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MEL 110: GRAPHIC SCIENCE

Harish Hirani
2-0-4
Associate Professor Learn by
Block II/354. Dept of Mech. Eng. Doing
I.I.T Delhi
Mon, Thurs
Minor I, 3.0
Minor II, 2.0
Last two weeks no lecture
MEL 110: GRAPHIC SCIENCE
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GRAPHICS: Art or Science of drawing

Systematic knowledge-base practice capable of resulting in predictable


type of outcome.
GRAPHICS: Art or Science of drawing

Systematic knowledge-base practice capable of resulting in predictable


type of outcome.
Why to learn drawing when 3-D
modeling is easier ?
• Bi-directional associativity
Graphic images are more powerful than simple text

A fixture, having overall length 150 mm, consists


of a rectangular block 75mm high, 44mm
long and 100mm wide.
The rectangular block has a Vee shaped slot
symmetrically through the top surface in a
longitudinal direction. It is 38mm each side of
the center at the top surface and is 45° to this
surface. The bottom of the Vee slot is
removed by a rectangular slot 19mm wide
with its bottom face 10mm above the top face
of the flange.
It has a 25mm thick by 100mm wide flange
protruding from the 100mm face of the block
with the lower surfaces
Conclusion: Technicalaligned.
drawing compared to Written Description,
Theoffers
free end
farofbetter
the flange
ideaisabout
rounded with
the a
Shape, Size & Appearance of any
50mm radius and at the center ofthat
machine/structure, that radius
too inisquite a less time.
a hole 8mm diameter through the flange with
a 20mm diameter counter bore 10mm deep in
the top surface of the flange.
Importance of Text !!!! Lettering
http://web.iitd.ac.in/~hirani/courses2.html

72 points = 1 inch.. Condensed..Expanded


• Height of letter (2.5 to
20mm).
• Width of letter
• Spacing between letters
• Gap between words
• Gap between lines.

ABC
210 * 297
Sheet Size
297* 420

A4 Tracing sheets for 420* 594


Sketching.

A2 Sheets for Drawing


594* 841

Thick Lines
841 * 1189
Thin Lines
Various Lines
• Center
• Hidden
• Construction
• Outline

• Outlines are made thicker than all other lines.


• Center line represents the center of object.
Various Lines
• Outline, Hidden, Center,
Construction,
– Dimension, Cutting plane,
Phantom, break.
• Center line:
– Where center lines cross, the short
dashes should intersect
symmetrically.
– Center lines should not end at
object lines.
• Line precedence: Outlines take
precedence over all other lines,
Hidden lines take precedence
over centre lines.
How Do I Start
• Learn Pro-E.
• Think few simple shapes.
Simple Shapes
Systematic Procedure to Sketch
Systematic way to Sketch
• Dimension smallest
to largest length.
Two stage extrusion
Two stage extrusion
Primitive Shapes: basic shapes that can be
used to make more complex structures.

Extrusion
Revolve

Prism
Primitive Shapes: basic shapes that can be
used to make more complex structures.
Orthographic Projections

Object in I quadrant = I angle


Object in III quadrant = III angle
Object in II or IV quadrant ??
Orthographic
Projections
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS:
DIFFERENT VIEWS of an OBJECT are PROJECTED on DIFFERENT REFERENCE
PLANES OBSERVING PERPENDICULAR to RESPECTIVE REFERENCE PLANE

Horizontal/Top Plane (HP / TP)


Reference Planes: Vertical/Front Plane ( VP /VP )
Side Or Profile Plane ( SP / PP)

Front View (FV)


Different Views: Top View (TV)
Side View (SV)

FV is a view projected on VP.


FV HP
TV is a view projected on HP. TV VP
SV is a view projected on PP. SV PP
PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method)
3 planes
in one
plane ???

PROCEDURE :-
TO MAKE All Plane VISIBLE,
A) HP IS ROTATED 900 DOWNWARD
B) PP, 900 IN RIGHT SIDE DIRECTION.
THIS WAY BOTH PLANES ARE BROUGHT IN THE SAME PLANE CONTAINING VP.

ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS


OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
DRAWN IN
FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS

VP PP
Y
FV LSV

X Y
X TV

HP

HP IS ROTATED DOWNWARD 900 PP IS ROTATED IN RIGHT SIDE 900


& BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. & BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP.
Orthographic Projection
• Greek word Æ Orthos (=Straight) + Graphe
(=Drawing).
• Technical method to represent 3D object in
2D (plane).
– Parallel projection
• All projection lines are orthogonal to the projection
plane.
FOR T.V.
First Angle projection

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

x y
Pictorial
Presentation
IS GIVEN

TOP VIEW
Once F.V. (principal view) chosen, other
I angle
views need to be arranged w. r. t. FV.
III angle
THIRD ANGLE FOR T.V.
PROJECTION
OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE
SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT
( BELOW HP & BEHIND OF VP. )

PLANES BEING TRANSPERENT


AND IN BETWEEN
OBSERVER & OBJECT.

TV
X Y
LSV FV

ACTUAL PATTERN OF
PLANES & VIEWS
OF
THIRD ANGLE PROJECTIONS
FIRST ANGLE
FOR T.V.
PROJECTION

OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE
SITUATED IN FIRST
QUADRANT.

OBJECT IS IN BETWEEN
OBSERVER & PLANE.

VP PP

FV LSV

X Y
TV

HP

ACTUAL PATTERN OF
PLANES & VIEWS
IN
FIRST ANGLE METHOD
OF PROJECTIONS
Summarizing methods of Drawing Orthographic Projections
Rotate H.P. & P.P. in V.P.

First Angle Projections Method Third Angle Projections Method


object placement object placement
in 1st Quadrant in 3rd Quadrant.
( Fv above X-y, Tv below X-y ) ( Tv above X-y, Fv below X-y )
SYMBOLIC
PRESENTATION
OF BOTH METHODS
WITH AN OBJECT
STANDING ON HP/GROUND TV
FV ON IT’S BASE.
X Y X Y

FV
TV
G L
Most informative view of an object shall be used as
the front view.

First angle projection method Third angle projection method


View in direction above FV, is placed
underneath FV.

View in direction below FV, is placed


above FV.

View seen from the right of FV, is


placed on the left of FV.

View seen from the left of FV, is


placed on the right of FV.
Selection of Views
• Only those views that are necessary for a clear & complete
description should be selected.
– Simple objects such as cylinder, bushing, etc. require only
two views (FV & SV/TV).
• Avoid (unnecessary) repetition of detail.
• Choose view which provide desired explanation with
minimum number of hidden lines.
– Invisible lines are represented with short dashes. Such line always
starts with a dash in contact with the object line from which it
starts, unless it forms a continuation of a visible line.
Tracing sheet Books:
1. Fundamentals of Engineering Drawing
pad, one graph by Luzadder & Duff. Prentice-Hall of
paper, HB/H India.
pencils, eraser. 2. Engineering Drawing, N D Bhatt
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
OF POINTS & LINES.

OBJECT POINT A LINE AB

IT’S TOP VIEW a (aT) a b (aT bT)

IT’S FRONT VIEW a’ (aF) a’ b’ (aF bF)

IT’S SIDE VIEW a” (asv) a” b” (asv bsv)

31
PROJECTIONS OF A POINT IN FIRST QUADRANT.
POINT A ABOVE HP POINT A ABOVE HP POINT A IN HP
& INFRONT OF VP & IN VP & INFRONT OF VP
For Tv
For Tv

PICTORIAL For Tv
PRESENTATION A
a’ a’
A Y
Y
Y a’
a
a
X a X X A

ORTHOGRAPHIC PRESENTATIONS
OF ALL ABOVE CASES.

VP VP VP

a’ a’

X Y X Y X
a’ Y
a

a a

HP HP HP 32
PROJECTIONS OF A POINT IN FIRST QUADRANT.
POINT A ABOVE HP POINT A ABOVE HP POINT A IN HP
& INFRONT OF VP & IN VP & INFRONT OF VP
For Tv
For Tv

PICTORIAL For Tv
PRESENTATION A
aF aF
A Y
Y
Y aF
aT
aT
X aT X X A

ORTHOGRAPHIC PRESENTATIONS
OF ALL ABOVE CASES.

aF aF

F F F aF
T T aT T

aT aT

HP HP HP 33
PROJECTIONS OF A POINT IN SECOND QUADRANT.

VP
2nd Quad. 1ST Quad.

A A a'
Y

X Y Observer HP
a
X

3rd Quad. 4th Quad.


PROJECTIONS OF A POINT IN THIRD QUADRANT.

VP
2nd Quad. 1ST Quad.

a X Y HP

A X Observer

a'
A

3rd Quad. 4th Quad.


POINT A IN VP POINT A IN
2 QUADRANT
ND QUADRANT
1ST
VP a’
A A
a’
a
HP OBSERVER

HP OBSERVER

HP
HP OBSERVER
OBSERVER

a
a’
A a’
POINT A IN A POINT A IN
3RD QUADRANT VP 4TH QUADRANT
VP

Projections of points in four quadrants 36


PROJECTIONS (FV & TV) of straight lines.

SIMPLE CASES
1. A vertical line ( LINE PERPENDICULAR TO HP & // TO VP)

2. Line parallel to both HP & VP.

3. Line inclined to HP & PARALLEL TO VP.

4. Line inclined to VP & PARALLEL TO HP.

5. Line inclined to both HP & VP (oblique line).

37
For Tv
(Pictorial Presentation) V.P.
a’ Note: a’
Fv is a vertical line
A Showing True Length Fv
1.
FV &
Tv is a point. b’
A Line
b’
perpendicular Y
X Y
to Hp B
&
// to Vp TV a b
Tv a b
X
Orthographic
Pattern
H.P.

(Pictorial Presentation) For Tv Note: V.P.


Fv & Tv both are
2. Fv
// to xy a’ b’
b’ &
A Line B both show T. L.
// to Hp a’
& Y X Y
A
// to Vp
b a b
Tv
X
a
H.P. 38
Fv inclined to xy V.P.
Tv parallel to xy. b’
3. b’

A Line inclined to Hp B
and a’ θ
θ Y
parallel to Vp a’ X Y
θ
(Pictorial presentation) a b
A b T.V.
X
a
H.P.
Orthographic Projections

Tv inclined to xy V.P.
4. Fv parallel to xy.
a’ Fv b’
A Line inclined to Vp b’
and a’
parallel to Hp Ø
A B
(Pictorial X Y
a Ø
presentation)
Ø Tv
a b
b
H.P. 39
For Tv
For Tv
5. A Line inclined to both
Hp and Vp b’
b’
(Pictorial presentation)
B
B
α
α Y
Y
On removal of object a’
a’ i.e. Line AB
Fv as a image on Vp.
A
A Tv as a image on Hp,
β
β X
X a T.V. b
a T.V. b
V.P.
b’
FV
a’ α

X Y Note These Facts:-


Both Fv & Tv are inclined to xy.
Oblique (No view is parallel to xy)
lines. a β Both Fv & Tv are reduced
lengths.
TV (No view shows True Length)

H.P. b 40
PROJECTION OF RECTANGLE Oblique plane

SURFACE PARALLEL TO HP SURFACE INCLINED TO HP ONE SMALL SIDE INCLINED TO VP


PICTORIAL PRESENTATION PICTORIAL PRESENTATION PICTORIAL PRESENTATION

ORTHOGRAPHIC ORTHOGRAPHIC ORTHOGRAPHIC


TV-True Shape FV- Inclined to XY FV- Apparent Shape
FV- Line // to xy TV- Reduced Shape TV-Previous Shape
VP
VP VP c1 ’
d1’

a’ d’ a1’ b1’
b’ c’

a d a1 d1

b c b1 c1
HP HP HP
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

F
T

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN Mistakes ??


DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

F
T

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN


DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

X Y

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN


DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

F
T

TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

F
T

TOP VIEW
FOR T.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

F
T

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN


DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW

X Y

TOP VIEW
Block View All orthographic views must fit
on the same sheet.

Space for:
FV: 90, 50
TV: 90, 40 Space between FV & TV
SV: 40, 50 Space between FV & TV
(90+10+40) * (50+10+40)

x
Summarizing previous lectures
• Block view
• Fold line
• Projection Æ Front, Top and side views
Dimensioning
• Lines, numerals, symbols, notes:

– Dimension line: Thin continuous line. Terminated by


arrowheads.
– Extension line: Thin continuous line. ⊥ to feature
– Arrowhead:
Closed/Open. Length =
3* Width.
– Note: Specific info
about feature.
– Leader: Pointer
connecting feature &
note.
Dimensioning Symbols
• φ : Diameter
• Sφ : Spherical diameter
• : Square
• R : Radius
• SR : Spherical radius
• ∩ : Arc length
Dimensioning of Chamfers &
Multi-features

Pitch circle diameter


Dimensioning by Coordinates
(Tabulation)

13.5
15.5
13.5
11.0
26.0
3 mm?

All dimensions in inches

Procedure:
¾ break part down into a series of geometric features (hole, projection,
etc.)
¾ apply dimensions to size each of the features (Functional dimensions),
¾ apply dimensions to control the location of the features (Non-functional
dimensions).
Common mistakes

Dimensions 25, 40, and φ12 are functional dimensions.


Dimensions 20 and 12.5 are non-functional dimensions.
Common mistakes

Dimension lines should


not end at object lines
Common mistakes

Each feature shall be dimensioned only once on a


drawing.
Each drawing shall use the same unit (i.e. mm)
Centerline may be used in place of extension line.
Common mistakes Ex. Of NOTE
Common mistakes

Use φ for dia.


Leaders × horizontal or
vertical.
Placing dimensions
• Aligned system
Use metric system.
• Unidirectional system

All dimensions in Inches


Aligned Unidirectional

Dimension can be read from All dimensions can be read from


bottom edge/ right hand edge bottom edge of drawing.
of drawing
Scale shall be large enough to
permit easy and clear interpretation
Scales of the information .

• Ratio of the linear dimension of an element


of an object as represented in the drawing to
the real linear dimension of the same
element of the object itself.
– Full size: 1:1
– Enlargement scale: 50:1; 20:1; 10:1; 5:1; 2:1.
– Reduction scale: 1:2; 1:5; 1:10; 1:20; 1:50.

X: 1 1: X
FV

30 10 30 SV

30

10

30
x y

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL!!!


TV
PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN
DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
35
FV

35

10 y
x

10 20 30
10

40

70

TV

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN


DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD Mistakes !!!!!
PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS
DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT
BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
30

FV
R 10

50
35
R 15
30

10
X Y
10

10 R 10
50

R 30
35

TV

R 30
10 R 15

TOP VIEW
Q1:- of a pentagonal pyramid having a base with a 30 mm
side and height 50 mm long, when its axis is vertical, and
LABORATORY 4: when the axis is horizontal.
Draw Isometric Q2:- A square pyramid rests centrally over a cylindrical
block, which is resting centrally on top of a Square block
Views (fig 1).
Q3:- of solids shown in orthographic projections (fig 2,3,4,5
and 6).
2-D versus 3-D drawings
• 2-D: A concept of displaying real-
world objects on a flat surface
showing only two dimensions (height
and width; width and depth; height
and depth). This system uses only the
X and Y axes.
• 3-D: A way of displaying real-world
object in a more natural way by
adding depth to the height and width.
This system uses the X Y and Z axes.
– Isometric projections help to
understand the essential features.
Axonometric projection

Difference?

Plane

Possibility of
a number
of axonometric
α
β
Axonometric Projection γ

• Dimetric: Angles between two of axes


are same. Two scale factors.
• Trimetric: Three scale factors.
• Isometric: ISO MEANS SAME,
SIMILAR OR EQUAL. X, Y, Z are
projected on three dimensional axes
maintained at equal inclinations with
each other (120°). Size is reduced.
Single scale factor.
Isometric Planes
Grid Sheet
Isometric Scale
cos 45
a’ b’
d’
c’ Scale =
cos 30

0.707
Scale = = 0.816
h’ 0.866
e’ f’ g’
d
h
Foreshortening is ignored
ÆIsometric drawing.
Æ Otherwise projection.
a e g c

o Angle cbp > angle obp

f Length bc > bo

b p
Importance of Isometric Drawing

• Understand overall shape, size & appearance of an


object prior to it’s production.

Vertical Isometric
+ 30° to HP drawing
- 30° to HP combined
with
orthographic
projections
provide
complete
Description.
SOME IMPORTANT TERMS:

ISOMETRIC AXES and LINES:

Three lines AL, AD and AH, meeting at point A


and making 1200 angles with each other are
termed Isometric Axes. A

Representation
of three planes
H

Lines parallel to isometric


axes are called Isometric
Lines.

Lines for hidden edges


Isometric
graph are generally not
shown.
Lines for hidden edges are generally not shown
FRONT VIEW of
FIGURE requires
H & L AXES.
A
Vertical line
will be drawn
vertical, while
horizontal H
line will be
drawn inclined
at 30° to Isometric view if the Shape is
SHAPE
horizontal. F.V. or T.V.
D
H
TOP VIEW of RECTANGLE D
FIGURE require D A D A
& L. C C
A

B C B B
Shapes Inclined Lines ????
containing
Inclined lines SHAPE Isometric view if the Shape is
cannot be F.V. or T.V.
drawn parallel
to any isometric
axes. Angle do
not increase or
B
H
decrease in any TRIANGLE 3 B
1
fixed B 1 3

proportion. 3
A A
1

Enclose in a 2 A 2 2
rectangle… First 4
H
draw isom. of PENTAGON
E
E
1 4 1
that rectangle D 4
D
and then A D A
E

inscribe that 1 3
shape as it is. 3 A C
C
2 3 B B
B C 2 2
Drawing circles ??
Ellipse is made of
four arcs.
GIVEN: A circle in FV
REQUIRED: Isometric view.

FIRST ENCLOSE IT IN A
SQUARE. USE H & L AXES.

Four-centre Method: Ends of


Small diagonal provides two
Centers.
Locate two centers on longer
Diagonal Easier for free hand
sketching.
DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW of the figure shown considering it first as FV and then TV.

25 R

50 MM

IF FRONT VIEW

100 MM

IF TOP VIEW
Summary on SHAPE IF F.V. IF T.V.
ISOMETRIC
HEXAGON
DRAWING OF
PLANE FIGURES

CIRCLE

SEMI CIRCLE
Making Isometric Drawing of Rectangular Object

H
F.V.
L

D T.V.

Concept of block views


Nonisometric Lines
• Inclined lines (not C D
TV
parallel to isometric
axes).
A
– Distorted (cannot be
measured directly) FV
B
line.
– Position & Projected C

length must be A

established by B

locating end points.


ISOMETRIC VIEW OF For hexagonal, angle
HEXAGONAL PRISM is 120°
STANDING ON H.P.

Edge a
Length (0.5+1+0.5) a
Height (0.866 + 0.866) a
CYLINDER, when Axis is Vertical

CYLINDER, When Axis is Horizontal


.

ISOMETRIC Drawing
Draw isometric
lines, then
60
FV non-isometric

X Y

20
40

TV
ISOMETRIC Drawing

60
FV

X Y
φ20

φ40
TV
10
First angle orthographic
projections

O
ISOMETRIC Drawing

FV 30

10

30

φ 30

50 +

50

TV
F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

10

20
40

FV

40

X Y

TV

φ 50 φ 30
F
T

O
F.V., T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL

FV SV

x y
10

40 60

40 TV

60
F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

50

F
T

20

25

25 20
F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

Block of 60*10*30 20 40

30

10
F
T O

10

30

10

30
O 80

Block of 80*40*10
F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

40

F 10

T φ 30
25

25

10
50
O

80
Block of 80*50*10

Block of 25*25*40
Four center method to draw ellipse
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given in I angle projection .
Draw it’s isometric view.

SQ 30
10 40 20

50

20
10

O 30
60
F.V.
S.V.
O
F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

FV 40

X O 10 Y
100
10 30 10
10
25

25
O
30 R
R 10
TV

Cuboid of 100*50*10

Draw parallel lines at 30 mm


Cuboid of 50*25*40
15
15

First angle projection

O
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given in I angle projection.
Draw it’s isometric view.

Mistake ??

F.V.
Sq 20
30
20 40

40
O

20
10

O 30
100 50
60
40

40
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

10 10

25

25
X Y
O 15 50 10

FV LSV
Oblique projection/view

‰It is a method of drawing a 3-D view of an


object (similar to isometric view)
Drawing an oblique projection
y

This face will have Cavalier projection


features with true
shape Cabinet projection
z
Full size, Half
length.
Receding line

30, 45, 60.


α Receding angle
x α taken as 45o
Oblique view of a cuboid
Draw essential contours
(circles, curves etc.) on this
face
Cavalier & Cabinet projections
Cavalier & Cabinet projections

R 25
Oblique view
Features on the front
face can be drawn with
the actual dimensions
and shape
Receding axis is 45o to
the horizontal

This image cannot currently be display ed.

Receding
axis
z

45o
x

Third Angle projection


Oblique Projection

40

T 22
F φ 10
Within the drawing
Title Block space. In the right hand
corner.

Mandatory to make borders and the title block in


Laboratory sheets 5,6, and 8-13. Name & entry number
must be in ink by following standard lettering practice
(One mark will be deducted from the total marks in case it
is not made.)

Distance between borders and the edges of the sheet: 10 mm


Size of title block: 170mm×60mm

Object lines by H
FV NAME
Guidelines in 2 H. X Y
ENTRY NO. G.NO
TV
LAB NO. Sign with date
NAME

ENTRY NO. G.NO

LAB NO. Sign with date


Mini-Drafter
Solids of Revolution
The cylinder, cone and sphere are
called ‘Solids of Revolution”.
• Cylinder is obtained by rotation of
a rectangle about axis.

• Cone is obtained by rotation of a


right angled triangle about axis

• Sphere is obtained by rotation of a


semicircle about axis.
Dimensional parameters of different solids.

Square Prism Square Pyramid Cylinder Cone


Apex Apex
Top
Rectangular Slant
Face Edge Triangular
Longer Base Face Base Base
Base
Edge

Corner of Edge Edge Corner of


Generators
base of of base
Imaginary lines
Base Base
generating curved surface
of cylinder & cone.

Sections of solids( top & base not parallel) Frustum of cone & pyramids.
( top & base parallel to each other)
Problem. A square pyramid, 40 mm base sides and axis
60 mm long, has a triangular face on the ground and the
plane containing the axis makes an angle of 450 with the
VP. Draw its projections. Take apex nearer to VP.

1st. Angle
oF
a’1 b’1

F aFbF cFdF d’1 c’1 o’1

T a1
aT dT d1 a1

o1
o
bT cT c1 b1 (APEX
NEARER
TO V.P).

115
STEPS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS Related to Projection of SOLIDS

STEP 1: Assume solid STANDING on the PLANE with which it is making INCLINATION.
( If INCLINED to HP, ASSUME it standing ON HP)
( If INCLINED to VP, ASSUME it standing on VP)

STEP 2: CONSIDERING SOLID’S INCLINATION ( AXIS POSITION ), draw it’s FV &


TV.

STEP 3: IN LAST STEP, consider remaining inclination, DRAW IT’S FINAL FV & TV.

GENERAL PATTERN ( THREE STEPS ) OF SOLUTION:

AXIS AXIS
AXIS AXIS INCLINED HP INCLINED HP
AXIS AXIS VERTICAL INCLINED HP
VERTICAL INCLINED HP

er er AXIS
AXIS AXIS TO VP AXIS
AXIS AXIS TO VP
INCLINED VP INCLINED INCLINED
INCLINED VP VP VP
Hints
• If axis of given solid is inclined to HP (VP)
1. Assume axis is perpendicular to HP (VP)
• Draw top view(FV) and then corresponding front
view (TV) .
2. Change position of front view (TV)to the given
inclination.
• Draw corresponding new top view (FV)
• Change position of new top view (FV) if
inclination with other principal plane is given.
.

Problem: A cone 40 mm diameter and 50 mm axis is


resting on one generator on Hp which makes 300
inclination with Vp. Draw it’s projections.

More number of generators Æ Better


approximation.

Replace a,b,.. o’
With aT, bT… a’1
h’1 b’1

Drawing g’1
F
ellipse?
f’1 c’1 o1
a’ h’b’ c’ g’ f’ d’ e’ o’ d’
e’1 1 30
g g1
g1 o1
h1
T h f f1 h1
f1 a1
a o e e1 a1 o1
e1 b1
1st. Angle b d d1 b1
d1 118
c c1 c1
How to draw an Ellipse
• Major and minor axes.
– Arcs of circle method
– Concentric circles method
Problem. Major axis AB & minor axis CD are ARCS OF CIRCLE METHOD
100 & 70mm long respectively. Draw ellipse.

As per the definition Ellipse is locus of point P moving in


STEPS: a plane such that the SUM of it’s distances from two fixed
1.Draw two axes at 90°. Name points (F1 & F2) remains constant and equals to the length
ends & intersecting point. of major axis AB.(Note A .1+ B .1=A . 2 + B. 2 = AB)
2.Taking AO distance, i.e. half p4 C
major axis, from C, mark F1 & F2 p3
on AB (focus 1 and 2). p2
3.On line F1- O taking any p1
distance, mark points 1,2,3, & 4
4.Taking F1 center, with distance A-
1 draw an arc above AB and taking
B
F2 center, with B-1 distance cut this A O
F1 1 2 3 4 F2
arc. Name the point p1
5.Repeat this step with same
centers but taking now A-2 & B-2
distances for drawing arcs. Name
the point p2
6.Similarly get all other P points.
D
With same steps positions of P
can be located below AB.
7. Join all points by smooth curve
to get an ellipse.
CONCENTRIC CIRCLE METHOD
Problem :- Major axis 100 mm and minor axis 70 mm long.
3
2 4
Steps:
1. Draw two axes as ⊥ bisectors of each C

other. 1
3
5
2 4
2. Taking their intersecting point as a
center, draw two concentric circles of 1 5
70 mm and 100 mm diameters.
A
3. Divide both circles in 12 equal parts. B
4. From all points of outer circle draw
10
vertical lines downwards and upwards 6

respectively. 10 9 7 6
5.From all points of inner circle draw 8
D
horizontal lines to intersect those
vertical lines.
9 7
6. Mark all intersecting points.
8
7. Join all these points to get the
required ellipse.
To divide a circle into 12 equal parts

ƒ Draw the two diameters 1–7 and 4–10,


perpendicular to each other.
ƒ With 1 as a centre and radius = R (= radius
of the circle), cut two arcs at 3 and 11 on the
circle.
ƒ Similarly, with 4, 7 and 10 as the centres
and the same radius, cut arcs on the circle
respectively at 2 and 6, 5 and 9, and 8 and
12. The points 1, 2, 3, etc., give 12 equal
divisions of the circle.
PROBLEM: Line AB is 75 mm long and it is 300 & 400 Inclined to HP & VP
respectively. End A is 12mm above Hp and 10 mm in front of VP. Draw
projections. Line is in 1st quadrant.
bF b’1

TL

θ 2

F aF Front View

T aT LFV
Ø 1

TL

Top View

bT b1
PROBLEM: Line AB 75mm long makes 450 inclination with VP while it’s FV
makes 550. End A is 10 mm above HP and 15 mm in front of VP. If line is in 1st
quadrant draw it’s projections and find it’s inclination with HP.

bF b’1 LOCUS OF b1’

550

F aF Front View

T LFV
aT
1

Top View

LOCUS OF b
bT b1
Problem: A cylinder 40 mm diameter and 50 mm axis
is resting on one point of a base circle on Vp while it’s
axis makes 450 with Vp and Fv of the axis makes 350
with Hp. Draw 1st angle projections.

4’d’ d’ 4’

3’
1’ a’ c’ a’ c’ 3’
1’

2’ b’ b’
F 2’ 350
a bd c 450 c1
T d1
b1

a1
3

4
2
1 24 3
1
Geometry with straight
lines
• Triangle Æ 180 Æ 60°
• Rectangle/Square Æ 360 Æ 90°
• Pentagon Æ 540 Æ 108°
• Hexagon Æ 720 Æ 120°
• Heptagon Æ 900 Æ 128.57°
• Octagon Æ 1080 Æ 135°

α2

α1 α3
α1 + α 2 + α 3 = 180 α = 135o
Can we draw geometries without
measuring angles ?
ƒ With any point O as centre and radius = OA, draw a circle.

ƒ From A draw a cord of length OA,


B which intersects circle at B.
ƒ Length OB will be ????
ƒ Equilateral triangle???
C D O

E ƒ Angle CAB = 120°


ƒ Method to make a hexagonal of side
= AB.
A B

ƒ E is middle point of line DB.


How to locate
point 5:
Bisecting Line
8
4-6 7
6 P
5
4

4 E 6
5

A B

Line

128
Problem: A cube of 50 mm long edges is so placed on Vp on one corner
that a body diagonal is parallel to Vp and perpendicular to Hp. Draw it’s
3rd angle projections.

Replace a,b,..
With aT, bT… 11
21
41
1 2,4 3
a 31
a1
b,d b1 d1
Ta b, d c c1
'
c
d‘,4 d 1 4'
1 a1'
F
b1' d1'
a '
1
'
1
1 c '
1
'
3
1
11'
a‘,1 c‘,3
c1'
21' 41'
b‘,2 b1' 21'
31'
Problem: A square pyramid 30 mm base side and 50 mm long axis is resting
on it’s apex on Hp, such that it’s one slant edge is vertical and a triangular face
through it is perpendicular to Vp. Draw it’s 1st angle projections.

a’ b’d’ c’ a’1
d’1 b’1
c’1

F o’ o’1 Hidden lines in


Projections of
T d d1 solid !

a bo c ao1 c1
1

b1
b
Summary of Topics
Hidden Lines
Treatment of Tangent Surfaces
FREELY SUSPENDED SOLIDS:
Positions of CG, on axis, from base, for different solids are shown below.

H
CG

H/2 CG
H/4

GROUP A SOLIDS GROUP B SOLIDS


( Cylinder & Prisms) ( Cone & Pyramids)
Problem: A pentagonal pyramid 30 mm base sides & 60 mm long
axis, is freely suspended from one corner of base so that a plane
containing it’s axis remains parallel to Vp. Draw it’s orthographic
projections.
LINE d’g’ VERTICAL
o’ d’

c’e’
FOR SIDE VIEW
g’
H a’b’
g’ o’
IMPORTANT: H/4 F
a’ b’ c’ e’ d’
When a solid is freely e1
e T
suspended from a a1
corner, then line a
d1
joining point of o do
1
contact & C.G. b b1
remains vertical. c c1
( Here axis shows
inclination with Hp.)
So in all such cases,
assume solid standing
on Hp initially.)
O
F.V. and S.V.of an object are given.
Draw it’s isometric view.

20 10 20
30 10

15

O 15

15

15
X O Y
50 30
F.V.
LEFT S.V.
F.V., T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

F. V. L.H.S.

20

20

20
x y
O 50

20

30

O
20 20 20

T. V.
Dimensioning Oblique Drawing
• Dimension should be made to read from
the bottom and right hand side of the
sheet.

• dimensions, Dimension lines, extension


lines and arrowheads must lie in the same
oblique plane to which they apply.

• As far as possible, the dimensions should

50
be placed in the front face.
50
• As far as possible, the dimensions should
be placed outside the outlines of the.