Anda di halaman 1dari 11

REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL

ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

January 2007
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

ABU DHABI MUNICIPALITY


REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. PILING ................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Geotechnical Report .................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Information to be Shown on Drawings ....................................................................... 2
1.2.1 Shoring........................................................................................................... 2
1.2.2 Piling .............................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Calculations................................................................................................................ 2
1.3.1 Application Codes .......................................................................................... 3

2. SUPERSTRUCTURE.......................................................................................................... 4
2.1 General Requirements ............................................................................................... 4
2.2 Design Checklist ........................................................................................................ 4
2.3 Additional Foundation Requirements ......................................................................... 6
2.4 Additional Vertical Element Requirements................................................................. 7
2.5 Additional Horizontal Element Requirements............................................................. 8
2.6 Modelling of Superstructure and Specialist Design Considerations........................... 9

January 2007
Page i
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

1. PILING

1.1 Geotechnical Report


Detailed geotechnical investigation reports shall be submitted with the structural drawings
for every project by the consultant. The consultant shall ensure that the required amount of
boreholes are carried out to the required depth by the geotechnical engineer, to the
requirements of the nominated Code of Practice for site investigations.

Geotechnical investigation reports are to contain, but not be limited to, the following
information as applicable:

• Parameters for the geotechnical design of piles


• Assessment of geotechnical conditions of pile construction and installation
• Potential for ground heave, damage to adjacent structures or neighbouring piles
• Vibration effects and potential for damage to adjacent structures
• Near surface conditions for lateral load design
• Spring stiffness of vertical and lateral soil (varying with depth), as required for
design purposes (for piles and rafts)
• Allowable bearing capacity of the founding material
• Allowable shaft adhesion
• Recommendations for reasonable footing systems
• Short term and long term design parameters, in particular for retaining walls
• Allowable and tieback restraint parameters for shoring design
• Potential for slope instability
• Potential for liquefaction and design requirements and/or ground improvement
techniques to overcome the phenomenon
• Assessment of site conditions on pile durability (sulphates, chlorides, PH in soil and
water)
• Groundwater level, dewatering requirements and possible affect on surrounding
buildings
• Earthquake ground classification factor in accordance to the requirements of the
Uniform Building Code
• Excavation of soil and rock
• Porosity of the soil for possible concrete aggression
• Any other comments relevant to design and construction as may be revealed by the
investigation and testing

Subsequent to completion of soil investigation works and all necessary laboratory testing,
the consultant must submit documents certifying that:

• All soil investigation works and laboratory works have been witnessed by a qualified
representative of the consultant
• All works have been carried out in accordance with the nominated Code of Practice
for site investigations.
• Proper equipment and tools, duly calibrated, have been used by qualified and
experienced personnel during all soil investigation and testing works, and that the
test results have been reviewed and approved by the consultant.

January 2007
Page 1
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

1.2 Information to be Shown on Drawings


1.2.1 Shoring

• Drawings containing excavation plan and sections showing and dewatering details
by specialist contractor.

• Detailed calculations.

• Guarantee letter from consultant

1.2.2 Piling

• Piling plan showing pile length, reinforcement, legend for pile capacity, pile testing
cut-off levels etc.

• Pile caps layout including column and shear wall location with dimensions

• Pile caps sections showing raft thickness and bottom level at raft in relation to
Datum

• Structural framing (general arrangements) for all floors including column


locations, floating column location if any, beams, slabs etc. including the load
transfer mechanism

1.3 Calculations
• Design philosophy, complete design criteria and assumptions

• Column load calculation by area method

• Column load calculation by analytical method

• Stability analysis for wind and seismic loads including drift and check for human
comfort criteria is to be enclosed

• Loads on columns, shear walls including wind and seismic moments are to be
marked in the drawing of pile copy layout for critical load cases

• Pile reactions for all critical load cases

• Modulus of sub grade reaction and seismic parameters approved by geotechnical


investigation consultant

• Pile capacity calculation by specialised piling contractor

• A soft copy of the structural model including all the structural elements shall be
submitted on CD, together with the above mentioned calculations

• Each drawing shall be signed by design engineer

January 2007
Page 2
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

1.3.1 Application Codes

Dead and Live Loads

• BS 6399:1996 Part-1

• BS 6399: 1988 Part-3

• Adopted dead and live loads shall satisfy the recommendations of Abu Dhabi
Municipality

Seismic Loads

• UBC 97 Volume 2, Division 3V

• Zone 2A

Wind Load

• ASCE -7-02 Chapter 6

• Shall be based on basic wind speed of 40 m/sec

• Reliable wind tunnel study reflecting climatic site conditions where it look provision
is not applicable

Serviceability Limits

• All buildings shall be designed to limit maximum drift under 50 year wind load to
1/500 of building height

• All buildings shall be designed to limit inter story drift to 1/500 of the height and no
more than 10 year under serviceability 10 year wind 38m/sec

• Adequate provisions shall be adopted to eliminate risk and damage to non-


structural elements due to inter story drift, creek, shrinkage, etc.

• Wind induced vibration due to 10 year wind shall be limited to 15mg for residential
and hotel building and 20mg for office towers

January 2007
Page 3
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

2. SUPERSTRUCTURE

2.1 General Requirements


The requirements of the ‘Abu Dhabi Municipality Building Regulations and Guidelines for
Structural Design -1994’ shall be applicable unless superseded with this document.

Design of the superstructure and foundations shall be based on the requirements of the
latest and relevant British, American or Australian Standards and the Uniform Building
Code for earthquake loads for Zone 2A.

Structural design of all projects submitted to the Municipality for approval, shall ensure
that the work is carried out by licensed and qualified consultants, with structural
engineers having the necessary qualifications and experience.

Design philosophy, complete design criteria and assumptions shall be submitted.

Whenever requested by the Structural Engineering Section of the Buildings Directorate,


detailed design calculations based on the above stated Codes of Practice shall be
submitted.

Consultants shall ensure that structures are economically designed (as appropriate), and
must ensure that designs and details are buildable.

All Stage Two drawings shall be accompanied by a letter of guarantee from the certifying
consultant and shall clearly identify the primary designer responsible for the design.

2.2 Design Checklist


Consultants submitting structural drawings for approval must ensure they have designed
the foundations and the superstructure in accordance with the following general checklist:

Fire Rating Requirements

• Structural adequacy
• Integrity
• Insulation

Durability Requirements

• Corrosion resistance
• Chemical attack resistance
• Crack control
• Waterproofing

January 2007
Page 4
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

Loading Requirements

• Dead loads
• Live load (including any pattern load and heavy load/compactus requirements)
• Wind load
• Earthquake loads
• Earth pressures
• Water pressures
• Buoyancy loads
• Ground movements and differential foundation settlements.
• Dynamic effects/vibration resonance loads
• Thermal loads
• Creep
• Moisture variation (shrinkage and swelling)
• Expansion loads
• Axial shortening of columns
• Pre-stress (hyperstatic reactions)
• Impact and breaking loads
• Fatigue
• Construction loads

Serviceability requirements

• Deflections/sag (including allowance long term creep and shrinkage effects)


• Hogging (especially for post tensioned beams and cantilever back spans)
• Axial shortening/extension
• Rotation due to torsional effects
• Crack control (minimum pre stress level for post tensioned concrete)
• Allowance for articulation of masonry wall as required
• Allowance for brittle finishes

Stability Requirements

• Overturning and uplift


• Buoyancy
• Sliding

Strength Requirements

• Flexural strength (including minimum strength requirements)


• Beam shear strength (including minimum strength requirements)
• Punching shear strength
• Torsional strength.
• Bearing strength
• Anchor strength for post tensioned beams
• Foundation strength
• Pre stress levels within acceptable limits

Detailing Requirements

• Tendon placement priority over reinforcement


• Tendon/reinforcement clash at columns etc.
• Penetrations through slabs and beams
• Set downs, steps and sloping surfaces

January 2007
Page 5
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

2.3 Additional Foundation Requirements


Buildings with basements require approval of all basement floor plans from the Town
Planning Department of the Buildings Directorate and all concerned Service Departments.

The submitted drawings shall clearly indicate the distance to the outer face of any
permanent or temporary training system. (i.e. diaphragm walls, secant pile walls,
contiguous pile walls etc.) from the inner face of the basement walls.

Ground anchors supporting retaining systems for excavations, shall not extend into
adjacent plots or into areas of highly concentrated utilities and service lines in all
circumstances, clearances shall be obtained from the relevant service departments.

Pile foundations together with shallow foundations shall not be permitted to support the
same superstructure, unless isolated.

Foundations calculations shall (if required by the Municipality) address the design issues of
stability, durability. Serviceability and ultimate general requirements are:

Stability

• Overturning and uplift


• Buoyancy
• Sliding.
• Slope stability

Durability

• Corrosion resistance
• Chemical attack resistance
• Crack control if required

Serviceability

• Deflections/sag including allowance long term creep and shrinkage effects)


• Axial shortening (in particular for piles)
• Rotation of footings
• Bearing stress

Ultimate

• Punching shear
• Beam shear
• Flexural strength
• Torsional strength
• Anchor strength

*Geotechnical reports shall be submitted to the requirements of Part 1, Piling.

January 2007
Page 6
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

2.4 Additional Vertical Element Requirements


Load calculation by tributary area method and moment shear factor method should
accompanied by plan drawings indicating the tributary areas. The use of software to
calculate column reactions is permitted, although should be accompanied by hand
calculations using the prior mentioned methods.

Calculations must show if columns are short or slender, according to the code provision.

All column design must be accompanied by moment interaction diagrams taking into
account slenderness effects.

Additional bending moments due to column beam/slab joints must be included in


calculations, including any secondary effects (hyper static reactions) from unbalanced post-
tensioning reactions.

January 2007
Page 7
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

2.5 Additional Horizontal Element Requirements


Edge beams around a radius and general torsionally loaded beams must allow for
additional longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups. All stirrups must be closed to ensure
adequate torsional resistance is achieved.

Slabs modelled using the finite element method must clearly indicate all assumptions
considered to predict deflections, and must ensure that full moment connections are not
modelled where they can develop into pinned connections.

Transfer slabs must be limit deflections to span/1000 to ensure that elements and partitions
on above floors do not crack.

Include:

• All plans and sections relevant to the project for all structural elements
• Class and, where appropriate, grade designation of concrete
• Exposure classification
• Reference number and date of issue of applicable design standard
• Fire rating (if not specified on architectural drawings)
• Loading (superimposed dead load and live load to all slab plans and wind and
earthquake loads)
• Grade and type of reinforcement and tendons
• General notes
• Concrete cover to reinforcement
• The finish and method of control for unformed surfaces
• Class of formwork for the surface finish
• Curing procedure and duration
• The force required in each tendon, the maximum jacking force to be applied and
the order in which the tendons are to be stressed
• The location and details of planned construction or movement joints connections
and splices, and the method to be used for their protection
• The minimum period of time before stripping of forms and removal of shores
• Any constraints on construction assumed in the design
• Any special protective coatings
• Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days
• Characteristic flexural strength if required
• Characteristic indirect tensile strength if required
• Mean 7 days strength
• Other early age strength
• Slump of concrete.
• Cement type
• Maximum aggregate size
• Water/cement ratio
• Maximum 56 day shrinkage
• Density if required.
• Maximum water soluble acid (chloride ion) if required
• Maximum sulphate content (SO3) if required
• Temperature range at point of discharge if required
• Testing requirements if required
• Project assessment of concrete production if required

January 2007
Page 8
REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERING SUBMISSIONS

2.6 Modelling of Superstructure and Specialist Design


Considerations
Stability analysis for wind and seismic loads including drift

The following criteria applies (and should be corrected pending a wind tunnel test):

• Maximum drift for a 50 year return period less than height/500


• Maximum inter-story drift less than height/500 with a serviceability wind of
38m/sec.

Wind Tunnel Testing

The following serviceability requirements shall be adopted in the absence of accurate


wind tunnel testing for buildings:

• Maximum root means square (rms) acceleration for a 5 year return period less
than 5 milli-g’s, or
• Maximum peak acceleration for a 5 year return period as specified in the table
below.

Period Peak Acceleration (milli-g)#


1 7.0
2 10.2
3 12.0
4 13.5
5 14.5
6 15.5
7 16.6
8 17.4
9 18.6
10 19.2
# Note: For office buildings, peak accelerations maybe 20% higher.

Specialist Design Considerations

Towers which have a natural frequency of less than 1Hz or height more than or equal to
twice the least plan dimension or are irregular vertically such as weak stories, transfer
slabs, transfer girders etc should carry out the following:.

• Require dynamic analysis using response spectrum method for seismic load
• Columns should be designed and studied due to shortening and creep where
required
• Wind tunnel test required when the code provision is not applicable
• An electronic copy of the structural 3D-Model including all structural elements, must
be submitted together with the abovementioned calculations, clearly stating all
methodology
• All joints shall be seismically detailed (as required)
• Framed building must ensure that plastic hinges develop in the beams and not the
columns to prevent entire collapse in an overload condition. It is therefore required
that the column is stiffer than the adjoining beam.

January 2007
Page 9