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Module -1
1. The advent of Islam into India, Architecture of early Islamic Delhi and the
regional variations.
Module -2
2. Influence of Islamic ideas on secular and religious architecture in India.
Module -3
3. The Mughal period in India.
Module -4
4. Renaissance in Italy, the spread of renaissance and Baroque in Europe.

Reference books:
a) Indian Architecture-Islamic period – Dr.Surendra Sahai (Prakash books)
b) Islamic Architecture of the Indian subcontinent –Bianca maria Alfieri (laurence king)
c) Islamic Architecture in India – Satish Drover (GPC )
Islamic Architecture in Indian History
• Mohammed Bin Qasim 711-873
• Turkish influence 727-1287
• Ghuri & khilji sultans 1290-1320
• Tughlaqs 1320-1413
• Sayyids and lodhis 1414-1451 & 1451-1526
• Shersha
• Mughals – Babar , to Akbar 1526-1605
• Jahangir 1605-1627
• Shah jahan 1628-1657
• Aurangzeb 1658-1707
Iiyas shahi and Hussain shahi – Bengal 1300-1550
Ahmad shahi – Gujarat & Jaunpur 1300-1500 and 1392-1483
Bahmani sultans – Gulbarga , Bidar & Daulatabad
Golkonda Hyderabad – Qutb shahis 1397-1687
Bijapur- Adil shahi
Kashmir 1346-1586
Malwa 1400-1550

.Renaissance in Italy, the spread of renaissance and Baroque in Europe.

Muslims in India - An Overview
• The Muslims of Arab entered Sind, India, in 711 AD, the same year they entered
Spain also.
• Their entry in India was prompted by an attempt to free the civilian Muslim
hostages whose ship was taken by sea pirates in the territory of Raja Dahir, King of
• After diplomatic attempts failed, Hajjaj bin Yusuf, the Umayyad governor in
Baghdad, dispatched a 17-year-old commander by the name Muhammad bin
Qasim with a small army.
• Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir at what is now Hyderabad in Pakistan.
• In pursuing the remnant of Dahir's army and his son supporters (Indian kings),
Muhammad bin Qasim fought at Nirun, Rawar, Bahrore, Brahmanabad, Aror,
Dipalpur and Multan.
• By 713 AD, he established his control in Sind and parts of Punjab up to the borders
of Kashmir.
• A major part of what is now Pakistan came under Muslim control in 713 AD and
remained so throughout the centuries until some years after the fall of the Mughal
Empire in 1857.
• The Arab conquest of the Indian subcontinent began in southern sind in AD 711-12
• Expedition against port of Debal (RATO KOT FORT -- Ruins of small ancient fort built
with red bricks.
• It is located in the Korangi creek area of Indus delta , possibly built by Arab Muslim
rulers of Sind and contemporary to the Debal port.
• Debal was an ancient port located near modern karachi, sindh, pakistan. In Arabic,
it was usually called Daybul .
• Its discoveries throw light not only on the Muslim era but also on pre-Muslim
Bhambore •Now Bhambore is an archaeological site,
located about 64 kms (40 miles) east of
Karachi. Archaeological excavations
revealed a well planned city. Some scholars
identify Bhambore with Debal, the port of
city where the Arab General Mohammed
Bin Qasim landed in 712 AD.
• The 17-year old general, who was the son-
in-law of the then Caliph of the Muslim
world, occupied the delta towns, marched
north up the Indus and within a few weeks
had taken Multan.
• After the young General conquered the
city, Muslims built mosques other residential
buildings and fifteen walls around the town.

During the recent excavations at Bhambore, the remains of a mosque of this period of Arab
occupation have been discovered. From inscriptions it would seem that the masque was
erected in AD727, which makes it the earliest one in Indian subcontinent. It had paved court
yard 23m x 18m and with outer dimension of 37mx37m. On three sides of cloisters with two
rows of pillars and on the west sanctuary side three rows with 33 pillars are discernible.

• The masque was built in very simple style, according to a

specific pattern , but today reduced to a mere outline on the
• It was surrounded by ambulatories covered by flat roof
supported by double rows of wooden pillars.
• The apparatus of ritual ablutions was in the NE corner and at
the two main entrances on the eastern and northern sides.,
Another small entrance was situated at western side with a
small stair way leading to the out side.
• The excavation revealed the fortified citadel measuring some
670 x 335m and indicates that the city was well planned.
• The excavation suggest during Muslim period the city was
well planned one.
• The residential sector were divided into blocks separated by
well- oriented roads and thoroughfares.

• The homes of the elite were built in stone blocks and in some cases square shape fire bricks
with walls and roof dressed stucco.
• The homes of the poor were made of unfired bricks and laid on a foundation of stone.; the
walls were dressed with smoothened mud.
• Remains of baths, thin tiles and wooden beams have been identified.
• It had been diminished as cultural and religious center, but continued to remember as active
commercial port even though badly damaged by intensive earth quake.
• The great masque was built by Khwarezmshah jala al Din at Debal but the reasons were not
clear , the Debal disappeared from historic and geographic records and its name passed on to
another site in the area which made its identification unclear to historians.
• Building of cities and construction of roads and houses was a hobby with the Arabs. They
built several new cities such as Mahfooza (in 732 A.D), Mansura (737 A.D.), Baiza (835 A.D.),
Jundrore near Multan (in 854 AD) and several others. They also improved and expanded the
existing cities by constructing satellite towns. A bridge called "Sukkar-al-Maid" was built
over the Indus near Sukkur.
• It was a Islamic capital built on the site of the Hindu capital of Bahmannabad.
• Mansura was the capital of the Arab empire in Sindh. In present times this Vedia Era
is in Western Pakistan and is usually known as Brahmanabad in Sindh, situated
about eight miles south-east of the railway station of Shahdadpur, and forty-three
miles north-east of Hyderabad.
• When Mohammad Bin Qusim conquered Sindh in 711 A.D., he chose Brahminabad
as his capital city. According to Idrish, the name of the city was changed to Al-
Mansura in honor of Caliph Al-Mansur (754-775 AD) the second Khalifa of the
Abbasid dynasty.
• Mansura enjoys an important position in Muslim history as this was the first city
which was built according to the principles of town-planning. And the experience
gained over here was used in Baghdad, seventeen years later. According to
historians, Brahmanabad was a beautiful town which had vast orchards of mangoes
and groves of date palms.
• The ruins of Brahmanabad are spread over an area of four miles in circumference
near the modern city of Shahdadpur. The most significant ruins found in Mansura is
of the big courtyard of a Jamia Masjid. The remains of the temples , destroyed by
Muslims, were used to build the new mosques, so no native remains are found,
except a small temple structure.
• As per literature the foundation of three small rectangular mosques have
been found, with a mihrab projecting towards exterior and an open
• One of the mosque roof supported by four brick pillars, the square base of
each pillar which is remaining under ruin condition.
• The another three were having only two pillars, and the perimeter wall of
three buildings were of bricks.
• A circular clay wells, court yards, beehives mounds just as at Banbhore.
• The forth masque some what larger than the others seems to have teak
pillars in the Abbasid style appears to date from about a century later than
the other mosque.
Building Style: Abbasid
• Abbasid Style 750-850: The Abbasid style emerged in Iraq between
750 and 850, when the Abbasid dynasty was at the height of its power.
The Abbasid caliphs constructed huge and lavishly decorated palaces
at Baghdad and Samarra and stimulated the production of many forms
of luxury art. Under their patronage, art began to move way from its
pre-Islamic roots, and the new techniques and more abstract styles
adopted at this time had a long-lasting influence on the Islamic art of
later centuries.
• The fusion of eastern traditions with building types established during
the Umayyad period is especially evident in Abbasid mosques. Though
they continued to utilize the Umayyad rectangular hypostyle plan with
arcaded courtyard and covered prayer hall, the Abbasids constructed
mosques characterized by their monumental scale and the
incorporation of brick construction, stucco ornament, and architectural
forms developed in Mesopotamia and regions to the east.
• The Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil at Samarra, still the largest
mosque in the world, with its fortified appearance, reliance on brick
construction, and the spiral minaret axially aligned with the mihrab,
exemplifies the Abbasid mosque type.

• Structure built of coursed rubble on a circular plan, each successive slightly corbelled
over a course below and slightly less in diameter so that, as each is completed,
roughly conical or beehive shaped, covered with corbelled or fake dome.
• Ex: Mycenaean “Treasury of Atreus”
• Nothing remains of the monuments which was presumably built in the two capitals
during this period.
• Only the Muslim dominance took shape in the subcontinent.
• By 871 the authority of the Caliphs was eroded almost completely with the
slackening of the ties with the motherland.
• The conquered region was divided in to two independent principalities, governed
respectively from Mansura in Sind and Multan in the Punjab.
• The Turkish conqueror of Afghanistan, Mahmud of Ghazni invasions had began
against Muslim communities in the name of orthodoxy at the time of 11th
• The attacks begun in 1001 but only in 1011 did the Ghaznavids succeed in
capturing the city and gradually extended his incursions to cover all the Punjab
and Sind with some 17 successful predatory expeditions.
• The famous plunderer Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni though he did not prove to be
an architect of empire, his numerous victories against the Rajput guardians of
the north-western frontiers of India, particularly his audacious plunder of the
legendary shrine of Somanath on the kathiawar coast in 1026, laid bare the
heroic but feeble defences of Hindu India.
• Mohammed of Ghori, descendant of the famous Ghorid Jahansuz ( the ‘world
burner’) who succeeded the Gaznavids continued to be lured by the riches of
India, having been appointed Governor of Ghazni, began his Indian Campaigns
in 1173.
• The undanted Mohammed, inspite of tasting defeat once at the hands of
Prithviraj Chauhan, the legendary Rajput ruler of Ajmer and Delhi, challenged
him once again in 1192 on the historic battle field of Tarain, the scene of his
earlier humiliation.
The Battles of Tarain

• The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori, were fought in 1191
and 1192 near the town of Tarain, nearTanesar in present-day Haryana,
approximately 150 kilometres north of Delhi, between the Ghurid army led by
Sultan shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri and the Hindu rajput army led by
Prithviraj chauhan.
• Ghauri decided to extend the boundary of his kingdom and he made his first
incursion into India in 1175 AD. After subduing the Muslims of Mulatn, he made an
unsuccessful advance into Gujaratin 1178 CE. Nevertheless, he was successful in
seizing Peshawar and building a fort at Sialkot in 1181 CE. With the help of the
ruler of Jammu, Jāydēv, he put an end to the rule of the Ghaznavidsin punjab and
captured Lahore in 1186 CE. With this the way was opened for him to push his
conquests further into India.
• Ghaurī’s conquests had brought his kingdom right to Prithvīrāj's border, and in
1191 Ghaurī captured a fortress, either Sirhind or Bathinda in the present-day
Indian State of Punjab, on Prithvīrāj's northwestern frontier. Prithvirāj's army, led
by his vassal Govindā-Rāj of Delhi, rushed to the defence of the frontier, and the
two armies met at Tarain.
The Battle of Tarain-1

• The First Battle of Tarain, was fought in 1191 at the town of Tarain (Taraori), near Thanesar in
present-day Haryana, approximately 150 kilometres north of Delhi.
• The battle pitted the armies of Ghauri, conqueror of the Ghaznavid Kingdom and north-
western India, against the armies of Prithvirāj III, a Rajput of the chauhan clan who ruled the
most powerful kingdom in northern India. Prithvirāj's army, led by his vassal Govindā-Rāj
Tanwar of Delhi, and assisted by Jaychandra, King of Banaras , rushed to the defence of the
frontier, and the two armies met at Tarain.
• The following year Ghauri returned to India with a large force numbering 120,000. When he
reached Lahore, he sent his envoy to Prithvirāj Chauhān to demand his submission, but he
refused to comply. Prithvirāj Chauhān then issued a fervent appeal to his fellow Rajput chiefs
to come to his aid against the Muslim invader. About 150 Rajput chiefs responded to his call,
though this time he lacked the support of Jaychāndra.
The Battle of Tarain-2

• Prithvirāj too came up with a large army, a huge portion of which consisted of Indian war
elephants, and proceeded with it to meet Ghauri in Tarain where a year before he had
inflicted a crushing defeat on his adversary, confident of defeating Ghauri again. Ghauri
delivered an ultimatum to Prithvirāj that he convert to Islam or be defeated. Prithvirāj
countered with an offer that Ghauri consider a truce, be allowed to retreat with his army.
Ghauri decided to attack.
• Ghauri divided his troops into 5 parts and attacked the Rajput armies in the early morning
hours sending waves of mounted archers to attack the Rajput forces, but retreated as the
Rajput elephant phalanx advanced. Ghauri deployed four parts to attack the Rajputs on four
sides keeping a fifth part of his army in reserve.
The Battles of Tarain
• The flanks of Prithviraj's forces were attacked by Ghauri's light cavalry. The sideways
disruption caused a sudden halt and hesitation in Prithviraj's advance, and chaos in the rear
which was moving forward.
• Tactically it was brilliant-it resulted in denial of space to Prithviraj which neutralised his
numerical superiority. Once traped in his troops were massacred.
• Khande Rao (General of Prithviraj), was killed. The enthusiasm of Prithviraj also dampened
against these reverses. At dusk, Ghori led a force of heavily-armored horsemen to the center
of the Rajput line which collapsed into confusion.but was captured and killed by Ghauri. The
Rajput Army also broke ranks, giving victory to Ghauri
• Ghori's stratagy proved fruitful when he was succeeded by a dynasty of Turkish
Slaves. Upon his death, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, Muhammad Ghori's most capable
general, who had begun by sacking Ayodhaya in 1193 A.D., saw an opportunity
and took control of Muhammad's Indian conquests and declared himself the first
Sultan of Delhi thus establishing Sultanate of Delhi in 1206 AD.
• Hence the most profound effect of Ghauri's victory was the establishment of Muslim rule in
India which would last for centuries and have great impact on life and culture of South Asia
for centuries.
Qila Rai Pithora –
Qutb –ud- din Aibak and the Slave Dynasty

• In rapid succession , Qutb-ud-din aibak stromed Ajmer, the

fortress of Gwalior, Delhi, Kanauj and utimately even the
distent Chandel stronghold of Kalanjar in Bundelkhand in AD
1203, Qutb ud din soon declared himself independent of
Ghogid supremacy and wisely chose the Qila Rai Pithora built
by Prithviraj of Delhi as his imperial capital.
• He had a credit of realizing that ‘he who holds Delhi holds
India’ as it situated at the mouth of the corridor between the
foothills of the Himalayas and the fringes of the great Thar
desert of Rajasthan , was the ideal location for defending India
against the foreign invasions along the north west land route.
• The first concern of Qutb ud din was not with trade but only
to establish strong roots of Islam to consolidate through the
efforts of its builders.

Qila Rai Pithora

The sprit of the Mosque
• Qutb-ud-din had build a mosque to depict the everlasting
glory of Islam in AD 1195 with in the fortified city of Qila
Rai Pithora i.e.,Quwwat-ul-Islam.
• Qutb-ud-din’s Ghorid forces that invaded India consisted
of soldiers, warriors and Generals. Master builders ,
artisans and masons skilled in art of buildings were
naturally not a part of the army.
• The erection of Mosque, was imperative and constructed
rapidly by utilizing the skills of indigenous artisans of the
country as joint venture between the Hindu master
builders and Islamic overseers.
5TH SEMESTER – B.ARCH – 2nd session23-07-2010
2) Tomb of Iltutmish
3) Iron Pillar
4) Qutb Minar. The rectangular blue
structure encompassing the Iron pillar
and Qutb Minar is the Quwwat-ul-
Islam mosque.
5) Alai Gate
6) Tomb of Imanzam
7) Gateway
8) Alai Minar
9) Gateway
10) Major Smith Cupola
11) Chaumukha Gate
12) Canteen
13) Rest house
14) Cycle stand
15) Car park
16) Garhgaj
17) Office
18) Lawn
19) Car park
20) Main gate
21) Mosque
22) Gateway.
Quwwat-ul-Islam. Day-2

•Unlike temple architecture mosque planning was

not a difficult task
•Basic concept of the mosque had evolved from the
Prophet Mohammed’s home in his birth place.
•A court yard attached to his house to allow the
faithful to gather
•It consisted of rectangular open to sky space,
cordoned off by walls or cloisters.
•Within this the Muslim brethren could congregate
and prostrate themselves to Allah.
•One of the elementary requirement that the
worshippers were directed to pray in the direction of
•This was achieved by orienting court yard
generally towards Mecca. Thus, in India it was a
western wall.
•Walls towards Mecca had built into it the holy arch
or Mehrab, a sort of pulpit from which the priest
would deliver the sermon.
•The destruction of temples was more than double
edged sward to Islamic intentions, not only would it
be a source of building material, but also the
demolition of temples to crush the flagging sprit of
•Some years later it was felt that that the western
wall of the court yard of Quwwat ul Islam needed
greater Islamic emphasis.
Screen of Arches for the Mosque
The iron pillar is one of the world’s foremost metallurgical curiosities.
The pillar, 7.21 metre high and weighing more than six tonnes, was
originally erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–414 AD) in
front of a Vishnu Temple complex at Udayagiri around 402 AD, and later
shifted by Iltutmish from Udaygiri to its present location in the Qutub
complex, sometime around 1233 AD.

• As per seventh century ‘s prophet masque , a Maqsura or a screen of brick in front

of the sanctuary had erected with five pointed arch opening.
• This 108’-0” long stone masonry screen that was projected to rise to a height of 50’-
0” was designed to be almost 8’-0”thick.
• It is in the construction of arches, the large being a span of 22’-0”, that the Hindu
builders are again restored to his method of corbelling.
• They first created rough multiple bracketed opening and then proceeded to chisel
away the objectionable corners to create the smooth profile required of a Muslim
ogee arch.
• He was able to erect the arches mainly because they were more decorative than
structural since they supported no load beyond their own.
• The next task in the completion of this project, was more in the hands of the local
• The rough rubble masonry was covered with a veneer of red sand stone and entair
surface was decorated with rich carvings .
• Some of the designs of the loveliest of the kind. Flower form, spril engravings and
coils of its convolutions.
12th Century
One of the earliest places of Islamic
worship in South Asia. The mosque was
built by Qutubbudin Aibak, founder of the
Delhi Sultanate. It shows the concern of
the Emperor to signify the presence of
Islamic rule. The Mosque was later
enlarged by his successors Iltutmish and
Alauddin Khalji In the foreground is one of
the iron pillars erected by Chandragupta II
(375-413 AD) of the Gupta dynasty.

Colonade Cloisters of the Quwat ul Islam Mosque

Quwwat ul Islam Mosque Eleventh and twelfth centuries
Eleventh century Delhi
Delhi The elaborately carved pillars are from Hindu and Jain temples and
were used for the construction of the mosque.
Statues from the destroyed Jain temples
13th Century

Koranic inscriptions Qutub Minar1202 A.DHeight: 71.32 metres Delhi

Stone minaret to the south of the Quwwat ul Islam mosque. Popularly known
as the Qutub Minar, it was constructed to highlight Islamic presence in India.
Construction was started on the Minar by Qutu-bu-ddin Aibak and completed
by Firoz Shah Tughlak.
•Identifiable structural vocabulary by
the 12th century.
•Borrowed from roman and Byzantine
•1.Pointed arch(s) in spanning
opening in walls.
•2.Hemispherical dome for roofs.
•3.Court yard facing Mecca.

Qutb Minar erection: pole and axis

and thus a pivot justice, sovereignty
and the faith

•Foundation on 1199
•Height – 238’-0”
•Dia: 47’-0” and 360 steps
•4 balconies
•Non figurative architecture
•Extra two parts added by Mughals
•Balusters of the balcony replaced by
Major Smith in 1828
Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra
• Interestingly enough the main edifice of this mosque
was a center of Sanskrit education in the olden days
and the pillars of the mosque that were reassembled
with architectural finesse to construct this grand
mosque were taken from destroyed Hindu and Jain
temples in the area.
• Tour the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra with Indian Horizons and
read Koranic versus chiseled on the 7-arched wall
inside the mosque. The Mosque was designed in a
hurry by a Persian architect, Abu Bakr who did a
remarkable job of creating this beautiful mosque.
• The main pillared hall and yellow limestone arches on
the façade of the main entrance create quite an
impact. There is a beautiful tower inside the mosque
that is used by the Muezzin to chant prayers.
The stone walls of the main prayer hall are chiseled into
a net like appearance with carved rectangular panels
on them. The idea was to create a natural lighting
effect that was common in the mosques of Persia.
• Though the walls of Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra are adorned
with phrases and quotes from the holy Koran, there is a
tiny Sanskrit inscription right on top of the main gate
that reminds you of the actual origin of this historic
monument constructed by Mohammed Ghori in 1198
A. D.
• It is square 259ft on each side with cloisters Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra
on all four sides. It encloses a spacious
courtyard and four splendid star shaped
cloister towers on four corners, surmounted
by magnificent chattris.
• The stone used is fine-grained pure silicious
stone coloured yellow by iron. It originally
stood on a high terrace with the back towards
the hill. The temple of learning was on the
western side and entrances on south and
• The interior consisted of a quadrangle 200ft x
I75 ft. The college building is said to have
been built in 53 AD by Visaldeva, the first
Chauhan ruler.
• The cloisters extended 770ft now it is only
64ft left; it was destroyed by Ghuri`s attack
on Ajmer in II92.
• Ghuri`s men added seven arches in front of
the western side, and a mehrab and mimbar
near it. The mehrab is of white marble and
was added in II99 AD. The screen wall was
added during the time of Illtumish in I2I3 AD.
• Daulat Rao Scindia was the first person to order
for the monuments protection.
Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra
• The three central arches are surrounded by 3
lines of writing, which are divided from each
other by two bands of rich arabesque
ornamentation. Two inner lines are Arabic and
the outer line is square Tughra or Kufic in yellow
limestone. The arches are said to have been
constructed by Hindu masons and in Hindu style
and design.
• It has a vast pillared hall 248ft x 40ft, flat
recessed roof and has 9 octagonal
compartments corresponding to the 7 arches. 5
rows of columns, one row placed against the
rock wall, only 70 pillars remain standing and are
in Hindu style.
• There were two minars, the southern one has
only one storey and the northern one has two
and a part of horizontal belt writing containing
the name of Sultan Iltutmish lies in the
courtyard. Rich in inscription, six tablets were
found in I875-6 made of polished basalt
containing parts of an unknown play `Devi
Vrigharaj` in Devnagari.
Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra
Cave of sultan : Sultan Ghari

• Earliest Muslim tomb on Indian

• Non-Traditional edifice for the
tomb of h Iltutmish’s son “
Nasir-ud-din Shah”
• The whole construction had 10’-
• Gray masonry of outer wall.
• Westran portico columns
reminiscent of the Greek Doric
order and rest reassembles of
the red sand stone columns
recovered from Hindu temples.
Cave of sultan : Sultan Ghari
Cave of sultan : Sultan Ghari

Mihrab made of Marble on the west wall of

Sultan Garhi
Cave of sultan : Sultan Ghari

A corbelled arch at the tomb, built in 1231

AD, before the true arch was introduced to
India much later, at Balban’s tomb 1287
Cave of sultan : Sultan Ghari

Colonnade inside Sultan Ghari

Cave of sultan : Sultan Ghari

Roof under one of the Burj

One of the Burj of Sultan Ghari

Tomb of Iltutmish
The tomb of Slave Dynasty ruler,
Iltutmish, the second Sultan of Delhi (r.
1211-1236 AD), built 1235 AD is also
part of the Qutb complex at Mehrauli.
The central chamber is a 9 mt sq. and
has squinches, suggesting the existence
of a dome, which has since collapsed.
The main cenotaph, in white marble, is
placed on a raised platform in the centre
of the chamber. The facade is known for
its ornate carving, both at the entrance
and the interior walls. The interior west
wall has a prayer niche (mihrab)
decorated with marble, and a rich
amalgamation of Hindu motives into
Islamic architecture, such as bell-and-
chain, tassel, lotus, diamond emblems
Tomb of Iltutmish

The tomb of Slave Dynasty ruler, Iltutmish, the second sultan of Delhi (r. 1211-1236 AD),
built 1235 AD is also part of the Qutb complex at Mehrauli. The central chamber is a 9 mt sq.
and has squinches , suggesting the existence of a dome, which has since collapsed. The
main cenotaph, in white marble, is placed on a raised platform in the centre of the chamber.
The facade is known for its ornate carving, both at the entrance and the interior walls. The
interior west wall has a prayer niche (mihrab) decorated with marble, and a rich
amalgamation of Hindu motives into Islamic architecture, such as bell-and-chain, tassel,
lotus, diamond emblems .
Tomb of Iltutmish
• He was son of a Turkish noble of the Ilbari tribe, but as a child was captured by Mongols
and sold as a slave at Ghazni. Khwaja, Jamaluddin Basri of Baghdad Later, he was bought
by Sultan Iltutmish in 1232 AD, who at the orders of his own master, Qutbuddin Aibak,
released him from slavery and brought him up in a manner befitting a prince.
• During his reign, Balban ruled with an iron fist. He broke up the 'Chihalgani', a group of the
forty most important nobles in the court. He tried to establish peace and order in the
country of India. He built many outposts in areas where there was crime and garrisoned
them with soldiers.
• Balban wanted to make sure everyone was loyal to the crown by establishing an efficient
espionage system. Sultan Balban had a strong and well-organized spy system.
• Balban placed secret reporters and news-writers in every department. The spies were
independent authority only answerable to Sultan. Balban was strict administrator of
• He did not show any partiality even to his
own kith and kin. About his justice Dr.
Ishwari Prasad remarked "So great was
the dread of Sultan's inexorable justice
that no one dared to ill-treat his servant
and slaves." When a complaint was made
that Malik Barbaq, a powerful landlord of
Badaun killed one of his own servant.
Balban ordered his death sentence. The
news-writer (spy), who was responsible
for Badaun reporting was also executed
because he failed to report this act of
injustice to Sultan.
• He ruled as the Sultan from 1266 until his
death in 1287, and was succeeded by his
grandson, Muiz ud din , who reign (1287-
1290). His successors were weak and
incompetent and the throne was
eventually captured by Jalal ud din Firfuz
Khilji in 1290, bringing an end to the
Slave dynasty.
Tomb of Balban
•The Tomb of Ghiyas ud din Balban is
located in Mehrauli, Built in ca 1287 AD, in
rubble masonry, the tomb is a building of
historical importance in the development of
indo-Islamic architecture as it was here
that first true arch architecture made its
appearance in India, and according to
many first true dome as well, which
however hasn't survived, making Alai
Darwaza built in 1311 CE, in near by Qutb
Complex , the earliest surviving true dome
in India.
•Ghiyas ud din Balban (1200 – 1287) was
a Turkic ruler of the Delhi Sultanate during
the rule of Mamluk dynasty of Delhi (or
Slave dynasty) from 1266 to 1287.
•The tomb of Balban was discovered in the
mid-twentieth century.
Tomb of Khan Shahid, Balban's son,

Grave in Balban's tomb enclosure, Mehraul

•It is an imposing stone and masonry building, though lacking the splendid ornamentation to be seen
in the tomb of his master, Iltutmish. The tomb is surrounded by the ruins of an extensive late-medieval
settlement and it offers, from certain angles, a remarkable view of the Qutub minar.
•To the east of Balban's tomb, lies a ruined rectangular structure said to be the grave of Khan Shahid,
Balban's son, whose original name was Muhammad, who died fighting against the Mongols near
Multan in 1285.
Khaljis and Tughlaqs of Delhi 11-08-2011
Khaljis and Tughlaqs of Delhi
View of the Qutb Complex
The Incomplete Alai Minar
• Alauddin Khilji started building the Alai Minar, after he had
doubled the size of Quwwat ul-Islam mosque. He conceived this
tower to be two times higher than Qutb Minar proportion with the
enlarged mosque.
• The construction was however abandoned, just after the
completion of the 24.5 meter high first storey core; soon after
death of Ala-ud-din in 1316 AD, and never taken up by his
successors of Khaljis dynasty. The first story of the Alai Minar, a
giant rubble masonry core, still stands today, which was evidently
intended to be covered with dressed stone later on.
• Ala-ud-din conceived a very ambitious construction programme
when he decided to build the second tower of victory when he
returned in triumph from his Deccan campaign.
• However, the Sultan died before even the first storey was finished
and the project was abandoned. Ala-ud-din, felt compelled to
increase even further the size of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. His
scheme called for increasing the size of the enclosure four times,
providing ceremonial entrance gateways on each side, and a great
Minar, twice the size of the Qutb. This is the unfinished base of the
mammoth tower begun by Ala-ud-din Khilji intended to give
competition to Qutb Minar.
Alai Darwaza

The Alai Darwaza is a magnificent gateway built

by Ala-ud-din Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate, having
exquisite inlaid marble decorations and latticed
stone screens. It highlights the remarkable
artisanship of Turkish and local artisans who
worked on it. The Alai Darwaza was an important
part of the project undertaken by Ala-ud-din Khilji
in his quest to decorate the Qutab complex.
Imam Zamin's tomb next to the Alai Darwaza
Alai Darwaza
Alai Darwaja
The Red and white Alai Darwaja
• Several Technical niceties in the structure
• Cubic substructure - visual delight
• Red sand stone and white marble as facing material
• Effortlessly stenciled flat quranic inscriptional bands around
the openings
• Horse- shoe shaped arches
• Jambs are adorned with pair of slender pilasters
• Intrados of arches ornamented with spear head fringe or
garland of buds
• Treatment of outer façade as a two-floor building
• Star and hexagon jaalis to fill the arched windows
• The perforated jaalis eminently sensible architectural
device to provide controlled illumination and ventilation
Alai Darwaza

•The Qutab Minar and the various monuments within the Qutab complex, including the
Alai Darwaza, belong to the period of the Delhi Sultanate (1191 - 1526). The Alai Darwaza
represents a new style of architecture, popularly referred to as the Indo-Islamic style of
•The Indo-Islamic style is neither a local variant of Islamic art, nor a modification of Hindu
art, but it is an assimilation of both the styles, though not always in an equal degree. It is so
because each region in India has its own form of Indo-Islamic architecture, which varies
from place to place and there is no standardization. On the other hand, Islamic art itself
was a composite style, which had various Muslims influences-Turkish, Persian, and Arabic.
•This assimilation of exotic and indigenous architectural styles was possible due to a variety
of factors: the Muslim rulers had to use, in most cases, Indian craftsmen and sculptors who
were schooled in their own art traditions.
•Though both the Indian and Islamic styles have their own distinctive features, some
common characteristics made fusion and adaptation easy. Both the styles favour
ornamentation and buildings of both styles are marked by the presence of an open court
encompassed by chambers or colonnades.
Other important works of Khaljis
• SIRI : CITADEL – Hazar Sutun palace
- Tomb of Ala al- din
- Great Mosqua
• SHAHAPUR JAT – Tohfewala Gumbad
• NIZAMU AL-DIN –Jamaat Khana
Siri fort & Shahpur Jat
Siri fort Built by Sultan Ala-ud-Din Khilji in about 1303, Siri is the
second city of Delhi and was, to the north of Mehrauli. The few
remains of the city can be seen in the Siri Fort in Delhi.
The legend of Siri Fort in Delhi
Siri Fort in Delhi had the Palace of Thousand Pillars, which is
now in ruins. Only the embattlements have left of the entire fort.
The legend of Siri Fort in Delhi goes that Ala-ud-din got the
heads of the infidels dug in the foundation of the fort. Siri
derives its name from the Hindi word “sir”, meaning “head”
because about 8000 heads of Mongol soldiers were buried in
the walls of the city. Hence forth, Siri Fort in Delhi thus derived
its name.
Siri Fort is one of the many
forts of Delhi, which were built
during the time of the Delhi
Sultanate (AD 1191-1526) in
the medieval age. The kingdom
of Delhi was constantly
threatened by hoards of
Mongol tribes who had been
descending in waves to loot
India since the 13th century.
The Slave dynasty (AD 1193-
1290), which was the first
dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate,
also faced this threat in the
later half of its reign. Balban,
the last important ruler of this
dynasty successfully countered
the Mongol threat. In the
course of time, the reign of the
Delhi Sultanate passed into the
hands of the Khilji Dynasty (AD
Khan-e-Jahan at Telangani near Nizammudin-
All the tombs built in India had been square
in shape expect for the under ground crypt
at sultan Ghari, but this was the first tomb
built in the form of octagan.
•Optimization of space
•Economy reason
•Simplification of structural system instead
of designing arches across the right-angled
corners of the square .
•Builders must have inspired by a smiller
octagonal plan of sacred masque of oman
in Jerusalem.
•Introduction of deep sloping chajjas that
sail out over brackets above this triple
arched façade of the verandah.
•It was a beginning to do several
experimentsnin architectural right up to the
Mughal rule.
Khan-e-Jahan at Telangani near Nizammudin-
Jamaat Khana Masjid
Place of congregation:
•Three cubic compartments
each of its own dome, integrated
in a monolithic building of Jamat
•The prosaic liwan was
transformed in to one composite
rectangular hall , uninterrupted
by columns.

Tomb of Shah Rukn-i-Alam.
• The undivided Punjab was the first state where Indo-Islamic architecture
emerged as a provincial style with the Muslim invasion to Indian subcontinent.
• Islamic architecture made its way to the cities of Multan and Lahore through
separate routes during different periods.
• Multan was the city of undivided Punjab of India and became a part of Pakistan in
• Earlier ,the architecture in Multan region was mainly of timber construction.
However, there are no complete examples of Islamic architecture of this period in
Lahore, but in Multan there is a group of the five tombs of an ancient date on
Indo-Islamic architecture.
• The construction of these five tombs extends over a period of one hundred and
seventy years, from the middle of the twelfth to the beginning of the fourteenth
• These tombs are Shah Yusuf Gardizi`s tomb, Shah Bahau-i-Haqq`s tomb, Shadna
Shahid`s tomb, Shah Shams-ud-din Tikrizi`s tomb and Shah Rukn-i-Ala`m`s tomb.
• These are made up of brick and wood, decorated with glazed tiles.
Tomb of Shah Rukn-i-Alam.

• Multan was the city when Arab invasion took place in its Sindh area in the eighth
century. Due to the early penetration, it was linked with the Southern Persia through
road, river and sea and later became the capital of an independent Arab.
• However, Lahore in undivided Punjab received the Islamic influence and its architecture
later from Afghanistan in the tenth century when Mahmud Ghazni captured Punjab.
Later Ghazni was defeated by the rival power Ghor, and Lahore became an important
centre and the capital of the Ghaznavide kingdom. In the twelfth century, the city was
known mainly for the royal residences of the princes of that dynasty. It can be said that
Indo Islamic architecture in Punjab initiated in that era.
• Both the Lahore`s and Multan`s architecture were of Ghaznavide-Saljuqian and of Arab-
Persian derivation respectively. It can be said that the Indo Islamic architecture in Punjab
was influenced by such Ghaznavide-Saljuqian building arts and is believed as one of the
• In the pre medieval period the architecture of the Punjab province was constructed of
brick. The buildings were timber framed with the wooden beams inserted in the walls.
• Arches were absent in these buildings in which the brick and timber walls were sloped
to offer better solidity.
Tomb of Shah Rukn-i-Alam.
• Buildings were decorated with
painted plaster with paneling
of glazed tiles in dazzling
colours. Doors were framed
and carved with wooden
designs resembling heavy
tassels and knotted fringes, by
cords on each side to form the
• These were the major Islamic
architectural features
developed during the
medieval period. Due to the
sloping construction in the
buildings, they appeared like
tents. These buildings were The first four are square in plan, but the largest
basically Islamic impregnated one is the tomb of Shah Rukn-i-Alam. It is the
with the imaginative genius of most important tomb and is octagonal in shape
the indigenous craftsman. with a pronounced sloping in its lower storey.
Shah Rukn-i-Alam
• One of the most important and impressive
building of Indo-Islamic architectural in Punjab is
the tomb of saint Shah Rukn-i-Alam.
• It is famous for its unique architecture. The tomb
was constructed by the Delhi ruler Ghiyas-ud-din
Tughlaq between the years 1320 and 1324.
• It is octagonal, measures 90 feet in diameter. The
total height including its finial is 115 feet; the
heights of the first and second storey are 50 feet
and 25 feet respectively, while the dome
measures 50 ft
• . The bricks are carved deep into the timbering
walls at appropriate intervals and their brickwork
is ornately chiseled with glazed tiles.
• The tiles present in the tombs represent a bright
colour into the deserted place where it is located,
while its walls of thirteen feet of solid brickwork
through which the submissive light passes along
the tunnels of the grilles provides a cool and
sombre sanctuary for the saint`s last repose.
Shah Rukn-i-'Alam Mausoleum,1320-1324,Tughluqid.Architect Muhammad Wali
Ullah Khan
The whole is surmounted by hemispherical dome of 58 feet external diameter. The
total height of the building, including a plinth of 3 feet, is 100 feet. As it stands on the
high ground, the total height above the road level is 150 feet
Architect Muhammad Wali Ullah Khan

In beauty and grandeur so other dome perhaps equals it This elegant building is an
octagon, 51 feet 9 inches in diameter internally, with walls 41 feet 4 inches high and 13
feet 3 inches thick, supported at the angles by sloping towers. Over this is a smaller
octagon 25 feet 8 inches, on the exterior side, and 26 feet 1 0 inches high, leaving a
narrow passage all round the top of the lower story for the Moazzan, or public caller to
Tomb of Shah Rukn-i-Alam. - enough for today 11-08-2011
Tughlaqabad fort
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Tomb of Ghias-ud-din Tughaq –
Ghias-ud-din Tughaq
Ghias-ud-din Tughaq
Firuz shah
• Mohammed Tughlaq the son and successor of Ghiyas-ud-Din also played an important role in the
development of architectures during Tughlaq dynasty.
• His major contributions were the fourth city of Delhi, fortified walls named Jahan-Pannah or the World
Refuge, a double storied bridge of seven spans named Sath Pul, Bijai Mandal, the presumably part of a
"Palace of a Thousand Columns," and several other buildings.
• However, the city was deserted and desolate during the year 1340 due to the unpredictable policy of
Muhammad Tughlaq to change the capital from Delhi to the city of Daulatabad. The skilled workmen
compelled to migrate elsewhere which affected the development of the Islamic architecture.
• Later, Firoz Shah Tughlaq the successor of Muhammad Tughlaq revived the style and reconstructed Delhi
as the capital and was responsible for constructing a large number of important building projects. Each of
these buildings echoed his innovative artistic sense.
Feroz Shah Tughlaq was a great patron of Islamic architecture.
• He built the fifth city of Delhi, named as Ferozshah Kotla.
• Apart from Ferozshah Kotla, several building arts like Tughlaqabad the third city of Delhi, the Tomb of
Ghiyas-ud-Din and Khirki Masjid represents the major development of architectures during the Tughlaq
Firuz shah
• His major creations were, Ferozshah Kotla, the fifth city of Delhi, three other fortress cities
named as Jaunpur, Fathabad, and Hissar, Khirki Masjid and the Begum-puri mosque at
Jahanpanah, Kali Masjid, another mosque in the Dargah of Shah Alam at Timurpuri and the
Kalan Masjid at Shahjahanabad. From the architectural point of view, Khirki Masjid is
immense and is a great example of Islamic architecture while showcasing the immense
architectural development during Tughlaq dynasty.
• It is closed on top which makes it unique and different from others. It is a small quadrangle-
shaped mosque and is covered entirely by a roof, which is an unusual thing for building of
mosques. The presence of several domes on the roof along with the wonderful latticework or
jali on the windows represents the typical Islamic style of architecture.
• The colossal structures of the Tughlaq dynasty, the sheer finesse of the lattice work, the
grandeur of the colorful marbles and stones which were abundantly used in the architectures
not only reflect the architectural developments during Tughlaq dynasty, but also whispers the
saga of the glorious Islamic architecture in India.
Firuz shah Kotla – 1354 AD
Firuz shah
Approached from Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg nothing much survives in and
around this once beautiful palace, apart from the Ashokan Pillar 3rd century BC,
the remains of the Jami Masjid and a circular Baoli..
Main gateway
Ashok lat and sub structure at Kotla
Firuz shah Kotla
Sandstone Ashokan Pillar
• The 13 meters high sandstone Ashokan Pillar on
a rubble-built three-tiered pyramidal structure
with Ashoka’s edict stands a testimony to the
history of this old city in ruins which has seen
many rulers over years. Firoz Shah Tughlaq
moved this 27 ton pillar to Delhi from Topar in
Ambala, where the great Emperor Ashoka
erected it. The pillar is similar to the one fixed
on the ridge, which was also brought by Firoz
Shah. The transportation of both the pillars was
done with utmost care and precautions to avoid
any damage. It is said that the transportation of
this pillar involved wrapping up of silk cotton
around it and it was then lowered on a soft bed,
encased in reed and raw skins and placed on a
42-wheel carriage. Two hundred men pulled the
carriage with strong ropes to the Yamuna bank.
The column was then transferred to large boats
and carried down to Firozabad and then to the
palace. After completion of each storey, the
pillar was raised on to it, till it reached the top
Ruins of a pillared hall at Firoz shah Kotla
• Apart from these monuments there are ruins of many other structures, which have not yet been identified
, because of their present dilapidated shape. For example the foundation structure of a square hall to the
north of Jami Mosque and behind Ashokan Pillar, and the southern most building of central the enclosure
where one can find mosaic work and many more.
As stated above, among the few surviving buildings inside the citadel is the Jami Masjid. The southern and
western walls with the gateway today are the surviving remnants of one of the largest mosques of the Tughlaq
period. Located just next to the Ashokan Pillar, the mosque rests on a series of cells on the ground. Built of local
quartzite stone, the prayer hall and cloisters on the sides of the courtyard, have all disappeared. The mosque
has its entrance from the northern direction and was once connected to the pyramidal structure by a bridge.

Firoz shah’s restoration work

Firoz shah Kotla
Baoli (1354)

Baoli –
Located northwest of the Ashokan pillar,
just in the center of the garden is a fine
large circular baoli or step well. The baoli
has subterranean apartments. It has a
large underground drain for the water
towards its eastern side. Like all other
baolis, this baoli also served as a cool
retreat in summer and was used by
persons of royal lineage.
Restoration of Qutab Minar by Firoz Shah
He also established a
madrasa on the banks of
the tank and built an
enclosure for his own
tomb, which connects
the two wings of the
Looking at the age old
edifice, it is difficult for
the contemporary visitor
to comprehend the
layout of the college
building, but it appears
that the medieval Islamic
education was centered
around small group
discussions and the long
pillared halls were
perhaps the lecture
Ruins of a pillared hall at Firoz shah
Ruins of a pillared hall at Firoz shah
After the capricious reign of Muhammed
bin Tughlaq, his cousin, the devout (and
even bigoted!) Firoz Shah Tughlaq
(1351-1388 A.D.) became Sultan. Firoz
Shah inherited, thanks largely to the
disastrous policies of his predecessor,
nearly empty coffers and a disintegrating
empire. This did not stop him from
embarking on a vigorous campaign of
building, and in the words of a
contemporary historian he was
eventually responsible for “1200 gardens
around Delhi...200 towns, 40 mosques,
30 villages, 30 reservoirs, 50 dams, 100
hospitals, 100 public baths and 150
bridges.” These claims are no doubt
exaggerated but underscore his interest
in architecture. In his own words
“...among the Gifts that God has
bestowed on a desire to erect
public buildings.”
Firoz shah Kotla
The Kotla was finally abandoned in the
year 1490 AD.
The information tablet close to
the main gateway states “Most
of the building material from
Firoz Shah’s city was robbed
to build Shahjahanabad
(1638-48)”, which probably
hastened the process of
further decay of the already
deteriorated edifice.
Beghampuri Masjid, Delhi
Begumpuri Masjid,
Hauz khas
The Madrassa at Hauz Khas

Firoz shah Kotla’s restoration work

Hauz khas

Firoz shah Kotla’s restoration work

Tomb of Firoz Shah Tughlaq at Haus Khas - Delhi
Atala Masjid, Jami Masjid Juanpur
Khirki Masjid – 1375AD
Khirki Masjid
Khirki Masjid
Rulers of the Tughlaq Dynasty (1321 - 1398)

• Ghiyas ud din Tughluq Shah I (1321 - 1325)

• Muhammad bin Tughluq (Muhammad Shah II) (1325 - 1351)
• Mahmud Ibn Muhammad (March 1351)
• Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351 - 1388)
• Ghiyas ud din Tughluq II (1388 - 1389)
• Abu Baker (1389 - 1390)
• Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III (1390 - 1393)
• Sikander Shah I (March - April 1393)
• Mahmud Nasir ud din (Sultan Mahmud II) at Delhi (1393 - 1394)
• Nusrat Shah at Firuzabad (1394 - 1398)
• Between 1413 and 1414 the Sultan was Daulat Khan (1413 - 1414) a
member of the Lodi family. In 1414, the power vacuum created by Timur's
invasion was filled by the first Sayyid Sultan.
• Sayyids and lodhis 1414-1451 & 1451-1526
• Shersha
Afghan Lohi Sultans
Following the death of the last Sayyid,
Bahlul Lodi (or Lodhi) Lodhi, governor of
Punjab, seized power. The Afghan Lodhi
Sayyid Dynasty (Sayyid (Syed) sultans left their mark on the capital
Dynasty) (1414 - 1451) through an architectural legacy but they
Khidr Khan (1414 - 1421) could not sustain power. The third and last
Mubarrak Shah II (1421 - 1435) Lodhi Sultan, Ibrahim Lodi was both weak
Muhammad Shah IV (1435 - 1445) and corrupt, more interested in living the
Aladdin Alam Shah (1445 - 1451) lifestyle of a Sultan than in governing or
protecting his empire. A regional governor,
and a member of his own family, actually
invited Babur, who became the first
Emperor to assume power.
Lodhi (lodi) Dynasty (1451 - 1526)

Bahlul Khan Lodi (1451-1489)

Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517)
Ibrahim Lodi (Ibrahim II) (1517-1526)

The Suri Dynasty

Between Babur's defeat of Ibrahim Lodi in 1526 and 1540, the Moghul's
ruled Delhi. In 1540, Sher Shah defeated the Moghuls at the battle of
Chausa, and re-established the independent Delhi Sultanate until 1555
when Delhi was again conquered by the Moghuls.

Suri Dynasty (1540 - 1555)

Sher Shah (1540 - 1545)

Islam Shah (1545 - 1553)
Muhammad V of Delhi (Muhammad V) (1553 - 1554)
Firuz of Delhi (29 April - 2 May 1554)
Ibrahim III of Delhi (1554 - 1554/5)
Sikander Shah (1554/5 - 1555)
Sayyids- 1414-1451
• Firoz Shah had been too rigid in his promulgation of Islamic Architecture.
His anti Hindu expression eventually left him without the possibility of
achieving a working relationship between dominators and dominated, and
on his dearth everything collapsed.
• His successors, weak and inept, followed one another on the throne but
lacked true authority.
• The last Tughluq sovereign , Nasir al din Mahmud was a pale puppet in the
hands of his Ministers.
• Tamerlane fell like thunderbolt defeated the army of Mahmud and
entered Delhi.
• On 1 January 1399 Timur abandoned Delhi to its destiny and returned to
Transoxiana., with out troubling to consolidate his conquest.
• Timur was never returned to Ganges valley and his only act of government
was to appoint as his representative in the Panjab, Khizr Khan, an Indian
Sayyid, while Mamhud Tughluq returned to Delhi.(1401)
• In the climate of confusion and uncertainty, no monuments of any
importance were constructed .
• In 1451 the sultans who ousted the sayyids by force were the powerful
Afghan Lodies.
• Nevertheless, under the Lodies a new type of Mosque developed that was
also to become the more common type under the Mughals.
• Large hypostyle congregational mosque of earlier sultanates, there was
preference for a type of prayer hall with a single nave parallel to the qibla
wall and usually divided into three or five bays. The earliest example of it
is the jami masjid of sikandar Lodi, near the bara gumbad in the Lodi
Mausoleum of Adham Khan (1561)

It is some what unusual in that it stands on a high platform and its dome rests on a
hexagonal drum

The Bara Gumbad , in the Lodhi gardens at Delhi, is believed to have been
built in 1490 by a Lodhi noble as a mausoleum, but the building was taken
over by Sikender Lodhi four later and used as entrance to his Mosque.
Jami Masjid Sikander
Lodhi gardens

It has a single nave prayer hall and its an earliest example of this type of Mosque.
Jami Masjid of Sikandar Lodhi

It has a single nave prayer hall and its an earliest example of this type of Mosque.
Mausoleum of Sikandar lodhi

It’s a fine example of an octagonal funerary building

Moth Mosque (1505)

•A small domed tomb attached to a Mosque from the time of Sikandar Lodi, near the
Rajon-ki baoli at MEHRAULI(Delhi).
•The interior of the Moth Mosque
In complete Lodhi minaret at Banssar Qila near
Bayana- only two shafts and one balcony
Chaurasi Gumbad(1527-8) at kalpi- massive
dome building may be the tomb of the Lodi
shah Badshah.42x42x27m
• Iiyas shahi and Hussain shahi – Bengal 1300-1550
• Ahmad shahi – Gujarat & Jaunpur 1300-1500 and 1392-
• Bahmani sultans – Gulbarga , Bidar & Daulatabad
• Golkonda Hyderabad – Qutb shahis 1397-1687
• Bijapur- Adil shahi
• Kashmir 1346-1586
• Malwa 1400-1550
Iiyas shahi and Hussain shahi – Bengal
• Bengal was conquered early on by the sultanate of
Delhi(1204) and became independent after the
dearth of Balban in 1387.
•The most spectacular evidence of the dynasty’s imperial pretensions is seen in a single monument built by
the founder’s son and successor, Sultan Sikandar (r. 1357–89).
•This is the famous Adina mosque, completed in 1375 in the Ilyas Shahi capital of Pandua . Although its
builders reused a good deal of carved stone from pre-conquest monuments, the mosque does not appear
to have been intended to convey a message of political subjugation to the region’s non-Muslims, who in
any event would not have used the structure.
• In fact, stylistic motifs in the mosque’s prayer niches reveal the builders’ successful adaptation, and even
appreciation, of late Pala-Sena art.The imposing monument is also likely to have been a statement
directed at Sikandar’s more distant Muslim audience, his former overlords in Delhi, now bitter rivals.
• Having successfully defended his kingdom from Sultan Firuz’s armies, Sikandar projected his claims of
power and independence by erecting a monument greater in size than any edifice built by his North Indian
Badshah ka Takhat – Pandua
Tomb of Fateh khan – Gaur
Firoz minar –• Gaur
• Measuring 565 by 317 feet externally, and
with an immense courtyard (445 by 168
feet) surrounded by a screen of arches and
370 domed bays, the Adina mosque easily
surpassed Delhi’s Begumpur mosque, the
principal mosque of Firuz Tughluq (1351–
88), in size.In fact, the Adina remains the
largest mosque ever built in the Indian
Bengal – 1330 - 1550
Architectural works during • Most matured examples
1300 – 1550 of architectural
• Tomb of Fatcher Khan – Gaur development
• Badshah ka takth – pandua
• Adina Mosque – pandua • Influence ofof local art
• Dakhil Darwaza – Guar and architecture.
• Qudam Rasul Mosque
• Kotwali darwaza
• In 1576 Bengal was
• Tantipara masjid assimilated in to
• Chota sona masjid Mughal kingdom
• Ekalakhi tomb
Ahmad shahi – Gujarat & Jaunpur
1300-1500 and 1392-1483
Jami Masjid at Ahmadabad - 1423
Jami masjid

•Corbelled dome
and balconies of
Jami masjid
•Jali work at Shah
Alam Rauza
1.)The Tomb of the
Makhbdum shah Ahmad
Khattu, Sarkhij
2.)Mosque at Sarkhej
3)Details of Minar Rani
Sipri Mosque in
er Jami

Jami Masjid:lager than atala masjid , built on 3.5mts high plinth- Husain shah
1458-1484, lost Jaunpur to Bahlol Lodhi
Gate way jaunpur fort Turkish bath in the fort

Akbar’s bridge on the Gomati river

Bahmani sultans – Gulbarga , Bidar
& Daulatabad
1.Entrance to the Dargh of
Banda Nawaz, Gulbarga.
2.Layout plan of Gulbarga Jami
3. interior of the Jami Masjid ,
4.Gumbad Darwaja at Bidar Fort
1.Decoration with the
persian tiles on the Minar
at the Madarsa , Bidar
2.Tomb of Mahmud, Bidar.
3. Madarsa of Khwaja
Mahmud Gawan, Bidar.
1.Chand minar at Daulata
2.Jami Masjid at Daulatabad
3. tomb of Khalil Allah, Bidar
Golkonda Hyderabad – Qutb shahis
The breakdown of Bahamani
Kingdom in 1489 led to the
creation of five fiercely states
such as Ahmaddnagar, Bijapur,
Golkonda, bidar and Berar in
general , Qutb Shahi kingdom by
Qulu Qdtb Mulk in 1489 in
1.Tomb of Muhammad Ali Qutb Shah ,
2.Decoration on a Tomb at Golkonda
1. Minarets of Toli Masjid , Hyderabad.
2.Golkonda fort.
3.Upper portion of the Char Minar
Bijapur- Adil shahi
1.Interior of Jami Masjid
2.Ibrahim Rauza , Bijapur
1.Asar Mahal, Bijapur
2. Upper portion of the Gol Gumbad, Bijapur
Gol Gumbad - Bijapur
Kashmir 1346-1586


• Typical example of wooden architecture.
• Under went several alterations
• Built on the right bank of the jhelum river
• Square plan approx 23mts
• 2 storey reach to the height of 16mts
• Pyramidal roof and protruding triangular
sections at its base.
• Lower part of the building was made of logs.
• Cornices of wood and grills covered the
arches , verandahs and openings.
• In ground floor rectangular plan with row of
room and, three terraces and in the centre 4
solid pillars.
• The mihrab are arched niches ceiling
presently painted.
Malwa 1400-1550
•Malwa was situated at central
south of the country.
•Arch display in two cities –
Dhar and Mandu
Paramaras – 8th – 13 centure –
powerful Hindu dynasty.
•1293 Jalal al din Khalji invaded
returned to Delhi loaded with
•Ala al din Khalji took postion
of Malwa but the Governer of
walwa in 1401 declared
independent from the delhi
sultanate (Tughluqs)
•Jami Masjid Mandu –
Hushang shah
Jami Masjid - Mandu

The immense Ashrafi Mahal

(1436-69) AT Mandu actually
compresiss three district
structures : a school, a
Mausoleum and a victory
Lake side Jahaz Mahal in Mandu,
Kushk Mahal at

Baz Bahadur palace at Mandu. It was built in 1509

during the reign of the Sultan nizam al Dil
1.Shazadi ka rauza (c 1470) ,
distinctive snake like corbels at
2.Badal Mahal Darwaja at
Happy Dussehra

Sayyids and Lodis Necropolises in Delhi before
Babur’s arrival to Delhi
• Sikender Shah who has been highly praised by the contemporary writters for his
excellent ‘ qualities of Head and Heart’
• In his way the centre of the government i.e., Head of the Lodis was shifted to Agra
and only their Heart remained in the Old capital.
• The only prominent architecture of the Lodis: Theirs tombs.
• More than 50 tombs of kings , ministers , other members of the Afghan nobility
were erected in the country side of Firoz shash’s city of tughlaqabad.
• Tombs of the Lodis: Bare Khan ka gumbad, tomb of sikender Lodi, Jamala masjid,
Moth ki masjid, Chot Khan ka Gumbad.
Arrival of the Mughal:

The moghul empire has it’s beginnings in the times of the great moghul
emperor Genghis Khan who, in 13th century, conquered Asia and half
of Europe until Hungary, spreading terror and destruction.
The first moghul emperor, Babar, descended from Genghis Khan by
his mother side.But from his father side he descended Timur Lang,
who also spreaded terror on Asia and conquered Delhi in 1398.
Later, in 16th century, Babar becomes Padisha (or Emperor), in the
sequence of a battle where he defeated the afghan sultan of Delhi,
Ibrahim Lodi, in 1526, so beginning the Moghul Empire, which
dominated until 1858he word Moghul is the hindu version of Mongol.

•Babar conquered great part of the North of India.

•Barbar the Conqueror (1483-1530) was a descendant of Tamerlane and
Genghis Khan, who founded the Mughal (Mogul) dynasty of India and,
although a devout Muslim, bequeathed a legacy of toleration for non-
Muslims that characterized the Empire at its zenith.
Babur Invades India
 In 1526 ( well before Jamala masjid was completed), on strategic field of panipat
with only 10,000 men, Babur defeated the ominous, 1,00,000 men army of the
Lodi s and slew the last Lodi ruler, sultan Ibrahim.
 It is true that Babur himself did not leave any concrete and direct inpact on the
course of architecture in India.
 Babur’s grand pronouncement in his memories, the Babur Namah, on quality of
local architecture and other traditions, played a vital role.
 In his criticism of India it can be easily read that Babur was languishing for his
native Kabul with its flowering water channels, amidst fruits and flower laden
 According to him India lacked the quality of ‘Symmetry in architecture’, he ensured
that the garden would be planned out strictly geometric and symmetrical patterns.
 It was his early pioneering efforts that resulted in the fabulous tradition of the
now famous Mughal gardens of India.
 Some excavated remains of the earliest of these have been discovered on the
outskirts of Dholpur near Agra.
• Barbar the Conqueror (1483-1530) was a
descendant of Tamerlane and Genghis
The family tree of Babur Khan, who founded the Mughal (Mogul)
dynasty of India and, although a devout
Muslim, bequeathed a legacy of toleration
for non-Muslims that characterized the
Empire at its zenith.
• Tamerlane's central Asian Empire lay
divided into a number of separate city-
states ruled over by his Timurid
descendants, who styled themselves
princes and constantly fought to enlarge
their domains.
• The cities and towns, ruled by local
potentates, dominated their surrounding
countryside thus giving each populated
community a strategic importance which
grew as they continually changed hands.
• Of these cities and strategic locations,
Samarkand was the most important. One
such state, Farghana, was ruled by Babar's
father, Umar Shaikh Mirzà.
Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur
Jamali Kamali Mosque at Delhi & Baburi Mosque anterior at
Panipat - Babur
Mausoleum of Jamali Khan and Kamali- Babur
Entrance gate – Talaqi Darwaja to Punana Qila at Delhi - Babur
Site of Babur’s Bagh at Agra
 Babur sacrificed his life for his son Humayun on 26th Oct’1530
 Humayun was unable to quite hold on to his Empire.
 However, Humayun laid foundation to of new city Din panah.
 Finding Humayun was a weak leader / ruler, by a clever mix of
political and military strategy sher khan (Sher shah sur) , twice
convincingly outfoxed the Mughal armies.
 Humayun left no choice, fled to Persia in 1544, leaving his 14
months old infant son, Akbar , in his brother Kamran’s care.
 Sher shah busy in Delhi laying the foundations of social ,
administrative and architectural reforms which Akber later adopted
in his great empire.
 It took Humayun more than a decade of virtually wandering door
to door before he was able to recapture Delhi.
Delhi Sher shahi
 Sher shah proceeded to lay a new city that he intended to call shergarh but that come to be
popularly known as Delhi shershahi.
 The city, laid east and north of the Existing fortress, was envisaged to have surrounding wall
more than 14km long.
 Only some remains have been found at north present Ajmeri gate of Delhi.
 Salim shah did manage before his dearth to built a rather picturesque little fort in Delhi in AD
 The Octagonal type of tomb had reached to the acme of its architectural appeal with the
building of Sher shah’s tomb.
 Isa khan , minister of Sher Shah’s successor and son of Salim khan, built himself a tomb near
the present more well known Humayun’s Tomb., turn out to be a replica of the tomb of
Sikender lodhi, completed with the complementary mosque and court yard.
 Salim Shah ventured to build a grand version of his tomb at Sasaram.It was never quite
completed after his heath.
 But, salim shah did manage before his death to built rather picturesque little in Delhi AD
1546, at well north of the old fort and Tughlaqabad and located on an Island in the Yamuna ,
known as Salimghar.
 This Fort was later connected by a bridge by a bridge Shahjahans’s Red fort.
Sher Mandal - Humayun

Humayun’s purana qila:

•Water mark- Pre Mughal design
•Chapel Royal.
•Two structures standing – Sher Mandal
& Qila Kunha Masjid
•Sanctuary measuring 158X45ft and
height 66ft
Sher shah’s tomb at Sarsaram

Sher Shah’s Tomb:

• stands middle of large square sheet of water body 1400’-0”
•Immense paramedical pile of ordered masonry.
•Height 150’-0”; and having a square base 250ft side.; proto type of lodhis but magnificent
size. An error in orientation of along the cardinal axis was corrected after lower platform had
been built., resulting in the curious diagonal relationship.
Khah-I Khanan Mausoleum 1627
Return of the Mughals
• Salim shah apparently lost interest in the city of
Delhi, moved capital to Gwalior and his death in
AD1554 was the signal for the collapse of the Afghan
house .
• Hindu minister and general Hemu seized the power
and proclaimed himself Raja vikramaditya.
• After 15 tears of exile Humayun recaptured his lost
territory in 1555 and entered Purana Qila.

Sher Mandal converted as Humayun’s

famous library - Humayun
Qila Kuhna Mosque & Lal Darwaza at Purana qila
- Humayun
•The Mosque in the complex of buildings didicated to Isa Khan at Delhi
- 1647
Mausoleum of Sher shah’s powerful minister (1647)
Sher Shah’s & Humayun’s tomb
Msfsarwala gumbad located western side of
Humayun’s mausoleum & Shams al-din Atgah Khan
Lal gumbad at Delhi(1570) and Perforated panels at verandah
of Muhammad Ghaus mausoleum at Gwalior(1565)
Bagh-e-Babur in Kabul - Humayun
• Babur died at the age of 47 on January 5 [ 26
December 1530] 1531, and was succeeded by his
eldest son, Humayun. Though he wished to be buried
in his favourite garden in Kabul, a city he had always
loved, he was first buried in a Mausoleum in the capital
city of Agra. Roughly nine years later his wishes were
fulfilled by Sher Shah Suri and Babur was buried in a
TheBagh – e-Babur in Kabul beautiful garden Bagh-e-Babur in Kabul, now in

Tomb in Kabul
The Mughals Shift to Agra - Akbar
• The Necropolis character of Delhi still continued……
• Akbar sent the body of yet another of his Ministers, Atgah Khan, to be
burried in Delhi.
• The builders of humayun tomb became busy once again and located on
present mathura road near east Nizamiddin, the structure was popularly
known as Khan Khanan’s tomb.
• Little can be judged of the progress of the art of the building in Delhi from
this sparse monument. However its simpler plan form and outer
formations appeal more to subsequent builders of the Taj mahal, than the
rather sprawling mass of Humayun’s tomb.
• The great Mughal, Akbar, had clearly abandoned the city of Gypsy settlers
and Jackals. The pomp and pageantry had shifted to Agra.
Humayun’s tomb

•First major building by Akbar.- Monumental scale

•Sayyid Muhammad and his Father Mira Sayyidk Ghiyath – Architects of
distinction– By Smith Digby
Humayun’s tomb
Humayun’s tomb
Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605)
• At the age of 13 Akbar was campaigning in Kalanaur, 300 miles away when news of his
father’s death reached him.
• Akbar was crowned emperor of India and along with convincing defeat of Hemu in second
battle of Panipat.
• Hemu’s Head dispatched to Kabul as a proof of Akbar’s supremacy and threat of Sekander
Shah defused by his defeat at Mankot in Punjab and Akbar decided to take Agra as a centre of
• For Akbar the city of Delhi holds no good and no great fascination.
• As a punishment Akbar repeatedly throwing one of his noble over the Agra fort until he was
dead but he allowed his mother Maham Anga to build a tomb over his son’s remains in Delhi
i.e, last Octagonal tomb in Qutb complex along with Madrassa and Mosque adjacent Sher
Shah gate but unable to produce Cham and finishings.
Agra Fort
Agra Fort Palace Building
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Jami Masjid, Agra
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Jami Masjid, Agra
Jami Masjid at Delhi and Agra
Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
Variations in Diwan-i-khas
Popular belief; That The Akber built the city of sikri in a gesture of

Fatehpur sikri
thanks giving towards the renowned sufi saint Sheikh Chisti.
Fatehpur sikri
 “Fatehpur sikri is a residential city, ‘ a gilded prison’ for the court and not a redundant Agra ,
as demonstrated insufficiency of military defense.” – Attilio Petruccioli.
 The imperial complex of Sikri is arranged in an echelon formation on the east and west axis
on the ridge. It has an irregular layout, and Hall of public audience form a most important
center of this complex approached through the Agra gate, markets and karkanas.
 Quite apparently , the imperial Mughal architecture at Sikri follows the layout of Arab and
Central Asian tent encampment.
 The palaces are built as separate, free standing units in formal geometries, on piece of level
ground, vastly different form the style of Rajput and Gujarat royal palaces.
 John F Richards observes: Akbar reached in a mile stone within the boundaries of fathepur
Sikri, a comfortable and grand encampment. It is an urban form somewhere between a camp
and imperial city.
 The most striking feature of the architectural style Sikri is the use of trabeate construction
known to Indians for centuries.
 Gujarati sultanate architecture has overwhelming influence over the architecture at Sikri to
an extent that Ebba Koch calls it “Akbas’s architectural response to the absorption of Gujarat
in to the Mughal Empire”.
 GHR Tillotson notices this “ the process of Hinduisation” where a few Islamic motifs remain
as exotic details in a style in which the majority of component part of Hindu” .
 As Per Dr. Surendes sahai , felt that this may be the reason and perhaps for achieving social
harmony which Akbar promoted through interaction with representation of different
religious groups.
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Panch Mahal at Fatehpur sikri - Akbar

•Panch mahal is supported by 176

•A tributed building which
resembles a temple of viakuntha
perumal at kanchivaram(710-20)
•Very balanced building the taotal
ht being equal to the length of the
ground floor.
•Akbar and his Ladies were used it
as a hawa mehal, the persian name
given to it was Badgir ( wind tower).
•Nath- jarokha darshan of emperior
•Fergosson- ratha of
•Smith- Buddhist monastery.
•Ebba koch- Nagina mahal of
khimlassa fort
Fatehpur sikri – Jami Masjid

•It was completed in 1571-2 as it inscription on its door attests, which goes on to praise it for its
elegance, ‘second only to the masque of Mecca’.
•Akber built this mosque for the Shaikh, as a monastic school for the disciples of the saint.
•One of the largest , high elevation as compared to city, fully ornamented in the world, measuring
165.2 x 133.6m externally.
•The small but very beautiful tomb of Shaikh salim chishti is situated in a quadrangle of the jami
masjid nearbthe zenana rauze, infront of buland Darwaza.
•It’s a square plan measuring 4.88m with macarana marble with total contrast to the red sand
stone work all-round.
1.)The highly unusual central pillar in
diwan-i-khass at Fatehpur sikri
2.)36 carved corbels
3.)Recalls the work of Gujarati
Hiran minar & shah quli khan Gumbad

•The Hiran minar (antelope’s tower) at Fatahpur Sikri is decorated with elephant tusks.
•Suggestions as to the builder’s function range from a light house to a road marker.
•A pavilion of pleasure complex in the middle of the dried up lake near shah quli Khan musoleum
at Narnaul.

•Domed Jajri (water) pavilion at Bayana.

•Markedly Akbarian in Character.
Jahangir Reign 1605 - 1627
• After the phase of architectural syncretism under Akbar,
there follows with Jahangir’s reign a period of transition,
reflection and experimentation with:
– Despite its importance for the future development of
Mughal architecture
– Has not yet received due acknowledgement.
• Selected ideas of the previous period are now adopted in
formal extravaganzas that had a negligible echo or
developed into highly influenced period
– Highly decorated surfaces of interior and exteriors.
– Walls deeply paneled by a frame work of bands.
– Architectural decoration characterized by plethora of
materials: sand stone carvings, white marble, stone
intarsia, painted stucco, and tile work.
Ltimad al- Daula Mausoleum –
Jahangir 1605 - 1627
Jahangir 1605 - 1627

Sikandra: Mausoleum of Akbar

Jahangir 1605 - 1627
Detail of the front exterior of the Ltimad al-Daul, built in
1626 by Jahangi’s wife Nur Jahan in honour of her father.
The white marble exterior is inlaid with hard and semi-
precious stones to form geometric design.
Jahangir 1605 - 1627
Jahangir 1605 - 1627
A building in the fort of Lahore.
A detail of intricate tiled decoration on the walls of Lahore fort.
• Massive stone pillars from the aisles of the pattar Mosque (1623)
built for Nur jagan at Srinagar, in Kashmir. And a tomb at Jhajjar from
Jahangir’s reign.
The Hiran Minar (1607-20) at shaikhupura, near Lahour –The
tower formed part of a hunting complex - Jahangir
The Chaunath Chamba (1623-4) at Delhi, is probably the most
direct link between architecture of Jahangir and that of shah Jahan
Exterior of Diwa-i-Amm at Agra Fort - Shah Jahan
Exterior - Diwan – I – Amm at Agra fort
1) Moti Masque (1546-53) Agra Fort
2) Jahangir Mausoleum at Lahor.
3) Khas mahal at Agra fort
(The Tale of Walled City)
 Shahjahanabad was the seventh planned city of Delhi in written history.
 The six earlier ones were
Naya Shahar, Siri, Tughlakaad, Jahapanah, Ferozabad & Dinapanah.
 Delhi got its due importance when Shahjahan the 5th Mughal ruler return to this ancient city in
1648 AD and under took the construction of an altogether new capital north of Ferozabad.
Fatehpure mosque in the chandini
chowk – Shah jahan (1650)
Jami Masjid – Shahjahanabad(1650) and Wazir Khan
Mosque(1634) at Lahore

Shah Jahan 1628 -1657

Chauburji Gate at Lahore – Entrance to garden at Lahore
The Dai Anga Mosque at Lahore – dedicated to Shah Jahan’s wet-

Shah Jahan 1628 -1657


2. The Tomb of Afzal Khan at Agra

called Chini-ka Rauza, because of its
glazed tile decoration , now mostly lost.
The Akhund Mulla Shah Mosque
(1649) near fort Hari Parbat, at

The shalimar Gardens at

Lahor were built from1633 to
1642 by Ali Mardan Khan
under Shah jahan’s
The Tombs of Bala pir and his son Shaikah Mahdi at kanauj in North India
The elegant mausoleum of Shaikh
chillie (1650) at Thaneser on road
between Delhi and Lahor. It has been
classed by one scholar as second
only to the Taj Mahall.

The red sand stone gate

of mid 17th century
Caravansirai out side
Gurgaon, near Delhi on
the road to Agra

Dr. S. Ramesh
Chief Architect
Municipal Corporation of Delhi
1450 BC - 2002 AD

Indraprastha – 1450 BC – 350 AD

Dilli – C 100 BC
Surajkund – C 1024 AD
Lal Kot – C 1024 AD
Qila Rai Pithora – C 1170 AD
Kilkori – 1288 AD
Siri – 1302 AD
Tugluqabad – 1320 AD
Jahanpanah – 1334 AD
Firuzabad – 1351 AD
Khizrabad – 1415 AD
Mubarakabad – 1433 AD
Dinpanah – 1530 AD
Dilli – 1542 AD
Shahjahanabad – 1638 AD
New Delhi – 1911 AD
Post Independence Expansion – 1947


1850 A.D.
…Massive Fortification & Gateways

…Urban Morphology

…Citadel & the Sanctum

…Water Channels & Greens

…Bazaars & Havelis

…Streets & Chowks

…Kutchas & Katras



Elaborately laid out canal system
to water the series of gardens,
acted as a central channel
that divided Chandni Chowk.

Chandni Chowk from Lahore Gate, 1814-15


looking towards Yamuna

Red Fort, the heart of the city


• Massive fortification of
• Seven gates
• Royal palace at NE
• Canals ending eastern
ent. Fatepur Mosque.
• Planned to meet
• Res.streets are kept
narrow and closely
• Population rose to
0.6lakh to1.5 lakh
during mughal period.
• Vistas
• Running green spaces
• Nodal points
• ZONING : During those times zoning was an accepted principle of town planning. This zoning
was according to occupations, industries and commerce. Baidwara, Daiwara, Naiwara,
Dhobiwara and Maliwara were the quarters of doctors, midwives, barbers, washermen and
gardeners respectively.
Stages of growth

1867 1858 1847

The Chandni Chowk from the top of the Lahore Gate of the
Fort, the canal depicted running down the middle, 1814-15*
Chandni Chowk from Lahore Gate

The main bazaar of the city stretched from the Fatehpuri Masjid to Lahore Gate, lined with single storey arcades with residential
quarters above.

Clock Tower in front of Town Hall

Chandni Chowk then…


…placed in the midst of the residential mohallas on a
high platform
…urban fabric was built virtually up to its external
…also known as 'Masjid-i-Jahan Numa', 'Jahan' meaning the
'World' and Numa meaning 'Visible' .

The Sanctum, Jama Masjid


Jami masjid , Delhi
Jami Masjid Lahore and Delhi
Akbarabadi and Fathepuri Masjid
"The Imperial Assembly of India at Delhi: the Viceregal Procession
passing the Clock Tower and Delhi Institute in the Chandni Chowk,"
The Havelis, Kuchas and Katras

• One of the chief features of ancient town

planning was that two wide streets would run
through each other at right angles (thus
allowing fresh breezes to flow into the town). In
Shahjahanabad, besides the two main streets,
there were also a number of streets and
bazaars, roads and lanes, crossing and cress-
crossing in all directions, around which grew a
number of mohallas and katras. Many gorgeous
palatial houses or 'havelis' also came up.

•A ‘Haveli’ traditionally is a huge house, almost palatial in its

scale. A normal Haveli would have a big courtyard surrounded on
the four sides by spacious rooms.
•A 'Kucha’, in Mughal times used to be a zone comprising of
houses whose owners shared Landmarks & common feature,
usually their mode of occupation. During Shahjahan’s time
zoning was a commonly accepted feature of town planning.
(Hence the names Malliwara, the gardeners neighborhood and
Ballimaran, the oarsmen’s neighborhood).
•A ‘Katra’ refers to a separate wing of tradesmen and craftsmen
belonging to the same trade. They usually lived and worked
…separate quarters for distinct social

…exclusive lanes for each class of

tradesmen and guilds of craftsmen.

Katras – Commercial Streets


…narrow streets to cut the summer Sun

…acting as a social place

…well articulated and ornamented facades

Kutchas – Residential Streets


… palatial in their scale

… courtyard type houses with

rooms all around



Change in urban morphology

Areas cleared by British

…mohallas in proximity of fort

…Jehanara’s garden complex
…front of Jama Masjid


…railway line
…Town Hall
…grassed parkland in front
Red Fort
…Internal Layout of the Fort


1850 AD Present Situation


1850 AD Present Situation

Area in front of Jama Masjid got cleared by the British


1850 AD Present Situation

Jehanara’s garden complex also got cleared with introduction of Railway Line and Town Hall


1850 AD Present Situation
Area in front of the Red Fort and Lajpat Rai Market


Chandni Chowk from Lahore Gate Town Hall Fountain Chowk

Chandni Chowk now…

…structures have gone up to four storey high


…street has become congested


Town Hall
Lal Mandir

Fatehpuri Mosque
Fountain Chowk

Important Chowks along the Chandni Chowk Street


Red Fort
Red Fort
Red Fort
Red Fort
Red Fort
Red Fort
Red Fort
Red Fort
Mughal Agra – A riverfront Garden city
The Taj Mahal complex seems
unique today; but when it was
created, it was integrated in to
the scheme of Mughal Agra as
one of its constituent elements
Agra was first conquered by Muslim invaders in 1070s or 1080s, when Mahmud of Ghazni
captured it from Hindu ruler, Jaipal; sikender lodi made it his capital in 1505. In 1526, when th
Mughals established themselves in Hindustan, Agra became their capita and began to acquire
its distinctive character as a riverfront garden city.
Three types of mughal Chahar Bagh:
1.Canonical cross axial; The Tomb of Humayun Delhi (1562-71)
2.Terraced shalimar garden Kashmir (1620-1634)
3.Waterfront Lal mahel Bari - 1637

The Final form of Hasht bihishi design : plan of Humayun Yomb 1572 - 71

The basic hasht bihishi design : plan of Todar Mal’s The basic hasht bihishi design : plan of pavilion shah
Baradari – Radially planned pavilion Fatehpur Sikri Quli khan - narnaul
Water front development

•Today a few gardens of Mughal Agra remains.

•Most stand isolated from each other, and lost their original urban
•Left bank of yamuna at Agra preserves the character of original
Mughal Agra to the greater extent as compared to Right bank..
•The stretch between Shah Nawaz Khan(no.1) and Ltimad ud
Daula (no.9) can still show some surviving gardens as wall as
commercial nurseries(31,33,55).
•The Matab bagh(no.17) , Utilitarian complex, Bagh- I Nur Afshan
(light scattering Garden), - surviving gardens.
Waterfront development
Detail of Jaipur map of Agra, showing 12 northernmost gardens of the left bank of yamuna
at Agra.
Battis Khamba tower in the Buland Bagh, first
quarter of the 17th century.

The garden seen from the bye- pass of National

high way.
Large Tahkhana

The six squares at bottom comprises the terraced

area. The court and pavilion right at the center , a
large Tahkhanna is below the left hand river front
Water chute with a fish-scale pattern, set between
steps on the northern side of the terraced area.
•The Chini-ka Rauza, before 1639, on a basic hasht bihisht design,
and view of the heavily restored tomb.
•Tyrolean Jesuit- geographer
•Josef Tieffenthaler comments” Its inlay with tiles in the Chinese
•British recognized as architectural merit and taken it as a subject
of company drawing.
•Artist Sita ram made a water color painting and submitted to Lord
Hastings 1815.
•Lorg Curzen found this was in dilapidated condition.(1899)

a. Plan of the tomb in garden of sultan Parwiz on its substructure and platform.
b. Plan of substructure.
c. Detail of the apex of an arch in the substructure of the tomb, with painted
interlacing pattern.
The tomb of Itimad-ud-Daula
a) Plan Drawn by an Indian artist for Maharaja of Jaipur,18thC
b) Plan showing river at the top, to conform to the orientation of the 18C
c) Seen from the other side of the river
Wall decoration of pietra dura

The Tomb pavilion, with pietra dura decoration, company drawing by an Agra or
Delhi Artist for Maria, lady Nugent, c1812
The Tomb pavilion is elaborative version of a
form – inlay & paintings
Inner & upper chamber of Iltimad ud Daula.
Boarder of a large octagonal
pool, with a pattern of multi-
cusped arches, during
restoration. The water would be
on the right side

The , looking across the river

to the Taj Mahal showing the
waterfall detail.

The Mughal Baoli – Gyarak Sidhi – 16th C

Garden seen from the roof of the Taj Mahal

View of Taj Mahal along with Haveli of Khan – I Dauran

Khan – I Dauran in ruins

Taj Mahal complex seen from the river

Plan of surviving Mughal structures

Plan of Agra Fort

The Jharoka, window of

imperial appearance, in
the Diwan –I ‘ amm

White marble complex: Khas Mahal

Bird’s – eye – view of imperial complex

Diwan-i Amm &

Diwan –i khass

Diwan –i khass
Aramgah : Bangla-I darshan- shah burj
Anguri Bagh : Khass Mahal
Haveli of Dara Shikoh – Drawing 1774

Tara Niwas – complex of Aurangzeb

The Haveli of Wazir Khan

The tomb of Mirjumla and and ruined
Mosque of the Jafar Khan

Tomb garden of Jafar Khan

The chhatri of Jaswant Singh

Tomb of Babur at Kabul

Tomb of timur, Gut-I Amir, in Samarqand

The Tombs of Humayun, Akbur at Sikendra, jahangir at Shahdara, Sher Shah sur at
Sarsaram and Agra fort.
The principles of Shahjahani architecture:
1. Geometrical planning
4.Proportional formulas.
5.Uniformity of shapes, ordered by
hierarchical accents
6.Sensuous attention to detail
7. selective use of naturalism

The masusoleum seen from

thr upper level of the great
gate on 13 November 1996 at
5.oopm,5.15pm and 5.30pm
The basic elements of Taj Mahal
Details of foundation and cladding
Fatehabadi darwaza – Inner face of
eastern street
Looking across the jilauKhana
The western Khawasspura

The latrines in the main complex of Shah Jaha’s

palace at Bari, known as Lal Mahal
•The eastern subsidiary tomb or
Stone slab Jally work
Formation of gates in different levels
Garden pavilion and integration of soft & hard landscape in geometrical pattern
True octagon
Buildings out side the wall Masjid of the prayer hall
Pavement patterns & SalimChishti in the court yard of
Geometric patternsJami masjid Fatehpur
of paving sikriFatehpur sikri
Jami masjid
The interior of the Moti Mosque in the Red
fort at delhi


AURANGZEB 91658-1707)
• Aurangzeb came to the throne 1658, having deprived his father of all authority and
imprisoned him in the fort at Agra.
• His official coronation took place on 5th June in 1658.
• He took the name of Alamgir, but not even his court historians referred to him by this name
but critics prefer to call him Aurangzeb.
• He deeply devoted in his prayers to which he dedicated from 6 to 9 hours a day.
• He has no desire to be the sovereign of the entire Indian people, who by that time had
indeed became his people.
• His reign is divided in two almost equal parts of completely differing character:
• During the first he lived in the north, mostly in Delhi, completely depriving Agra of its role as
capital in the second part of his regn (1681-1707) he moved to Deccan where he was on
campaign until his death without ever returning to the north
• Aurangzeb eliminated his elder brothers through violence and cunning.
• Aurangzeb was driven by his conscience to begin his disasters anti-Hindu policy and ordered
the destruction of all Hindu temples in the empire.
• The Jizia , abolished more than a century earlier by Akbar, was reintroduced and this
provoked revolts even in the north where the Jat farmers in the area south of Delhi.
 Marathas acquired a true national consciousness under the leader ship of Shivaji who had
struggled long against the sovereigns of Bijapur and the mughal governors.
 On the death of shivaji following a final victorious campaign against the mughals, Aurangzeb
decided to destroy all the Decanis states and annex their territories into the empire.
 He succeeded in this design 1-bijapur surrendered in 1686.2- Golconda fell the following
years through treason .3-In 1689 shambuji, son and heir to shivaji, was captured and
tourchered to death .
 In 1705 the Marathas resistance defeated Aurangzebs obstinate perseverance.
 Ill and exhausted, at the end off his strength he retreated to Ahmednagar where he died at
the age of 89 on 2nd March 1707.
 His desires ended in nothing but 50 yrs of strenuous, honest, energetic and laborious
leadership managed only to bring the country to irretrievable ruin.
 -His army had disintegrated completely.
 -The administration was in ruins.
 -The treasury was empty.
 -the economic situation was disastrous.
 -The Hindu subjects were declared enemies.
 -The Muslims were worn out.
 -the relentless Marathas revolt

• -The state of machinery was broken down
• -Jats continued their own rebellion.
• - Art and architecture suffered because of the total lack of patteronage.
• -The royal calligraphic workshops closed.
• -music at court banned.
• -The work of historians interrupted.
• -With all the above just as he had lived simply, Aurangzeb wanted to be buried at Khuldabad,
near Aurangabad, under a small mound of earth, with neither a roof nor a canopy, out in the
sun, wind and rain, without a name. Later a roller Nizam of Hyderabad had the tomb
encircled with an elegant stone balustrade.
AURANGZEB (1658-1707)

The idgha (1660-61) at Mathura in UP –

Use of red sand stone is the typical of area.
Jami Masjid at Banares built in 1658 in the
center of the City near the banks of Ganges.
The Badshahi Mosque & Alamgir gate
at Lahore fort

Bibi-ka maqbara(1660-61) at Aurangabad

Built as a tomb for Aurangzib’s wife

The Dai Anga Mausoluem 1671 at Lahore

was built during the reign of Aurangzib in
Honour of Shah jahan’s wet-nurse.

• After the death of Aurangzeb India

under went the most terrible century
in its history as Mughal Empire
disintegrated rapidly .
• The brief rign of Bahadur Shah, old
and tired (1707-12), amounted no
more than series of useless battles
to smoothen rebellions , and his
successors who became instruments
to the noble factions in their power
1.The Moti Mosque at New delhi was
built by Shah Alam Bahadur Shah, the
son and successor of Aurangzeb
2.The slightly ulbus columns, seen here
on either side of the entrance, became
the feature of the religious buildings
from this time of Aurangzeb onwards.
3.Three fluted domes, with a pronounced
narrowing at the base, cover the prayer
hall, which is entered through two doors
at the side.

The late 18th century Asafi mosque in the

great Imambara complex at Lucknow.
“Though its proportions are dignified its
decoration is rather excessive” –Bianca
Maria Alfieri


Jami Masjid at Lucknow: Built in 1850 by Nawab Muhammad Ali Shah It has fewer of the
incongruous European elements that characterize many buildings in the city.


a) The Husainabad Imambara complex (1839) at Lucknow, built by
Muhammad Ali Shah.
b) A palace exemplified the hybrid and highly decorative style that was
common during the last years of Mughal rule.
 In this last period the building material most commonly used is brick with richly
modeled and painted plaster.
 All the innovations introduced in Aurangzeb’s time were in common use and were
fused with complicated play of lines, volumes and colors.
 Increasingly noted such as :
 columns with lotus shapes,
 Paired or inserts in to walls
 Naturalistic floral motifs
 Simple or festooned round arches
 Flaming petals and flowed by climbing plants,
 Occasional small and low arches,
 alcoves roofs in concave niches
 Light balconies rise from supports in lotus,
 Balconies covered with curved roofs, often combined with domes,
 Ceilings are decorated with volutes intertwined with banana leaves, lotus petals,
 Cornices are concave and projecting and providing substitute for single sloped roof,
 Parapets are always crenellated,
 Roofs curved and domes markedly bulbous,
 The chhatris are countless, reduced to minimal dimensions or incorporated in the gallieries

•The Rajput princes were in close contact with the Mughal court for over a
century and a half and inherited its architectural style.
•When Rajputs regained their independence 1710-30, the adoption of
imperial splendour architecture became an expression of sovereignty.
•The Junaghar fort at Bikaner in Rajasthan, the defensive wall is
distinctively topped with balconies and arch windows.
•Udiapur palace set on the banks of an artificial lake, it is a largest and
most impressive palace.
The most important of 16th &
17th centuries are those at
Bikaner, bundi, Jodhpur,
Jaisalmer, Orchha, Datai,
Udaipur, and Amber, besides
small and beautiful ones are
Samod and Kotha. In the 18th
century maharaja adan singh
built the bharatpur palace in
about 1750 Maharaja Suraj
mall built Dig palace.
The medieval palace at
Amber, once the seat of ruler
s of Jaipur. The palace forms
part of a large complex of
royal building on a rocky
gorge alongside a lake.

The palace at Datai.Built in 1620 by the Raj Bir Singh Dio. It rests on a
uneven crest of Rock.So that the lower ground invisible from the front.
The Palace of the Datia. Built in
1620 by the raja Bir singh dio, it THE MUGHAL PROVINCIAL STYLE
rests on even crest of rock, so
that the lower ground levels are
visible from the front.

The lotus Mahal 91575) at Vijayanagar,

two storey pavilion oldest example of
Musilm – influenced architecture in
south India
Renaissance in Italy, the spread of
renaissance and Baroque in Europe.