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Job No. Sheet No. Rev.

CONSULTING Engineering Calculation Sheet


E N G I N E E R S Consulting Engineers jXXX 1
Member/Location

Drg. Ref.
Job Title Structure Design - Reinforced Concrete Arch (Dome), Ring Wall BS8110 v2015.01.xlsx
Made by
Structure Design - RC Arch (Dome), Ring Wall XX Date 19-08-15 Chd.

Arch
Note it is assumed that the base of the arch is pinned;

Arch rise, r 5.000 m


Arch span, L 31.000 m
Arch width, b 1.000 m
Arch thickness, t 125 mm
Arch loading, ω = (DL+SDL+LL).b 4.50 kN/m
dead load, DL = 24kN/m3.t 3.00 kPa
superimposed dead load, SDL 0.00 kPa
live load, LL 1.50 kPa
2 2
Arch radius, R = [(D/2) +r ]/(2r) 26.525 m
Arch cosine angle, c = cosθ = (R-r)/R 0.811
Arch sine angle, s = sinθ = sin(acos(cosθ)) 0.584
Arch angle, θ = acos(cosθ) 0.624 radians
Arch angle, θ = acos(cosθ) 35.8 degrees

Arch (unfactored) axial (comp) thrust, T = √(H2+V2) 133 kN


Arch (unfactored) axial (comp) thrust (small r/L for cosθ≈1), T = √(H2+V2) 129 kN

2 2 2
Arch (unfactored) horizontal thrust, H = -ω.R.[2θ sc-0.5θ-4.5sc+5θc ]/[2θc + 110 kN
2
Arch (unfactored) horizontal thrust (small r/L for cosθ≈1), H = ω.L /(8r) 108 kN

Arch (unfactored) vertical thrust, V = θ.R.ω 74 kN


Arch (unfactored) vertical thrust (small r/L for cosθ≈1), V = ω.L/2 70 kN
Job No. Sheet No. Rev.
CONSULTING Engineering Calculation Sheet
E N G I N E E R S Consulting Engineers jXXX 2
Member/Location

Drg. Ref.
Job Title Structure Design - Reinforced Concrete Arch (Dome), Ring Wall BS8110 v2015.01.xlsx
Made by
Structure Design - RC Arch (Dome), Ring Wall XX Date 19-08-15 Chd.

Dome
Note it is assumed that the base of the arch is pinned;

Note that the benefit of the dome to the arch is that whereas the
2D arch requires external thrust abutments or an internal tie that
cut through the clear span, the dome utilizes the hoop tension ring
within the dome structure to perform this function, thus alleviating
the need for both the external abutment and the internal
obstructive tie element;

Dome rise, r (usually D/6 to D/5) 5.000 m


Dome span, D 31.000 m
Dome thickness, t 125 mm
Dome loading, ω = DL+SDL+LL 4.50 kPa
dead load, DL = 24kN/m3.t 3.00 kPa
superimposed dead load, SDL 0.00 kPa
live load, LL 1.50 kPa
Dome radius, R = [(D/2)2+r2]/(2r) 26.525 m
Dome cosine angle, cosθ = (R-r)/R 0.811
Dome angle, θ = acos(cosθ) 35.8 degrees
Note ensure θ ≤ 51.8 ° for no tensile circumferential force;

Allowable steel (tens) stress, fs,allow 100 N/mm2

Note that the allowable steel stress may be


much higher (to 0.80fy) than that
recommended in the table 3.1 if a full crack
width calculation is undertaken;

Dome (unfactored) meridional (comp) thrust, T1 = ωR/(1+cosθ) 66 kN/m

Dome (unfactored) circumferential (comp) force, T2 = ωR.(cosθ-1/(1+cosθ)) 31 kN/m


Dome circumferential steel φ 10 mm s 150 mm
2
Dome circumferential steel area, As = sides.πφ /4/s 1 side(s) 524 mm2/m
Dome circumferential steel area percentage, ρ (>=0.40% or >=0.45%, <=4.0%) 0.42% OK
Dome (unfactored) circumferential steel (tens) stress, σT2 = -T2 / As 0 N/mm2
Allowable steel (tens) stress utilisation, σT2 / fs,allow 0% OK

Dome (unfactored) horizontal thrust, H = T1.cosθ 53 kN/m


Dome ring beam (unfactored) hoop (tens) force, Th = H.D/2 829 kN
Dome ring beam b 600 mm h 900 mm
Dome ring beam steel φ 25 mm no. 18 number(s)
Dome ring beam steel area, As = no.πφ2/4 8836 mm2
Dome ring beam steel area percentage, ρ (>=0.45%, <=4.0%) 1.64% OK
Dome ring beam (unfactored) steel (tens) stress, σTh = Th / As 94 N/mm2
Allowable steel (tens) stress utilisation, σTh / fs,allow 94% OK

Note the dome horizontal force may be resisted by an external abutment resisting thrust H
or the ring beam resisting hoop tension T h ;
Dome (unfactored) vertical thrust, V = T1.sinθ 39 kN/m
Job No. Sheet No. Rev.
CONSULTING Engineering Calculation Sheet
E N G I N E E R S Consulting Engineers jXXX 3
Member/Location

Drg. Ref.
Job Title Structure Design - Reinforced Concrete Arch (Dome), Ring Wall BS8110 v2015.01.xlsx
Made by
Structure Design - RC Arch (Dome), Ring Wall XX Date 19-08-15 Chd.

Ring Wall

Ring wall height, H 5.000 m


Ring wall internal diameter, D 31.000 m
Ring wall top thickness, t1 300 mm
Ring wall bottom thickness, t2 400 mm
Ring wall internal radius, r = D/2 15.500 m
Ring wall volume capacity (cubic metre), V = π.H.D2/4 3774 m3
2
Ring wall volume capacity (gallon), V = π.H.D /4 830128 gallon

Fluid density, γ 10.0 kN/m3

Thin-walled assumption r/t1 ≥ 5.0 51.7 OK


Thin-walled assumption r/t2 ≥ 5.0 38.8 OK

Allowable steel (tens) stress, fs,allow 100 N/mm2

Note that the allowable steel stress may be


much higher (to 0.80fy) than that
recommended in the table 3.1 if a full crack
width calculation is undertaken;

Method of analysis
Coefficients for "two way spanning hoop tension and vertical plane moment" method
H2/Dt 2.3

External cover to wall, cover 50 mm


Characteristic strength of concrete, fcu 35 N/mm2
Job No. Sheet No. Rev.
CONSULTING Engineering Calculation Sheet
E N G I N E E R S Consulting Engineers jXXX 4
Member/Location

Drg. Ref.
Job Title Structure Design - Reinforced Concrete Arch (Dome), Ring Wall BS8110 v2015.01.xlsx
Made by
Structure Design - RC Arch (Dome), Ring Wall XX Date 19-08-15 Chd.

h (m) t (mm) p (kPa) ktens Fh (kN/m) φ (mm) s (mm) As (mm2/m) ρw (%) 2


fs (N/mm )
0.000 300 0 0.205 159 16 115 3497 1.17% 45
0.417 308 4 0.260 202 16 115 3497 1.13% 58
0.833 317 8 0.321 249 16 115 3497 1.10% 71
1.250 325 13 0.347 269 16 115 3497 1.08% 77
1.667 333 17 0.373 289 16 115 3497 1.05% 83
2.083 342 21 0.411 319 16 115 3497 1.02% 91
2.500 350 25 0.434 336 16 115 3497 1.00% 96
2.917 358 29 0.419 325 16 115 3497 0.98% 93
3.333 367 33 0.394 305 16 115 3497 0.95% 87
3.750 375 38 0.369 286 16 115 3497 0.93% 82
4.167 383 42 0.280 217 16 115 3497 0.91% 62
4.583 392 46 0.151 117 16 115 3497 0.89% 33
5.000 400 50 0.151 117 16 115 3497 0.87% 33

Note ring wall pressure, p = γ .h;


Note (unfactored) hoop (tens) force (thin-walled), F h = p.r or k tens . γ .h.r;
Note steel area, A s = 2 πφ 2 /4/s;
Note steel area percentage, ρ w = A s / 1000.t;
Note (unfactored) steel (tens) stress, f s = F h / A s ;

Maximum steel area percentage, ρwmax (<=4.0%) 1.17% OK


Minimum steel area percentage, ρwmin (>=0.45%) 0.87% OK
2
Maximum steel (tens) stress, MAX (fs) 96 N/mm
Allowable steel (tens) stress utilisation, MAX (fs) / fs,allow 96% OK

h (m) t (mm) kmom Mv (kN/m) φv (mm) s (mm) Asv (mm2/m) ρwv (%) fs (N/mm2)
0.000 300 0.0009 1 12 115 983 0.33% 5
0.417 308 0.0009 1 12 115 983 0.32% 5
0.833 317 0.0033 4 12 115 983 0.31% 17
1.250 325 0.0053 7 12 115 983 0.30% 26
1.667 333 0.0073 9 12 115 983 0.30% 35
2.083 342 0.0114 14 12 115 983 0.29% 53
2.500 350 0.0158 20 12 115 983 0.28% 72
2.917 358 0.0199 25 12 115 983 0.27% 88
3.333 367 0.0219 27 12 115 983 0.27% 94
3.750 375 0.0212 27 12 115 983 0.26% 89
4.167 383 0.0205 26 12 115 983 0.26% 84
4.583 392 0.0145 18 12 115 983 0.25% 58
5.000 400 0.0000 0 12 115 983 0.25% 0

Note ring wall pressure, p = γ .h;


3
Note (unfactored) vertical plane moment, M v = 0.0 or k mom . γ .h ;
Note steel area, A sv = (2 or 1). πφ v 2 /4/s;
Note steel area percentage, ρ wv = A sv / 1000.t;
Note (unfactored) steel (tens) stress, f s = M v /(z.A sv )
where z = d.MIN[0.95,0.5+(0.25-K/0.9) 0.5 ], d = t-cover- φ v /2 and K = M v /(1000.d 2 .f cu );

Maximum steel area percentage, ρwvmax (<=4.0%) 0.33% OK


Minimum vertical steel area percentage, ρwvmin (>=0.25% or >=0.13%) 0.25% OK
Maximum steel (tens) stress, MAX (fs) 94 N/mm2
Allowable steel (tens) stress utilisation, MAX (fs) / fs,allow 94% OK
Job No. Sheet No. Rev.
CONSULTING Engineering Calculation Sheet
E N G I N E E R S Consulting Engineers jXXX 5
Member/Location

Drg. Ref.
Job Title Structure Design - Reinforced Concrete Arch (Dome), Ring Wall BS8110 v2015.01.xlsx
Made by
Structure Design - RC Arch (Dome), Ring Wall XX Date 19-08-15 Chd.