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Weldability of AHSS

Dr. Sree Harsha Lalam, CWEng.


Mittal Steel Company

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Overview

• AHS Steels & Weld Joint


• Spot welding
– Spot Welding Window
– Effect of Coating
– AC vs. Mid-Frequency DC
– Weldmetal Hardness
– Mechanical Properties
– Fracture Mode
– Effect of Paint Baking
– Impact Testing at -20 oC and 20 oC
• Arc welding
• Laser welding
• Induction welding
• Summary

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Summary

•The optimum resistance welding


parameters of AHSS are different from
the mild steel parameters.

•AHSS can be welded using Resistance,


Arc, Laser, Induction welding processes.

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Effect of cooling rate in a steel

Alloying
Ac3 elements
Ac1
Ferrite effect
Pearlite
Temperature

1%

Bainite

1 3
Martensite 2

Time
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Weld Microstructure

Ferrite + Martensite
Ferrite Martensite

• All weld joints including


AHSS, will have similar
microstructures.
• The hardness of each
region depends on the
HSLA350 Arc weld alloying elements.

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Chemical composition of steels

C Mn Si S P
(wt%) (wt%) (wt%) (wt%) (wt%)
DQSK CR 0.04 0.19 0.012 0.015 0.011
HSLA350 CR 0.08 0.73 0.022 0.005 0.01
DP500 CR 0.07 1.71 0.025 0.006 0.011
DP600 CR 0.09 0.95 0.300 0.008 0.01
DiForm140T CR
0.14 1.45 0.300 0.007 0.015
(DP965)
M220 CR (M1500) 0.25 0.45 0.026 0.015 0.01

TRIP Steels : High C, Mn, Al/Si, etc.

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SPOT WELDING

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Influencing parameters on
weldability

Mild Steel AHSS


Alloying Elements Low High
Microstructure Simple Ferrite/DP/Martensite
Resistivity Lower Higher
Current Range Higher Lower Using same
Electrode Life Longer Shorter welding
in HAZ/ Nugget /
parameters
Fracture Location in HAZ
Interface
Electrode Force Lower Higher
Current Higher Lower

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Similar current range

Material Gauge Current range


(Min. Button = 4 x √t) ( mm) (kA)
DP500 EG 0.65 1.28
DQSK EG 0.81 1.21
BH210 EG 0.83 1.79
DP600 CR 1.40 2.74
DP600 HDG 1.40 1.90
HSLA 350 GA 1.50 2.10
M900 CR 1.50 3.40
HFT440 GA 1.60 2.75
TRIP590 CR 1.60 2.63
DP600 CR 1.80 4.76
DiForm 140T (DP965) CR 1.87 3.70
HSLA350 HDG 1.90 2.60

• With optimum welding parameters the AHSS will produce current


range similar to mild steel.
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Effect of coating on weld time and
current
TRIP590 1.6mm, Nugget Size 6.67mm
8.5
TRIP590 CR TRIP590 GA
8.0
Current (kA)

7.5

7.0 CR GA
6.5
6.0
5.5
8 13 18 23 28
Weld Time (Cycles, 60 Hz)
• Similar to mild steel the weld time, current depends on coating

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Effect of current mode

DP600 CR 1.4 mm DP965 CR 2.0 mm


9 DiForm140T(DP965) 2.0 mm, Dome Electrode
MFDC 9
8
8
MFDC
7

Button Size (mm)


AC
Button size (mm)

6 7
AC
5
6
Min. Button Size
4 Min. Button
5
3
Elec. Force: 3.8 kN AC
2 DP600 CR 1.4 mm 4 MFDC
6 7 8 9 10 11 6 7 8 9 10 11
Current (kA) Current (kA)

• Mid-Frequency DC will increase the current range

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Weld metal hardness depends on
steel chemical composition
500

Weld metal hardness 450

Vicker's Hardness (VHN)


400
depends on base
350
material chemical
300
composition, not on HSLA
250
weld time. 200 DP600HDG 1.4mm, 12 cycles
DP600HDG 1.4mm, 26 cycles
150 HSL350HDG 1.9mm, 28 cycles
TRIP590GA 1.6 mm, 28 cycles
TRIP590CR 1.6 mm, 18 cycles
100
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Base Material Heat Affected Zone Indentation Distance (mm) Weld
191 HV 355 HV 436 HV 469 HV Metal

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Weld Time Vs Load
TRIP 590 1.6 mm
TRIP590 CR 1.6 mm, Nugget Size 6.67 mm TS TRIP590 GA 1.6 mm, nugget size 6.67 mm
21 21
CT TS
19 19 CT
17 17
Load (kN)

Load (kN)
15 15
13 13
11 11
9 9
7 7
5 5

24p
14

16

20

24

28

30
10

12

16

18

26

28
Weld Time (cycles, 60 Hz) Weld Time (cycles, 60 Hz)
TS- Tension Shear, CT-Cross Tension

• Optimum weld time depends on the type of coating


• Pulsing has little effect of tension shear load.

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Fracture mode may not be an
indication of weldability
Below min. button Size
Partial Cross Tension
Interfacial
Fracture Button Pullout

2258 lbf 2117 lbf

2267 lbf
DP965 CR

Tension Shear

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Paint Baking improves the ductility
16 Cycles, Flat Sample, Gray:As-welded, Pink: Baked
DP590 GA, 1.1 mm
1800 16 Cycles, Flat Sample, Gray:As-welded, Pink: Baked
140
1600
120
1400
100
1200

Energy (J)
CT (lbf)

1000 80

800 60

600 40
400
20
200
0

5.6
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.6

6.9
6.9
7.5
6.9
6.9

8.5
8.5
8.6
8.5
8.6
8.5

9.7
9.6
9.7
0
5.6

5.7

5.5

5.5

5.6

6.9

6.9

7.5

6.9

6.9

8.5

8.5

8.6

8.5

8.6

8.5

9.7

9.6

9.7
Current (kA)
Current (kA)

• Paint baking increases the cross tension load.


• Paint baking improves the weld ductility and energy.

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Decreased hardness in baked weld

500 DP590 GA, 1.1 mm


450
Vickers Hardness (VHN)

400

350

300 Paint Baked, 350F


30min
250 As-welded

200

150
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Distance (in)

• Paint baking decreases the coarse grain HAZ hardness


and improves the fracture mode.
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Impact testing samples
Shear

Teflon

Thermocouple

Sample at -20 oC
before testing

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AHSS higher impact load

HSLA350 DP600 DiForm140T


11000
Cold Rolled
10000
DP965 1.4 mm
Impact Load (lbf)
9000
DP600
8000

7000 HSLA350
6000

5000

4000

3000
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Button Size (mm)

• AHSS has higher impact load bearing capacity

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Low-Temperature impact load
140
25 C -20C
120
Spot weld performance
Impact Energy (J)

100

80 under impact load


60
depends on button size
40

20

0
4.71 4.71 4.71 7.63 7.63 7.63 8.35 8.35 8.35
Button Size (mm)
Shear Button
Mixed
Button Shear Double
Button
Fracture Mode 68.5 J 51.0 J 111.1 J

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ARC WELDING

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Arc welding of AHSS

1.0” 1.6 mm

Filler Wire: ER70-S3


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AHSS has higher arc weld load
800
DP965
700
M1300 DP600
600
Weld Strength (MPa)

HSLA350
500

400

300

200

100

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Elongation (mm)

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LASER WELDING

Source: M. Gallagher, et. al., "Laser Welding of AHSS", to be presented at the


International Automotive Body Congress (IABC), Sep., 2005.

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Laser welding of AHSS

WELD JOINT
100mm “top” shim
30mm
“bottom”shim

500mm 25mm
• TRUMPF 4.5 kW Nd:YAG laser
• Power used: 3.8 kW
• Focal distance : 200mm
• No Purging Gas
• Shims : 0.004” (0.1mm)
• Location of Shims: 1.5” long with 1.5” spacing between
shims
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Laser weld: Effect of penetration
90

80
DP600 1.2/2.0
70
Penetration (%)

60 DP600 2.0/2.0

50

40

30

20 DP600 1.2/1.2

10 M900 1.5/1.5
HSLA350 1.9/1.9
0
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Weld Speed m/min
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Laser weld: Failure locations

Interfacial
Failure

HAZ Failure

Base Metal
Failure

• Interfacial failure usually occurs when penetration/weld width is


small
• When HAZ failure occurs, almost always through bottom sheet.
• Weld rotation occurs

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Effect of penetration on load

6000
DP600 2/2
5000

HSLA 1.9/1.9
4000
Load (lbs)

3000 M900 1.5/1.5

2000 DP600 2/2


DP600 1.2/1.2
1000 HSLA350 1.9/1.9
DP600 1.2/1.2 M130 1.5/1.5
0
0 20 40 60 80 100
% Penetration

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Strength of laser weld
Failed in Base material
600

500
Stress (MPa)

400

300

200

100

0
DP600 DP600 HSLA M900- DP600-
1.2/1.2 2.0/2.0 1.9/1.9 DP600 M900
1.5/2.0 1.2/1.5

Laser weld strength increases with base material strength

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Summary

• AHSS need higher electrode force and


optimized weld schedule.
• AHSS welds have higher load bearing
capacity than mild steels.
• Paint baking increases the weld ductility.
• AHSS has higher impact load bearing
capacity.
• Weld strength depends on the alloying
elements and base material strength.
• The maximum strength in laser lap weld joints
can be achieved at ~40% penetration.
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Summary

•The optimum resistance welding


parameters of AHSS are different from
the mild steel parameters.
•AHSS can be welded using Resistance,
Arc, Laser, Induction welding processes.

Thank you

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