compressivestrength of concrete, psi
10.15.2 10.15 does not apply
to post-tensioning anchorages.
E = square root of specified compressivestrength of
Chapter Il-Shear and Torsion concrete, psi
11.O-Notation fd = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme fiber
a = shear span, distance between concentrated load and of section wheretensile stress is caused by
face of support externally applied loads, psi
A , = area of concrete section resisting shear transfer, sq in. fml = concrete membrane stress acting along length 6; ,
A! = area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting to be taken as positive for compression and negative
factored moment, [V, a + Nu,(h 41, sq. in. for tension, psi

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fm2 = concrete membrane stress acting along length bf2, Vel = punching shear strength provided by aconcrete
to be takenas positive for compression and negative plane oflength b II
for tension, psi V,2 = punching shear strength provided by aconcrete
fp, = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for plane oflength b I2
all prestress losses) at centroid of cross section V , = nominal shear strength providedby concrete when
resisting externally applied loads or at junction of diagonal cracking results fromcombined shear and
and flange when the centroid lies within the moment
flange,psi. (In acompositemember.& is resultant V, = nominal shear strengthprovidedby concrete when
compressive stress at centroid ofcomposite section, diagonalcrackingresultsfromexcessiveprincipal
or at junction of webandflangewhenthe centroid tensile stress in web
lies within the flange,duetobothprestressand V, = shear force at sectiondue to unfactoreddeadload
moments resisted by precast memberacting alone) Vi = factored shear force at section duetoexternally
fpe = compressive stress in concrete due to effective pre- applied loads occurring simultaneouslywith M-
stress forces only (after allowance for all prestress V, = nominal shear strength
losses) at extreme fiber ofsection where tensile Vp = vertical component of effective prestress force
stress is caused by externallyapplied loads, psi at section
fpu = specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons, psi
V, = nominal shear strength provided by shear
fy = specifiedyieldstrengthofnonprestressed V, = factored shear force at section
Y, = nominal shear stress, psi. See
Ir = overall thickness ofmember,in. x = shorter overall dimension of rectangular part of
h, = total depth of shearhead cross section, in. cross section
h, = total height of wall from base to top, in. x1 = shorter center-to-center dimension of closed
I = moment of inertia of section resisting externally rectangular stirrup
applied factored loads y = longer overall dimension of rectangular part of
/n = clear span measured face-to-face of supports cross section
4 = length of shearhead arm from centroid of y1 = longer center-tecenter dimension of closed
concentrated load or reaction, in. rectangular stirrup
/W = horizontal length ofwall, in. y, = distance from centroidal axis of gross section,
MCr= moment causing flexural crackingat section due to neglecting reinforcement, to extreme fiber in tension
externally applied loads. See &y= torsional section properties.See and
M , = modified moment a = angle between inclined stirrups and longitudinal axis
M-= maximum factored moment at section due to of member
externally applied loads a , = angle between shear-friction reinforcement and
Mp = required plastic moment strength of shearhead shear plane
cross section a, = constant used to compute V, in slabs
Mu = factored moment at section a, = coefficient as a function ofyl /XI.See
MV = moment resistance contributed by shearhead a,, = ratio of stiffness of shearhead arm to surrounding
reinforcement composite slab section. See
Nu = factored axial load normal to cross section occurring I B, = ratio of long side to short side of loaded rectangular area
fip = constant used to compute V, in prestressed slabs
simultaneously withV,,; to be taken as positive for
compression, negativefor tension, and to include I = numberof identical arms ofshearhead
effects of tension due to creep and shrinkage p = coefficientof friction. See
Nu,= factored tensile force applied at top of bracket or = fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by
flexure at slab-column connections. See
corbel acting simultaneously withV,, to be taken
’yv = fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by
as positive for tension
eccentricity of shear at slab-column connections.
s = spacing of shear or torsionreinforcementin See
direction parallel to longitudinalreinforcement, in. = 1-yf
s1 = spacing of vertical reinforcement in wall, in. p = ratioofnonprestressedtensionreinforcement
s2 = spacing of shear or torsion reinforcement in = A,/bd
direction perpendicular to longitudinal p Il = reinforcement ratio in direction “1” based on section
reinforcement or spacing of horizontal thickness h. See
reinforcement in wall, in. p I2 = reinforcement ratio in direction “2” based on section
T, = nominal torsional moment strength provided thickness h. See
by concrete Ph = ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to gross
T,, = nominal torsional moment strength concrete area of vertical section
T, = nominal torsional moment strength provided P,, = ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross
by torsion reinforcement. See 1 concrete area of horizontal section
Tu = factored torsional moment at section pw = A , / b w d
V, = nominal shear strength provided by concrete $ = strengthreductionfactor.See 9.3.
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11.l-Shear strength For memberssubject to shear and flexure only,
11.1.1 Design of cross sections subject to shear shall be
based on
V, = 2 E b W d (11-3)

v, $V" (11-1)
11.3.12 For memberssubject to axial compression,
where V , is factored shear force at section considered andV ,
is nominal shear strength computed by

v, = v, + v, (11-2)
Quantity Nu I Ag shall be expressed in psi.
where V , is nominal shear strength provided by concrete in 11.3.13 Members subject to axial tension, shear rein-
accordancewith11.3 or 11.4,and V, is nominal shear forcement shall be designedto cany total shear.
strength provided byshear reinforcement in accordance with 113.1.4 At sections where factored torsional moment
1 S.6.
1 Tuexceeds $ (0.5 JfT;e>, In determining shear strength V,, effect of any
openings in membersshall be considered. In determiningshear strength V,, whenever ap-
plicable, effects of axial tension due to creep and shrinkage
in restrained members shall be consideredand effects of in-
clined flexural compression in variable-depth members may
be included.
11.3.2 Shear strength V , may be computed the by more de-
11.1.2 The values of used in this chapter shall not ex-
tailed calculation of l l .3.2. l through
ceed 100 psi exceptas allowed in 1 Values of x greater than 100 psi shall be
permitted in computing V,, Vci. and V,, for reinforced or For memberssubject to shear and flexure only,

prestressed concrete beams and concrete joist construction

havingminimumwebreinforcement equal to f: 15000 v, = ( 1 . 9 n + 2 5 0 0 ~ ~ )bwd (11-6)
M u
times, but not more thanthree times the amounts requiredby,,or
11.1.3 Maximum factored shear force V , at supports may but notgreater than 3 . 5 E b w d .Quantity V,d /M, shall not
be computed in accordance with or 1 when be taken greater than 1.0 in computing V, by Eq. (1 1-6),
both of the following conditions are satisfied: where M, is factored moment occurring simultaneously with
V, at section considered.
a) support reaction, in direction ofappliedshear, intro- For members subject to axial compression,
duces compression into the end regions ofmember,
IZq. (1 1-6) may be used to compute V , with M, substituted
for M, and V,dIM, not then limited to 1.0, where
b) noconcentratedloadoccursbetween face ofsupport
and location of critical section definedin11.1.3.1 or (4h - d)
M,,, = M u - N u - (11-7) For nonprestressed members, sections located 8
less than a distance d from face of support may be designed
for the same shear V, as that computed at a distance d . However, V, shall not be taken greater than For prestressed members, sections located less
than a distance h12 from face of support may be designed for
the same shear V, as that computed at a distance hl2. V, = 3 . 5 K b w d 1 + - (11-8)
A/ 52Ag
11.1.4 For deep flexural members, brackets and corbels,
walls, and slabs and footings, the special provisions of 11.8
through 1 1.12 shallapply. Quantity NuI Ag shall be expressed in psi. WhenM,,, as
computed by Eq. (1 1-7) is negative, V, shall be computed by
11.2-Lightweight concrete Eq. (1 1-8).
Rules for lightweight aggregate concrete are not provided For members subject to axial tension,

11.%Shear strength provided by concrete for v, (

= 2 1+-5:Ag)EbWd (11-9)
nonprestressed members
11.3.1 Shear strength V, shall be computed by provisions
of 1 1,unless a more detailed calcula- where Nu is negative for tension. Quantity NulAg shall be
tion is made in accordance with 11.3.2. expressed inpsi.
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11.-hear strength providedby concrete for transfer length, assumed to be 50 diameters forstrand and
prestressed members 100 diameters for singlewire.
11.4.1 For members witheffective prestress force not less 11.4.4 In a pretensioned member where bonding of some
than 40 percent of thetensile strength of flexural reinforce tendons does not extend to the end of the member, a re-
ment, unless a more detailed calculation is made in accor- duced prestress shall be considered when computing V, in
dance with 1 1.4.2, accordance with 11.4.1 or 1 1.4.2. The value of V,, calcu-
lated using the reduced prestress shall also be taken as the
maximum limit for E q . (1 1-10). The prestress force due to
tendons for which bonding does not extend to the end of the
member shall be assumed to vary linearly from zero at the
point at which bonding commencesto a maximumat a dis-
but V , need not be taken less than 2 E b , d nor shall V,
tance from this point equal to the transfer length, assumed
be taken greater than 5 E b , d nor the value given in
to be 50 diameters for strand and 100 diameters for single
11.4.3. or 11.4.4. The quantity V,d / M,,shall not be taken
greater than 1.0, where M,,is factored moment occurring
simultaneously with V,, at section considered. When ap-
plying Eq. (1 1-10). d in the term V,,d /M,, shall bethe dis- 11. H h e a r strength providedby shear
tance from extremecompression fiber to centroid of reinforcement
prestressed reinforcement. 115.1-Types of shear reinforcement Shear reinforcement mayconsist of:
11.4.2 Shear strength V, may be computedin accordance
with 1, where V , shall be the lesser of VCi a) Stirrups perpendicular to axis of member
or V,,. b) Welded wire fabric with wires located perpendicularto Shear strength VCjshall be computed by axis of member.
115.1.2 For nonprestressed members, shear reinforce-
',Mc, ment may alsoconsist of:
Vci = 0 . 6 E b w d + V +- (11-11)
Mmnx a) Stirrups making an angle of 45 deg or more with longi-
tudinal tension reinforcement.
but V,i need not be taken less than 1.7 J7;; b, d, where b) Longitudinal reinforcement with bent portion making an
angle of 30 deg or more with the longitudinal tension
c) Combinationsof stirrups andbent longitudinal rein-
and values of M,, and Vi shall be computed from the d) Spirals.
load combination causing maximum moment to occur at
the section. 11.5.2 Design yield strength of shear reinforcement shall Shear strength V,, shall be computed by not exceed 60O , OO psi.
11.5.3 Stirrups and other bars or wires used as shear re-
inforcement shall extend to a distance d from extreme
compression fiber and shall be anchored at both ends ac-
cording to 12.13 to develop the design yield strength of re-
Alternatively, V,, may be computed as the shear force
corresponding to dead load plus live load that results in a 11.5.4"Spacing limits For shear reinforcement
principal tensile stress of 4 f l at the centroihl axis of 115.4.1 Spacing of shear reinforcement placed perpen-
member, or at intersection of flange and web whencentroi- dicular to axis of member shall not exceed d/2 in nonpre-
dal axis is in the flange. In composite members, principal stressedmembersand (3/4)hinprestressedmembers,nor
tensile stress shall be computed using the cross section that 24 in.
resists live load. Inclined stirrups andbent longitudinal rein-
11.4.23 In Eq. (11-11) and (11-13), d shall be the dis- forcement shall be so spaced that every 45 deg line,extend-
tance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of pre- ing toward the reaction from mid-depth of member d/2 to
stressed reinforcement or 0.8h, whichever is greater. longitudinal tension reinforcement, shall be crossed by at
least one line of shearreinforcement.
11.4.3 In a pretensioned memberin which the section at
a distance h/2 from face of support is closer to end of 115.43 When V, exceeds 4 E b , d , maximum spac-
ings given in and shall be reduced by one-
member than the transfer length of the prestressing ten-
dons, the reduced prestress shall be considered when com- half.
puting V,,,,. This value of V,, shall also be taken as the 11.5.5-Minimum shear reinforcement
, maximum limit for Eq. (11-10). The prestress force shall A minimum area of shear reinforcement shall
be assumed to vary linearly from zero at end of tendon to be provided in all reinforced concrete flexural members (pre-
a maximum at a distance from end of tendon equal to the stressed and nonprestressed) where factored shear force V,,
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exceeds one-half the shear strength provided by concrete 11.5.63 When inclined stirrups are used as shear rein-
Q V,, except: forcement,
a) Slabs and footings
b) Concrete joist construction defined by 8.11 A, f y (sina + cosa)d
v, =
c) Beams withtotal depth not greater than 10 in., 21/2times
thickness of flange, or one-half the width of web, which-
ever is greater. When shear reinforcement consists of a single
bar or a single group of parallel bars, all bent up atthe same
11.55.2 Minimum shear reinforcement requirements of
distance from the support, may be waived if shown bytest that required nomi-
nal flexural and shear strengths can be developed when shear
reinforcement is omitted. Such tests shall simulate effects of V , = A,f, sina (1 1-19)
differential settlement, creep, shrinkage, andtemperature
change, based onrealistic
a assessment of such effects occur- but not greater than 3 E b , d .
ring in service. 11.5.65 When shear reinforcement consists of a series
11.5.53 Where shear reinforcement is requiredby of parallel bent-up bars or grcups of parallel bent-up bars at or by analysis, and wherefactored torsional moment different distances from the support, shear strength V, shall
T,,does not exceed$ ( 0 . 5 E E x 2 y ) , minimum area of shear be computed byEq. (1 1- 18).
reinforcement for prestressed (except as provided in Only the center three-fourths of the inclined andnonprestressedmembers shall be computed by portion of any longitudinal bent bar shall be considered ef-
fective for shear reinforcement. Where more than one type ofshear reinforce-
(11-14) ment is used to reinforce the same portion of a member,
J Y shear strength V, shall be computed as the sum of the V, val-
ues computedfor the various types.
where b , and s are in inches. Shear strength V, shall not be taken greater than For prestressed members with an effective pre- 8JZbwd.
stress force not less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of
flexural reinforcement, the area of shear reinforcement shall 11.6-Combined shear and torsion strength for
not be less than thesmallerrl, from E q . (1 1-14) and(1 1-15). nonprestressed members with rectangular or
flanged sections
11.6.1 Torsion effects shall be included with shear and
flexure where factoredtorsional moment T,, exceeds
Q(0.5EEx2y). Otherwise, torsion effects maybe ne-
(11-15) glected. For members with rectangular or flanged sec-
tions, the sum Ex3 shall be takenfor the component rectan- Where factored torsional moment T, exceeds gles of the section, but the overhanging flange width usedin
9 ( 0 . 5 z E x 2 y ) ,and where web reinforcement is required design shall not exceed 3 times theflange thickness.
by or by analysis, minimum area ofclosed stirrups A rectangular box section may be taken as a
shall be computed by solid section provided wallthickness h is at least x/4. A box
section with wall thickness less than x/4, but greater than
50 b,s x/10, shall be taken as a solid section except that Cx'y shall
(Av+2A,) = 7 (1 1-16) be multiplied by 4hlx. When h is less than x/10, the stiffness
of the wall shall be considered. Fillets shall be provided at in-
terior corners of all boxsections.
11.5.6-Design of shear reinforcement 11.6.2 If the factored torsional moment T,,in a member is Where factored shear force V,, exceeds shear required to maintain equilibrium, the member shall be de-
strength $ V,, shear reinforcement shall be provided to satis- signed to carry that torsional moment in accordance with
fy Eq. (1 1-1) and (1 1-2), where shear strength V, shall be 11.6.4 through 11.6.9.
computed in accordance with through 11.6.3 In a statically indeterminate structure where reduc- When shear reinforcementperpendicular to tion oftorsional moment in a member can occur due to redis-
axis of member isused, tribution of internal forces, maximum factored torsional
moment T,, may be reducedto $ ( 4 R Z x 5 1 3 ) . In sucha case the correspondingly adjusted
v, = -
A v fy
(11-17) moments and shears in adjoining members shall be used in
design. In lieu of more exact analysis, torsional loading
where A , is the area of shear reinforcement within a dis- from a slab shall be taken as uniformly distributed along the
tance S . member.

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11.6.4 Sections located less than a distance d from face of Spacingoflongitudinalbars,not less than
support may be designed forthe same torsional moment T,, No. 3, distributedaround the perimeter of the closed stirrups,
as that computed at a distanced. If a concentratedtorque oc- shall not exceed 12 in. Atleast one longitudinal bar shall be
curs within this distance the critical section for design shall placed in each corner ofthe closed stirrups.
be at the face of the support. 11.6.9-Design of torsion reinforcement
11.6.5-Torsional moment strength Where factored torsional moment T,,exceeds
Design of cross sections subject to torsion shall be based torsional moment strength Q T,,torsion reinforcementshall
on be provided to satisfy Eq. (1 1-20) and (1 1-21), where tor-
sional moment strength T, shall be computed by

where T,, is factored torsional momentat section considered
and T, is nominal torsional momentstrength computed by
where A, is the area of one leg of a closed stirrup resisting
torsion within adistances, and a,= [0.66 + 0.33 (y1/x1)] but
T , = T, + T, (11-21)
not morethan 1.50. Longitudinal bars distributed around the
perimeter of the closed stirrupsd, shall be providedin accor-
where T, is nominaltorsional moment strength provided by dance with
concrete in accordance with 1 1.6.6, and T, is nominal tor- A minimum area of closed stirrups shall be pro-
sional moment strength provided by torsion reinforcement in vided in accordance with11.5.5.5.
accordance with 11.6.9. Required area of longitudinal bars A,
11.6.6-Tdonal moment strength provided by concrete distributed around the perimeter of the closed stirrups A, Torsional moment strength T, shall be comput- shall be computed by
ed by
0.8 4 E C X 2 Y
T, = (1 1-22)
or by
r I \ For members subject to significant axial ten-

sion, torsion reinforcement shallbe designed to carry the to-
tal torsional moment, unless a more detailed calculation is
made in which T, given by 3.(1 1-22) and V, given by
Eq. (11-5) shall be multiplied by(1 +Nu/ 500Ag),where Nu
is negative for tension. whichever is greater. Value of A, computed by Eq. (1 1-25)
11.6.7-Torsion reinforcement requirements need not exceed that obtained by substituting Torsion reinforcement, where required, shall
be provided in addition to reinforcement required to resist 506,s
c for 2A,
shear, flexure, and axial forces. JY Reinforcementrequired for torsion shall be
combined with that required for other forces, provided the Torsional moment strength T, shall not exceed
area furnished is the sum ofindividually required areas and 4T,.
the most restrictive requirements for spacing and placement
are met. 11.7-Shear-friction
11.6.73 Torsion reinforcement shall consist of closed 11.7.1 Provisions of 1 1.7are to be applied whereit is ap-
stirrups, closed ties, or spirals, combined with longitudinal propriate to consider shear transfer across a given plane,
bars. such as: an existing or potential crack, an interface between Design yield strength oftorsion reinforcement dissimilar materials, or an interface between two concretes
shall not exceed 60,000 psi. cast at different times. Stirrups and other bars and wires used as tor- 11.7.2 Design of cross sections subject to shear transfer as
sion reinforcement shall extend to a distance d from extreme described in 1 1.7.1 shall be based onEq. (1 1-I), where V , is
compression fiber and shall be anchored accordingto 12.13 calculated in accordance withprovisions of 11.7.3 or 11.7.4.
to develop the design yieldstrength of reinforcement. 11.7.3 A crack shall be assumed to occur along the shear Torsion reinforcementshall be providedat least plane considered. The required area of shear-friction rein-
a distance (6,+ d) beyond the point theoretically required. forcement A,f across the shear plane shall be designed using
11.6.8-Spacing limits for torsion reinforcement either 11.7.4 or any other shear transfer design methods that Spacing of closed stirrups shall not exceed the result in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with
smaller of (x1 +YI) / 4,or 12 in. results of comprehensivetests.

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11.73.1 Provisions of 11.7.5 through 11.7.10 shall ap- the opposite face so that compressionstruts can develop be-
ply for all calculations of shear transfer strength. tween the loads andthe supports. Seealso 12.10.6.
11.7.Ahear-friction design method 11.8.2 The design of simply supported deep flexural mem- When shear-friction reinforcement is perpen- bers for shear shallbe based on Eq. (1 1-1) and (11-2), where
V,, shall be computed by
dicular to shear plane, shear strength the shear strength V, shall be in accordance with 11.8.6 or
11.8.7 and the shear strengthV, shall be in accordance with
V,, = Avf . f y ~ (1 1-26)
11.83 The design of continuous deep flexural members
for shear shall be based on 11.1 through 11.5 with 11.8.5
where p is coefficient of friction
in accordance with11.7.4.3. substituted for 11.1.3, or on methods satisfying equilibrium When shear-friction reinforcement is inclined and strength requirements. In either case the design shall also
to shear plane, such that the shearforce produces tension in satisfy 11.8.4, 11.8.9, and 11.8.10.
shear-friction reinforcement, shear strengthV,,shall be. com-
11.8.4 Shear strength V,,for deep flexural members shall
puted by
not be taken greater than8 E b , d when /n/d is less than 2.
When k / d is between 2 and 5 ,
V , = Avf fy(psinaf + COSO^^) (1 1-27)

where 9 is the angle between shear-friction reinforcement ;(

V,,= 3 10 + :)Jf;'b,d (1 1-28)
and shear plane.
11.7.43 Coefficient of friction p in Eq. (1 1-26) andEq.
(1 1-27)Shall be 11.85 Critical section for shear measured from face of
support shall be taken at a distance 0.15 /n for uniformly
loaded beams and OS& for beams with concentratedloads,
monolithically .............. 1.4 but not greater thand.
Concreteplacedagainsthardenedcon- 11.8.6 Unless a more detailed calculation
is made in accor-
crete with surface intentionally roughened dance with 11.8.7,
as specified in 11.7.9 .............................. 1.o

Concrete placed against hardened con- V, = 2 E b , d (1 1-29)

roughened ............
crete not intentionally 0.6
Concrete anchored to as-rolled structural 11.8.7 Shear strength V, may be computed by
steel by headed studs or by reinforcing
bars (see 11.7.10).................................... 0.7

11.7.5 Shear strength V,, shall not be taken greater than

0.2f:A, nor 800A, in pounds, whereA, is area of concrete
section resisting shear transfer. except that the term
11.7.6 Design yield strength of shear-friction reinforce-
ment shall not exceed6 0 , O O O psi.
11.7.7 Net tension across shear plane shall be resisted by
additional reinforcement. Permanent net compression across
shear planemay be takenas additive to the force in the shear-
friction reinforcementA,,,f,,, when calculating requiredA , , , shall not exceed 2.5, and V, shall not be taken greater than
11.7.8 Shear-friction reinforcement shall be appropriately 6 E b,d. M, is factored momentoccumng simultaneously
placed along the shear plane and shall be anchored to devel- with V,, at the critical section defined in 11.8.5.
op the specified yield strength on bothsides by embedment, 11.8.8 Wherefactoredshear force V , exceedsshear
hooks, or welding to special devices. strength Q V, shear reinforcement shallbe provided to satis-
11.7.9 For the purpose of 11.7, when concrete is placed fy Q. (11-1) and (1 1-2), where shear strength V, shall be
against previously hardened concrete, the interface for shear computed by
transfer shall be clean and free of laitance. If p is assumed
equal to 1.O, interface shall be roughened to a full amplitude
of approximately in.
11.7.10 When shear is transferred between as-rolled steel
and concrete using headed studs or welded reinforcing bars,
steel shallbe clean and freeof paint.

11.&Special provisions for deep flexural where A,, is area of shear reinforcement perpendicular to
members flexural tension reinforcement withina distances, andAvhis
11.8.1 The provisionsof 1 1.8 shall apply to members with area of shear reinforcement parallel to flexural reinforce-
Lid less than 5 that are loaded on one face and supported on ment withina distance s2.

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11.8.9 Area of shear reinforcement A , shall not be less strength V, shall be in accordance with 11.10.5 or 11.10.6
than 0.0015b, s, and s shall not exceedd/5, nor 18 in. and shear strengthV, shall bein accordance with 11.10.9.
11.8.10 The area of horizontal shear reinforcementA,h 11.103 Shear strength V,, at any horizontal section for
shall not be less than 0.0025 b, s2, and s2 shall not exceed shear in planeofwall shall not be taken greater than
d13, nor 18 in. lOnhd.
11.8.11 Shear reinforcement required at the critical sec- 11.10.4 For design for horizontal shear forces in planeof
tion defined in11.8.5 shall be used throughoutthe span. wall, d shall be taken equal to 0.84. A larger value of d,
equal to the distance from extreme compressionfiber to cen-
11 .-pedal provisions for brackets and corbels ter of force of all reinforcement in tension, may be used
11.9.1 Provisions of 11.9 shall applyto brackets and cor- when determined bya strain compatibility analysis.
bels witha shear span-to-depth ratio d d not greater thanuni- 11.105 Unless a more detailed calculationis made in ac-
ty, and subject to a horizontal tensile force N , not larger cordance with 11.10.6, shear strength V, shall not be taken
than V,. Distance d shall be measured at face of support. greater than2 E h d for walls subject to N,,in compression,
11.9.2 Depth at outside edge of bearing area shall not be or V, shall not be taken greater than the value given in
less than 0.5d. for walls subjectto N,,in tension.
11.9.3 Section at face of support shallbe designed to resist 11.10.6 Shear strength V, may be computed by
simultaneously a shear V,, a moment [V,,a + NUE(h - d)], Eq. (1 1-32) and (1 1-33), where V, shall be the lesser of
and a horizontal tensileforce Nu,. Eq. (1 1-32) or (1 1-33). * In all design calculations in accordance with
11.9. strength reduction factorQ shall be taken equalto 0.85. Design of shear-friction reinforcement A , , to V , = 3 . 3 n h d + NUd
- (1 1-32)
resist shearV, shall be in accordance with11.7. 4tw Shear strengthV, shall not be taken great-
er than 0.2f;b, d nor 800 b, d in pounds. or Reinforcement Ar toresistmoment [V@ +
N,,(h d)] shall be computed in accordance with 10.2 and
10.3. 1.25 f i +0 . 2 3 Reinforcement A, to resist tensile force Nu, hd (11-33)
shall be determined from Nu, 5 $An fy. Tensile force Nu, "_
Mu /W

shall not be taken lessthan 0.2 V,, unless special provisions

are made to avoid tensile forces. Tensileforce Nu, shall be
v u 2 )]
regarded as a live load even when tension results from creep,
where Nu is negativefor tension. When(M,, f V, - /W I 2) is
shrinkage, or temperature change.
negative, Eq. (1 1-33) shall not apply.
11.9.35 Area of primary tension reinforcement A,, shall
11.10.7 Sections located closer to wall base than a dis-
be made equal tothe greater of (Af+A,) or (2A,f/3 +An).
tance / ,/ 2 or one-half the wall height, whichever is less,
11.9.4 Closed stirrups or ties parallel to A,, with a total
may be designed for the same V, as that computedat a dis-
areaAh not less than 0.4(A,-An), shall be uniformly distrib-
tance /W / 2 or one-half the height.
uted within two-thirdsof the effective depth adjacent to A,.
11.9.5 Ratio p =A, lbd shall notbe less than0.04 (fi /fy). 11.10.8 When factored shear forceV, is less than Q VJ2,
reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with 11.10.9
11.9.6 At front face of bracket or corbel, primary tension
or in accordance with Chapter14. WhenV , exceeds Q VJ2,
reinforcement A, shall be anchored by one of the following:
wall reinforcement for resisting shear shall be provided in
a) by a structural weld to a transverse bar of at least equal accordance with11.10.9.
size;weldto be designedtodevelopspecifiedyield 11.10.9-Design of shear reinforcement forwalls
strengthf, of A, bars; Where factored shear forceV,, exceeds shear
b) by bending primary tension bars A, back to form a hori- strength Q V,, horizontal shear reinforcement shall be pro-
zontal loop, or vided to satisfyEq. (1 l - l ) and (1l -2), where shear strength
c) by some other means of positive anchorage. V, shall be computed by
11.9.7 Bearing area of load on bracket or corbel shall not
project beyond straight portion of primary tension bars A,,
nor project beyond interiorface of transverse anchor bar (if (1 1-34)
one is provided).

11.l&Special provisions for walls where A , is area of horizontal shear reinforcement withina
11.10.1 Design forshear forces perpendicularto face of distance s2 and distanced is in accordance with11.10.4. Ver-
wall shall be in accordance with provisions for slabs in tical shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance
11.12. Design for horizontal shear forces in plane of wall with
shall be in accordance with 11.10.2 through 11.10.8. Ratio ph of horizontal shear reinforcement
11.10.2 Design of horizontal section for shear in plane of area to gross concrete area of vertical section shall be less
wall shall be based on Eq. (11-1) and (1 1-2), where shear than 0.0025.
COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services Spacing ofhorizontal shear reinforcement s2 Fornonprestressed slabs andfootings, V,
shall not exceed 6 /5,3h, nor 18 in. shall be the smallest of: Ratio pn of vertical shear reinforcementarea
to gross concrete area of horizontal section shall not be less (11-36)

where ßc is the ratio of longside toshort side of the column,

( J
P, = 0.0025 + 0.5 2.5 - - (ph - 0.0025) (1 1-35) concentrated loador reaction area

(1 1-37)
nor 0.0025, but need not be greater than the required hori-
zontal shear reinforcement.
11.10.95 Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement s1 where a,is 40 for interior columns, 30 for edge columns,20
shall not exceed /W /3,3h, nor 18 in. for comer columns, and

11.1 1 -Transferof moments to columns

11.11.1When gravity load, wind, earthquake,or other lat-
eral forces cause transfer of momentat connections offram- At columns of two-wayprestressed slabs and
ing elements to columns, the shear resulting from moment footings that meet the requirements of 18.9.3
transfer shall be considered inthe design oflateral reinforce-
ment in the columns.
11.11.2 Except for connections notpart of a primaryseis-
mic load-resisting systemthat are restrained on four sides by
beams or slabs of approximately equal depth, connections where ßP is the smaller of 3.5 or (gd/bo + 1 3 , g is 40 for
shall have lateral reinforcement not less than that required by interior columns, 30 for edge columns, and20 for comer col-
Eq. (1 1-14) withinthe column for a depth notless than that umns, bo is perimeter of critical section defined in,
of the deepest connection of framing elements to the col- fpc is the average value offpc for the two directions, andVp
umns. S e e also 7.9. is the vertical component of all effective prestress forces
crossing the critical section. V, may be computedby
Eq. (1 1-39) if the following are satisfied; otherwise,
11.12-Special provisions for slabs and footings shall apply:
11.12.1 The shear strength of slabs and footings in the vi-
cinity of columns, concentrated loads or reactions is gov- a) no portion of the column cross section shall be closer to
erned by the moresevere of two conditions: a discontinuous edge than 4 times the slab thickness,
and Beam action where eachcritical section to be
investigated extends in a plane across the entire width. For b) f: in Eq. (1 1-39) shall not be taken greater than
beam action the slab or footing shall be designed in accor- 5000 psi, and
dance with 11.1 through 11.5. c) fpe in eachdirection shall not be less than 125psi, nor be
taken greater than 500 psi. Two-way action where each of the critical
sections to be investigated shall be located so that its pe- For slabs or footings in which the shear force
rimeter bo is a minimum but need not approach closer than V, occurs with membranestressesfml orf',Z,
d/2 to
a) edges or comers of columns,concentratedloads, or
reaction areas, or
where Vcl and Vc2 are computedinaccordancewith
b) changes in slab thickness such as edges of capitals or and
drop panels. For fml tensile and
For two-way action the slab or footing shall be designed in 0.9 P; f y
accordance with 11.12.2 through 1 1.12.6. For square or rectangular columns, concen-
trated loads, or reaction areas, the critical sections may have
four straight sides.
except the factor (2 + 443,) shall not be taken greater than 4.
11.12.2 The design of slab
a or footing for two-way action Forfml tensile and exceeding 0.9 prlfY
is based on Eq. (1 1- 1) and (1 1-2). V , shall be computed in
accordance with,, or V, shall
becomputedinaccordancewith 11.12.3. For slabs with V,, = 0 . 5 R b ; h (1 1-39~)
shearheads, V,, shall be in accordance with 11.12.4. When
moment is transferred between aslab and a column, 1 1.12.6 Forfml compressive and not less than 125 psi, Vel shall be
shall apply. taken as V, computed in accordance with except
COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services
that inEq. (1 1-39)fmland b'l shall be used in place of fpc 11.12.43 A shearhead shall notbe deeper than70 times
and bo, respectively. For fmlcompressive and less than the web thicknessof the steel shape.
125 psi, Vel shall be taken as V, computed in accordance 11.12.43 The ends of each shearhead arm may be cutat
with except that b'l shall be used in place of bw angles not lessthan 30 deg with the horizontal, provided the For fmf tensileandnotexceeding plastic moment strengthof the remaining tapered sectionis
0.9 P; f y adequate to resist the shear force attributed toar m of the
shearhead. All compression flangesof steel shapes shall
V,, = (2 + 4 / ß , ) E b ; h(1 + 0.25fm,/p; f,) (ll-39d) be located within0.3d of compression surface of slab. The ratio or, between the stiffness of each
except thefactor (2 + 443,) shall notbe taken greater than4. shearhead arm and that of the surrounding composite cracked
Forfm2 tensile and exceeding0.9 p'zfy slab sectionof width (c2+ d) shall notbe less thanO.15. The plastic moment strengthMp required for
V,, = O . 5 E b ; h (1 1-39e) each arm of the shearhead shallbe computed by

For fm2 compressive and not less than 125 psi, Vc2 shall be (1 1-40)
taken as V, computed in accordance with except
that inEq.(1 1-39)fm2 andbi shall be used in place fpc
of and
bo. respectively. Forfm2 compressive and less than 125 psi, where $ is the strength reduction factor for flexure, q is the
Vc2 shall be takenas V, computed in accordancewith number ofarms,and /y is the minimum length of each shear- exceptb i shall be used in place ofbe head arm required to comply with requirements of When V,, does not exceed$Vc and fml is and
a tensile stress that exceeds0.6 p i then p; provided shall The critical slab section
for shear shall be per-
pendicular to the plane ofthe slab and shallcross each shear-
not be less than
head arm at three-quarters the distance[/, - (c1 / 2)J from the
column face to the end ofthe shearhead arm.The critical sec-
P; = fml/(0.9f,) + Vu/(0.85f,b; h) (ll-39fj tion shall be located so that its perimeterbo is a minimum,
butneednot be closer thantheperimeterdefmed in
In addition, p shall be increased if required for any in-plane
shear force that exists, computed in accordance with 11.10. V, shall not be taken greaterthan 4 E b o d , When V, does not exceed$V, and fm2 is on the critical section defined in When shearhead
a tensile stress that exceeds0.6 p i 4, then p i provided shall reinforcement is provided, V, shall notbe taken greaterthan
not be less than 7 E b & on the critical section definedin A shearhead may be assumed to contribute a
moment resistance M, to each slab column strip computed
P; = fm2/(0.9f,) + V,/(O.SSf,b; h) (ll-39g)

In addition, p i shall be increased if required for anyin-plane

shear force that exists, computed in accordance with 11.10. (1 1-41)
11.12.3 Shear reinforcement consisting of bars or wires
is permitted in slabs and footings in accordance with the
following: +
where is the strength reduction factor for flexure,q is the
11.123.1 V, shall be computed by Eq. (1 1-2), whereV, number of arms, and 4 is the length of each shearheadarm
shall not be taken greater than 2 R b o d , and the required actually provided. However, M, shall not be taken larger
area of shear reinforcementA , and V, shall be calculatedin than the smaller of:
accordance with 11.5 and anchored in accordance with 12.13. a) 30 percent of the total factoredmoment required for
11.123.2 V, shall notbe taken greater than6 R b o d . each slab column strip,
11.12.4 Shear reinforcement consistingof steel I- or chan- b) the change in column strip moment over the length c
nel-shaped sections (shearheads) is permitted in slabs. The c) the value of 'Wp computed by Eq. (11-40)
provisions of through shall apply where When unbalanced moments are considered,
shear due to gravity load is transferred at interior column the shearhead must have adequate anchorage to transit'M to
supports.Wheremoment is transferred to columns, column. shall apply. 11.12S-Openings in slabs Each shearhead shall consist of steel shapes When openings in slabs are located at a distance less than
fabricated by welding witha full penetration weldinto iden- 10 times the slab thickness from
a concentrated loador reac-
tical arms at right angles. Shearheadarms shall not be inter- tion area, or when openings in flat slabs are located within
rupted within the column section. column strips as defmed in Chapter 13, the critical slab sec-

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tions for shear defined in and shall be which crosses the potential plane of splitting
modified as follows: through the reinforcement being developed, in.2 For slabs without shearheads, that part of the A, = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s, in?
perimeter of the critical section that is enclosed by straight A, = area of an individual wire to be developed
lines projecting from the centroid of the column, concentrat- or spliced, in?
ed load, or reaction area and tangentto the boundaries ofthe b, = web width, or diameter of circular section, in.
openings shall be considered ineffective. c = spacing or coverdimension, in. See 12.2.4 For slabs with shearheads,the ineffectivepor- d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid
tion of the perimeter shall be one-half of that defined in of tension reinforcement, in. db = nominal diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing
11.12.6-Tder of moment in slab-columnconnections strand, in. When gravity load, wind, earthquake,or other f,' = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
lateral forces cause transfer of unbalanced moment M, be-
tween a slab and a column, a fraction yf M, of the unbal- E=square root of specified compressive strength
anced moment shall be transferred by flexure in accordance of concrete, psi
with 13.3.3.This remainder ofthe unbalanced moment given fps = stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal
by yv M, shall be consideredto be transferredby eccentricity strength, ksi
of shear about the centroid of the critical section defined in f,, = effective stress in prestressed reinforcement (after where allowance for all prestress losses), ksi
fy = specifiedyield strength of nonprestressed
1 reinforcement,psi
y, = 1 - (11-42)
1+( 2 / 3 ) m 2 fyl = specified yield strength of transverse
reinforcement, psi The shear stress resulting from momenttrans- h = overall thickness of member, in.
fer by eccentricity of shear shall be assumed to varylinearly Kt, = transverse reinforcement index
about the centroid of the critical sections definedin
1 The maximum shear stress due to the factored -
" Atrfyr
(constant 1500 carries the unit l b h ? )
shear force and moment shall not exceed0 v,: I/, = additional embedment length at support or at
For members without shear reinforcement
point of inflection, in.
.$ = development length, in.
= Idb x applicable modification factors
/db = basic development length, in.
where V , is as defined in or G, = development length of standard hook in tension,
For members with shear reinforcement other than shear- measured fromcritical section to outside end of
heads: hook (straight embedment length between critical
section and start of hook [point of tangency]plus
radius of bend and one bardiameter), in.
= Ihb x applicable modification factors
where V , and V, are defined in 11.12.3. If shear reinforce- 4b = basic development length of standard hook
ment is provided, the designshall take into account the vari- in tension, in.
ation of shear stress around the column. Mn = nominal moment strength at section, in.-lb When shear reinforcement consisting of steel = As& (d - d 2 )
I- or channel-shaped sections (shearheads) is provided, the II = number of bars or wires being spliced or developed
sum of the shear stresses due to vertical load acting on the along the plane of splitting
critical section defined by 1 and
the shear stresses re- s = maximumspacingof transverse reinforcement
sultingfrommoment transferred by eccentricity of shear within 6 center-to-center,in.
about thecentroid of thecritical section defined in 1 s, = spacing of wire to be developed or spliced, in.
shall not exceed 4 4 E . V,, = factored shear force at section
a = reinforcement location factor. See 12.2.4.
Chapter 12-Development and Splices ß = coating factor. See 12.2.4.
of Reinforcement ßh = ratio of area of reinforcement cut off to total area
12.0 Notation of tension reinforcementat section
a = depth ofequivalent rectangular stress block as y = reinforcement size factor. See 12.2.4.
defined in
Ab = area of an individual bar, in.2
A , = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement,in.'
12.1 -
Development of reinforcement: General
12.1.1 Calculated tension or compression in reinforcement
A,, = total cross-sectional area of all transverse at each section of structural concrete members shall be de-
reinforcement which is within the spacings and veloped on each side of that section by embedment length,
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S T D * A C I 3Lt7-ENGL 1 7 7 7 0662749 0538100 287


hook or mechanical device,or a combinationthereof. Hooks However, the product of aß need not be taken greater
shall not be used to develop bars in compression. than 1.7.
12.1.2 The values of used in this chapter shall not ex- y = reinforcement size factor
ceed 100psi.
No. 6 and smaller bars and deformed wires..............0.8
12.2- Development of deformed bars and No. 7 and larger bars ................................................. 1.O
deformed wirein tension
12.2.1 Development length 4 , in terms of diameter db for c = spacing or coverdimension,in.
deformed bars and deformed wirein tension shall be deter-
Use the smaller of either the distance from the center of the
mined from either 12.2.2 or 12.2.3, but /d shall not be less
bar or wire to the nearest concretesurface or one-half the cen-
than 12 in.
ter-to-center spacing ofthe bars or wires being developed.
12.2.2 For deformed bars or deformed wire, (/a /db shall be
as follows: Kt, = transverse reinforcementindex
At, f yt
JO. 6 and smaller 1500sn
ws and deformed No. 7 and larger
wires bars where
Clear spacingof bars A, = total cross-sectional area of all transverse reinforce-
being developedor ment which is within the spacing s and whichcross-
spliced not less than
db clear cover not less es the potentialplane of splitting through the
than db and stirrups or reinforcement being developed, in.2
ties throughout/,not
less than the code fYt = specifiedyield strength of transverse reinforce-
minimum "=Y
'd aß ment, psi
db 2
Of s = maximumspacing
of transverse reinforcement
Clear spacingof bars within& center-to-center,in.
being developed or
spliced notless than n numberof bars or wiresbeingdevelopedalong the
2db and clear cover plane ofsplitting
not less than db
It shall be permitted to use Kt, = O as a design simplifica-
tion even iftransverse reinforcement is present.
Other cases 12.2.5- Excess reinforcement
Reduction in development length shallbe permitted where
reinforcement in a flexural member is in excess of that re-
12.2.3 For deformed bars or deformed wire, 4 Idb quired by analysis except where anchorage or development
shall be: for4 is specifically requiredor the reinforcement is designed
under provisions of .........(A, required)/(A, provided)
(12-1) 12.3-Development of deformed bars in
12.3.1 Development length4, in inches, for deformed bars
in compression shallbe computed as the product of the basic
in which the term (c + Ktr)/db shall not be taken greater development length4 6 of 12.3.2 and applicable modification
than 2.5. factors of 12.3.3, but pd shall be not less than 8 in.
12.2.4 The factors for use in the expressions for devel- 12.3.2 "Basic development length
opment of deformed bars and deformed wires in tensionin pdbshall be ................................................... o.02dbfy/E
Chapter 12are as follows:
but notless than .............................................. 0.0003d6fyt
a = reinforcement location factor
123.3 Basic developmentlength /db shall be permitted to
Horizontal reinforcement so placed that be multiplied by applicable factors for:
more than 12in. of fresh concrete is cast reinforcement
in the member belowthe development
Reinforcement in excess of that required by analysis........
length or splice .......................................................... 1.3
................................................... (A, required)/(A, provided)
Other reinforcement.................................................. 1.0 - Spirals and ties
ß = coating factor Reinforcement enclosed within spiral reinforcement not
less than V 4 in. diameter and not more than 4 in. pitch or with-
Epoxy-coated bars or wires with coverless
in No. 4 ties in conformance with 7.10.5 and spaced at not
than 3 4 , or clear spacingless than 6db.................... 1.5
more than4 in. on center ................................................ 0.75
All other epoxy-coated bars or wires ........................ 1.2
Uncoated reinforcement............................................ 1.O f The constant carriesthe unit of in?/lb

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S T D m A C I 349-ENGL 1997 0662749 0538101 113


12.4-Development of bundled bars velopment length4 , from 12.2.2 or 12.2.3 timesa wire fabric
12.4.1 Development length of individual bars within a factor from12.7.2 or 12.7.3.It shall bepermitted to reduce the
bundle, in tensionor compression, shall be thatfor the indi- development length in accordance with 12.2.5 when applica-
vidual bar, increased 20 percent for three-bar bundle, 33 and ble, but /d shall not be less than8 in. except in computation of
percent for four-bar bundle. lap splices by 12.18. When using the wire fabric factor fiom
12.4.2 For determining the appropriate factors in 12.2, a 12.7.2, it shall be permittedto use an epoxy-coating factor of P
unit of bundled bars shallbe treated as a single bar of a di- 1.0 for epoxy-coated welded wire fabric in 12.2.2 and 12.2.3.
ameter derived from the equivalent total area. 12.7.2 For welded deformed wirefabric with at least one
cross wire within the development length and not less than
12.5-Development of standard hooks in tension 2 in. from the point of the critical section, the wire
fabric fac-
12.5.1 Development length h,, in inches, for deformed tor shall be the greater of:
bars in tension terminatingin a standard hook (see 7.1) shall
be computed as the product of the basic developmentlength
t&f 12.5.2 and the applicable modification factor or factors
of 12.5.3, but/dn shall not beless than 8db nor less than6 in.
12.5.2-Basic development length or
tMfor a hooked barwith& equal to @,O00 psi shallbe ...
......................................................................... 12006b/. *
12.53 Basic development length h b shall be multiplied by
applicable factoror factors for:
12.53.1 Bar yield strength but need notbe taken greater than1.
Bars with4 other than60,OOO psi ...................... fy ~6o,O00 12.73 For welded deformed wire fabric with no cross cover wires within the development length or with a single cross
For No. 11 bar and smaller, side cover (normal to plane of wire less than 2 in. from the pointof the criticalsection, the
hook) notless than 2l/, in., and for90deg hook, cover on bar wire fabric factor shall be taken as 1, and the development
extension beyond hook not less than 2 in. ...................... 0.7 length shall be determined as for deformed wire.
12.533 "Ties or stirrups 12.7.4 When any plain wiresare present in the deformed
For No. 11 bar and smaller, hook enclosed vertically or wire fabric in the direction of the development length, the
horizontally within ties or stimpties spaced along the full fabric shall be developed in accordance with 12.8.
development length /dh not greater than 3db, where db is di-
ameter of hooked bar....................................................... .0.8 12.8-Development of welded plain wire fabric in
tension -Excess reinforcement
Yield strengthof welded plain wire fabric shall be consid-
Where anchorage or development forfp is not specifical-
ered developed by embedment of two cross wires with the
ly required, reinforcement in excess of that required by
closer cross wire notless than 2 in. from the pointof the crit-
analysis ................................... (A, required)/(A, provided) ical section. However, the development length 4 , in inches, -Epoxy-coated reinforcement measured from the pointof the critical section to the outer-
Hooked bars with epoxy coating.................................. 1.2 most cross wire shall notbe less than
12.5.4 For bars being developed bya standard hook at dis-
continuous endsof members with both side cover and top (or
bottom) cover over hook less than 2V2in.,hooked bar shallbe
enclosed within ties or stirrup-ties spaced along the full devel-
opment length gdli not greater than 3db,where db is diameter
of hooked bar. For this case, factor of shall not apply. except that when reinforcement provided is in excess of that
12.5.5 Hooks shall notbe considered effective in develop- required, this length may be reduced in accordance with
ing bars in compression. 12.2.5. pd shall notbe less than6 in. except in computation of
lap splices by 12.19.
12.6- Mechanical anchorage
12.6.1 Any mechanical device capable of developing the
12.9-Development of prestressing strand
strength of reinforcement without damage to concrete is al- 12.9.1 Three- or seven-wire pretensioning strand shall be
lowed as anchorage.
bonded beyond the critical section for
a development length,
12.6.2 Mechanical anchorages shall be designed in accor- in inches, not less than
dance with AppendixB-Steel Embedments.

12.7-Development of welded deformed wire

fabric in tension
12.7.1 Developmentlength pd , in inches, ofweldedde-
formed wire fabricmeasured from the point of critical section where db is strand diameter in inches, and
fps andLeare ex-
to the end of wire shallbe computed as the product of thede- pressed in kipdin.=

* Conscant carries unit of Ib/in.2 t Expression in parenthesis used as a constant without units

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12.9.2 Limiting the investigation to cross sectionsnear- reinforcement in continuous membersshall extend alongthe
est each end of the member that are required to develop same face of member into the support. In beams, such rein-
full design strength under specified factored loads shall be forcement shall extend into the support at least 6 in.
permitted. 12.11.2 When a flexural member is part of a primarylat-
12.9.3 Where bonding of a strand does not extend to end eral load resisting system, positive moment reinforcement
of member, and design includes tension at service load in required to be extended into the support by 12.1 1.1 shall be
precompressed tensile zone as permitted by 18.4.2, develop- anchored to develop the specified yield strengthf, in tension
ment length specified in 12.9.1 shall be doubled. at the face of support.
12.113 At simplesupportsand at points of inflection,pos-
12.1 &Development of flexural reinforcement: itive moment tension reinforcement shallbe limited to a di-
General ametersuchthat 4 computedfor fy by12.2 satisfies
12.10.1 Development of tension reinforcementby Eq. (12-2); except, Eq. (12-2) need not be satisfied for rein-
bending across the web to be anchored or made continu-
forcement terminating beyondcenterline of simple supports
ous with reinforcement on the opposite face of member
by a standard hook, or a mechanicalanchorage at least
shall be permitted.
equivalent to a standard hook.
12.10.2 Critical sections for development of reinforce-
ment in flexuralmembers are at points of maximumstress
and at points within the span where adjacent reinforce- (12-2)
ment terminates, oris bent. Provisions of 12.11.3 must be
12.103 Reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at where:
which it is no longer required to resist flexure for a distance
equal to the effective depth of member or 12db,whichever is M,,is nominal moment strength assuming all reinforcement
greater, exceptat supports of simple spans and at free end of at the section to be stressed to the specified yieldstrengthf,.
V, is factored shear force at the section.
12.10.4 Continuing reinforcement shall have an embed-
ment length not less than the development length4 beyond 4 at a support shall be the embedment length beyondcenter
the point where bent or terminated tension reinforcement is of support.
no longer required to resist flexure.
12.10.5 Flexural reinforcement shall not be terminated
4 at a point of inflection shall be limited to the effective
in a tension zone unless one of the following conditionsis depth of memberor Udb, whichever is greater.
satisfied: An increase of 30 percent in the value of M,, /V,shall be Shear at the cutoff point does not exceed two- permitted when the ends of reinforcement are confined by a
thirds that permitted, including shear strength of shear rein- compressive reaction.
forcement provided. 12.11.4 At simple supportsof deep flexural members,pos- Stirrup area in excess of that required for itive moment tension reinforcementshall be anchoredto de-
shear and torsion is provided along each terminated bar or velop the specified yieldstrengthfy in tension at the face of
wire over a distance from the termination point equal to support. At interior supports of deepflexural members, pos-
three-fourths the effective depth of member. Excess stir- itive moment tension reinforcement shall be continuous or
rup area A, shall be not less than60bwsvy.Spacing s shall be spliced with that ofthe adjacent spans.
not exceedd/8ßbwhere ß b is the ratio of area of reinforce-
ment cut off to total area of tension reinforcement at the
12.12- Development of negative moment
section. reinforcement
12.10.53 For No. 11 bar and smaller, continuing rein- 12.12.1 Negative moment reinforcement in a continuous,
forcement provides double the area required for flexure at restrained, or cantilever member,or in any member of a rigid
the cutoff point andshear does not exceed three-fourths that frame, shall be anchored inor through the supporting mem-
permitted. ber by embedment length, hooks,or mechanical anchorage.
12.10.6 Adequate anchorage shallbe provided for tension 12.12.2 Negative moment reinforcement shall have an em-
reinforcement in flexural memberswherereinforcement bedmentlengthinto the span as requiredby12.1and
stress is not directly proportional to moment, suchas: sloped, 12.10.3.
stepped, or tapered footings; brackets; deep flexural mem-
12.123 At least one-third the total tension reinforcement
bers; or members in whichtension reinforcement is not par-
provided fornegative moment at a support shall have an em-
allel to compression face. See 12.11.4 and 12.12.4 for deep
bedment length beyondthe point of inflection not less than
flexural members.
effective depth of member, 12db, or one-sixteenth the clear
span, whichever is greater.
12.11"Development of positive moment
reinforcement 12.12.4At interior supports of deep flexural members,
12.11.1 At least one-third the positive moment reinforce- negative moment tension reinforcement shallbe continuous
ment in simple members and one-fourth the positive moment with that of the adjacent spans.

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S T DInstitute
- A C 1 349-ENGL
Licensed by Information Handling Services
L997 = Obb29LI9 0538L02 05T =
~~ ~~

S T D = A C I 349-ENGL 3997 0662949 0 5 3 8 3 0 3 T96 W


12.13-Development of web reinforcement Lap splices of bars ina bundle shallbe based
12.13.1 Web reinforcement shall be carried as close to on the lap splice length required for individual bars within
compression and tension surfaces of member as cover re- the bundle, increased in accordance with 12.4. Individual bar
quirements and proximity of other reinforcement will per- splices within a bundle shall not overlap. Entire bundles shall
mit. not be lap spliced.
12.13.2 Ends of single leg, simpleU-, or multiple U-stir- Bars splicedby noncontact lap splices inflex-
rups shall be anchored by one of the following means: ural members shall not be spaced transversely farther apart For No. 5 bar and D31 wire, and smaller, and than one-fifth the required lap splice length, 6nor in.
for No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8 bars withf, of 4
,OO psi or less, 12.14SWelded splices and mechanical connections
a standard hook around longitudinal reinforcement. 12.143.1 Welded splices and other mechanicalCOM=- For No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8 stirrups with$, tions are allowed.
greater than 40,000 psi,a standard stirrup hook around a lon- Except as provided in this code, all welding
gitudinal bar plusan embedment between midheight of the shall conform to “Structural Welding Code-Reinforcing
member and the outside end ofthe hook equal to or greater Steel” (ANSVAWS Dl .4).
than 0.014dbf,,I R . 12.143.3 A full welded splice shall develop least
at 125 each leg of welded plainwire fabric form- percent of the specified yield strengthf,of the bar.
simple U-stirrups, either: 12.143.4 A full mechanical connection shall develop in
%o longitudinal wires spaced at a 2 in. spacing along tension or compression, as required, at least 125 percent of
the member at the top ofthe U. specified yieldstrengthf, of the bar.
One longitudinal wire located not more thandl4 from Mechanical connections shall be quali-
the compression face and a second wire closer to the fied for use in the construction on thebasis of the following
compression face and spaced not less than 2 in. from performance tests:
the first wire. The second wire shall be permitted
to be (a) Static Tensile Strength Tests-A minimum of six static
located on the stimp leg beyond a bend, or on a bend tensile strength tests shall be conducted consideringthe
with aninside diameter of bend not lessthan 8db range of variabilities in splicing material, material
in of For each end ofa single legstirrup of welded reinforcing bars and in the anticipated environmental
plain or deformed wire fabric, two longitudinal wires at a conditions. All test samples shall meetthe requirement
minimum spacing of2 in. and with the inner wireleast at the of
greater of d/4 or 2 in. from middepth of memberdn. Outer (b) Cyclic Tests-Three specimens of the bar-to-bar con-
longitudinal wire at tension face shallnot be farther from the nection for each reinforcing bar size and grade shall
face than theportion of primary flexural reinforcementclos- be subjected to 100 cycles of tensile stress variations
est to the face. from 5 percent to 90 percent of the specified minimum In joist construction as defined in 8.1 1, for yield strength of the reinforcing bar. The specimens
No. 4 bar and D20 wire and smaller, a standard hook. shall withstand the cyclic test without loss of static
12.133 Between anchored ends, each bend in thecontin- tensile strength capacity whencomparedwith like
uous portion of a simple U-stirrupor multiple U-stirrup shall specimen in (a) and tested statically to failure follow-
enclose a longitudinal bar. ing cyclic tests.
12.13.4 Longitudinal bars bent to act as shear reinforce-
12.14.35 Welded splices and mechanical connections
ment, if extended into a region of tension, shall becontinu-
not meeting requirements of or are al-
ous with longitudinal reinforcement and,if extended into a
lowed onlyfor No. 5 bars and smaller and in accordance with
region of compression, shall be anchored beyond middepth
d /2 as specified for development length in 12.2 for that part
of& required to satisfy Eq. (1 1-19). 12.143.6 All welded splices and mechanical connec-
tions shall be visually examined by a qualified and experi-
12.13.5 Pairs of U-stirrups or ties so placed as to form a
enced inspector to assure that they are properly installed at
closed unit shall be considered properly spliced when length
the place of construction. Where itis deemed necessary, the
of lapsarel.34. In membersat least 18 in. deep, such splices
Engineer shallbe permitted to require the destructive tests of
withA,& not more than 9000 lb per leg shallbe considered
production splices to assure the compliance with
adequate if stirrup legs extend the full available depth of
member. Mechanical connections shallbe staggered if
the strain measured over the full length of connection (at 0.9
12.14-Splices of reinforcement: General yield) exceeds thatof a bar thatis not mechanicallyconnect-
12.14.1 Splices of reinforcement shallbe made only as re- ed by more than 50 percent and if the maximum computed
quired or permitted on design drawings, or in specifications, factored load stress thein bar equalsor exceeds 0.5f,.If stag-
or as authorizedby the Engineer. gered mechanical connections are required, no more than
12.14.2-Lap splices one-half of the barsshall be connected in one plane normal Lap splices shall not be used for bars larger to the bars and the mechanical connections shall be stag-
than No. 11 except as provided in 12.16.2 and gered at least36 in.

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STD.AC1 349-ENGL 3 9 9 7 W 0662999 0538304 922

12.15-Splices of deformed bars and deformed splices of No. 14 andNo. 18 bars to No. 11 and smaller bars
wire in tension shall be permitted.
12.15.1 Minimum length of lap for tension lap splices 12.163 Welded splices or mechanical connections used in
shall be as required for Class A or B splice, but notless than compression shall
requirements of or
12 in., where:
Class A splice ................................................................ 1.04 12.16.4-End-bearing splices In bars required for compression only,
Class B splice ................................................................ 1.34
transmission of compressive stress by bearing of square
where /d is the tensile development length for the specified cut ends held in concentric contact by a suitable device
yield strengthf, in accordance with12.2 without the modifi- shall be permitted.
cation factor of 12.2.5. Bar endsshall terminate in flat surfaces within
12.15.2 Lap splices of deformed bars and deformed wire 11/* deg of a right angleto the axis of the bars and shall be
in tensionshall be ClassB splices except that Class A splices fitted within 3 deg offull bearing after assembly.
are allowed when: (a) the area of reinforcement providedis 12.16.43 End-bearing splices shall be usedonlyin
at least twice thatrequired by analysis over the entire length members containingclosed ties, closed stirrups, or spirals.
of the splice, and (b) one-half or less of the total reinforce
ment is spliced within the requiredlap length.
12.17“~pecialsplice requirementsfor columns
12.15.3 Welded splices or mechanical connections used 12.17.1 Lap splices, butt welded splices, mechanical con-
where area of reinforcement providedis less than twicethat nections, or end-bearing splices shall be used withthe limi-
required by analysis shall meet requirements of or tations of12.17.2through12.17.4. A splice shall satisfy requirements for all load combinationsfor the column.
12.15.4 Welded splices and mechanical connections not 12.17.2-Lap splices in columns
meeting the requirements of or are al- Where the bar stress due to factored loads is
lowed for No. 5 bars and smaller when the area of reinforce-
compressive, lap splices shall conform to 12.16.1, 12.16.2,
ment providedis at least twice that required by analysis, and
and, where applicable, to or
the following requirementsare met: Where the bar stress due to factored loads is Splices shall be staggered at least 24 in. and in
such manneras to develop at every section at least twice the
tensile and does not exceed 0.54 in tension,lap splices shall
be Class B tension lap splices if more than one-half of the
calculated tensile force at that section butnot less than
bars are spliced at anysection, or Class A tension lap splices
20,000 psi for total area of reinforcement provided.
if half or fewer of the bars are spliced at any section and al- In computingtensile forces developed at each
section, rate the spliced reinforcement at the specified splice
ternate lap splices are staggered by . Where the bar stress due to factored loads is
strength. Unspliced reinforcementshall be rated at that frac- greater than 0.5fY in tension, lap splices shall be Class B
tion o f 4 defined by the ratio of the shorter actual develop- tension lap splices.
ment length to 4 required to develop the specified yield
strength!, . Intied reinforced compressionmembers,
where ties throughoutthe lap splice length have an effective
12.15.5 Splices in “tension tie members” shall be made area not less than 0.0015hs, lap splice length shall be permit-
with a full welded splice or full mechanical connectionin ac- ted to be multiplied by 0.83, but lap length shall not be less
cordance with or and splices in adjacent than 12 in. Tie legs perpendicular to dimension h shall be
bars shall be staggered at least 30 in. used in determining effective area.
12.15.6 Welded splices or mechanical connections shall In spirally reinforced compression members,
be used for connectingtension resisting, but not crack-con- lap splice length of bars within a spiral shall be permitted
trolling, reinforcing bars located in a region with membrane to be multiplied by 0.75, but lap length shall not be less
tension normal to the welded splice or mechanical connec- than 12 in.
tion. The average strength of these welded splices or me- 12.173-Welded splices or mechanical connectors in
chanical connections shall be equal to the minimumultimate
strength of the bar.
Welded splicesor mechanical connectors in columns shall
meet the requirements of or
12.1 6-Splices of deformed bars in compression 12.17.4-End-bearing splices in columns
12.16.1 Compression lap splice length shall be O.OOOSf,db, End-bearing splices complying with 12.16.4shall be per-
for4 of 60O , OO psi or less, or (O.oooSf, - 24)dbfor4 greater mitted to be used for column bars stressed in compression
than 6 0 , O O O psi, but notless than 12 in. For!,‘ less than 3000 provided the splices are staggered or additional bars are pro-
psi, length oflap shall be increased by one-third. vided at splice locations. The continuing bars in eachface of
12.16.2 When bars of different size are lap spliced in com- the column shall have atensile strength, based on the speci-
pression, splice length shall be the larger of development fied yield strength&, not less than 0.254 times the area of
length of larger bar, or splice length of smaller bar. Lap the vertical reinforcementin that face.

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12.18-Splices of welded deformed wire fabric in 12.19-Splices of welded plain wire fabric in
tension tension
12.18.1 Minimum length of lap for lap splices of welded Minimum length of lap for lap splices of welded plain wire
deformed wire fabric measured between the ends of each fabric shallbe in accordance with the following.
fabric sheet shall be not less than 1.34 nor 8 in., and the 12.19.1 When area of reinforcement providedis less than
overlap measured between outermost cross wires of each twice that required by analysis at splice location, length of
fabric sheet shall benot less than 2 in. 4 shall be the devel- overlap measured between outermost cross wires of each
opment length for the specified yield strength4 in accor- fabric sheet shallbe not less than one spacingof cross wires
plus 2 in., nor less than1.5 4 , nor 6 in. /a shall be the devel-
dance with 12.7.
opment length for the specified yield strengthf’ in accor-
12.18.2 Lap splices of welded deformed wirefabric, with dance with 12.8.
no cross wires within the lap splice length, shall be deter- 12.19.2 When area of reinforcement provided is at least
mined as for deformed wire. twice that required by analysis at splice location, length of
12.183 When any plain wires are present the in deformed overlap measured between outermost cross wires of each
wire fabric in the direction of the lap splice or when de- fabric sheet shall be not less than 1.5 4, nor 2 in. 4 shall be
formed wirefabric is lap splicedto plain wirefabric, the fab- the developmentlength for the specified yield strength& in
ric shallbe lap spliced in accordance with 12.19. accordance with12.8.

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S T D -Institute
A C 1 349-ENGL
Licensed by Information Handling Services
L997 m Obb2949 0538105 8 b 9 m
STD.ACI 349-ENGL L997 m 0662747 0538LOb 7T5 m


Chapter13-Two-waySlabSystems U= minimum a,to satisfy 13.6.10(a)
al = a indirectionof/l
el = size of rectangular or equivalentrectangular column, a2 = a in direction of 4
capital, or bracket measured in the direction of the B, = ratio of dead load per unit area to live load per unit
span for which moments are being determined,in. area (in eachcase without load factors)
e2 = size of rectangularor equivalentrectangular column, ßt = ratio of torsional stiffness of edge beam section to
capital, or bracket measured transverse to the flexural stiffness of a width ofslab equal to span
direction of the spanfor which moments are length of beam, center-to-center of supports
being determined, in.
C = cross-sectional constant to define torsional ”

properties. See Eq. (13-7)
Ecb = modulus of elasticity of beam concrete y~ = fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by
E , = modulus of elasticity of slab concreteEng flexure at slab-column connections. See
h = overall thickness ofmember,in. 6, = factor definedby Fq. (13-5). See 13.6.10.
Zb = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross
section of beamas defined in 13.2.4. 13.1“Scope
Z, = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross 13.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 13 shall apply for design of
section of slab slab systems reinforced for flexure in more than one direc-
= h3/ 12 times width ofslab defined in notations tion with or without beams between supports.
a and B, 13.1.2 A slab system may be supported on columns or
Kb = flexural stiffness of beam; moment per unit rotation walls. If supported by columns, the dimensions el and c2
Kc = flexural stiffness of column; moment per unit and the clear span /n shall be based on an effective support
rotation area defined by theintersection of the bottom surface of the
Ks = flexural stiffness of slab; moment per unit rotation slab, or of the drop panel if there is one, with the largest
Kt = torsional stiffness of torsional member; moment per right circular cone, right pyramid or tapered wedge whose
unit rotation surfaces are located within the column andcapital or brack-
= length of clear span in direction that moments are et and are oriented no greater than 45 degto the axis of the
being determined, measuredface-to-face of supports column.
4 = length of span in direction that moments are being 13.13 Solid slabs and slabs with recesses or pockets made
determined, measuredcenter-to-center of supports
4 = length of span transverse to measured center-to-
center of supports. See also and
by permanent or removable fillers between ribs or joists in
two directions are included withinthe scope of Chapter13.
13.1.4 Minimum thickness of slabs designed in accor-
M, = total factored static moment dance with Chapter13 shall be as required by 9.5.3.
Mu = factored moment at section
Wd = factored dead load per unit area 13.2-Definitions
W / = factored live load per unit area 13.2.1 Column strip is a design strip with a width on each
W , = factored load per unit area side of a columncenterline equal to 0.254 or 0.254, which-
x = shorter overall dimension of rectangular part of ever is less. Column strip includes beams, if any.
cross section 13.2.2 Middle strip is a design strip bounded by two col-
y = longer overall dimension of rectangularpart of cross umn strips.
section 13.2.3 A panel is bounded by column, beam,or wall cen-
a = ratio of flexural stiffness of beam section to flexural terlines on all sides.
stiffness of a width ofslab bounded laterally by 13.2.4 For monolithic or fully composite construction, a
centerlines of adjacent panels (if any)on each beam includes that portion of slab on each side of the beam
side of the beam extending a distance equal to the projection of the beam
- W b above or below theslab, whichever isgreater, but notgreater
E,$, than 4 times theslab thickness.
a, = ratio of flexural stiffness of columns above and
below the slab to combinedflexural stiffness ofthe 13.3-Designprocedures
slabs and beams at a joint taken in the direction of 133.1 A slab system may be designed by any procedure
the span for which moments are being determined satisfying conditions of equilibrium and geometric compati-
bility if shown thatthe design strength at every section is at
least equal to the required strength considering 9.2 and 9.3
- CK, and that all serviceability conditions, including specified
C(K,+ K b ) limits on deflections, are met.
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S T D D A C I 349-ENGL L997 Ohhi2949 0538107 b3L W
349-52 AC1 STANDARD For gravity loads, a slab system, including the 13.4.5 Where a slab is not supportedby a spandrel beam
slab and beams (if any) between supports and supporting or wall at a discontinuous edge, or where a slab cantilevers
columns or walls forming orthogonal frames, may be de- beyond the support, anchorageofreinforcementmay be
signed by either the Direct Design Method of 13.6 or the within the slab.
Equivalent Frame Method of 13.7. 13.4.6 In slabs with beams betweensupports with a value For lateral loads, analysis of unbraced frames of a greater than 1.0, special top and bottom slab reinforce-
shall take into account effects of cracking and reinforcement ment shall be providedat exterior corners in accordance with
on stiffness of frame members. the following:
133.1.3 Results of the gravity load analysis may be The special reinforcement inboth top and bot-
combined with results onthe lateral load analysis. tom of slab shall be sufficient to resist a moment equal to
13.3.2 The slab and beams (if any) between supports shall the maximum positive moment (per foot of width) in the
be proportioned for factored moments prevailing at every slab.
section. Direction of moment shall be assumedparallel
133.3 When gravity load, wind, earthquake, or other lat-
to the diagonal fromthe comer inthe top of the slab and per-
eral forces cause transfer of moment between slab and col-
pendicular to the diagonal in the bottom of the slab.
umn,a fraction of the unbalanced moment shall be
transferredby flexure inaccordancewith13.3.3.2and 13.4.63 The special reinforcement shall be providedfor a distance in each direction from the comer equal to one-fifth Fraction of unbalanced moment not transferred the longer span.
by flexure shall be transferred by eccentricity of shear in ac- In either the top or bottom of the slab, the spe-
cordance with 11.12.6. cial reinforcement may be placedin a single band in the di-
133.3.2 A fraction of the unbalanced moment givenby rection of the moment or in two bands parallel to the sides of
yjMU shall be consideredto be transferred by flexure within the slab.
an effective slab width between lines that are one and one- 13.4.7 Where a drop panel is used to reduce amount of
half slab or drop panel thicknesses (1.5h ) outside opposite negative moment reinforcement over the column of a flat
faces of the column or capital, where M,,is the moment to be slab, size of drop panel shall be in accordance with the
transferred and following. Drop panelshall extend in each direction from
1 center line of support a distance not less than one-sixth the
Yf = (13-1)
span length measured from center-to-center of supports in
1 +),J= c2 +
cl +d that direction. Projectionof drop panel below the slab shall be
133.33 Concentration of reinforcement over the col- at least one-quarter the slab thickness beyond the drop.
umn by closer spacing or additional reinforcement shall be In computing required slab reinforcement,
used to resist moment on the effective slab width defined in thickness of drop panel below theslab shall not be assumed greater than the distance from edge of drop panel to edge
133.4 Design for transfer of load fromslab to supporting of columnor column capital.
columns or walls through shear and torsion shall be in accor- 13.4.8-htails of reinforcement in slabs without beams
dance with Chapter 11. In addition to the other requirements of 13.4,
reinforcement in slabs without beams shall have minimum
13.4-Slab reinforcernent bend point locations and extensionsfor reinforcement as pre-
13.4.1 Area of reinforcement in each direction for two- scribed in Fig. 13.4.8.
way slab systems shall be determined from moments at crit- Where adjacent spans are unequal, extensionof
ical sections but shall not be less than required by 7.12.
negative reinforcement beyond the face of support as pre-
13.4.2 Spacing of reinforcement at critical sections shall scribed in Fig. 13.4.8 shall be based on requirements of the
not exceed two times the slab thickness, except for portions longer span.
of slab area that may be of cellular or ribbed construction.In
the slab over cellular spaces, reinforcement shall be provided 13.4.83 Bent bars may be used only when depth-span
as required by 7.12. ratio permits useof bends 45 degor less.
13.43 Positive moment reinforcement perpendicular to a For slabs in frames not braced against side-
discontinuousedge shall extendto the edge ofslab and have sway and for slabs resisting lateral loads, lengths of rein-
embedment, straight or hooked, at least spandrel forcement shall be determined by analysis but shall not be
beams, columns,or walls. less than those prescribed in Fig. 13.4.8.
13.4.4 Negative moment reinforcement perpendicularto a At least two of the columnstrip bottom bars or
discontinuous edge shall be bent, hooked, or otherwise an- wires in each direction shall be continuous or spliced at the
chored, in spandrel beams, columns, or walls, to be devel- support with Class A splices or anchored within support.
oped at face of support according to provisions of These bars shall pass through the column and shall be placed
Chapter 12. within the column core.

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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL L997 0662947 0538L08 578 W




o. 50

5 50
m Remainder



I too
U 50
œ t-
c t-
v) O
m Remainder
* n-
1 50
1 Remainder
m 50

3i -/,>li

k/ k-- Clear
Face of
k e a ' span
Face of support
+"enter to center span-P+Center to center span-1.-4
Exterior gsupport
Interior $
( N o slob continuity)
(Continuity provided) (No slab continuity)

* Bent bars at exterior supports I BAR LENGTH FROM FACE OF SUPPORT

may be used if a general
analysls IS made

l Fig. 13.4.8-Minimum bend point locations and extensionsfor reinforcementin slabs without beams
(See 12.11.1 for reinforcement extension intosupports)
COPYRIGHT American Concrete Institute
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13.5"0penings in slab systems 13.6.2-Total factored static moment for a span
13.5.1 Openings of any size may be providedin slab sys- Total factored static moment for a spanshall be
tems if shown by analysis that the design strength is at least determined in a strip bounded laterally by center line of pan-
equal to the required strength considering 9.2 and 9.3, and el oneach side of centerline of supports.
that allserviceabilityconditions, including the specified lim- Absolute sum of positive and averagenegative
its on deflections, are met. factored moments in each direction shall not be less than
13.5.2 In lieu of special analysis as required by 13.5.1,
openings may be provided in slab systems without beams
only in accordance with the following. (13-3) Openings of anysize may be located in the area
common to intersecting middle strips, provided total amount
of reinforcement requiredfor the panel withoutthe opening 13.6.23 Where the transverse span of panels on either
is maintained. side of thecenterline of supports varies, /2 in Eq. (13-3) shall In the area common to intersecting column be takenas the average of adjacent transverse spans,
strips, not more than one-eighth the width of column strip in When the span adjacent and parallel to an edge
either span shall be interrupted by openings. An amount of is being considered, the distance from edge to panel center-
reinforcement equivalent to that interrupted by an opening line shall be substituted for 4 in Eq. (13-3).
shall be added onthe sides of the opening. 13.62.5 Clear span 4 shall extend from face to face of
13.5.23 In the area common to one column strip and columns, capitals, brackets, or walls. Value of 4 used in
Q. (13-3) shall not be less than 0.654.
one middle strip, not more than one-quarter the reinforce-
mentin either strip shall be interrupted by openings. An Circular or regular polygon shapedsupportsshall be treat-
amount of reinforcement equivalent to that intempted by an ed as square supports with the same area.
opening shall be added onthe sides of the opening. 13.6.3-Negative and positive factored moments
135.2.4 Shear requirementsof 1 1.12.5 shall satisfied.
be 13.63.1 Negative factored moments shall be located at
face of rectangular supports. Circular or regular polygon
shaped supports shall be treated as square supports with the
13.6-Direct design method same area.
13.6.1-Limitations 13.63.2 In an interior span, total static moment M , shall
Slab systems withinthe following limitations may be de- be distributed as follows:
signed bythe Direct Design Method.
Negative factored moment .......................................... 0.65 There shall be a minimum of three continuous
Positive factored moment ........................................... 0.35
spans in each direction. Panels shall be rectangular with aratio of long- 13.63.3 In an endspan, total factored static moment M,
er to shorter span center-to-center ofsupports within a panel shall be distributed as follows:
not greater than 2. (1) (2) (3) 1 (4) (5) Successivespanlengths center-to-center of
I I 1-1
Slab without beams
supports in each direction shall not differ by more than one- between interior

third the longer span. Exterior "

E :
edge unre- betweenall Without With edge edefully
Exterior Columns may beoffset a maximum of10 per- strained s u m r t s edpe beam' restralned

cent of the span (in direction of offset) from either axis be-
tween centerlines of successive columns.
moment 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.65 All loads shall be due to gravity only and uni- Positive
formly distributed over an entire panel. Live load shall not factored
moment I 0.63 I 0.57 I 0.52 I 0.50 I 0.35
exceed three times dead load.

1 1 1 1 1
Exterior For a panel with beams between supports on negative
all sides, the relative stiffness of beams in two perpendicular moment O 0.16 0.26 0.30 ' 0.65
directions * See

13.63.4 Negative momentsections shall be designed to

resist the larger of the two interior negative factored mo-
(13-2) ments determinedfor spans framing into a common support
unless an analysis is made to distribute the unbalanced mo-
ment in accordance withstiffnesses of adjoining elements.
shall not be less than 0.2 nor greater than5.0. 13.63.5 Edge beams or edges of slab shall be propor- Momentredistribution as permitted by 8.4 tioned to resist in
torsion their share of exterior negative fac-
shall not be applied for slab systems designed by the Direct tored moments.
Design Method. S e e 13.6.7. 13.63.6 For moment transfer between slab and an edge Variations from the limitations of 13.6.1 may column in accordance with, column strip nominal
be considered acceptable if demonstrated by analysis that re- moment strength provided shall be used as the transfer mo-
quirements of 13.3.1 are satisfied. ment for gravity load.

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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL L997 0662949 0538LLO 126
= 34955

13.6.4-Factored moments in column strips 13.6.L-Factored momentsin middle strips Column strips shall be proportioned to resist That portion ofnegative and positive factored
the following portions in percent of interior negative fac- moments not resisted by column strips shall be proportion-
tored moments: ately assigned to corresponding half middle strips. Each middlestrip shall be proportioned to resist
0.5 1.o 2.0 the sum of the moments assigned to its two half middle
(al444 = 0 75 75 75 strips.
(a&/l) L 1 .o 90 75 45 A middle strip adjacent to and parallel withan
edge supportedby a wallshall be proportioned to resist twice
Linear interpolations shall be madebetween values the moment assigned to the half middle strip corresponding
shown. to the first row of interior supports. Column strips shall be proportioned to resist 13.6.7-Modification of factored moments
the following portions in percent of exterior negative fac- Negative and positivefactored moments may be modified
tored moments: by 10 percent provided the total static moment for a panel in
the direction considered is not less than that required by
1.o E q . (13-3).
44 0.5 2.0
(a144 = 0 ßt= o 100 1O0 100 13.6.0Factored shear in slab systems with beams
ß t 2 2.5 75 75 75 Beams with (ial/z//l)equal to or greater than
1.0 shall be proportioned to resist shear caused by factored
(al+/4)z 1.O ßt =0 100 1O0 100 loads ontributary areas bounded by45 deg lines drawn from
ß, 2 2.5 90 75 45 the comers of the panels andthe centerlines of the adjacent
panels parallel to the long sides. Beams with (al/z//l) less than 1.0 maybe pro-
Linear interpolations shall be madebetween values
portioned to resist shear obtained by linear interpolation, as-
suming beams carry no load at a = O. Where supports consist of columns or walls In addition to shears calculated according to
extending for a distance equal to or greater than three-quar- and, beams shall be proportioned to resist
ters the span length /z used to compute M,,negative mo-
shears caused by factored loads applied directly on beams.
ments shall be considered to be uniformly distributed
across 4. Slab shearstrength may be computed on theas-
sumption that load isdistributed to supporting beams in ac- Column strips shall be proportioned to resist
cordance with or Resistance to total shear
the following portions in percent of positive factored mo-
occurring on a panel shallbe provided.
ments: Shear strength shall satisfy requirementsof
Chapter 11.
@fi 0.5 1.o 2.0
13.6.!l-Factored moments incolumns and walls
(a1441 = 0 60 60 60 Columns and walls built integrally with a slab
(all&)5 1.O 90 75 45 system shall resist moments caused byfactored loads on the
slab system.
Linear interpolations shall be madebetweenvalues At an interior support, supportingelements
shown. above and below the slab shall resist the moment specified For slabs with beams between supports, the by Eq. (13-4) in direct proportion to their stiffnesses unless
slab portion of columnstrips shall be proportionedto resist a general analysis is made.
that portion ofcolumn strip momentsnot resisted by
beams. M = 0.07[(wd+O.5w,)t2t,2 -~2!>(!;)~] (13-4)
13.6.5-Factored moments in beams Beams between supports shall be proportioned
to resist 85 percent of column strip moments if (alh/tl)is
where w'd. !i ,and A! refer to shorter span.
equal to or greater than 1.O.
13.6.10-Provisions for effects of pattern loadings
Where ratiofi, of dead loadto live load is less than2, one For values of ( C X I ~ / ! between
~) 1.0 and zero,
proportionofcolumn strip moments resisted by beams of the followingconditions shall be satisfied:
shall be obtained by linear interpolation between 85 and Sum of flexural stiffnesses of the columns above and
zero percent. below the slab shall be such thatacis not less thanad,, In addition to moments calculated for uniform specified in Table 13.6.10.
loads according to,, and, beams If a, for the columns above and belowthe slab is less
shall be proportioned to resist all moments caused by con- thanspecified
positive factored
centrated or linear loads applied directly to beams, includ- moments in panels supported by such columnsshall be
ing weight of projecting beam stem above or below the multiplied by the coefficient 6, determinedfrom
slab. m. (13-5).
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Table 13.6.1 &Values of amln 13.72.6 Where slab-beams are analyzed separately, it
may be assumed in determining moment at a given support
Aspect Relative beam stiffness, a
ratio that the slab-beam is fixed at any supporttwo panels distant
ßa I
O 0.5 1.o 2.0 I
4.0 therefrom, provided the slab continues beyond that point.
13.73.1 Moment of inertia of slab-beams at any cross
section outside of joints or column capitals may be based on
1.0 1.0 1 0.7 I 0.1 I O I O I O the gross area of concrete.
1.25 I 0.6 I 0.4 I O 1 O I O 13.73.2 Variation in moment of inertia along axis of

slab-beams shall be takeninto account.
13.733 Moment of inertia of slab-beams from center of
column to face of column, bracket, or capital shallbe assumed
0.5 equal to the moment ofinertia of the slab-beam at face of col-
1.25 1.9 0.5 umn, bracket, or capital divided by the quantity(1 - c2 / 4)'
2.0 4.9 1.6 0.8 0.3 where c, and 4 are measured transverseto the direction ofthe
0.5 I
1.8 I 0.5 I 0.1 1 O I O span for which moments are being determined.
0.8 I 2.0 I 0.9 1 0.3 1 O 1 O 13.7.Aolumns
0.33 1.O 1
2.3 1 0.9 I 0.4 I O I O Moment ofinertia of columns at any cross sec-
1.25 I 2.8 I 1.5 1 0.8 I 0.2 I O
tion outside of joints or column capitals may be based on the
1 2.0 I
13.0 I 2.6 I

1.2 1 0.5 I 0.3 gross area of concrete. Variation in moment of inertia along axis of
columns shall be taken into account.
6, = 1+-" ( 1 - E ) 13.7.43 Moment ofinertia of columns fromtop to bot-
4+ P, tom ofthe slab-beam at a joint shall be assumed infinite.
13.7.5-Torsional members
where ßa is ratio of dead load to live load, per unit area (in 13.75.1 Torsionalmembers ( shall be as-
each case without loadfactors). sumed to havea constant cross section throughout their
length consisting of the larger of
13.7-Equivalent frame method a) A portion of slab having a width equal to that of the
13.7.1 Design of slab systems by the Equivalent Frame column, bracket, or capital in the direction of the span
Method shall bebasedonassumptionsgivenin13.7.2 for which momentsare being determined
through13.7.6,and all sections of slabs and supporting b) For monolithicor fully composite construction, the por-
members shall be proportionedfor moments andshears thus tion of slab specified in (a) plus that part of the trans-
obtained. verse beam above and belowthe slab. Where metal columncapitals are used, account c) Transverse beam as defined in 13.2.4.
may be taken of their contributionsto stiffnessand resistance
to moment and to shear. Change in length of columns and slabs due to
direct stress, anddeflectionsdue to shear, maybe neglected.
I 13.75.2 Stiffness Kt of an attached torsional member
shall be calculatedby the following expression:

13.7.2-Equivalent frame (13-6) The structure shall be consideredto be made up
of equivalent frames on column lines taken longitudinally
and transversely throughthe building. Each frame shall consist of a row of columns where c2 and fZ relate to the transverse spans on eachside of
or supports and slab-beam strips, bounded laterally by the column.
centerline of panelon each side of the centerline of columns The constant C in Eq. (13-6) may be evaluated
or supports. for the cross section by dividing it into separate rectangular Columns or supports shall be assumed to be at- parts and carrying out the following summation:
tached to slab-beam strips bytorsionalmembers(13.7.5)
transverse to the direction of the span for which momentsare
being determined and extending to bounding lateral panel
centerlines on eachside of a column.
C = c( 3
1 -0.63-)x x y
Y 3
( 13-7) Frames adjacent and parallelto an edgeshall be

bounded by that edge andthe centerline of adjacent panel. Where beams frameinto columns inthe direc- Each equivalent frame may be analyzed in its tion of the span for which moments are being determined,
entirety, or for gravity loading, each floor andthe roof (slab- value of Kt as computed by Eq. (13-6) shall be multiplied by
beams) may be analyzed separately with far ends of columns the ratio of momentof inertia of slab with such beamto mo-
considered fixed. ment of inertia of slab without such beam.

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13.7.6-Arrangement of live load 14.2-General When loading pattern is known,the equivalent 14.2.1 Walls shallbe designed for eccentric loads and any
frame shall be analyzed for that load. lateral or other loads to which they are subjected. When live load is variable but does not exceed 14.2.2 Walls subject to axial loads shall be designed in ac-
three-quartersthe dead load,or the nature of live load is such cordance with 14.2, 14.3, andeither 14.4 or 14.5.
that allpanels will be loadedsimultaneously,maximum fac- 14.2.3 Design for shear shall be in accordance with 1 1.10.
tored moments may be assumedto occur at all sections with 14.2.4 Unless demonstrated by a detailed analysis, hori-
full factored live load onentire slab system. zontal length of wall to be considered as effective for each For loading conditions other than those defined concentratedload shall notexceed center-to-center dis-
in, maximum positive factored moment near mid- tance between loads, nor width of bearing plus 4 times the
span of a panel may be assumed to occur withthree-quarters wall thickness.
the full factored live load on the panel and onalternate pan- 14.2.5 Compression members built integrally with walls
els; and maximum negativefactored moment inthe slab at a shall conformto 10.8.2.
support may be assumed to occur withthree-quartersthe full 14.2.6 Walls shall be anchored to intersecting elements
live load onadjacent panels only. such as floors, roofs, or to columns, pilasters, buttresses, and Factored moments shall be taken not less than intersecting walls, and footings.
those occurring with full factoredlive load on all panels. 14.2.7 Limitsof thickness required by14.5may be
13.7.7-Factored moments waived where structural analysis shows adequate strength At interior supports, critical section for nega- and stability.
tive factored moment (in both column and middle strips) 14.2.8 Transfer of force to footing atbase of wall shall be
shall be taken at face of rectilinear supports, but not greater in accordance with 15.8.
than O. 1754 from center of a column. At exterior supports provided with brackets or 14.3-Minimum reinforcement
capitals, critical section for negative factored moment in the 143.1 Minimum vertical andhorizontalreinforcement
span perpendicular to an edge shall be taken at a distance h m shall be in accordance with 14.3.2 and 14.3.3 unless greater
face of supporting element not greater than one-halfthe projec- amount is required for shear by 11.10.8 and 11.10.9.
tion of bracket or capital beyondface of supporting element. 143.2 Minimum ratio of vertical reinforcement area to
13.7.73 Circular or regular polygon shaped supports gross concrete area shall be:
shall be treated as square supports with the same area for lo-
a) 0.0012 for deformed bars not larger than No. 5 with
cation of critical section for negative design moment.
specified yieldstrength not less than 60,000psi, or Slab systems within limitations of 13.6.1, when
analyzed by the Equivalent Frame Method, may have result- b) 0.0015 for other deformed bars, or
ing computed moments reduced in such proportion that the c) ab- 0.0012 for welded wire fabric (plain or deformed) not
solute sum ofthe positive and average negative moments used larger than W3 or 1 D31.
in design need not exceed the value obtained Eq. from
(13-3). 143.3 Minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement area to Moments at critical sections across the slab- gross concrete area shall be:
beam strip of each framemay bedistributed to column strips,
a) 0.0020 for deformed bars not larger than No. 5 with a
beams, and middle strips as provided in 13.6.4, 13.6.5, and
specified yield strength not less than 60,000 psi,or
13.6.6 if the requirement of is satisfied.
b) 0.0025 for other deformed bars, or
c) 0.0020 for welded wire fabric (plain or deformed) not
Chapter 14-Walls
larger than W3 1or D3 1.
14.0-Notation 14.3.4 Wallsmorethan10in.thick,exceptbasement
A, = gross area of section, sq. in. walls, shall have reinforcement for each direction placed in
f' = specified compressivestrength of concrete, psi two layers parallel with faces of wallin accordance withthe
h = overall thickness of member,in. following:
k = effective length factor a) One layer consisting of not less than one-half and not
r , = vertical distance between supports, in. more thantwo-thirds of total reinforcement requiredfor
each direction shall be placed not less than 2 in. nor
p n w = nominal axial load strength of wall designedby 14.4
more than one-third the thickness of wall from exterior
$ = strength reduction factor. See 9.3. surface.
b) The other layer, consisting of the balance of required
14.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 14 shall apply for design of reinforcement in that direction, shall be placed not less
walls subjected to axial load, withor without flexure. than 3/4in. nor more than' one-thirdthe thickness of wall
14.1.2 Cantilever retaining walls are designed in accor- from interior surface.
dance withthe flexural design provisions of Chapter 10. The 143.5 Vertical and horizontal reinforcement shall not be
minimum horizontal reinforcement shall be in accordance spaced farther apart than three times the wall thickness, nor
with 14.3.3but shall not be less than that required by 7.12. 18 in.
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14.3.6 Vertical reinforcement need not be enclosed by lat- Chapter 15-Footings
eral ties if vertical reinforcementarea is not greater than 0.01
times gross concretearea, ar where vertical reinforcementis 15.O-Notation
not required as compression reinforcement. A, = gross area of section, sq. in.
14.3.7 In addition tothe minimum reinforcement required dp = diameter of pile at footing base
by 14.3.1, not less than two No. 5 bars shall be provided B = ratio of long side to short side of footing
around all window and door openings. Such bars be ex-
tended to develop the bar beyond the comers of the openings
but not less than 24 in. 15.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 15 shall apply for design of
isolated footings and, where applicable, to combined foot-
14.4-Walls designed as compression members ings and mats.
Except as provided in 14.5, walls subject to axial load or 15.1.2 Additional requirements for design of combined
combined flexure and axial load shall be designed as com- footings and mats aregiven in 15.10.
pression members in accordance with provisions of 10.2.
10.3, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.15, and 14.2 and 14.3.
15.24oads and reactions
15.2.1 Footings shallbe proportioned to resist the factored
14.5-Empirical design method loads and induced reactions, in accordance with the appro-
14.5.1 Walls of solid rectangular cross section may be de- priate design requirements of this code and as provided in
signed by the empirical provisionsof 14.5 if resultant of all Chapter 15.
factored loadsis located withinthe middle-third of the over- 15.2.2 Base area of footing or number and arrangement of
all thicknessof wall and alllimits of 14.2, 14.3, and 14.5 are piles shall be determined from unfactored forces and mo-
satisfied. ments transmittedby footing to soil or piles and permissible
14.5.2 Design axial load strength$P,, of a wall satisfying soil pressure or permissible pile capacity selected through
limitations of 14.5.1 shall be computed by Eq. (14-1) unless principles ofsoil mechanics.
designed in accordance with 14.4 15.23 For footings on piles, computations for moments
and shearsmay be based on the assumption thatthe reaction
from any pile is concentrated at pile center.

15.3-Footings supporting circular or regular

where = 0.70 and effective length factorR shall be: polygon shaped columns or pedestals
For location of critical sections for moment, shear, and de-
For walls braced top and bottom against lateral translation velopment of reinforcement in footings, it is permissible to
and treat circular or regular polygon shaped concrete columns or
a) restrained against rotationat one or both ends pedestals assquare members with the same area.
(top and/or bottom)................................................. 0.8
b) unrestrained against rotation at both ends .............. 1.0 15.4"oment in footings
15.4.1 External moment on any section ofa footing shall
................ 2.0
For walls not braced against lateral translation
be determined by passing a vertical plane through the foot-
1 4 5 3 Minimum thicknessof walls designedby empirical ing, and computing the moment of forces the acting over en-
design method. tire area of footing on one side of that vertical plane.
14.53.1 Thickness of bearing walls shall not be less 15.4.2 Maximum factored moment for an isolated footing
than 'lu theunsupportedheight or length,whichever is shall be computed as prescribed in 15.4.1 atcritical sections
shorter, nor less than4 in. located as follows: Thickness of exterior basement walls and foun- a) At face of column, pedestal, or wall, for footings sup-
dation walls shall notbe less than 71/2in. porting a concrete column, pedestal,or wall.
b) Halfway between middle and edge of wall, for footings
14.6"Nonbearing walls supporting a masonry wall.
14.6.1 Thickness of non-bearing walls shall not be less
c) Halfwaybetween face of columnand edge of steel
than 4 in., nor less than 1/30 the least distance between mem- base plate, for footings supporting a column with steel
bers that provide lateral support. base plate.

14.7-Walls as grade beams 15.4.3 In one-way footings, and two-way square footings,
14.7.1 Walls designed as grade beams shall have top and reinforcement shall be distributed uniformly across entire
bottom reinforcement as required for moment in accordance width of footing.
with provisions of 10.2 through 10.7. Design for shear shall 15.4.4 Intwo-wayrectangularfootings,reinforcement
be in accordance with provisionsof Chapter 1 1. shall be distributed as follows:
14.7.2 Portions of grade beam walls exposed above grade a) Reinforcement in long directionshall be distributed
shall also meet requirements of 14.3. uniformly across entire width of footing.
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b)Forreinforcementin short direction, aportionofthe by bearing on concrete and by reinforcement, dowels, and
total reinforcement given byEq. (15-1) shall be distrib- mechanical connectors.
uted uniformly over a band width (centered on center Bearing onconcrete at contact surface between
line of column or pedestal) equal to the length of short supported andsupportingmember shall not exceedconcrete
side of footing. Remainder of reinforcement required in bearing strength for either surface as given by 10.15.
short direction shall be distributed uniformly outside Reinforcement, dowels,or mechanical connec-
center band width of footing. tors between supported and supporting members shall be ad-
equate to transfer
Reinforcement in a) all compressive force that e x d s concrete bearing
2 widthband strength ofeither member
=- (15-1) b) any computed tensile force across interface.
Total reinforcement (ß + 11
in short direction In addition, reinforcement, dowels, or mechanical con-
nectors shall satisfy 15.8.2 or 15.8.3.
15.5“Shear in footings If calculated moments are transferred to sup-
15.5.1 Computation ofshear in footings shall be in accor- porting pedestal or footing, reinforcement, dowels or me-
dance with 1 1.12. chanical connectors shall be adequateto satisfy 12.17.
15.5.2 Location ofcritical section for shear in accordance Lateral forces shall be transferred to supporting
with Chapter11 shall be measured fromface of column,ped- pedestal or footing in accotdance with shear-friction provi-
estal, or wall, for footings supporting a column, pedestal,or sions of 1 1.7,or by other appropriate means.
wall. For footings supporting a columnor pedestal with steel 158.2 In cast-in-place construction, reinforcement re-
base plates, thecritical section shall be measured from loca- quired to satisfy 15.8.1 shallbe provided either by extending
tion defined in 15.4.2 (c). longitudinal bars into supporting pedestal or footing, or by
15.53 Computation of shear on any section through a dowels.
footing supported on piles shall be in accordance with the For cast-in-place columns and pedestals, area
following: of reinforcementacross interface shall be not less than 0.005
a) Entire reaction from any pile whose center is located times gross area of supported member.
dp/2 or more outside the section shall be considered as For cast-in-place walls, area of reinforcement
producing shear on that section. across interface shall be not less than minimum vertical rein-
forcement givenin 14.3.2.
b) Reaction from any pile whosecenter is located dp/2 or
15.8.23 At footings,No. 14 and 18longitudinalbars, in
more inside the section shall be considered as produc-
compression only, may be lap spliced with dowels to provide
ing no shear on that section.
reinforcement requiredto satisfy 15.8.1. Dowels shall not be
c) For intermediatepositions of pile center, the portion of
larger than No. 1 1 bar andshall extend into supported mem-
the pile reaction to be considered as producing shear on
ber adistance not less than the development length of No. 14
the section shall be based onstraight-line interpolation or No. 18 bars or the splice length of the dowels, whichever
between full valueat dp/2 outside the section and zero is greater, and into the footing a distance not less than the de-
value at dp/2 inside the section.
velopment length of the dowels. If a pinnedor rocker connection is provided in
15.6-Development of reinforcement in footings cast-in-place construction, connection shall conform to
15.6.1 Computation of development of reinforcement in
15.8.1 and 15.8.3.
footings shall be in accordance with Chapter12.
15.8.3 In precast construction,anchor bolts or suitable me-
15.6.2 Calculated tension or compression in reinforcement
at each section shall be developed on each side of that sec- chanical connectors are permitted for satisfying 15.8.1.
tionbyproperembedment length, endanchorage,hooks Connection betweenprecast columns or pedes-
(tension only), or combinations thereof. tals and supporting member shall have atensile strength not
15.63 Critical sections for development of reinforcement
less than 200A, in pounds, where A, is area of supported
shall be assumed at the same locations as defined in 15.4.2 member.
for maximum factored moment,and at all other vertical Connection between precast wall and support-
planes where changes of section or reinforcement occur. See ing member shall have a tensile strength not less than 50Ag
also 12.10.6. in pounds, whereAg is cross-sectionalarea of wall.
15.8.33 Anchor bolts and mechanical connectors shall
15.7-Minimum footing depth be designed to reach their designstrength prior to anchorage
Depth offooting above bottom reinforcementshall not be failure or failure of surroundingconcrete.
less than 6 in. for footings on soil, nor less than 12 in. for
footings on piles. 15.9”sloped or stepped footings
15.9.1 In sloped or stepped footings, angle of slope or
15.8-Transfer of force at base of column, wall, or depth and locationof steps shall be such that design require-
reinforced pedestal ments aresatisfied at every section.
15.8.1 Forces and moments at base of column, wall, or 15.9.2 Sloped or stepped footings designed as a unit shall
pedestal shall be transferredto supporting pedestalor footing be constructed to assure action as a unit.
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15.1O-Combined footings and mats Embedded items are not required to be hooked or tied
15.10.1 Footings supporting more than one column, ped- to reinforcement withinplastic concrete,
estal, or wall (combined footings or mats) shall be propor- Embeddeditems are maintained in correct position
tioned to resist the factored loads and induced reactions, in while concrete remainsplastic, and
accordancewith appropriate designrequirementsof this Embedded items are properlyanchoredtodevelop
code. required factored loads.
15.10.2 The Direct Design Methodof Chapter 13 shall not
be used for designof combined footings and mats. 16.5-Identification and marking
15.10.3 Distribution of soil pressure undercombined 16.5.1 Each precast member or element shall be marked
footings and mats shall be consistent with properties of the to indicate location in thestructure, top surface, and date of
soil and the structure and withestablished principles of soil fabrication.
mechanics. 16.5.2 Identification marks shall correspond to the placing
Chapter 1&Precast Concrete
16,6--Transportation, storage, and erection
16.6.1 During curing, form removal, storage, transporta-
16.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 16 shall applyfor design of tion, and erection, precast members shall notbe over-
precast concrete members defined as concrete elements cast stressed, warped, or otherwise damagedor have camberad-
elsewhere thantheir final position in the structure. versely affected.
16.1.2 All provisions of this Code notspecificallyexclud- 16.6.2 Precast members shall be adequately braced and
ed, and not in conflict with provisions of Chapter 16, shall ported during erectionto insure proper alignment and structur-
apply to precast concrete. al integrity until permanent connectionsare completed.

16.2-Design Chapter 17"Composite Concrete Flexural

16.2.1 Design of precast members shall consider all load- Members
ing and restraint conditions from initial fabrication to com-
pletionofthe structure, including form removal, storage, 17.+Notation
transportation, and erection. A , = area of contact surface being investigated for
horizontal shear, in.2
16.2.2 In precast construction that does not behave mono-
lithically, effects at all interconnected and adjoining details A, = area of ties within a distances, in?
shall be considered to assure properperformanceof the b, = width of cross section at contact surface being
structural system. investigated for horizontal shear
16.2.3 Effects of initial and long-timedeflections shall be d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid
considered, including effects on interconnectedelements. of tension reinforcement for entire composite
16.2.4 Design of joints and bearings shall include effects section, in.
of all forces to be transmitted, including shrinkage, creep, h = overall thickness ofcompositemember,in.
temperature, elastic deformation, wind, and earthquake. s = spacing of ties measured along the longitudinal axis
16.25 All details shall be designed to provide for manu- of the member, in.
facturing and erection tolerances andtemporary erection Vnh = nominal horizontal shear strength
stresses. V,, = factored shear force at section
h = correction factor related to unit weight of concrete
16.3-Precast wall panels pv = ratio of tie reinforcement area to area of contact
16.3.1 Precast bearing and nonbearing walls shall be de- surface
signed in accordance with provisions of Chapter 14. = A,/b,s
16.3.2 Where precast panels are designed to span horizon-
tally to columns or isolated footings, the ratio of height to
+ = strength reduction factor.See 9.3.
thickness shall not be limited, provided the effect of deep 17.1-Scope
beam action, lateral buckling, and deflections are provided 17.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 17 shall apply for design of
for in the design. See 10.7. composite concrete flexural members definedas precast a n d
or cast-in-place concrete elements constructed in separate
16.4-Details placements but so interconnected that all elements respond
16.4.1 All details of reinforcement, connections, bearing to loads as a unit.
seats, inserts, anchors, concrete cover, openings, lifting de- 17.1.2 All provisions ofthis code shall apply to composite
vices, fabrication, and erection tolerances shall be shown on concrete flexural members, except as specifically modified
the shop drawings. in Chapter 17.
16.4.2 When approved by the Engineer, embedded items
(such as dowels or inserts) that either protrude from concrete 17.2-General
or remain exposed for inspection may be embedded while 17.2.1 An entire composite member or portions thereof
concrete is in a plastic state provided: may be used inresisting shear and moment.
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17.2.2 Individual elements shall be investigated for all When factored shear force V, at section consid-
critical stages of loading. ered exceeds$(500 b,d), design for horizontal shear shall be
17.2.3 If the specified strength, unit weight,or other prop- in accordance with11.7.4.
erties of the various elementsare different, properties of the Whendeterminingnominalhorizontalshear
individual elementsor the most critical values,shall be used strength over prestressed concrete elements, d shall be as de-
in design. fined or 0.8h, whicheveris greater.
17.2.4 In strength computations of composite members, 175.3 Horizontal shear may be investigated by computing
no distinction shall be made between shored and unshored the actual Chang in compressive or tensile force in any seg-
members. ment, and provisions made to transfer that as force
17.2.5 All elements shall be designed to support all loads shear to thesupportingelement.Thefactoredhorizontal
introduced prior to full development of design strength of shear force shall not exceed horizontal shear strength +Vnh
composite members. as given in through, where area of contact
17.2.6 Reinforcement shallbe provided as required to con- surface A, shall be substituted forb,d.
trol cracking and to prevent separation of individual ele- 1753.1 When ties provided to resist horizontal shear
ments of composite members. are designed to satisfy 17.5.3, thetie area to tie spacing ratio
17.2.7 Composite members shall meet requirements for along the member shall approximately reflect the distribu-
control of deflections in accordance with9.5.5. tion of shear forcesin the member.
175.4 When tension exists across any contact surface be-
17.3-Shoring tween interconnected elements, shear transfer by contact
When used, shoring shall notbe removed until supported shall be permitted only when minimum ties are provided in
elements have developed design properties required to sup accordance with 17.6.
port all loads and limit deflections and cracking at time of
shoring removal. 17.6-Ties for horizontal s h e a r
17.6.1 When tiesare provided to transfer horizontal shear,
17.4-Vertical shear strength tie area shall not be less than that required by, and
17.4.1 When an entire composite member is assumed to tie spacing shall not exceed 4 times the least dimension of
resist vertical shear, design shall be in accordance with re- supported element, nor 24in.
quirements of Chapter 11 as fora monolithically cast mem- 17.6.2 Ties for horizontal shearmay consist of single bars
ber of the same cross-sectional shape. or wire, multiple leg stirrups, or vertical legsof welded wire
17.4.2 Shear reinforcement shall be fully anchoredinto in- fabric (plainor deformed).
terconnected elements in accordance with 12.13. 17.63 All ties shall be fully anchored into interconnected
17.4.3 Extended and anchored shear reinforcement may be elements in accordance with 12.13.
included as ties for horizontal shear.
Chapter 1&-Prestressed Concrete
17.5-Horizontal shear strength
175.1 In a composite member, full transfer of horizontal 18.O-Notation
shear forces shall be assured at contact surfaces of intercon- A = area of that part of cross section between flexural
nected elements. tension face andcenter of gravity of gross section,
175.2 Unless calculated in accordance with 17.5.3, design in.2
of cross sections subject to horizontal shear be shall
based on Aps = area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone,
v, 5 $V,, (17-1) As = area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in.2
A L = area of compression reinforcement,in?
where V, is factored shear force at section considered and b = width of compression face of member, in.
V n h is nominal horizontal shear strength in accordance with
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid
the following. of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in. When contactsurfacesare clean, free of
d ' = distance from extreme compression fiberto centroid
laitance, andintentionallyroughened,shearstrength Vnh
of compression reinforcement,in.
shall not be taken greater than806,d in pounds. Whenminimumtiesareprovided in accor- dp = distance from extreme compression fiberto centroid
dance with 17.6, and contact surfaces are clean and free of of prestressed reinforcement
laitance, but not intentionally roughened, shear strengthV,,,, D = dead loads, or related internal moments and forces
shall not be taken greater than80b,d in pounds. e = baseofNapierianlogarithms When ties are provided in accordance with f = specifiedcompressivestrengthofconcrete,psi
17.6, and contact surfaces are clean, freeof laitance, and
intentionally roughened to a full amplitude of approxi- fi
= 'quare root Of strength Of
mately 'I4 in., shear strength Vnr shall be taken equal to concrete,
(260 + 0.6pJY)hb,d in pounds, butnot greater than fi¿ = compressivestrengthofconcreteattime of initial
500b,d in pounds, Values for h in shall apply. prestress,
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E = square rootof compressive strengthof concrete at 18.1-SCOpe

18.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 18 shall apply- to members

time of initial prestress, psi prestressed with wire, strands, or bars conformingto provi-
fpc = average compressive stress in concrete due to sions for prestressing tendons in 3.5.5.
effective prestress force only (after allowance 18.1.2 All provisions of this code not specifically exclud-
for all prestresslosses), psi ed, and not in conflict with provisions of Chapter 18, shall
fps = stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal apply to prestressedconcrete.
strength, psi 18.13 The following provisionsof this code shall not ap-
ply to prestressed concrete, except as specifically noted: Sec-
fpu = specified tensile strength of prestressing tendons,psi tions 7.6.5, 8.4, 8.10.2, 8.10.3, 8.10.4, 8.11, 10.3.2, 10.3.3,
fPY = specified yield strength of prestressing tendons, psi 10.5,10.6,10.9.1,10.9.2;Chapter13;andSections14.3,
f r = modulus of rupture of concrete, psi 14.5, and 14.6.
fse = effective stress in prestressed reinforcement, (after 18.1.4 Services load conditions are defined to be Load
allowance for all prestresslosses), psi Combinations 1,2,3,9,10, and 11 of 9.2.1 withthe load fac-
tors taken as unity.
f y = specified yield strength of nonprestressed
reinforcement, psi
h = overall thicknessof member, in. 18.2.1 Prestressed members shall meet the strength re-
K = wobble friction coefficient per foot of prestressing quirements specified inthis code.
tendons 18.2.2 Design of prestressed members shall be based on
! = length of span of two-way flat plates in direction strength and on behavior at service conditions at all load
parallel to that of the reinforcement being deter- stages that may be critical during the life of the structure
mined, in. See Eq. (1 8-8). from the time prestressis first applied.
c = length of prestressing tendon element from jacking 18.23 Stress concentrations due to prestressing shall be
considered in design.
18.2.4 Provisions shall be made for effects on adjoining
L = live loads, or related internal moments and forces construction of elastic and plastic deformations, deflections,
N, = tensile force in concrete dueto unfactored dead load changes in length, and rotations due to prestressing. Effects
plus live load(D + L) of temperature andshrinkage shall also be included.
PS = prestressing tendonforce at jacking end 18.2.5 Possibility of buckling in a member between points
Px = prestressing tendonforce at any pointx where concrete and prestressing tendons arein contact and
of buckling in thin webs and flanges shall be considered.
a = total angular change of prestressing tendon profile in
18.2.6 In computing section properties prior to, bonding of
radians from tendon jacking end toany point x
prestressing tendons,effect of loss of areadue to open ducts
R1 = factor defined in 10.2.7 shall be considered.
Y p = factor for type of prestressing tendon
- 0.55 forfpy/fpu not less than 0.80
- 18.3-Design assumptions
-- 0.40 forfpy/fpu not less than0.85 18.3.1 Strength designof prestressed members for flexure
and axial loads shall be based on assumptions given in 10.2,
- 0.28 forfpy/fpu not less than0.90 except 10.2.4 shall apply onlyto reinforcement conforming
P = curvature friction coefficient to 3.5.3.
18.3.2 For investigation of stressesat transfer of prestress,
P = ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement at service loads, and at cracking loads, straight-line theory
- A, /bd
may be used with the following assumptions.
P' = ratio of compression reinforcement Strains vary linearly with depth throughentire
- Aj /bd load range. At cracked sections, concrete resists no tension.
PP = ratio of prestressed reinforcement
- Apsibdp
18.4-Permissible stresses in concrete: flexural
$ = strength reduction factor.See 9.3. members
o 18.4.1 Stressesin concrete immediatelyafterprestress
transfer (before time-dependent prestress losses) shall not
exceed the following:
op = PpfpJfi (a) Extreme fiber stress in compression................ 0.Wh
cy,o p w , o; = reinforcement indices for flanged sections
(b) Extreme fiber stress intension
computed as forW, op,and W' except thatb shall be
the web
and area shall be that
except as permitted in (c) .................................. 3 K
required to develop compressive strength of web (c) Extreme fiber stress in tension at ends of simply su -
only P
ported members ................................................ 6 fli
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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL L997 Obb2949 0538118 417 m


Wherecomputedtensilestressesexceedthesevalues,bond- Frictionlossshallbebasedonexperimentally

ed auxiliaryreinforcement(nonprestressed or prestressed)determinedwobble K andcurvature p frictioncoefficients,
shall be provided in the tensile zone to resist thetotal tensile and shall be verified during tendon stressing operations.
forceinconcretecomputedwith the assumption of an un- 18.6.23 Valuesofwobbleandcurvaturefrictioncoeffi-
cracked shownbe shall
in used ondrawings.
18.4.2 Stresses in concrete at service loads (after allow- 18.63 Where loss of prestress in a membermay occur due
ance for allprestresslosses)shallnotexceedthefollowing: to connectionof member to construction,such loss
Extreme fiber stress in compression of prestress shallbe allowed for in design.
Load Combinations1, 2, 3 ................................. 0.45f:
Load Combinations9, 10, 11 ............................. 0.60f: 18.7-Flexural strength
Extreme fiber stress in tension in 18.7.1 Design moment strength of flexural members shall
precompressed tensile zone .................................. 6 E be computed by the strength design methods of this code.
Extreme fiber stress in tension in precompressed tensile For prestressing tendons, fps shall be substituted for &,, in
zone of members (except two-way slab systems) where strength computations.
analysis based on transformed cracked sections and on 18.7.2 In lieu of a more accurate determination of fps based
moment-deflection relationships show that on strain compatibility, the following approximate values of
immediate and
long-timedeflections comply with fps shall be used iff,, is not less than 0.5fpu
requirementsof9.5.4,andwherecoverrequirements a) For members with bonded prestressing tendons
comply with 1 2 E
18.4.3 Permissible stresses inconcreteof18.4.1and
18.4.2 may be exceeded if shown
formance will not be impaired.
by test or analysis that per-
fps = f p u { 1” B, pp f,.+-(W-o’)
fc’ dp I} (18-3)

18.5-Permissible stresses in prestressing

tendons when
accountinto takencompression
is any If
185.1 Tensilestressinprestressingtendonsshallnotex-calculatingfp, by (18-3), the term
ceed the following:
jacking force, 0.94fp,,butnot
of 0.80fp,and the maximum value
ommended by manufacturer of prestressing tendons or
[P+ + W’> -d p - (18.7.2)l
shall be taken not less than 0.17 andd’ shall be no greater
b)Immediatelyafterprestresstransfer, 0.82fp,,butnot
greater than 0.74fp,. thano.15dp.
c) Post-tensioningtendons, at anchoragesandcouplers, b) For mmbers With unbonded Prestressing tendons and
with a span-to-depth

18.6-Loss of prestress L-’

18.6.1 To determine effective prestressf,,, allowance for f p s = f,, + 10,OOo + -J C ( 18-4)
the following sourcesof loss of prestress shallbe considered: loop,
a) Anchorageseatingloss
butfp, in Eq. (18-4) shall not be taken greater thanfp,, nor
b) Elastic shortening of concrete
c)Creep of concrete
d)Shrinkage of concrete c) For members with unbonded prestressing tendons and
e) Relaxation of tendon stress with a span-to-depth ratiogreater than 35
f) Friction loss due to intended or unintended curvature in
f ’
post-tensioning tendons.
fps = f,, + 1~,OOo+ -Jc (18-5)
18.6.2-Friction loss in post-tensioning tendons 30Pp Effect of friction loss in post-tensioning ten-
dons shallbe computed by but fps in Eq. (18-5) shall not be taken greater thanfppr nor
Cf, + 30,000).
(18-1) 18.7.3 Nonprestressed reinforcement conforming to 3.5.3,
if used with prestressing tendons, may be considered to con-
tribute to the tensileforce and may be included in moment
When (KG+ pa)is not greater than 0.3, effect of frictionstrength computationsat a stress equal to the specified yield
loss may be computedby strength& Other nonprestressed reinforcementmay be in-
cluded in strength computations only if a strain compatibility
P, = P,( 1 + K/,+ pa) ( 18-2) analysis is made to determine stresses in such reinforcement.

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18.8-Limits for reinforcement of flexural members each direction. Spacing of bonded reinforcement shall not
18.8.1 Ratio of prestressed and nonprestressed rein- exceed 12 in.
forcement used for computation of moment strength of a 18.9.4 Minimum lengthof bonded reinforcement required
member, except as provided in 18.8.2, shall be such that by 18.9.2 and 18.9.3shall be as follows.
op,[ap+ d/dp(a- a')l or [opw + did, (W, - W',,,)] is not In positive moment areas, minimum length of
greater than 0.368,. bondedreinforcement shall beone-thirdthe clear span
18.8.2 When a reinforcement ratio in excess of that speci- length and centeredin positive moment area.
fied in 18.8.1 is provided, design moment strength shall not In negative moment areas, bonded reinforce-
exceed the moment strength basedon the compression por- ment shall extend one-sixth the clear span on each side of
tion of the moment couple. support.
18.8.3 Total amount of prestressed and nonprestressed re- Where bonded reinforcement is provided for
inforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored load at design moment strength in accordance with 18.7.3, or for
least 1.2 times the cracking load computed on the basis of the tensile stress conditions in accordance with, mini-
modulus of rupture& specified in, exceptfor flexural mum length also shall conformto provisions of Chapter 12.
members with shear and flexural strengthat least twice that
required by 9.2. 18.1O-Statically indeterminate structures
18.10.1 Staticaliy indeterminate structures of prestressed
18.4"Minimum bonded reinforcement
18.9.1 A minimum area of bondedshall be concrete shall be designed for satisfactory performance at
in memberswith
load conditions and for strength*
tendons as requiredby 18.9.2 and 18.9.3. 18.10.2 Performance at service load conditions shall be
18.9.2 Except as in 18.9.3, of determined by elastic analysis, considering reactions, mo-
shall be computed
by shears, and axial forces produced by prestressing,
creep, shrinkage, temperature change, axial deformation,
A, = 0.004A (18-6) restraint of attached structural elements, and foundation
settlement. Bonded reinforcement required by Eq. (18-6) 18.103 Moments to be usedto compute required strength
shall be uniformly distributed over precompressed tensile shall bethe sum of the moments due to reactions induced by
zone asclose as practicableto extreme tension fiber. prestressing (witha load factorof 1.O) and the moments due Bonded reinforcement shall be required regard- to factored loads.The sum of these moments may be adjust-
less of service load stress conditions. ed as permitted in 18.10.4.
18.9.3 For two-way flat plates, defined as solid slabs of 18.10.4 Redistribution of negative momentsin contin-
uniform thickness, minimum area and distribution of bonded uous prestressed flexural members
reinforcement shallbe as follows. Where bonded reinforcement is provided at
18.93.1 Bonded reinforcement shall not be required in supports in accordance with 18.9.2, negative moments cal-
positive momentareas where computed tensile stress in con- culated by elastic theory for any assumed loading arrange-
crete at service load (after allowance for all prestresslosses) ment, may be increasedor decreased by not more than
does not exceed2 fi.
!"> In positive moment areas where com uted ten-
sile stress in concrete atservice load exceeds2 f ,mini-
mum area of bonded reinforcement shallbe computed by

(18-7) The modified negative moments shallbe used
for calculatingmoments at sectionswithinspans for the
where design yield strength fy shall not exceed 60,000 psi. same loading arrangement.
Bonded reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed over Redistribution of negative moments shall
precompressed tensile zone as close as practicable to ex- be made only when the section at which moment is re-
treme tension fiber. duced is so designed that ap,[ap+ d/dp(w - o')],or In negative moment areasat column supports, [opw + d/dp (o, - a',,,)]whichever
, is applicable, is not
minimum area of bonded reinforcement in each direction greater than 0.2481.
shall be computed by
18.1l-Compression members: Combined flexure
A, = 0.00075ht ( 18-8) and axial loads
18.11.1 Prestressedconcretememberssubject to com-
where t is length of span in direction parallel to thatof the bined flexure and axial load, with or without nonprestressed
reinforcement being determined. Bonded reinforcement re- reinforcement, shall be proportioned by the strength design
quired by Eq. (18-8) shall be distributed withina slab width methods of this code for members without prestressing.Ef-
between lines that are 1.5h outside opposite facesof the col- fects of prestress, creep, shrinkage, and temperature change
umn support. At least 4 bars or wires shall be provided in shall be included.

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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL L997 m 0662947 0538320 075


18.11.2-Limitsforreinforcement of prestressed spalling forces induced by tendon anchorages. Regions of

compression members abrupt changein section shall be adequately reinforced. Members with averageprestressfpc less than 18.132 End blocks shall be provided where required for
225 psi shall have minimum reinforcement in accordance support bearingor for distributionof concentrated prestress-
with 7.10, 10.9.1 and 10.9.2for columns, or 14.3 for walls. ing forces. Except for walls, members with average pre- 18.133 Post-tensioning anchorages and supporting con-
stress& equal to or greater than 225 psi shall have all pre- crete shall be designedto resist maximum jackingforce for
stressing tendonsenclosed by spirals or lateral ties in strength of concrete at time ofprestressing.
accordance withthe following: 18.13.4 Post-tensioning anchorage zones shallbe designed to
Spirals shall conformto 7.10.4. develop the guaranteed ultimate tensile strength of Prestressing
Lateral ties shall be at least No. 3 in size or welded wire Q,of 0.90 for concrete.
tendons using a strength reduction factor
fabric of equivalentarea, and spaced vertically not to
18.1A o r r o s i o n protection for unbonded
exceed 48 tie bar or wire diameters, or least dimension prestressing tendons
of compression member. 18.14.1 Unbondedtendons shall be completelycoated
Ties shall be located vertically not more than half a tie with suitable material to ensure corrosion protection.
spacing above top of footing or slab in any story, and 18.14.2 Tendon wrapping shall be continuous overentire
shall be spacedas provided herein to not more than half length to be unbonded, andshall prevent intrusionof cement
a tie spacing below lowesthorizontal reinforcement in paste or loss of coating mat6rials duringconcreteplacement.
members supported above. 18.143 Unbonded single strand tendons shall be protected
Where beams or brackets frame into all sides of a col- against corrosion in accordance with the Post-Tensioning In-
umn, ties may be terminated not more than 3 in. below stitute “Specification for Unbonded Single Strand Tendons,”
lowest reinforcement in such beamsor brackets. PTI Institute, July 1993.
18.11.23 For walls with average prestressf, equal to or
greater than 225 psi, minimum reinforcement required by
18.1 5-Post-tensioning ducts
18.15.1 Ducts for grouted or unbonded tendons shall be
14.3 may be waived where structural analysis shows ade- mortar-tight and nonreactive with concrete, tendons, or filler
quate strength and stability. material.
18.15.2 Ducts for grouted single wire, strand, or bar ten-
18.12-Slab systems
18.12.1 Factored moments and shears in presmssed slab dons shall have an inside diameter at least 1/4 in. larger than
systems reinforced for flexure in more than one direction tendon diameter.
shall be determined in accordance with provisions of 13.7 18.153 Ducts for grouted multiple wire, strand, or bar ten-
(excluding and, or by more detailed design dons shall have an inside cross-sectional area at least 2 times
procedures. area of tendons.
18.12.2 Moment strength of prestressed slabs at everysec- 18.15.4 Ducts shall be maintained free of water if mem-
tion shall be at least equal to the required strength consider- bers to be grouted are exposed to temperatures belowfreez-
ing 9.2, 9.3,18.10.3,and 18.10.4. Shear strength of ing prior to grouting.
prestressed slabs at columns shall be at least equal to the re-
18.164àrout for bonded prestressing tendons
quired strength considering 9.2, 9.3, 11.1, 11.11.2,and 18.16.1 Grout shall consist of portland cement and water;
1 or portland cement, sand, and water.
18.12.3 At service load conditions,all serviceability limita- 18.163 Materials for grout shall conform to the following:
tions, including specified limits on deflections, shall be met, Portland cement shall conform to 3.2.
with appropriate considerationof the factors listed in 18.10.2. Water shall conformto 3.4.
18.12.4 For normallive loads and loads uniformly distrib- Sand, ifused, shall conform to “Standard
uted, spacingof prestressing tendonsor groups of tendons in Specifications for Aggregate for
one direction shall not exceed 8 times the slab thickness, nor (ASTM C 144) except that gradation may be modified as
5 ft. Spacing of tendons also shall provide a minimum aver- necessary to obtain satisfactoryworkability.
age prestress, after allowance for all prestress losses, of Admixtures conformingU, 3.6 and known to
125 psi on the slab section tributary to the tendon or tendon have no injurious effects on grout, steel, or concrete may be
group. A minimum of two tendonsshall be provided in each used. Calciumchloride shall not beused.
direction through the critical shear section over columns. 18.163Selection of grout proportions
Special considerationof tendon spacingshall be provided for 18.163.1 Proportions ofmaterials for grout shall be
slabs with concentrated loads. based on either ofthe following:
18.12.5 In slabs withunbonded prestressing tendons, a) Resultsof tests onfreshandhardened grout prior to
bonded reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with
beginning grouting operations, or
18.9.3 and 18.9.4.
b) Prior documentedexperiencewith similar materials
and equipment and under comparable field conditions.
18.1 &Tendon anchorage zones
18.13.1 Reinforcement shall be provided where required Cement used in the work shall correspond to
in tendon anchorage zones to resist bursting, splitting, and that on whichselection of grout proportions was based.
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Licensed by Information Handling Services Water content shall be minimum necessary 18.19.3 In unbonded construction subject to repetitive
for proper pumping of grout; however, water-cement ratio loads, special attention shallbe given to the possibility of
shall not exceed 0.45 by weight. fatigue in anchorages and couplers. Water shall not be added to increase grout 18.19.4 Anchorage and end fittings shall be permanent-
flowability that hasbeen decreased by delayed use of
18.16.4"ixing andpumping grout
grout. I ly protected against corrosion. Grout shall be mixed in equipment capable of Chapter 19-Shells

continuous mechanical mixing and agitation that will pro-
duceuniform distribution of materials, passedthrough 19.0-Notation
screens, and pumped in a manner that will completely fill f: = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
tendon ducts. Temperature of membersat time of grouting 19.1-Scope and definitions
shall be above 35 F and shall be maintained above 35 F until 19.1.1 Provisions of Chapter 19 shall apply for design
field-cured 2-in. cubes of grout reach a minimum compres- of shell concrete structures havingthicknesses equal to or
sive strength of 800 psi. greater than 12 in. Grout temperatures shall not be above 90 F 19.1.2 All provisions of this Code not specifically ex-
during mixing and pumping. cluded, and not in conflict with provisions of Chapter 19
shall apply to shell structures.
18.1 7-Protection for prestressing tendons 19.1.3 Shells may be bounded by supporting members
Burning or welding operations in vicinity of prestressing and edge members provided to stiffen the shell and dis-
tendons shall be carefully performed, so that tendons are not tribute or carry load in composite actionwith that shell.
subject to excessivetemperatures, weldingsparks, or ground
currents. 19.2"General
19.2.1 Methods of analysis which are based on accepted
principles of engineering mechanicsand applicable to the
18.1 &Application and measurement of
prestressing force geometry of the structure shallbe used.
18.18.1 Prestressing force shall be determined by both of 19.2.2 Elastic behavior is an accepted basis for deter-
the following methods: mining internalforces,displacements,andstability of
shells. Equilibrium checks of internal forces and external
a) Measurement of tendon elongation. Required elonga- loads shallbe made toinsure consistency of results.
tion shall be determined from averageload-elongation
19.2.3 The redistribution of forces in a statically inde-
curves for prestressing tendons used.
terminate structure shall be considered.
b) Observation of jacking force on a calibrated gage or 19.2.4 The stiffening effect of buttresses or other inte-
load cell or by use of acalibrated dynamometer. gral portions of the structure shall be considered.
Cause of any difference in force determination between 19.2.5 Shell elements shall be proportioned for the re-
(a) and (b) that exceeds5 percent for pretensioned elements quired
strength in accordance with provisions of
or 7 percent for post-tensioned construction shall be ascer- Chapter 9 of this Code.
tained and corrected. 19.2.6 Investigation of thin shells for stability shall in-
18.18.2 Where transfer offorce from bulkheads of preten- clude consideration of possible reduction in buckling ca-
sioning bed to concrete is accomplished by flame cutting pre- pacity caused by large deflections, creep effects,
stressing tendons, cuttingpoints and cutting sequence shallbe temperature, cracking and deviation between actual and
predetermined to avoid undesired temporary stresses. theoretical shell surface.
18.183 Long lengths of exposed pretensioned strand shall 19.2.7 The effect of openings or penetrations on the
be cut near the member to minimize shock to concrete. strength and behavior of the overall structure shall be con-
18.18.4 Total loss of prestress due to unreplaced broken sidered. The shell may be thickened around the openings
tendons shall not exceed 2 percent of total prestress. or penetrations if necessary to satisfy strength require-
ments and facilitate concrete placement.
18.14-Post-tensioning anchorages and couplers 19.2.8 Nonlinear variations in circumferential and me-
18.19.1 Anchorages andcouplers for bonded and unbond- ridional stresses acrossthe shell thickness shall be consid-
ed prestressing tendons shall develop at least 95 percent of ered when appropriate.
the specified breaking strengthof the tendons, whentested in 19.2.9-Supporting members
an unbonded condition, without exceeding anticipated set. Supporting membersshall be designed in ac-
For bonded tendons, anchorages andcouplers shall be locat- cordance with applicable provisionsof this code.
ed so that 100 percent of the specified breaking strength of A portion of the shell equal to the effective
the tendons shall be developed at critical sections after ten- flange width as specified in 8.10 may be assumed to act
dons are bonded in the member. with supporting members.
18.19.2 Couplers shall be placed in areas approved by Within the effective flange width of shell as-
the Engineer and enclosed in housing long enoughto per- sumedtoact with supporting members, reinforcement
mit necessary movements. perpendicular tosupporting member shall be at least
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STD.ACI 347-ENGL L997 0 b b 2 9 4 9 0538322 948 m

equal to that required for a T-beam flange as specified in 19.4.2 Reinforcement shallbe provided in two or more di-
8.10.5. rections and shall be proportioned such that its resistance in Compatibility shall be maintained atthe any direction exceeds the component of applied forces in
junction of the shelland the supporting member and at all that direction.
locations of discontinuities in geometric and material
19.43 Shell reinforcement required for flexure shall be
properties which affect the shell stiffness.
19.2.10-Model tests proportioned with due regard to axial forces. Model tests may be used in support of the 19.4.4 Reinforcement shall meet the minimum require-
design if they are planned and executed by individuals or ments of 7.12.
laboratories with experience in physical testing. 19.4.5 Shell reinforcement at junction of shell and sup- When model tests areused, only those por- porting members or edge members shall be anchored in or
tions of the shell structure that significantly affect items through supporting members by embedment length,
under study need be simulated. hooks, or mechanical anchorage in accordance with Every attempt shall be made to insure that
Chapter 12.
elastic model tests reveal quantitative behavior of proto-
type structure. 19.4.6 All forces imposed by curved reinforcement shall
be considered in the design of local areas, such as around
19.3-Design strength of materials penetrations.
Specifiedcompressivestrength of concrete f at
28 days shall not be less than 3000 psi. lg.!bConstruction
The Engineer shall specify the tolerances for the shapeof
19.4-Section design and reinforcement the shell.If construction results in deviations from
the shape
19.4.1 Tensile strength of the concrete shall not be relied greater thanthe specified tolerances, an analysis
of the effect
upon to resist flexural and membrane action. of the deviations shall be made.

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Chapter 2GStrength Evaluation of 20.4-Load tests of flexural

Structures 20.4.1 When flexural members, including beams and
slabs, are load tested, the additional provisions of 20.4 shall
20.0-Notation apply.
a = maximumdeflectionunder test load ofmember 20.4.2 Base readings (datum for deflection measurements)
relative to a line joining the ends of the span, or of shall be made immediately prior to application of test load.
the free end of cantilever relative to its support, in.
20.43 That portion of the structure selected for loading
D = dead loads, or related internal moments and forces
shall be subject to a total test load, including dead loads al-
h = overall thicknessofmember,in.
ready acting and other loads determined to be applicable by
/I = span of member under load test (shorter span of flat the Engineer.
slabs and of slabs supported onfour sides). Span of
member, except as provided in 20.4.9, is distance 20.4.4 Test load shall be applied in not less than four ap-
between centers of supports or clear distance proximately equal increments without shock to the struc-
between plus depth of member, whichever tureandin suchamanner as to avoidarching of loading
in. is smaller, materials,
L = live loads, or related internal moments and forces 20.45 After test load has been inposition for 24 hr, initial
deflection readings shall be taken.
20.1-Strength evaluation: General 20.4.6 Test loadshall be removed immediatelyafter initial
If doubtdevelopsconcerning the safety ofa structure or deflection readings, and final deflection readings shall be
member, and/or low-Strength ConCrete is Confirmed in aCCOr- taken 24 h after removal of the test load,
dance with and computations indicate that load-car- 20.4.7 If the portion of the structure tested shows visible
Ting has significmtlY the Engineer evidence of failure, the portion tested shall be considered to
Order a * (For Of
have failed the test and no retesting of the previously tested
systems of design or construction, see 1.4 regarding use of portion shall be permitted.
20.4.8 If the portion of the structure tested shows no visi-
ble evidence of failure, the following criteria may be taken
20.2-Analytical investigations: General
20.2.1 strength
If evaluation is by analysis,thorough
a as indication Of behavior:
field investigation shall be made of dimensions and details of a) If measured maximum deflection a of a beam, floor or
members, properties of materials, and other pertinent condi- roof is less than /?/ 20,000h.
tions of the structure as actually built. b) If measured maximum deflection a of a beam, floor, or
20.2.2 Analyses based oninvestigationrequired by 20.2.1 roofexceeds f:/20,000h, deflectionrecoverywithin
shall satisfy the Engineer that the load factors meet require- 24 hr after removal of the test load shall be at least
ments and intent of this code. See 20.6. 75 percent of the maximumdeflectionfornonpre-
stressed concrete, or 80 percent for prestressed concrete.
General The Engineer shall also consider the original design
20.3.1 If strength evaluation is by load tests, a qualified
functional requirements structurein question when es-
Engineer authorized by the Owner and Engineer shall con-
tablishmg acceptancecriteria for the testing and determining
trol such tests.
satisfactory behavior.
20.3.2 A load test shall not be made until that portion of
the structure to be subject to load is at least 56 days old. If 20.4.9 In 20.4.8(a) and (b), 4 for cantilevers shall be taken
the Owner, Engineer andall other involved parties agree, it as two times thedistance from supportto cantilever end, and
is permitted to make the test at an earlier age. deflection shall be adjusted for any support movement.
20.3.3 When only aportion of the structure is to be load 20.4.10 Nonprestressed concrete construction failing to
tested, the questionable portion shall be load tested in such Show 75 percent recovey of deflection as required by
amanner as to adequatelytest the suspectedsource of 20.4.8tb) may be retested not earlier than 72 hr after removal
weakness. of the first test load. The portion of the structure tested shall
20.3.4 Forty-eight hours prior to application of test load, a be considered Satisfactory if:
to simulate effect of
of the dead loads not a) me portion of the shows no visible
already acting shall beapplied and shall remain in place until dence offailure in the retest, and
all testing has been completed.
b)Deflectionrecoverycausedbysecond test loadis at
20.3.5 Load tests are not confinedto the completeconcrete
least 80 percent of the maximum deflection in the sec-
structure; tests may be utilized to determine strength charac-
teristics of specific elements suchas anchorages and embed- ond test.
ments.TheEngineer shall specify the appropriate testing 20.4.11 Prestressed concrete construction shall notbere-
parameters. tested.

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20.5”embers other than flexural members /dh = development lengthfor a bar with astandardhook as
Members other than flexural members preferably shall be defined in Eq. (21-5)
investigated by analysis. I , = minimum length, measured from joint face along
axis of structural member, over which transverse
20.6-Safety reinforcement mustbe provided, in.
20.6.1 Load tests shall be conducted in such a manner
as to provide for safety of life and structure during the 4 = length of entire wall (diaphragm) or of segment of
test. Theload testing shallnot interfere with the operating wall (diaphragm) consideredin direction of shear
status of the nuclear plant, or violateany plant Technical force
Specifications. Mpr = probable flexural moment strengthof members,
20.6.2 No safety measures shall interfere with load test with or without axial load, determined usingthe
procedures or affect results. properties of the member at the joint faces assuming
a tensile strength in the longitudinalbars of at least
Chapter 21-Special Provisions for 1.25fy and astrength reduction factor 4 of 1.O
Seismic Design M, = portion of slab moment balanced by support
21. M o t a t i o n s = spacing oftransversereinforcementmeasuredalong
Ach = cross-sectionalarea of a structural member the longitudinal axis of the structural member, in.
measured out-to-out of transverse
so = maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement,in.
A , = area of concrete section, resisting shear, of an indi- V, = nominal shear strength provided by concrete
vidual pier or horizontal wall segment, in? V, = design shear force determined from or
A,, = net area of concrete section bounded by web thick-
ness andlength of section in the direction of shear V, = nominal shear strength
force considered, in? V, = factored shear force at section
A, = gross area of section, in? a, = coefficientdefining the relative contributionof
Ai = effective cross-sectional area within a joint, see concrete strength to wall strength. See Ekl. (21-7).
2 1S.3.1, in a planeparallel to plane of reinforce-
p = ratio ofnonprestressedtensionreinforcement
ment generating shear in the joint. The jointdepth
shall bethe overall depth of the column. Where a = AJbd
beam framesinto a support oflarger width, the pg = ratio of total reinforcement area to cross-sectional
effective width ofthe joint shall not exceed the area of column.
smaller of: pn = ratio of distributed shear reinforcement on a plane
beam widthplus the joint depth perpendicular to plane ofA,v
twice the smaller perpendicular distance from the ps = ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to the core
longitudinal axis of the beam to the column side. volume confined by thespiral reinforcement
See (measured out-bout)
Ash = total cross-sectionalarea of transversereinforcement
(includingcrossties) within spacing s and perpendic- P, = A,, /Acv;where A,, is the projection on A,, of area
of distributed shear reinforcement crossing the plane
ular to dimensionh,
b = effective compressive flange width of a structural
member, in. $ = strength reduction factor
b , = web width, or diameter of circular section, in.
d = effectivedepthof section 21.1-Definitions
! db =diameter
bar Buse of structure-Level at which earthquake motions are
f L = specified compressivestrength of concrete, psi assumed to be imparted to a building. This level does not
necessarily coincide with the ground level.
= square root of specified compressivestrength of con-
crete, psi Boundary elements-Portionsalongwallanddiaphragm
fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement,psi edges strengthenedby longitudinaland transverse reinforce-
ment. Boundary elements do not necessarily require an in-
fyh = specified yield strength of transverse
crease in the thickness of the wall or diaphragm. Edges of
reinforcement, psi
openings within wallsanddiaphragms shall be provided
h, = cross-sectional dimension of column core measured
with boundary elements if requiredby or 21.6.6.
center-to-centerof confining reinforcement
h, = height of entire wall (diaphragm) or of the segment Collector elements-Elements that serve to transmit the in-
of wall (diaphragm) considered to members of the lateral-
ertial forces within the diaphragms
gd = developmentlength for a straight bar force resisting systems.

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Handling 349-ENGL 1997 0662949 0538124 710 m
S T D e A C I 349-ENGL 1997 m 0bb2949 0538125 b57 m

Crosstie-A continuousbarhaving a hooknotlessthan The provisions of Chapters 1 through 18 shall

135 deg with at least a six-diameter (but not less than 3 in.) apply except as modified by the provisionsof this chapter.
extension atone end and a hook not less than90 deg with at A reinforced concrete structural system not sat-
least a six-diameter extension at the other end. The hooks isfying the requirements of this chapter is allowed if it is
shall engage peripheral longitudinal bars.The 90-deg hooks demonstrated by experimental evidence and analysis that the
of two successive crossties engaging the same longitudinal proposed system will have strength and toughness equal to
bars shall be alternated end for end. or exceeding those provided by a comparable monolithic re-
inforced concrete structure satisfying this chapter.
Design load combinationsrombinations of factored loads 21.2.2-Analysisandproportioning of structural
and forces specified in 9.2. members
Development length for a bar with a standard hook-The The interaction of all structural and nonstruc-
shortest distance betweenthecriticalsection(wherethe mal members which materially affect the response of the
strength of the bar is to be developed) and a tangent to the structure to earthquake motions shall be considered in the
outer edgeof the 90-deg hook. analysis. Rigid members assumed notto be a part of the
Factored loads and forces-Specifiedloadsand forces lateral force resisting system are allowed provided their ef-
modified by the factors in9.2. fect on the response of the system is considered and accom-
modated in the structural design. Consequences offailure of
Hoop-A hoop is a closed tie or continuously wound tie. A structural and nonstructural members which are not a part of
closed tie can be made up of several reinforcing elements the lateral force resisting system shallalso be considered.
with 135-deg hooks havinga six-diameter (but notless than Structural members below base ofstructure re-
3 in.) extension at each end.A continuously wound tie shall quired to transmit to the foundation forces resulting from
have at each end a 135-deg hook witha six-diameter (but not earthquake effects shall also comply with the requirements
less than 3 in.) extension that engages the longitudinal rein- of Chapter 21.
forcement. All structural members assumed notto be part
Lateral-force resisting system-That portion of the struc- of the lateral force resisting system shall conformto 21.7.
ture composed of members proportioned to resist forces re- 21.2.3-Strength reduction factors
lated to earthquakeeffects. Strength reduction factors shallbe as given in 9.3.4.
21.2.Aoncrete inmembersresistingearthquake-
Shell concrete4oncrete outside the transverse reinforce- induced forces
ment confining the concrete. >
Compressive strength,f of the concreteshall be not less
than 3000 psi.
Specified lateral forces-Lateral forces corresponding to
the appropriate distribution of the design base shear force 21.2.5-Reinforcementin membersresisting earth-
prescribed by the governing code for earthquake-resistant quake-induced forces
design. Reinforcementresistingearthquake-induced
flexuralandaxial forces inframemembersand in wall
Structural diaphragme”tructura1 members, such as floor boundary elements
ASTM A706.
and roof slabs, which transmit inertial forces
to lateral-force ASTM A615 Grades 40 and 60 reinforcement are allowed in
resisting members. these members if (a) the actual yield strength based on mill
tests does not exceed the specified yield strength by more
Structural trusses-Assemblagesofreinforcedconcrete than 18,000 psi (retests shall not exceed this value by more
members subjected primarily to axial forces. than an additional3000 psi) and(b) the ratio of the actual ul-
timate tensile stress to the actual tensile yield strength is not
Structural walls-Walls proportioned to resistcombina- less than 1.25.
tions of shears, moments, and axialforces induced by earth-
21.2.LWelded splicesandmechanicallyconnected
quake motions.A “shearwall” isa “structural wall.”
Strut-An element of a structural diaphragm used
to provide Reinforcementresistingearthquake-induced
continuity aroundan opening in the diaphragm. flexural or axial forces in frame membersor in wall bound-
ary elements are permitted tobe spliced using welded splices
Tie elements-Elementswhichservetotransmitinertial or mechanicalconnectionsconforming to or
forces and prevent separation of such building components provided not more than alternate barsin each layer
as footings and walls. of longitudinal reinforcementare spliced at a section and the
center-to-center distance between splices of adjacent barsis
21.2-General requirements 24 in. or more measured along the longitudinal axis of the
21.2.1-scope member. The reinforcing bar detailing requirements of Welding of stirmps, ties, inserts,or other simi-
this chapter shall be the design practice for nuclear plants lar elements to longitudinal reinforcement required by de-
within the Durview ofthis code. sign shall notbe Dermitted.
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STD.ACI 349-ENGL 2997 m 0662949 0538L26 593 m


21.3-Flexural members of frames Where hoops are required, longitudinal bars on
21.3.1-Scope theperimetershallhavelateralsupportconformingto
Requirements of 21.3 apply to frame members (a) resist-
ing earthquake-induced forces and (b) proportioned primari- 2133.4 Where hoopsare not required, stirrups shall be
ly to resist flexure. These frame members shall also satisfy spaced at no more than [d/2] throughout the length of the
the following conditions: member.
213.1.1 Factored axial compressiveforce on the mem- 2133.5 Stirrups or ties required to resist shear shallbe
ber shall not exceed (A& / 10). hoops over lengthsof members as specified in 21.3.3,21.4.4,
213.1.2 Clear span for the membershall not be less than and 21.5.2.
four timesits effective depth. 21.33.6 Hoops in flexural members are allowed to be
213.13 The width-to-depth ratio shallnotbe less made up oftwo pieces of reinforcement:a U-stirmp having
than 0.3. hooks not less than 135 deg with six-diameter(but not less The width shall not be (a) lessthan 10 in. and than 3 in.) extension anchored in the confined core and a
(b) more than the width of the supporting member (mea- crosstie to make a closed hoop. Consecutive crossties en-
sured on a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of gaging the same longitudinal bar shall have their 90-deg
the flexural member) plusdistances on each side of the sup- hooks at opposite sides of the flexural member. If the lon-
porting member not exceeding three-fourths of the depth of gitudinal reinforcing bars securedby the crossties are con-
the flexural member. finedby a slab only onÒne side ofthe flexural frame
213.2-Longitudinal reinforcement member, the 90-deg hooksof the crossties shall all be At any section of a flexural member and for placed on that side.
the top as wellas for the bottom reinforcement the amount 2 1 3 . A h e a r strength requirements
of reinforcement shall not be less than (200 b, d /fy) and 213.4.1-Design forces
the reinforcement ratio, P,shall not exceed 0.025. At least The design shearforce V, shall be determined from con-
two bars shall be provided continuously both top and sideration of the statical forces on the portion of the member
bottom. between faces of the joints. It shall be assumed that moments Positive-moment strengthat joint face shallbe of opposite sign corresponding to probable strength MF act
not less than one-halfof the negative-moment strength pro- at the joint faces and that the member is loaded with the fac-
vided at that face of the joint. Neither the negative- northe tored tributary gravity load along its span.
positive-momentstrengthatany section alongmember
213.4.2 For determining the required transverse rein-
length shall be less than one-fourth the maximum moment
forcement in frame members in which the earthquake-in-
strength provided at face of either joint. duced shear force calculated in accordance with
21.3.23 Lap splices of flexural reinforcement shall be represents one-halfor more oftotal design shear, the quanti-
permitted only if hoop or spiral reinforcement is provided ty V, shall be assumedto be zero if the factored axial com-
over the lap length. Maximum spacing of the transverse re- pressive force includingearthquakeeffects is less than
inforcement enclosing the lapped bars shall not d/4 or
(A& / W .
4 in. Lap splices shall not be used (a) within the joints, (b)
within a distance of twice the member depth from the face of
the joint, and (c) at locations whereanalysis indicates flexur- 21.4-Frame members subjectedto bending and
al yielding caused by inelastic lateral displacements of the axial load
frame. 21.4.1"scope Weldedsplicesandmechanicalconnections The requirements ofthis section apply to frame members
shall conform to (a) resisting earthquake-inducedforces and (b) havinga fac-
21.3.3-Transverse reinforcement tored axial force exceeding (Ag f i / 10). Theseframe mem-
bers shall also satisfy the following conditions: Hoops shall be provided in the following re-
gions offrame members: The shortest cross-sectional dimension, mea-
sured on a straight line passing through the geometric cen-
I ) Over a length equal to twice the member depth mea- troid, shall notbe less than 12 in.
sured from the face of the supporting member toward The ratio of the shortest cross-sectional dimen-
midspan, at both ends of the flexural member. sion to theperpendiculardimensionshallnotbeless
2) Over lengths equal to twice the member depth on both than 0.4.
I sides of a section
yielding is likely
to 21.4.2"inimum flexural strength of columns
occur in connection with inelasticlateral displacements Flexural strength of any column proportioned
of the frame. to resist a factoredaxialcompressive force exceeding The first hoop shall be located not more than (AJk/lO) shall satisfy or
2 in. fromthe face of a supporting member. Maximum spac- Lateral strength and stiffness of columns not satisfying
ing of the hoops shall not exceed(a) [d/4], (b) eight timesthe calculated
diameter of the smallest longitudinal bars, (c) 24 times the strengthand stiffness of thestructurebutshallconform
diameter of the hoop bars, and(d) 12 in. to 21.7.
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S T D - A C 1 349-ENGL 3997 Obb2949 0538327 42T

WS72 AC1 STANDARD The flexural strengths of the columnsshall sat- 4)If the design strength ofmembercore satisfies the
isfy Eq. (21-1) requirementof the specifiedloadingcombinations
including earthquake effect, Eq. (21-3) and (10-5) need
(21-1) not be satisfied. Transverse reinforcement shall be spaced at
distances notexceeding (a) one-quarter of the minimum
C M , = sum of moments, at the center of the joint, corre- member dimension and(b) 4 in.
sponding tothe design flexural strength of the columns fram- Crossties or legs of overlapping hoopsshall not
inginto that joint. Columnflexural strength shall be
be spaced more than14 in. on center in the direction perpen-
calculated for the factored axial force, consistent with the di-
dicular to the longitudinal axis of the structural member.
rection of the lateral forces considered, resulting in the low-
est flexural strength. Transverse reinforcement in amount specified
in through shall be provided over a length
C Mg= sum of moments, at the center of the joint, corre- 1, from eachjoint face and on bothsides of anysection where
sponding to the design flexural strengths of the girders fram- flexural yielding is likely to occur in connection with inelas-
ing into thatjoint. tic lateral displacements ofthe frame. The length 4 shall not
be less than (a) the depth of the member at the joint face or
Flexural strengths shall be summed such that the column
moments oppose the beam moments. Eq. (21-1) shall be sat-
at the section where flexural yielding is likely to occur, (b)
one-sixth of the clear span of the member, and (c) 18 in.
isfied for beam momentsacting in bothdirections in the ver-
tical plane ofthe frame considered. Columns supporting reactions from discontin- If is not satisfied at a joint, columns ued stiff members, such as walls, shallbe provided withtrans-
supporting reactions from that joint shall be provided with verse reinforcement as specified in through
transverse reinforcementas specified in 2 1.4.4over their full over their full height beneath the level at which the disconti-
height. nuity occurs if the factored axial compressive force in these
members, related to earthquake effect, exceeds (Agf:/lO).
21.4.3-Longitudinal reinforcement
Transversereinforcement as specifiedin21.4.4.1through The reinforcement ratio, pg, shall not be less shall extendinto the discontinued memberfor at least
than 0.01 andshall not exceed 0.06.
the development length of the largest longitudinal reinforce- Welded splices andmechanicalconnections
ment in the columnin accordance with 21 5 4 . If the lower end
shall conform to Lap splices are permitted only
of the column terminates on a wall, transverse reinforcement
within the center half ofthe member length and shall be pro-
as specified in through shall extend into the
portioned as tension splices.
wall for at least the development length of the largest longitu-
21.4.4”Transverse reinforcement
dinal reinforcement inthe column at the point of termination. Transverse reinforcement as specified below If the column terminates on a footing or mat, transverse rein-
shall beprovided unless a larger amount is required forcement as specified in through shall ex-
by 21.4.5.
tend at least 12 in. into the footing or mat.
The volumetric ratio of spiral or circular hoop rein- Where transverse reinforcement,as specified in
forcement, ps, shall not be less than that indicated by through,is not provided throughoutthe full
Eq. (21-2). length of the column, the remainder of the column length
shall contain spiral or hoop reinforcement with center-to-
center spacing not exceeding the smaller of six times the di-
ameter of thelongitudinal column bars or 6 in.
2 1 . 4 M h e a r strength requirements
and shall not be less than that required byEq. (10-5). forces
The total cross-sectional area of rectangular hoop rein- The designshear force V, shall be determined from con-
forcement shall not be less than that given byEq. (21-3) sideration of the maximum forces that can be generated at the
and (21-4). faces of the joints at each end of the member. These joint
forces shall be determined usingthe maximum probablemo-
ment strengthsMpr of the member associated withthe range
of factored axial loads on the member. The member shears
need not exceedthose determined fromjoint strengths based
on the probable momentstrengthMpr, of the transversemem-
bers framing into the joint. In no case shall V, be less than the
Transverse reinforcement shall be provided by either factored shear determined byanalysis of the structure.
single or overlapping hoops. Crossties of the same For determining the required transverse rein-
bar size and spacing as thehoops maybe used. forcement in frame members in which the earthquake-induced
Each end of the crosstie shall engage a peripheral shear force calculated in accordance with represents
longitudinal reinforcing bar. Consecutive crossties one-half or more of total design shear, the quantity V, shall be
shall be alternated end for end along the longitudi- assumed to be zero if the factored axial compressive force in-
nal reinforcement. cluding earthquakeeffects is less than( A g f ;/20).
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21.5Joints of frames For bar sizes No. 3 through No. 11, the devel-
21.5.1-General requirements opment length,fd, for a straight bar shall not be less than
215.1.1 Forces in longitudinal beam reinforcement at (a) two-and-a-half (2.5)times the length required by
the joint face shall be determined by assuming that the stress 21S.4.1 if the depth of the concrete cast in one lift
in the flexural tensile reinforcement is 1.25fy. the bar does not exceed 12 in. and (b) three-and-a half(3.5)
215.1.2 Strength of joint shall be governed by the ap- times the length required by if the depth of the
propriate strength reduction factors specified in 9.3. concrete cast in one liftbeneath the bar exceeds 12 in.
215.1.3 Beam longitudinal reinforcement terminated in Straight barsterminated at a joint shall pass
a column shall be extended to the far face of the confined through the confined coreof a column or of a boundary
column core and anchored in tension according to 21 5 4 and element. Any portion of the straight embedment length
in compression accordingto Chapter 12. not within the confined core shall be increased by a factor
215.1.4 Wherelongitudinalbeamreinforcementex- of 1.6.
tends through a beam-column joint, the column dimension

the amount required by shall be provided where 21.6.2-Reinforcement

members frame into all four sides of joint
theand where each The reinforcement ratio, P,,, for structural walls
member width is at least three-fourths the column width. At shall notbe less than 0.0025 along the longitudinal andtrans-
these locations, the spacing specified in be verseaxes. If thedesignshearforcedoesnotexceed
increased to 6 in. A~,,K, the minimum reinforcement for structural walls
215.2.3 Transverse reinforcement as required by 2 1.4.4 shall be in conformance with 14.3.The minimum reinforce-
shall be provided through the joint to provide confinement ment ratio for structural diaphragms shallbe in conformance
for longitudinal beam reinforcement outside the columncore with 7.12. Reinforcement spacing each way in structural
if such confinement is not provided by a beam framing into walls and diaphragms shall not exceed 18 in. Reinforcement
the joint. provided for shear strength shallbe continuous and shallbe
215.3-Shear strength distributed across the shear plane.
The nominal shear strengthof the joint shall not be taken At least two curtains of reinforcement shallbe
greater thanthe forces specified below for normal weight ag- used ina wall if the in-plane factored shear force assigned to
gregate concrete. the wall exceedsM,, K.
For joints confined on all four faces ...............20 J K A j Structural-truss elements, struts, ties, and col-
lector elements with compressive stresses exceeding 0.2.f:
For joints confined on three faces shall have special transverse reinforcement, as specified in
or on two opposite faces............................... 15K A 2 1.4.4, over the total length of the element. The trans- special
verse reinforcement is allowed to be discontinuedat a sec-
For others ........................................................ 12JKAj
tion where the calculated compressive stress is less than O. 15
A member that frames intoa face is considered to provide f: . Stresses shall be calculatedfor the factoredforces using
confinement to thejoint if at least three-quartersof the face a linearly elastic model and gross-section properties of the
of thejoint is covered by the framing member. A joint is con- elements considered.
sidered to be confined if such confining members frame into Allcontinuousreinforcementinstructural
all facesof the joint. walls, diaphragms,trusses, struts, ties, chords, andcollector
215.4"Development length of bars in tension elements shallbe anchored or spliced in accordance with the The development length, tdh, for a bar with a provisions for
reinforcement in
tension as Specified
standard 90-deg hook in normal weight-aggregate concrete in 21.5.4.
shall not be less than 8db, 6 in., and the length required by 21.6.3-Design forces
Eq. (21-5). The design shear force V, shall be obtained from the lat-
eral load analysisin accordance with the factored loads and
(21-5) combinations specifiedin 9.2.
2 1 . 6 . A h e a r strength
for bar sizes No. 3 through No. 11. Nominal shear strength of structural walls and
The 90-deg hook shall be located within
the confined core diaphragmsshall be determinedusingeither21.6.4.2
of a column or of a boundary element. or
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3777 m Obb2949 0538328 3 6 6 m

STD.AC1 349-ENGL L997 0662949 0538129 2 T 2

34974 AC1 STANDARD Nominal shear strength V,,,of structural walls have astandard hook engaging the edge reinforcement or the
and diaphragms shall be assumed not to exceed the shear edge reinforcement shall be enclosed in the U-stirrups hav-
force calculated from ing the same size and spacing as, and spliced to, the trans-
verse reinforcement.
v, = Acv(2Jz + P"f$ (21-6) 21.65.6 Welded spliced and mechanical connectionsof
longitudinal reinforcement of boundary elementsshall con-
21.6.43 For walls (diaphragms) and wall (diaphragm form to
segments having a ratio of (hw/tw)less than 2.0, nominal 21.6.6-Boundary elements of stnrcfuraldiaphragms
shear strength of wall (diaphragm)shall be determined from Boundary elements of structural diaphragms
W.(21-7). shall be proportioned to resist the sum of the factored axial
force acting in the plane of the diaphragm andthe force ob-
tained from dividing the factored moment at the section by
v, = Acv(acR
+ P&) (21-7) the distance between the boundaryelementsof the dia-
phragm at that section.
where the coefficient a, varies linearly from 3.0 for Splices of tensile reinforcement in the bound-
(hw/tw)= 1.5 to 2.0 for (hw/!,,,) = 2.0. aries and collector elements of all diaphragms shall develop In21.6.4.3,valueof ratio (h used for de- the yield strength of the reinforcement. Welded splices and
termining V,, for segments of a wall or diaphragm shall be mechanical connectionsshall conform to
the larger of the ratios for theentire wall (diaphragm) and the 21.6.7-Constru~tionjoints
segment of wall (diaphragm) considered. All constructionjoints in walls and diaphragms Walls(diaphragms) shall have distributed shall conform to 6.4 andcontact surfaces shall be roughened
shear reinforcement providing resistance in two orthogonal as specified in 11.7.9.
directions in the plane of the wall(diaphragm). If the ratio 21.6.4Discontinuous walls
(hw/tw) does not exceed 2.0, reinforcement ratio pv shall not Columns supporting discontinuous walls shall be rein-
be less than reinforcement ratio P,,. forced in accordance with21.4.4.5. Nominal shear strengthof all wallpiers sharing
acommon lateral force shallnot be assumed to exceed 21.7-Frame members not proportioned to resist
8ACv E where A,, is thetotal cross- sectional area and the forces inducedby earthquake motions
21.7.1 Frame members assumed not to contribute to lateral
nominal shear strength of anyone of theindividualwall piers
resistance shall be detailed according to 2 2
shall notbeassumed to exceed lOA, whereAcP repre-
depending on the magnitude of moments induced in those
sents the cross-sectional area ofthe pier considered.
members when subjected to twice the lateral displacement Nominal shear strength of horizontal wall seg-
under the factored lateral forces.
ments shall not be assumed to exceed l M C pwhere ~ A, When the induced moment exceedsthe design
represents the cross-sectional area of a horizontal wall segment.
moment strength of the frame member, members with fac-
21.6.5-Boundary elements for structural walls tored gravity axial forces not exceeding( A d i /lo)] shall sat- Boundary elementsshall be provided at bound- isfy and and members with factored gravity
aries and edges around openings of structural walls when the axial forces exceeding (AgfL /lo) shall satisfy21.4.4,
maximum extreme-fiber stress, corresponding to factored, and21.5.2.1.
forces including earthquake effect, exceeds 0.2f i unless the When the induced moment does not exceed the
entire wall is reinforced to satisfy through design moment strength of the frame members, the member
The boundary element may be discontinued where the calcu- shall satisfy
lated compressive stress is less than 0.15fi. Stresses shall 21.7.2 All frame members with factored axial compressive
be calculated for the factored forces using linearly elastic forces exceeding (AJL /lo)] shall satisfy the following spe-
model and gross-section properties. cial requirements unless they comply with 21.4.4. Boundary elements, where required, shall have Ties shall have hooks not less than 135 deg
transverse reinforcement as specifiedin21.4.4.1through with extensions not less than six tie-bar diameters of 2.5 in.
2 Crossties, as defined inthis chapter are allowed. Boundary elementsshall be proportioned to re- The maximum tie spacing shall be so over a
sist all factored gravity loads onthe wall, including tributary length /o measured from the joint face. The spacing so shall
loads and self-weight, as well as the vertical force required be not more than(a) eight diameters of the smallest longitu-
to resist overturning momentcalculated from factored forces dinal bar enclosed, (b) 24 tie-bar diameters, and (c) one-half
related to earthquake effect. the least cross-sectional dimensionof the column. The Transverse reinforcement in walls with bound- length /o shall not be less than (a) one-sixth of the clear
ary elements shall be anchored within the confined core of height of the column, (b) the maximum cross-sectional di-
the boundary element to develop the specified yield strength mension of the column, and (c) 18 in.
fy of the transverse reinforcement. The first tie shall be within adistance equal to Except when V,, in the plane ofthe wall is less O.%, from the face of the joint.
than A,,E , transverse reinforcement terminating at the The tie spacing shall not exceed 2so in anypart
edges of structural walls without boundary elements shall of the column.
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APPENDIX A-Thermal Considerations

A.1-Scope A 3 3 Thermal stress shall be evaluated considering the
A.l.l Nuclear safety related reinforced concrete structures stiffness of the member and the rigidity of the section and the
shall conformto the minimum provisionsof this Code andto degree of restraint of the structure. The evaluationmay be
the special provisions of this appendix for structural mem- based on cracked section properties, provided the following
berssubjected to time-dependentandposition-dependentconditions are met:
temperature variations.
a) The tensilestressforanysectionexceeds the tensile
A12 The provisions of this appendix apply to concrete stress at which the sectionis considered cracked.
which are subjected to normal
condi- b) of internal forces and strains due to
tions as well as thermal accident conditions and which have
cracking are included.
restraint such that thermal strains would result in thermal
stresses. concurrent
c) All asinspecified 9.2, are considered.
A.13 The design provisionsof this appendix are based on d) The coefficient of thermal expansion may be taken as
the strengthdesignmethod. The assumptions,principles, 5.5 X 10" per deg F unless other values are substanti-
and requirements specified in 10.1 and 10.2 are applicable ated by "tests."
for both normal operating and accident conditions.
A.1.4 This appendix does not address temperature require- A.3.4 When thermal stressis combined with the stress due
ments during curing, nor does it address temperature and to other loads to determine a design stress, the magnitudeof
shrinkage reinforcement. the design stress must not be less than the magnitudeof the
stress due to other loadings alone unless the following are
A.2-Definitions considered:

Base temperature-The temperature at which a concrete a) The effect Of Crachg in the tensile zone Of flexural
member is cured. members on reduction of the flexural rigidity andon the
redistribution of stress,
distribution-The Of the total tem- b)Thereductionoflongtermstresses due to creep,and
perature acrossa section at a point in time.
c) Stress combinations that reduce the magnitude of the
Mean temperature distribution-Auniformdistribution of stress due to other loadsutilizingactualtemperatures
temperatureacross a sectionevaluated to be anaverage of andtemperaturedistributionswhichactconcurrently
the with
temperature loads.
the other

Gradient tempemture distribution-The temperature distri- A.4-Concrete temperatures

bution minusthe mean temperature distribution across
a sec- A.4.1 The following temperature limitations are for nor-
tion at a point in time. mal operation or any other long term period. The tempera-
Thermal strain4train produced by thermal expansion or tures shall not exceed 150 F except for local areas, such as
contraction due to a thermal gradient and the difference be- around penetrations, which are allowed to have increased
tween the base and mean temperature. temperatures notto exceed 200 F.
A.4.2 The following temperature limitations arefor acci-
Thermal stress-Stress produced by restraint of thermal dent or any other short term period.The temperatures shall
strain. not exceed350F for the surface. However, local areas are al-
lowed to reach 650 F from steam or water jets in the eventof
A.3-General design requirements a pipe failure.
A3.1 The effects of the gradient temperature distribution A.43 Higher temperatures than those givenin A.4.1 and
and the difference between mean temperature distribution A.4.2 above may be allowedfor concrete if tests are provid-
and base temperature during normal operation or accident ed to evaluate the reduction in strength and
this reduction is
conditions shallbe considered. applied to design allowables.Also, evidence shall be provid-
A.3.2 Time-dependent variationsof temperature distribu- edwhichverifiesthattheincreasedtemperatures do not
tions shall be considered in evaluating thermal strains for cause deterioration of the concrete either with or without
both normal operatingconditions and accident conditions. load.

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APPENDIX B-Steel Embedments

B.0-Notation In addition to meeting these requirements consideration
( I = length of an anchor group, measured out to out of shall be given to the effect of the forces applied to the em-
bearing edges ofthe outermost anchor heads bedment onthe behavior ofthe overall structure.
(see Fig. B.4-2), in. B.1.2 The requirements for the attachment to the embed-
A b = bearing area of shear lug, sq. in. ment shall be in accordance with applicable codes and are
A, = the tensile stress area for threaded anchors, the gross beyond the scope of this appendix.
area for anchors without threads, thelesser of the B.1.3 Design limits less conservative than those Specified
gross area or the tensile stress area for anchors with in this appendix maybe used bythe Engineer if substantiated
upset threads, in.2. Thetensile stress area of a by experimentalor detailed analytical investigation.
threaded anchor shall be taken as:
0.7845 D - - A n c h o r a t e e l component used to transmit loads from the
3 32
attachment into the concrete. Anchors include, but are not
A , = reduction in effective stress area to account for lim- limited to, bolts, welded studs, threaded rods, bars, undercut
ited depth ofconcrete beyond the bearing surface of anchors, and expansionanchors.
the embedment (see Fig. B.4-2), sq. in.
Anchorage-The process of attaching a memberor object to
b = width of an anchorgroup, measured outto out of
the concrete structure by means of an embedment, taking
bearing edges of the outermost anchor heads
into consideration those factors (e.g., depth of embedment,
(see Fig. B.4-2), in.
edge distance, and spacing of anchors) which determinethe
c = the compressive resultantforce between the embed- load capacity of the anchorage system.
ment and the concrete from factored moment and
factored axial load applied to the embedment Anchor head“A nut, flat washer, plate, stud, or bolt head
(see B., lb. used to transmit loads fromthe tensile strength component to
D = basic major diameterof threaded part,in. the concrete by bearing.
f b = bearing strength for shear lug, psi A#achment”Theattachment is thatstructureexternal to the sur-
$c = specified compressivestrength of concrete, psi faces of the embedment which transmits loads to the embedment
fut = specified ultimate tensile strength of steel, psi
f y = specified yield strength ofsteel, psi Embedment-The embedment is that steel component em-
h = overall thickness of concrete member containing bedded in the concrete used to transmit applied loads to the
embedment or height of shear lug, in. concrete structure. Theembedmentmaybefabricatedof
Kc = confinement coefficient(see B. plates, shapes, bolts, reinforcing bars, shear connectors, ex-
Ld = embedment depth of anchor head measured from pansion anchors, inserts, or any combination thereof.
attachment of anchor headto tensile stress Expansion anchor-component thatisinstalledinahole
component, to the concrete surface, in. drilled in hardened concrete and then is expanded in order to
m = minimum edgedistance from the center ofthe ten- transfer loads into the concrete by direct bearing fiction.
sile stress component or anchor head tothe edge of
the concrete (see Fig. B.4-l), in. Expansion mechanism-Amechanismused to transmit
n = number of threads per in. load from the tensile stress component to the concrete when
P, = factored external axial load on the anchorage used as part of an expansionanchor.
(see B., lb Grouted Embedments-An embedment located in a formed
Pd = design pullout strength of concrete in tension, lb or drilled hole in hardened concrete utilizing a grout to pro-
Py = tension strength of the tension anchors vide load transfer from the embedment to the concrete.
(see B., lb
Inserts-commercially available, predesigned, and prefabri-
s = clear distance face-to-facebetween shear lugs, in.
cated embedments installedprior to concrete placement which
U = required strength, to resist factored loads or related
are specifically designedfor attachment of bolted connections.
internal moments andforces
$ = strength reduction factor, dimensionless Strength, design-Nominal strength multiplied
strength reduction factor $.
B. 1“Scope Strength, nominu-Strength of a connection calculated in
B.l.l This appendix provides minimum requirementsfor
accordancewiththe provisions andassumptionsof the
design and anchorage of steel embedments used to transmit
strength design method ofthis code beforeapplicationof any
loads from attachments into reinforced concrete structures
strength reduction factors.
by means of tension, bearing, shear, friction, or any combi-
nation permitted by this appendix. Tensile stress component-That part of the embedment at-
Typical embedment details and concepts as referenced in tached to the anchor head or expansion mechanism used to
this appendix are shown inFig. B. 1- 1 and B.1-2. transmit tensile loads to the concrete.
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6.3-General requirements and loading where the concrete tension stress (based on an
combinations uncracked section) at the concrete surface is less than
B.3.1 The embedment and surroundingconcrete or grout 5 E for the loadcombinationsandload factors
shall be designed fortransmittingto the concrete structure all defined in 9.2........................................................... 0.85
loads used inthe design of theattachment.Assumptions used
d) All other embedments ............................................. 0.65
in distributing loads within the embedment shall be consis-
tent with those usedin the design of the attachment. B.4.3"Shear
B.3.2 Reactions onthe embedment due to individual loads The design shear strength of embedments subject to shear
such as dead, live (including vibratory loads), thermal, seis- shall satisfy the requirements of B.5.1.2 and B.6.2.2.
mic, and accident loads shall be considered. The loading B.4.4-Reinforcement
combinations for embedment design shall be in accordance If the requirements of B.5 are not satisfied, reinforcement
with 9.2 ofthis code. shall be provided to develop the required strength. Rein-
B.33 Material and testing requirements for embedment forcement requirementsshall be in accordance withapplica-
steel shall be specified by theEngineer to ensure that the em- ble sections of this code and placedto prevent failure of the
bedment design is compatible with the intended function of concrete in tension.
the attachment.
B.3.4 The design strength of embedment materials may be
increased in accordance with Appendix C for embedments B.4.5.1The bearing requirements of 10. I5 or 18.13 of this
subject to impactive and impulsiveloads. Code shall apply to the average bearing stress at an anchor
B.3.5 The strength of embedmentsas affected by the size head exceptas permitted inB.4.5.2.
and grade of steel, spacing, and depth of embedment and any The design bearing strength used for concrete or grout
concrete dimensions which limit or restrict the transfer of placed against shear lugs shall not exceed@(1.3f;Ab) using
loads from steel toconcrete shall be considered as defined in a strength reduction factor @ of 0.70. For grouted installa-
B.4, B.5, and B.6. tions, the value off: shall be the compressive strength of the
B.3.6 Plastic deformation ofthe embedment is permitted grout or the concrete whichever is less.
for impactive and impulsive loading providedthe strength B.4.5.2 For bolts meeting the requirements of ASTM
of the embedment is controlled by the strength of the em- Specifications A 307, A 325,or A 490or if the anchor head
bedment steel as specified in B.5. For these conditions a at the base of the tensile stress component satisfies the fol-
maximum ductility ratio of 3 may be considered. The def- lowing conditions: (a) The bearing area of the anchor head
inition of ductility ratio shall be asdefined in Appendix C . including the area of the tensile stress componentis at least
B.3.7 A combination of bearingand shear friction mech- 2.5 times the area of the tensile stress component. (b) The
anisms shall notbeused to develop the design shear thickness of the anchor headis atleast 1.O times the greatest
strength defined in accordance with 9.3 of this code. The dimension from the outer most bearing edge of the anchor
available confining force afforded by the tension anchors head to the face of the tensile stress component. (c) The bear-
in combination with external loads can, however, be uti- ing area of the anchor headis approximately evenly distrib-
lized in determining the shear capacity of anchorages with uted aroundthe perimeter of the tensile stress component.
shear lugs.
6.5-Anchorage requirements
6.4-Design requirements for concrete 85.1 Anchorage design shall be contmlled by the strength of
B.4.1 The design provisions of this appendix are based on embedment steel unless otherwise specified in this appendix.
the strength designmethod. The assumptions, principles,
and requirementsof the code are applicable for all load com-
binations except as modified herein. Steel strength controls when the designpullout strength
B.4.2-Tension of the concretePd as determined in B.4.2 exceeds the mini-
The design pullout strength of concrete Pd for any embed- mum specified tensile strength of the tensile stress compo-
ment shall be based on a uniform tensile stress of 4 @ z nent (based on fut) of the embedment steel, and full load
acting on aneffective stress area which is defined by the pro- transfer is accomplished from steel to concrete within the
jected area of stress cones radiating toward the attachment depth of the anchorage by oneof the following methods:
from the bearing edge of theanchor heads. Theeffective area a) An anchor head at the base of the tensile stress com-
shall be limited by overlappingstress cones, by the intersec- ponents
which satisfies the requirements of
tion of the cones withconcrete surfaces, by the bearing area Section B.4.5.2. To prevent failure due tolateral burst-
of anchor heads, andby the overall thickness of the concrete ing forces at anchor heads, the minimum side cover
(see Fig. B.4-1 and B.4-2). The inclination angle for calcu- distance m shall be determined such that the lateral
lating the projected area shall be 45deg. concrete design strength (based on a uniform tensile
The strength reduction factor$I shall be as follows: stress of 4 0 acting on an effective area, includ-
a) Embedments anchored beyond the member far face ing overlapping stress cones, defined by projecting a
reinforcement .......................................................... 0.85 45 deg cone from the anchor head to the free surface)
b) Embedments anchored in a compression zone of a exceeds the lateral bursting force unless the require-
member ................................................................... 0.85 ments of B.4.4 are met. The $ factor shall be taken as
c) Embedmentsanchored in a tensionzoneof a member 0.85.

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I t

I \
f I / ! \ h


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b)Reinforcing bars withdevelopment lengths in accor- defined as the 0.2 percent strain offset method in
dance with the requirements of Chapter 12, for anchor ASTM A370.
steel composed ofreinforcement. B.6.4 Anchors that incorporate a reduced section in the
B5.1.2-Shear load path shall satisfy one of the following conditions:
BJ.l.2.l-BoIts, studs, or bars a) The ultimate tensile strength of the reduced section
Bolts, studs, or bars shall meet the requirements of shall be greater than the yield strength of the unre-
B.5.1.1. The minimum edge distance m for shear loading to- duced section.
warda free edge shall be suchthat the concretedesign b) For bolts, the length of thread in the load path shall be
strength (based on auniform tensile stress of 4$ acting at least two anchor diameters.
on an effective area defined by projecting 45 a deg half-cone B.6.5-Anchors
to the free surface from the centerline of the tensile stress Anchors shall be designed for tension and shear loads in
component at the shearing place) exceeds the ultimate shear accordance with B.6.5.1, B.6.5.2 and B.6.5.3.
strength of the bolts, studs, or bars (based onfut). B.6.5.1-Tension
B5.1.2.2-Shear lugs The nominal tensile strength of an anchor shall befyA,.
The shear strength of groutedor cast-in-place anchor- B.6.5.243hear
ages with shearlugs shall include consideration of the bear- The nominal shear strength attributed to anchors shall
ing strength ofthe concrete or grout placed against the shear be determined by B. or B., whichever is appli-
lugs, the shear strength of the concrete or grout placed be- cable.
tween shear lugs and the confinement afforded by the ten- B. For connections withthe contact surface of
sion anchors in combination with externalloads. Shear loads the baseplate flush with the surface of the concrete, the nom-
toward free edges and displacement compatibility between inal shear strength of an anchorshall be .................070fyA,
shear lugs shall be considered. For built-up grout pads, the nominal shear strength shall
When multiple shear lugs are used to establish the be multiplied by.............................................................. 0.80
design shear strength in a given direction, the magni- Friction between the baseplate and concrete may be con-
tude of the allotted shear to each lug shall be in direct sidered to contribute to the nominal shear strength of the
proportion to the total shear, the number of lugs, and connection. The nominal shear strength resulting from fric-
the shear stiffness of each lug. tion between the baseplate and concrete (i.e., without any
For shearlugs bearing in thedirection of a free edge, the contribution from anchors) maybe taken as 0.40C.
design shear strength for each lug shall be determined B. For connections withthe contact surface of
based on a uniform tensile stress 441 of E
acting on an the baseplate below the surface of the concrete, the shear-
effective stress area defined by projecting a45 deg plane friction provisions of 11.7 of this code (as modified by this
from the bearing edges of the shear lug to the free sur- section) shall be used. The shear-frictioncoefficient shall be
face unless the requirements of B.4.4 are met. Bearing as follows:
area of theshear lug shallbe excluded from the projected Baseplates without shearlugs .......................................... 0.9
area. The factor shallbe taken as 0.85. Baseplates with shear lugs which are designed
B.5.13 For combined tension and shear, the depth of to remain elastic ............................................................... 1.4
embedment shall be in accordance with B.5.1.1 andthe min-
imum edgedistance in accordance with B. B.6.5.3-Combined tension and shear
B.6.53.1 The interaction of tension andshear for an-
B.5.1.4 Where reinforcement is providedin accordance
chors accordancewithB.6.5.1andB.
with B.4.4, the minimum edge distance shall notbe less than
(shear transfer by anchorbearing) shall be assumed to be lin-
one-third that required by B.5.1.2. The reinforcement shall
ear (additive) or elliptical.
also satisfy the concrete cover requirements in 7.7 of this
B.6.53.2 For anchors designed in accordance with
B.6.5.1 and B. (shear transfer by shear-friction), the
area required for tension due to applied load and thearea re-
B.6-Design requirements for embedment steel
quired for tension due toshear-friction shall be additive.
B.6.1 Design strength provided by the embedment steel in
terms of flexure, axial load, shear, and torsion, shall be taken B.Q.6-Structuralshapes, fabricated shapes, and
as the nominalstrength calculated in accordance withthe re- shear lugs
quirements and assumptions of this section, multipliedby a The design strength of embedded structural shapes, fabri-
strength reduction factor $. cated shapes, and shear lugs shall be determined using a steel
B.6.2 Strength reduction factor shall be as follows:
stress of @ fy, where shall be taken as 0.9 for tension, com-
pression and bending,and 0.55 for shear.
B.6.2.1 Flexure andor axial load ............................ 0.90
B.6.2.2 Shear and torsion........................................ 0.85 B.7-Expansion anchors
B.6.3 Embedment materials other than reinforcing bars This section provides minimum requirements for the de-
shall have a minimum elongation of 14 percent in 2 inches sign oftypical expansion anchors used in concrete structures
when tested in accordance withASTM A 370. and does not restrictthe use of other expansion anchors pro-
Embedment materials without a distinct yield point shall vided the expansion anchors are designed and tested in ac-
be permitted. For suchmaterials the yield strength&shall be cordance with the requirements of this section.

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Expansion anchorsshall be designed to assure that the de- Tests shall be conducted to verify that the concrete will
sign strength of concrete for a given expansion anchor or develop the Steel strength of the expansion anchor. Design
group of expansion anchorsis greater than the strength of the bY test results shall be restricted to tests that are representa-
anchor steel except as permitted in B.7.2. The requirement tive ofthe anchor spacing and load aPPlication.
shall be met by satisfying the requirements of B.7.1.1 or B.7.1.3Strength reduction factors
B.7.1.2. The requirements of B.6 shall apply except that the $I fac-
B.7.1.1-Designbyanalysis tors
.- -for. expansion
- - - anchors shall be 0.9 times the values spec-
ified in B.6.2.
Tension: The design pullout strengthof concrete Pd
B.7.2-Alternative design requirements
shall be as defined in B.4.2 except that the effective
stress area shall be defined by the projected area of the For expansion anchors that do not meet the requirement of
B.7.1, the design strengthshall be 0.33 times the average ten-
stress cone radiating toward the concrete surface from
sion and shear test failure loads. The averagetest failure load
the innermost expansion contact surface between the
shall be equal to the average of the test loads carried by test
expansionanchorand the drilled hole.Refer to Fig.
anchors at failure (maximum load) or at a magnitudeof dis-
B.7-1 for typical details. The design pullout strength of
placement of test anchorsas specified by the Engineer.
concrete shall be equal to or greater than the minimum
B.73 A single expansion anchor used to anchor an attach-
specified tensile strength or average tensile strength if a
ment shall be designed for one-half ofthe design strengthde-
minimum is not defined for the expansion anchor. The
fined herein.
minimum edge distance shall be in accordance withthe
requirement of B S . 1.1(a).
B.7.4.1 Expansion anchors designed in accordance with
Shear: Expansion anchors subject to shear shall meet B.7.1.1 or B.7.1.2 shall be tested to verify the ability of the
the requirementsof B. expansion mechanism to develop the tensile strength of the
For combined tension and shear, the depth of embed- tensile stress component. Expansion anchors designed in ac-
ment shall be in accordance with B.7.1.l(a) and the cordance withB.7.2 shall be tested to determine the average
minimum edgedistance in accordance with B .7.1.1 (b). test failure load. Tests shall be conducted by a testing agency
The design requirements for embedment steel shall be other than the expansion anchor manufacturer and shall be
in accordance with B.6.0. certified by aprofessionalEngineer withfull descriptionand
details of the testing program, procedures,results, and con-
B.7.4.2 The expansion mechanism ofthe expansion an-
chor shall be tested for the installed condition by one ofthe
following methods:
a) The mechanism shall beactuatedandtestedduring
installation bypreloadingtheexpansionanchor to a
minimum valueas specified bythe Engineer.
b) A random selection of the installed expansion anchors
shall be load testedto a minimumof 100 percent ofthe
designstrength.The testing programshall be estab-
lished by the Engineer.
B.7.5-Expansion anchor selection
The Engineer shall review the expansion anchor design

features, failure modes, test results, and installation proce-
dures prior to selecting a specific expansion anchor for an
application.Expansion anchorsshall not be usedto resist vi-
SF1 F-DRII I ING bratoryloadsunless tests are conducted to verifytheadequa-
cy of the specific expansion anchor and application. In the
selection of expansion anchors, consideration shall be given
to expansion anchor performance in cracked concrete.

Concrete inserts shall be specifiedinaccordancewith
WEDGEANCHOR B.6.1 and tested in accordance with B.7.4.1.
B.8.l-Design requirements
When inserts cannot be designed to meet the requirements
of B.4, B.5, and B.6, the design strengthshall be basedon ac-
tual test data of tests performed on inserts embedded in con-
crete. The tests shall cover thefull range of possible loading
Fig. B. 7-1-Typical details of expansion anchors conditions.

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B.8.2Strength reduction factor professional Engineer withfull description and details of the
When inserts cannot be designed to meet the requirements testing programs, procedures, results, and conclusions.
of B.4, B.5, andB.6, a Cp factor of 0.5 shall be applied to the B.9.4 Grouted embedmentsshall be tested for the installed
average test failure loads in determining designstrength. condition by testing randomly selected grouted embedments
to a minimum of 100 percent of the required strength. The
B.9-Grouted embedments testing program shall be established by the Engineer.
B.9.1 Grouted embedments shall meet the applicable re-
B.95 The tests required byB.9.3 and B.9.4 may be waived
quirements of B.4, B.5 and B.6.
by the Engineer if tests and installation data are available to
B.9.2 For general grouting purposes the material require-
insure that the grouted embedmentwill function as designed
ments for cement grout shall be in accordance with Chapter
3 of this code. Special grouts used to achievecertain proper- or if the load transfer through the grout is by direct bearing
ties such as high strength, low shrinkage, or expansion shall or compression.
be the responsibility of the Engineer and specified in con-
tract documents. B.l &Fabrication and installation
B.9.3 Grouted embedments shall be tested to verify an- Welding of attachments to large embedments shall be in
chorage strength. Grouted embedments installed in tension accordance with good practice to avoid excessive expan-
zones ofconcrete members shall be capable of sustaining de- sion of the embedment which could result in detrimental
sign strength in cracked concrete. Tests shall be conducted spalling or cracking of the concrete or excessive stress in
by an independent testing agency and shall be certified by a the embedment.

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349-83 CODE

APPENDIX C-Special Provisions

for impulsive and Impactive Effects
C.0-Notation C.13 Applicable theoretical evidence
or exDerimental
Ac = area of core of spirally reinforced column mea- may be used to justify requirements i s s conservative than
sured to the outside diameter of the spiral, sq in. those of this appendix.
Ach = area of rectangular core of column measured out- C.1.4 Impactive loads are time-dependent loads due to
to-out of hoop, sq in. collisionof masses which are associated withfinte amounts
A, = gross area of section, sq in. of kinetic energy. Impactiveloading may be defrned in terms
A, = area of tension reinforcement within the width b, of time-dependent force or pressure. Impactive loads to be
sq in. considered shall include, but notbe l i i t e d to, the following
A i = area of compression reinforcement within the types of loading:
width b, sq in. a) Tornado-generated missiles
b = width of compressionface, in. b)Whippingpipes
c = distance from extreme compressive fiber to neutral c) Aircraft missiles
axis at ultimate strength, in. d) Fuel cask drop
d = effective depth ofsection (distance from extreme e) Other internal and external missiles
compressive fiberto centroid of tensile reinforce-
ment), in. C.15 Impulsive loads are time-dependent loads which are
notassociatedwith collision ofsolidmasses.Impulsive
f: = specified compressive strength of concrete, psi. loads to be considered shall include, but notbe limited to, the
fy = specified yieldstrength of nonprestressed rein- following types of loading:
forcement, psi
h = overall thickness of member,in.
b) Blast pressure
Gr = moment ofinertia of crackedsection transformed
to concrete c) Compartment pressurization
z, = moment ofinertia of gross concrete section about d) Pipe-whip restraint reactions
centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement
l / h = maximum unsupportedlength of rectangular hoop C.2-Dynamic strength increase
measured between perpendicularlegs of the hoop C.2.1 Dynamic increase factors (DIR appropriate for the
or supplementary crossties, in. strain rates involvedmay be applied to static material
re = rotational capacity, radians strengths of steel and concrete for purposes of determining
R = resistance (Le., load capacity) section strength butshall not exceed the following:
R , = maximum resistance Material DIF
Sh = center-to-center spacing of hoops,in. Reinforcing steel
Fd = ductility ratio, dimensionless fy = 40 ksi .................................................................. 1.20
x, = maximum acceptable displacement f,,= 50 ksi .................................................................. 1.15
xy = displacement at effective yield point f,,= 60 ksi .................................................................. 1.10
p = reinforcementratio = A, I bd Prestressing steel ............................................................ 1.00
p ' = reinforcement ratio = A 5 / bd Concrete
Axial and flexural compression................................. 1.25
C.l.l Nuclear safety related concrete structures shall be Shear .......................................................................... 1.10
designed for impulsive and impactiveloads using this code
and the specialprovisions of this appendix. These loads must C.3-Deformation
be combined withother loads in accordance with 9.1 of this CA1 Permissible ductility ratio &jis defined as the ratio
code andin accordance with requirements ofC.8 of this ap- ofthemaximum acceptable displacement X, to the dis-
pendix. Impactive and impulsive effects are treated separate- placement at the effective yield pointXyof the structural el-
ly herein because of the nature of the effects as well as the ement (see Fig. C.3.1). In order to establish the effective
response characteristics of the structural elements subjected yield displacement, the cross sectional moment of inertia
to these loads. shall be taken as0.5 (Zg +Zer). In addition to the deformation
C.1.2 The provisions of this appendix applyto those struc- limits imposed under C.3.3 andC.3.4, the maximum defor-
tural elements directly affected by the impactive and impul- mation shall not result inthe loss of intended function of the
sive loads and wherefailure of the structural elements must structural element nor impair the safety related function of
be precluded. other systems and components.

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STDmACI 349-ENGL L997 =

C3.8 For beam-columns, walls, and slabs carrying axial

compression loads and subject to impulsive or impactive
loads producing flexure, the permissible ductility ratio in
flexure shall be as follows:
Rm a) When compressioncontrols the design, as defined by an
interaction diagram, the permissible ductility ratio shall
be 1.3.
b) When the compression load doesnot exceed O. If’& or
o one-third of that which would produce balanced condi-
O tions,whichever is smaller, the permissible ductility
.-u) ratio shall be as given in C.3.3 or C.3.4.

B c) The permissible ductility ratio shall vary linearly from

1.3tothatgiven in C.3.3 or C.3.4 for conditions
between those specified in (a) and (b).
C3.9 For axial compressive impulsiveor impactive loads,
XY Xm the permissible axial ductility ratio shall be 1.3.
Displacement, X
C.4-Requirements to assure ductility
C.4.1 The minimum specified concrete strengthf’, shall
Fig. C.3.l-Idealized displacement-resistance-ductility be 3000 psi. The maximum specified yield strength of re-
relationship inforcementfy shall be 60,000 psi. Grade and area of flex-
ural reinforcementused shall be only that specified;
C.3.2 For impulsive loads, resistance available for im- substitution of higher grades or larger areas shall not be
pulsive loads shall be at least 20 percent greater than the permitted.
magnitude of any portion ofthe impulsive loading which C.4.2 The maximum value of(p - P’) shall not exceed0.5
is approximately constant for a time equal to or greater times the ratio producing balancedconditions as defined by
than the first fundamentalperiodof the structural ele- 10.3.2 and 10.3.3. Both top and bottom reinforcement for
ment.Consideration shall also be given to the require-
beams shall consist of not less than two bars and shall have
ments of C.8.
a minimum p of 200/fy throughout the entire length of the
C.3.3 For beams, walls, and slabs where flexure controls
design, the permissible ductility ratio shall either be taken as beam.
O.O5/(p - P’) not to exceed 10, or shall be determined from C.4.3 At least one-third of the larger amount of the ten-
the rotational capacity as defined in C.3.4. sion reinforcement required at either end ofa member shall
C.3.4 When flexure controls design, the rotational capaci- be continuous throughout the length of the member.At
ty re in radians ofanyyieldhinge shall be limited to least one-third of the maximum tension reinforcement re-
0.0065 ( d c ) but shall not exceed 0.07 radians. quired in the mid-region of a member shall be continuous
C.3.5 The permissible ductility ratio in flexure shall not throughout the length of the member andfully developed in
exceed 3.0 for loads suchas blast and compartmentpressur- tension beyond the face of the supports to its specified yield
ization which could affect the integrity of the structure as a strength. Theserequirementsapply to each direction of
two-way structural elements.
C.3.6 For flexure to control the design, thus allowing the
C.4.4 The vertical reinforcement ratio in columnsshall be
ductility ratios or rotational capacities given in C.3.3 and
C.3.4 and C.3.5 to be used, the load capacity of a structural limited to a minimum of 1.0 percent and a maximum of
element in shear shall be at least 20 percent greater than the 6.0 percent. 10.8.4 does not apply.
load capacity inflexure, otherwise, the ductility ratios given C.4.5 Confinement reinforcement in columns consisting
in C.3.7 or C.3.9 shall be used. of spiral or hoop reinforcement shall be suppled above and
C.3.7 For beams, walls, andslabs where shear controls de- below connections over a minimum length fromthe face of
sign, the permissible ductility ratio shall be taken as: the connection at least equal to the overall depth h (h being
a) For shear carried by concrete alone, the permissible duc- the longer dimension in the case of rectangular columns or
tility ratio shall be 1.3. the diameter of a round column), 18 in., and onesixth of the
b) For shear carried by concrete and stirrups or bent bars, clear height ofthe column.
the permissible ductility ratio shall be 1.6, or C.45.1 Where a spiral is used, the volumetric ratio px
c) For shear carried completely by stirrups, the permissible shall be not less than indicated by Eq. (10-5), but not less
ductility ratio shall be 3.0. than o.lzfyfy.

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C.4.5.2 Where rectangular hoop reinforcementis used, b) The dynamic effects of impulsive loads may be consid-
the required areaof the bar shallbe computed by: ered by using impulse, momentum, and energy balance
techniques. Strain energy capacity is limited by the duc-
tility criteria in C.3.
(C.4-1) c) The dynamic effects of impulsive loads may be consid-
ered by performing a time-historydynamicanalysis.
Mass and inertial properties shallbe included as well as
where pr is the volumetric ratio required by C.4.5.1 with the nonlinearstiffnessesofstructuralelementsunder
Ach substituted for A , and withfy the yield strength of the consideration. Simplified bilinear definitionsof stiffness
hoop reinforcement. The center-to-center spacing between are acceptable.
hoops or the pitch of continuous hoops shall not exceed 4
in. Minimum bar size shall be that required for ties by Maximum predicted responseis governed bythe ductility Supplementary crossties of the same bar size as criteria in (2.3.
the hoop may be usedto reduce the unsupported length, 4,.
Each end of the supplementary crossties shall engage the C.7"lmpactive effects
periphery hoop with a standard semicircular hook, and C.7.1 Design for impactive loads shall satisfy the criteria
shall be secured to a longitudinal bar to prevent displace- for both local effects and for overall structural response.
ment of the crosstie during construction. Minimum cover C.7.2 Local impact effects may include penetration, perfo-
of supplementary crossties reinforcement shall be in. ration, scabbing, and punching shear.
C.7.21 The penetration depth and required concrete
C.5-Shear strength thickness to prevent perforation shall be based upon applica-
The shear strength of slabs and walls under local loads ble formulas or pertinent test data.
When perforation of con-
shall consider both punching shear adjacent to the load and crete structural elements must be precluded, the concrete
reaction shear at supports. Local loads may be impulsive or thickness shall be at least 20 percent greater than that re-
impactive, except that for certain impactive loads satisfac- quired to prevent perforation.
tion of criteria for perforation replaces punching shear re- C.7.2.2 Concrete structural elements protectingre-
quirements (seeC.7.2.3). quired system or equipment which could be damaged by
Theshearstrength of concretebeams and columns secondary missiles (fragments of scabbed concrete) shall
shall be determined in accordance with 11.1 to 11.5 of be designed to prevent scabbing, or a properly designed
this code increased by the DIF of C.2. These provisions scab shield shall be based on applicable formulas or perti-
shall also apply in cases of reaction shear at supported nent test data. In the absence of scab shields, the concrete
edges of slabs and walls. Punching shear strengthof slabs thickness shall be at least 20 percent greater than that re-
and walls shall be determined in accordance with 1 1.11 quired to prevent scabbing.
of this code, increased by the DIF of C.2. C.7.23 When it canbe demonstrated by applicable for-
mulas or pertinent test data that the concrete thickness is at
least 20 percent greaterthan that requiredto prevent perfora-
C.6-Impulsive effects
tion and hence punching shear failure, design for punching
C.6.1 Impulsive loads shallbe considered in combination
with other loadsas required by 9.1 of this code andin accor- shear in accordance withCS is not required.
dance with C.8 of this appendix. C.7.2.4 For concrete slabs or walls subjected to missile
impact effects where the concrete thickness is less than
C.6.2 Whenreinforcedconcretestructuralelements or
twice that required to prevent perforation, the minimum
systems of elements are subjected to impulsive loads, the
percentage of reinforcement shall be 0.2 percent each way,
structural responsemay be determined by oneof the follow-
ing methods: each face.
C.7.3 When reinforcedconcretestructuralelementsor
a) The dynamic effects oftheimpulsiveloads may be con-systems of elementsaresubjectedtoimpactiveloads,the
sidered by calculating a dynamic load factor (DLF). The structural response may be determined by the methods de-
resistanceavailable for theimpulsiveloadmust be at s c r i in~C.6.2.
least equal to the peak of the impulsive load transient
multiplied by the DLF. C.8-Impactive
and loads
The calculation of the DLF shall be based on the duc- Impactive and impulsive loads must be considered con-
tility criteria in C.3 and the dynamic characteristics of current with other loads (e.g., dead and live load) in deter-
the structureand impulsive load transient. mining the required resistance of structural elements.

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APPENDIX D-SI Metric Equivalents

of US. Customary Units
The following is not part of this standard, but SI metric In this tabulation, SI metric units are based on the stan-
equivalents of all the dimensional values in this code and dards given inASTh4 E380-76 and the preferred unitsthat in
conversions of nonhomogeneous equations are given below standard. These metric units are those conformingto the re-
for convenience of users. quirements of the U.S. Metric StandardsAct of 1975.


Moment Area of inertia

Metric U.S. customary U.S.customary
5OOof? 465 m2 1 in.4 416,000 mm4

Temperature Weight (density)

U.S. customay,
deg F
deg c
U.S. customary;

50 I 10 70 1120
60 16 90 I 1440
80 27 115 I 1840
90 I 32 120 1920
95 35 2320 145
150 66 155 I 2420

U.S. customary II U S . customary Metric Metric
1 in. 25.4 mm* 6 in. 152 mm
0.15 in. 3.8 mm II 8 in. 203 mm
in. mm I 6.4 II 10 in. I 254 mm

3Ie in. 9.5 mm 12 in. T 305 mm

in. I 13 mm II 16 in. I
mm 406

3 ~ 4in. 19 mm 20 in. 508 mm

1-Il4 32 mm 24 in. 610 mm
in. 38 mm 30 in. 762 mm
2 in. 51 mm lft 0.3048 m’
2-’12 in. 64 mm 3ft 0.9m
3 in. 76 mm 10 ft 3.0m
3-112in. 89 mm 12 ft 3.7 m
4 in. 102 mm 15 R 4.6 m
5 in. I 127 mm II 25 ft I 7.6 m

S T D - AInstitute
COPYRIGHT American Concrete C 1 349-ENGL L997 0662949 0538141 8 T T W
Licensed by Information Handling Services
~~~ ~

STD.AC1 347-ENGL 17qï’

0662747 0538342 736


Stress (pressure)
U.S. customaty I SI-Metric II U.S. customary I SI-Metric
psi kPa psi MPa
1 6.9 1,o00 6.89

50 I 340 II 1,200 I 8.27
80 I 550 II 3,000 I 20.68
120 I 830 II 3.500 I 24.13
psi I MPa II 4,000 I 27.58
145 1 .o 4,500 31 .O3
150 1 .O3 5,000 34.47
200 I 1.38 Il 9,000 I 62.10
250 1.72 20,000 137.9
300 2.07 24,000 165.5
350 I 2.41 II 30,000 I 206.8
400 2.76 40,000 275.8
500 3.45 50,000 344.7
550 I 3.79 II 60,000 I 413.7
600 4.14 80,000 551.6
700 I 100.000 4.83 690.0
800 I 5.52 II 29,000,000 I 200,000
900 6.21

Load Volume
U.S. customary SI-Metric U.S.customary Metric
1 Ib 4.5N 1 in? 41 mm4
9000 Ib 40,000N
1 lblft I 14.6 Nlm
1 lb& I 47.9Pa


US.customary Metric
sq in. mm2
sq ft m2
Density Ib per CU R kg/m3
Load Ib N
In. mm
ft m
Stress DSi MPa

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US. customary
equivalent U.S. customary

Section 8.5.1 Section

33 JJC w5%.043 I+" 1 Nu

500A ,
1 + 0.29-Nu

57, O
h 4730,/f i Section 11.7.5

800A, 5.5 A ,
Table 9.5(b)-Footnote
Section 12.2.2
0.4 + - fY f,
0.4 + -
100, o00 690 b fy 0.019Abfy

Table 9.5(ckFootnote Jx .JTc

800 - 0.005f y 1 1 0 4 - f, 0 . W 4 d bf y
1100 1518
0.085f y
Section 10.51

200 1.4
f, fY
0.11f, 34f y
Section 10.6.4 .JTc Jx
175 kips per in. 30.6 MN/m 0.36dbf y
145 kips per in. 25.4 MN/m A k

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U.S. customary
equivalent U.S. customary

Section 12.2.3 Section 12.8.2

"2 6 0 , o00 "2
fY fY

6.7 Jf I 0.56& Aw f y
2.4- -
J ct f Cl sw

Section 12.9
Section 12.3.2

0.02f ydb 0.24f ydb

h h Section 12.10.1

(f ps - j f s e P b
Table 12.5.1-6 values Section

60bws 0.41bws
U.S. customary
fY f Y

Section 12.17.1
220 I 18
0.0005f ,,db 0.073f ydb
330 I 27
360 I 30 Sections and
420 35 80bvd 0.55 b,d
450 37
480 40 Section
540 I 45 500b,d


Eq. (8-1)

v, =

Eq. (1 1-3)

V, = 0 . 1 7 K b w d
+17.2~~ p)bwd
Eq. (1 1-4)
Eq. (1 1 4 )

V, = 0.29flbwd

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Eq. (1 1-9) Eq. (1 1-28)

V,, = O M ( 10 + : ) E b , d

Eq. (11-10) Eq. (1 1-30)

0 . 1 6 E+ 17pw
V Ld) b , d

Eq. (1 1-1 1)
Eq. (1 1-32)
Vci = 0 . 0 5 E b w d+ V +-
Mmax V, = 0 . 2 7 E h d +-
Eq. (11-12)
Eq. (1 1-33)
M c , = ( I / Y , ) ( 0 . 5 J r + f ,e - f d )

Eq. (1 1-13)
v, = hd
V , , = ( 0 . 2 9 z + 0.3f,,)b,d +V,

Eq. (1 1-14)
Eq. (1 1-36)
Av = 0.34-b W S

€S. (11-16)

Eq. (1 1-37)
b s
( A , + 2A,) = 0.34-
f YV

Eq. (1 1-22) "= (9

+2 n b , d / 12

0.07fl~xzy Eq. (1 1-38)

T, =

V, = f i b , d / 3

Eq. (1 1-25) Eq. (1 7-39)

v, = (P,& + 0.3fp,)b0d+ v,

Eq.: Section Eq. (18-4)

b Ws
0.34- for 2At
f,, = f,,+69+ -
f v lop,
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TEL: 248-848-3800
FAX: 248-848-3801


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0662949 0538380 5 4 T

Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures


was founded in 1905 as a nonprofit membership organization dedicated to
public service and to representing user interestsin the field of concrete. It
gathers and distributesinformationon the improvement of design,
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Thecommittees, as wellastheInstitute as a whole,operateunder a
consensus format, which assuresall members the right to have their views
considered. Committee activities include the development building
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