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Optocouplers

Designer’s Guide

About This Designer’s Guide How to Use This Guide


Avago Technologies optocouplers can be used in an array The table of contents lists all the applications by their
of isolation applications ranging from power supply and general description.
motor control circuits to data communi­cation and digital
Data sheets for prod­ucts recommended in this guide
logic interface circuits.
can be found on the Avago Technologies’ web site at
To help you choose and design with Avago Technologies www.avagotech.com/semiconductors, or they may be
isolation components, this Designer’s Guide contains ordered from your local Avago representative.
popular application circuits and recom­mended Avago
optocouplers. How to Order
This handbook contains sections discussing critical op- To order any component in this guide or additional ap-
tocoupler design parameters such as Insulation and plications information, call your authorized Avago dis-
Withstand Voltage, Regulatory Agency Safety Standards, tributor nearest you.
Common-Mode Transient Rejection, Product Life and Although product information and illustrations in this
light emitting diode (LED) aging. The rest of the guide guide were current at the time it was approved for print-
consists of application circuits. ing, Avago Technologies, in a continuing effort to offer
Each application circuit is accompanied by: excellent products at a fair value, reserves the right to
change specifications, designs, and models without
1. A brief description. notice.
2. Highlights of circuit performance.
3. Circuit benefits.
4. A list of alternative Avago parts indicating compara-
bly per­form­ing products available in varying package
styles for maximum design flexibility.
Table of Contents
Design Considerations........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Insulation and Regulation of Optically Coupled Isolation Devices................................................................................... 1
Common-Mode Transient Rejection............................................................................................................................................ 4
Dynamic CMR....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Calculate the LED Lifetime Performance in Optocouplers to Predict Reliability........................................................10
Guidelines for Printed Circuit Board Assembly and Layout...............................................................................................14
Digital Optoisolators: An Overview.....................................................................................................................................................................15
Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications ..........................................................................................................................................16
TTL Interface with Series LED Drive............................................................................................................................................17
Level Shifting/TTL Interface with Shunt LED Drive...............................................................................................................18
Low Power 8 MBd CMOS Interface..............................................................................................................................................19
25 MBd CMOS Interface..................................................................................................................................................................20
Low Power 100 kBd CMOS Interface..........................................................................................................................................21
Isolated 3 V Logic Interface/Battery Operated Applications.............................................................................................22
Data Communication Applications .....................................................................................................................................................................23
Isolated RS-232C/E Interface.........................................................................................................................................................23
Isolated 3.3 V RS-232 Interface.....................................................................................................................................................24
Isolated RS-485 Bus Interface........................................................................................................................................................25
Isolated Device Net/CAN Communication Interface............................................................................................................26
Isolated 4 - 20 mA Analog Current Loop Transmitter/Receiver........................................................................................27
Isolated 20 mA Current Loop Interface.....................................................................................................................................28
Multidrop Line Receiver..................................................................................................................................................................29
Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 1.......................................................................................................................30
Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 2.......................................................................................................................32
Isolated Tri-State Line Driver.........................................................................................................................................................33
Isolated Unbalanced Line Receiver.............................................................................................................................................33
PROFIBUS/RS-422 1.5 MB/s............................................................................................................................................................34
Isolated PROFIBUS/RS-485 12 MB/s Communication Application..................................................................................35
Telecommunications Applications ......................................................................................................................................................................36
Telephone Ring Detection.............................................................................................................................................................36
ISDN Interface.....................................................................................................................................................................................37
Analog Applications ............................................................................................................................................................................................38
High Speed Isolation Amplifier....................................................................................................................................................39
Precision Isolation Amplifier for Unipolar Signals.................................................................................................................40
Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 1............................................................................................................41
Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 2............................................................................................................42
AC-Coupled Isolation Amplifier...................................................................................................................................................43
Isolated Video Interface..................................................................................................................................................................44
Inverter Design Using Gate Drive and Current Sense Optocouplers ..................................................................................................................45
Motor Control Applications .................................................................................................................................................................................46
Isolated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET ......................................................................................................................................50
Dual Channel Isolated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET...........................................................................................................51
Isolated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET with Desaturation Protection............................................................................52
Isolated Interface for Intelligent Power Module Gate Drive..............................................................................................53
Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing with Analog Output.......................................................................................54
Isolated A/D Converter for Phase Current Sensing...............................................................................................................55
Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing with Analog Output/Over Current Detection.......................................56
Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using an Isolation Amplifier................................................................................57
Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using a Linear Optocoupler................................................................................58
Low Cost Isolation Amplifier for Motor Speed and Position Measurement.................................................................59
Industrial Applications ........................................................................................................................................................................................60
AC/DC Voltage Threshold Sensing..............................................................................................................................................60
Optical Isolation in Flat-Panel Displays......................................................................................................................................61
Power Supply Applications .................................................................................................................................................................................62
Optical Isolation in a Switching Power Supply - Circuit No. 1...........................................................................................62
Optical Isolation in a Switching Power Supply - Circuit No. 2...........................................................................................63
Optical Isolation in a DC/DC Converter.....................................................................................................................................64
Application Notes ..............................................................................................................................................................................................65
Design Considerations

Insulation and Regulation of Optically Coupled Isolation Devices


The primary purpose of opto­coup­ler The effects of repeated long-term applicable working voltage. For an
devices is to provide both electrical high-voltage stress between input in-depth discussion on Endurance
insulation and signal isolation. The and output of an optocoupler has Voltage, consult Avago Application
popularity of Avago Technologies' continued to be an area of uncer- Note AN1074.
product offer­ ing can be accred- tainty. Much of the technical em-
ited to cost-effective innovations phasis has been on the ability of Regulatory Environment
in these areas. Yet there exists a optocouplers to withstand one-time Because electrical insulation is a
surpris­
ing level of misunderstand- short-term high-voltage transients function of safety, optocoupler per-
ing regarding these two terms from (e.g., U.L. 1 minute dielectric voltage formance, both at component and
both vendor and user alike. The withstand rating). Avago Technolo- system levels, is often subject to reg-
discrepancies that exist within the gies has conducted extensive op- ulatory requirements and approv-
worldwide regulatory community erating life tests to determine the als that vary according to country
add to the frustration level for many effects of continuous high-voltage as well as industry. Most agencies
designers. This discussion attempts stress, both transient as well as are a mixture of govern­mental and
to help the designer capitalize on steady-state, on the degradation of private organizations with industry
Avago Technologies’ knowledge. insulating perfor­mance. On comple- representation. Some common reg-
tion, the test data was analyzed to ulatory agencies are listed in Table 9.
Insulation Defined determine safe operating areas for
steady-state input-output high-volt- Currently, little conformity exists be-
The electrical insulating capabil- tween the various agencies regard-
ity of an optocoupler, sometimes age stress. The boundary conditions,
as shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, have been ing mechanical configura­tions and
referred to as withstand voltage, is electrical test require­ments. Within
determined by its ability to protect defined by Avago as Endurance
Voltage. The lower region refers to the European Union, however, stan-
surrounding circuitry, as well as dardization of equipment as well as
itself, against physical damage re- the safe operat­ing area for the appli-
cation of continuous steady-state ac compo­nent level specifications is in
sulting from different voltage po- progress. In the interim, testing and
tentials. This potentially damaging and dc input-output voltage stress,
or working voltage, and the middle approval according to equipment
phenomena can be system induced type and environ­mental factors
(e.g., motor rail voltage) or externally region to transient voltage stress.
Operation above these regions has must be obtained according to the
coupled (e.g., lightning pulse). The control docu­ments of each country.
insulating material between input shown to cause wear-out either in
functionality or insulat­ing capabil- The International Electrotechnical
and output as well as the packag­ Commission (IEC), with worldwide
ing technology are the primary de- ity and is not recom­ mended. En-
durance Voltage is based on the representa­tion, provides a forum for
terminants of withstand voltage ca- generating technical standards. The
pability. In contrast, signal isolation, inherent properties of Avago opto-
couplers that utilize unique packag- European Committee for Electro-
although sharing some common technical Standardization (CENEL-
causes, defines the ability of the op- ing technologies and does not apply
to products manufac­tured by other EC), has European Commission
tocoupler to prevent the distortion authority to adopt IEC standards
of data through the suppression and vendors. In addition, as these tests
do not take into consideration par- as European Norms (EN), with the
filtration of common-mode tran- force of law.
sients. A further discussion of signal ticular equipment use conditions,
isolation can be found in the section Avago recommends the designer
entitled “Common-Mode Transient consult the appropriate regulatory
Rejection.” agency guidelines to determine

Table 9. Common Regulatory Agencies


Name Country Abbreviation
Verband Deutscher Electrotechniker Germany VDE
Underwriters Laboratories United States UL
Canadian Standards Association Canada CSA

AV02-4387EN 1 Avago Technologies


Insulation and Regulation

Category 1 Optocouplers Category 2 Optocouplers:

4N45/6 HCPL-2400/11/30
6N135/6/7/8/9 HCPL-2502/30/31
HCPL-0201/11 HCPL-2601/02/11/12/
HCPL-0452/3 30/31
HCPL-0500/1 HCPL-2730/1 HCPL-314J/315J HCPL-7800/A
HCPL-0600/01/11 HCPL-3700/60 HCPL-316J HCPL-7840
HCPL-0700/1 HCPL-4100/4200 HCPL-7601/11 HCPL-788J
HCPL-2200/01/02/11/ HCPL-4502/03/34/62 HCPL-7710 HSSR-8060/8400
12/19/31/32 HCPL-4661 HCPL-7720/1
HCPL-2300
5,000 5,000
WEAR-OUT REGION WEAR-OUT REGION
4,500 4,500

INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE, Vac


INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE, Vac

4,000 4,000
SAFE SAFE
OPERATING OPERATING
3,500 3,500 REGION FOR
REGION FOR
TRANSIENT TRANSIENT
3,000 INPUT-OUTPUT 3,000 INPUT-OUTPUT
VOLTAGE VOLTAGE
2,500 2,500

2,000 2,000

1,500 ENDURANCE VOLTAGE – 800 Vac 1,500 ENDURANCE VOLTAGE – 800 Vac
(NOTE: FOR DC OPERATION, (NOTE: FOR DC OPERATION,
ENDURANCE VOLTAGE IS 1000 Vdc)
1,000 1,000 ENDURANCE VOLTAGE IS 1000 Vdc

500 500
SAFE OPERATING REGION FOR CONTINUOUS SAFE OPERATING REGION FOR CONTINUOUS
INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE
0 0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000

CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TIME, HOURS CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TIME, HOURS

Figure 1. Recommended Safe Operating Area for Input-Output Figure 2. Recommended Safe Operating Area for Input-Output
Voltage-Endurance Voltage for Category 1 Optocouplers. Voltage-Endurance Voltage for Category 2 Optocouplers.

Category 3 Optocouplers:

6N135/6/7/8/9, OPTION 020


HCPL-2502/30/31, OPTION 020
HCPL-2601/02/11/12/30/31, OPTION 020
HCPL-2730/1, OPTION 020
HCPL-3000/3100/3101 EXTERNAL
HCPL-4502/03/34/62, OPTION 020 CREEPAGE
HCPL-4661, OPTION 020
5,500
WEAR-OUT REGION
5,000 DISTANCE
4,500 LED THROUGH
INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE, Vac

INSULATION
4,000 SAFE
OPERATING
3,500 REGION FOR
TRANSIENT
3,000 INPUT-OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
2,500
2,000
ENDURANCE VOLTAGE – 800 Vac
DETECTOR
1,500
(NOTE: FOR DC OPERATION,
ENDURANCE VOLTAGE IS 1000 Vdc)
1,000
500 EXTERNAL
SAFE OPERATING REGION FOR CONTINUOUS
INPUT-OUTPUT VOLTAGE CLEARANCE
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000

CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE TIME, HOURS OPTOCOUPLER'S INSULATION PARAMETERS


Figure 3. Recommended Safe Operating Area for Input-Output Figure 4. Optocoupler’s Insulation Parameters.
Voltage-Endurance Voltage for Category 3 Optocouplers.

WARNING: In all cases where regulatory compliance is required, working voltage as defined by the regulatory agency cannot be exceeded.

AV02-4387EN 2 Avago Technologies


Insulation and Regulation

Common Terms
External Clearance Installation Class Partial Discharge
The shortest distance through air, I   Equipment in closed systems Electric discharge that partially
between conductive input and (e.g., telecom) protected bridges the insulation between two
output leads, measured in mm. against over­voltage with de- electrodes. Avago supports partial
Refer to Figure 4. vices such as diverters, filters, discharge measurements per IEC/
capacitors, etc. EN/DIN EN 60747-5-2, a technique
Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) II  Energy consuming equip­ment developed to evaluate the integ-
Outer molding material charac­ (e.g., appliances) supplied rity of insulating materials. IEC/
terization in the presence of aque- through a fixed installation. EN/DIN EN 60747-5-2 philosophy
ous contaminants. The higher the III  Primarily equipment in fixed is that partial discharge testing
CTI value, the more resistant the installations (e.g., fixed indus- offers advantages over Dielec­tric
material is to electrical arc track- trial equipment). Withstand Voltage testing, which
ing. CTI is often used with creep- IV  Primary supply level for indus- might adversely affect the insu-
age by safety agencies to deter- trial factories. lating material, and over through
mine working voltage. insulation distance requirements
Insulation
External Creepage Operational - required for correct which not only increase manufac-
The shortest distance along the equipment operation but not as a turing costs but also do not neces-
outside surface, between input protection against electric shock. sarily result in acceptable insulat-
and output leads, measured in Basic - protects against electric ing capability.
mm. Refer to Figure 4. shock.
Pollution Degree
Supplementary - independently
Dielectric Insulation Voltage Withstand 1 - Nonconductive pollution only.
applied to basic insulation to pro-
Rating 2 - Only occasional, temporary
tect against shock in the event of
conductivity due to condensa-
The ability to withstand without its failure.
tion.
breakdown a 60 second appli­ Double - composed of both basic
3 - Frequent conductive pollu­tion
cation of a defined dielectric insu- and supplementary. Reinforced
due to condensation.
lation voltage between input and - A single insulation system com-
4 - Persistent conductive pollu­tion
output leads. posed of several layers (e.g., single
due to dust, rain or snow.
and supplementary).
Distance Through Insulation Rated Mains Voltage
Internal Clearance
Distance between the photo­ Primary power voltage declared
See Distance Through Insulation.
emitter and photodetector inside by manufacturer. Used to catego-
optocoupler cavity (also called in- Internal Creepage rize optocoupler maximum allow-
ternal clearance). Refer to Figure 4. The shortest border distance be- able working voltage.
tween two separate insulating ma-
terials measured between emitter
and detector.
Material Group (see Compara­tive
Tracking Index)
I   600 < CTI
II   400 < CTI < 600
IIIa  175 < CTI < 400
IIIb  100 < CTI < 175

AV02-4387EN 3 Avago Technologies


Common-Mode Transient Rejection

Introduction
Circuit designers often encounter Avago specifies common-mode prietary, low-cost Faraday shield
the adverse effects of common- rejection as common-mode transient which decouples the optocoupler
mode noise in a design. Once a rejection (CMTR). CMTR describes the input side from the output side.
common-mode problem is identi- maximum tolerable rate-of-rise (or The second method is by unique
fied, there are several ways that it fall) of a common-mode voltage package design which minimizes
can be resolved. However, common- (given in volts per micro­second). The input-to-output capacitance. The
mode interference manifests itself in specification for CMTR also includes importance of these two strengths is
many ways; therefore, it may be hard the amplitude of the common-mode explained as follows.
to determine whether it is the cause voltage (VCM) that can be tolerated.
Figure 5 illustrates a Common-mode
of a circuit’s misbehavior. If a system Common-mode interference that
transient pulse (VCM).
is connected and running but only exceeds the maximum specifica­tion
produces erroneous data, common- might result in abnormal voltage Figure 6a and 6b show interfer­
mode noise may be the reason. transitions or excessive noise on the ence circuit models for two types
This section describes sources of output signal. (CMTR is slightly dif- of possible common-mode failure
common-mode problems, presents ferent than common-mode rejec- mechanisms for a single-transistor
possible solutions, and highlights tion ratio CMRR, often used for analog optocoupler. The dashed lines are
the technology that Avago Tech- devices and commonly specified in shown to indicate external compo-
nologies' Components Group uses dB as the ratio of the differential- nents added to the optocoupler. VCM
to produce opto-isolators with su- mode gain to the common-mode represents a voltage spike across the
perior Common-Mode Performance. gain.) optocoupler isolation path between
the output-side ground (VG2) and
Common-mode rejection (CMR) is Avago optocouplers rely on two
input-side ground (VG1). VDM repre-
a measure of the ability of a device key technical strengths to achieve
sents a signal voltage applied across
to tolerate common-mode noise. high CMTR. The first is use of a pro-
the input side.

INTERNAL SHIELD
TRANSMIT SIDE RECEIVE SIDE

LED PHOTODIODE
R VDM RL
OPTO-
ISOLATOR RL IP
V
IB
VO
CIS CSB
VG1
INPUT GROUND VCM
iCM
VOLTMETER VG2
VOLTMETER OUTPUT GROUND

+ (VCM) –
NOTE: iCM GETS DIVERTED TO GROUND, VG2, WHEN INPUT IS OFF.
COMMON-MODE TRANSIENT
iCM IS SUPPLIED FROM GROUND, VG2, WHEN OUTPUT IS ON.

Figure 5. Illustration of VCM Common-Mode Pulse. Figure 6a. Interference Circuit Model.

AV02-4387EN 4 Avago Technologies


Common-Mode Transient Rejection

Referring to Figure 6a the para­sitic INTERNAL SHIELD


distributed capacitance CIS, which
iLP
might tend to couple transient
current into the transistor base node VDM
LED
RL
PHOTODIODE
(for example when the transistor is IP IB
CIA
in the “off” state) terminates on an VO
internal Faraday shield. Therefore VG1
the transient current, ICM, gets di- INPUT GROUND VCM
verted to output ground (VG2). Re- VOLTMETER CIC VG2
OUTPUT GROUND
ferring to Figure 6b, the parasitic
distrib­uted capacitances, CIA and CIC
are shown across the LED anode-to- NOTE: CURRENT “STOLEN” FROM LED: iLP = CIAdVCM
dt
ground (VG2) and LED cathode-to-
ground (VG2) respectively. Because Figure 6b. Interference Circuit Model.
the LED anode is at a relatively
higher impedance than the cathode
(i.e., RLED to ground) current at this
point will tend to be modulated
slightly during CM transients. For in- VO
VCM
stance, if the LED is on, then during
a positive transient (i.e., dVCM /dt  > 0)
current will be diverted away from t

the LED. For fast enough transients,


this may turn the LED off. (If RLED is VOH
VIH
connected to the LED cathode side
VIL
then CIC provides a parasitic path VOL
t
to divert current towards or away tTRANSIENT tTRANSIENT
from the LED.) This type of failure is VCM
avoided by ensuring that CIA and CIC TRANSIENT RATE OF CHANGE = t
TRANSIENT
are small. TRANSIENT AMPLITUDE = VCM

Figure 7 shows the possible effect


on the output voltage level of an op- Figure 7. Common Mode Interference Effect.
tocoupler due to a common-mode
pulse. The output is shown (success­
ively) in the high and low states.
(This might be observed if Rled were
con­nected as in Figures 6a, 6b.)

AV02-4387EN 5 Avago Technologies


Common-Mode Transient Rejection

HV +

ISOLATION ISOLATION

GATE GATE
A1 B1
CONTROL DRIVE DRIVE
CIRCUITRY

MOTOR

1 2

GATE GATE
DRIVE B2 A2 DRIVE

HV -

Figure 8. Full-Bridge Power Switch Configuration.

As long as the amplitude VCM and (A1, B1) is attached to the drain of +250 V and ‑250 V in 100 ns creates
value of dVCM /dt are less than the a second set of transistors (A2, B2). a common-mode transient signal
ratings for the optocoupler being When transistor set A turns on, set of 5000 V/µs with an amplitude of
used, VOH will remain above 2  V B turns off. Current flows from the 500 V (see Figure 9). The device that
(maxi­mum TTL VIH) and VOL will positive supply, through transistor carries the control infor­ mation to
remain below 0.8 V (minimum TTL A1, through the load, and through each MOSFET must be able to with-
VIL). Note that the slight perturba- transistor A2. When set B turns on, stand this level of common-mode
tions in output voltage occur some- set A turns off, and the polarity of interference. Although this example
time after the input pulse which the current through the inductive may seem extreme, it is a fact that
causes them, due to the non-zero re- load is reversed. engineers continue to use faster-
sponse time of the output transistor switching transistors to increase
How does this operation create
to the “perturbation signal.” motor efficiency. Power MOSFETs,
a common-mode problem? The for example, are commonly used in
Common-mode signals can origi- input of each gate drive circuitry power inverter applications because
nate from several different sources. is referenced to the ground of the they are capable of high frequen-
A full bridge power inverter, shown digital control circuitry; the output cy, high power switching. The fast
in Figure 8, is a good example of an common, on the other hand, is float- switching speeds of the transistors,
application that can exhibit large ing and referenced to the source however, can generate common-
amounts of common-mode noise. of its associated power transistor. mode signals with very high rates of
Full-bridge inverters are commonly The floating commons of the upper change (dVCM/dt).
found in motor-speed control and gate drive circuits rapidly switch
switching power supply applica- between the positive and negative The common-mode signal rate
tions. The power inverter is generally power supplies. This rapid switching of rise can also be affected by the
used to produce an ac output from creates a large voltage swing across reverse recovery characteristics of
a dc input. In a full-bridge inverter the input to output of the gate diodes D1 and D2 in the power
application like that shown in Figure drive circuitry. As an example, a half
8, the source of one set of transistors bridge circuit that switches between

AV02-4387EN 6 Avago Technologies


Common-Mode Transient Rejection

+250 V
I Q1

D1 I D2

Q1

MOTOR
V CM
VCM

D2 I D2

Q2
VCM

-250 V

Figure 10. Half-Bridge Inverter Waveforms.


+250 V
V CM= 500 V
∆V 500 V 5000 V
V CM = =
∆t 0.1 µs µs
dV CM = 5000 V
dt µs
-250 V

100 ns

Figure 9. Half-Bridge Example.

inverter shown in Figure 9; these trate what happens when Q1 turns High electrical noise levels can also
diodes are often referred to as “free- back on. As Q1 starts to turn on, the contribute to common-mode prob-
wheeling” diodes. If the inverter is current through D2 begins to de- lems. A significant amount of electri-
driving an inductive load, such as a crease. The current through D2 con- cal noise is found in industrial envi-
motor winding, these diodes may tinues to decrease and actually goes ronments as a result of the starting
become forward biased during the negative for a short time due to the and operating of electric motors.
normal operation of the inverter. For storage of minority carrier charge in When a large motor first turns on,
example, assume that Q1 of Figure its junction. It is when this charge it normally requires a large in-rush
9 is turned on, Q2 is off, and current has been depleted that D2 begins to current to reach operating speed.
is flowing through Q1 and into the turn off and VCM begins to increase. This large current spike can gener-
inductive load. When Q1 turns off, If D2 turns off very quickly, VCM can ate a significant amount of electrical
voltage VCM swings in the negative also rise very quickly, generating noise in its own and nearby systems.
direction until diode D2 becomes a large common-mode transient Even the electric motors in a typical
forward biased and conducts the signal. household environ­ment vary in size
load current. from fractional to low integral horse-
For the particular case of driving the
power units and are often noisy
It is when Q1 turns back on that very gate of an IGBT or power MOSFET
ac-operated or brushed dc-motors.
high rates of rise can be generated. in a power inverter, the HCPL-3120
Other sources of electrical noise
In extreme cases, when Q1 turns IGBT/MOSFET gate drive optical iso-
include microwave ovens, welding
on again, the rate of rise of voltage lator is an effective solution for com-
equipment, and automobile igni-
VCM is deter­mined by how quickly mon-mode problems, providing
tions.
diode D2 recovers from forward protec­ tion against common-mode
conduc­tion. The voltage and current transients with slew rates as fast as
waveforms shown in Figure 10 illus- 15 kV/µs at VCM as high as 1500 V.

AV02-4387EN 7 Avago Technologies


Common-Mode Transient Rejection

Common-mode noise can enter


a system through conductive, in- 1
SHIELD
8 VCC+
0.01 µF
ductive, or capacitive coupling. An 1/2 RLED
350 Ω
2 iLP 7
example of a “conducted” noise
1/2 RLED
voltage is the difference in ground 3 iLN 6 VO
CIA
potential that may exist between CIC 15 pF
two connected systems in a plant. 4 5 GND

The two systems may experience a


small voltage difference between
their ground references. This voltage + –
VCM
difference might cause a ground-
loop current to flow. If the imped-
ance of the path through which the Figure 11. AC Equivalent Circuit for HCPL-261X.
ground-loop current flows is large
enough, a significant amount of in-
terference will result. Capaci­tive or common-mode pulses pass across fields. This ability is well-recog-
inductive coupling may occur when the coupling capaci­tor and are not nized in the European Community
signal wires run close to ac power filtered out.) Optocouplers, having where systems designers need to
cables. Electromag­netically induced low input-to-output capacitance, achieve system-level standards
interference (EMI) can also be typically provide better common- (now adopted as EN50081/EN50082
coupled from adjacent signal lines mode rejection than transformers which set limits on the amount of
or nearby equipment, especially in or capacitively-coupled devices. The acceptable EMI a system radiates or
factory environments. Other sources CMR specification of an optocoup­ler to which it is immune.)
of common-mode noise that can be ranges up to VCM = 1500 V amplitude
coupled into a system include light- A technique which may be used to
and up to 15,000 V/µs rate of change
ning strikes and electrostatic dis- further enhance CMTR is an “LED
of VCM, for high-CMR products.
charge (ESD). split-resistor” technique as shown in
Another advantage of optocoup­ Figure 11; (note that the VDM which
Optical isolation is a useful tech­nique lers lies in the area of EMI genera­ would appear between the top and
for reducing common-mode inter- tion and susceptibility. Transformers bottom RLEDs has not been shown in
ference. Optocouplers, like trans- typically radiate electromagnetic in- this “ac equivalent circuit”). By using
formers and capacitively-coupled terference (EMI) and are susceptible two LED-resistors (instead of one)
devices, provide isolation between to magnetic fields. Capacitively-cou- the current change at the anode of
the input and output of a system. pled devices generate ground-loop the LED is nearly canceled by the
Transformers, by virtue of their high current, thus generating EMI. Opto- current change at the cathode, thus
primary-to-secondary capacitance, couplers use light for data transmis- tending to keep the LED current
tend to have lower CMTR capabil- sion; additionally, they effectively constant. This makes the optical iso-
ity. Capacitively-coupled devices eliminate ground-loop current. lator more immune to CM transients
tend to have poor CMTR capability Therefore, they do not radiate nor where CLA and CLC limit CMTR.
(since in these devices fast, transient are they affected by stray magnetic

AV02-4387EN 8 Avago Technologies


Dynamic CMR

What is Dynamic CMR? Dynamic CMR Performance


CMRL is used to denote CMR meas- Dynamic CMR specification is de- The ultra low power 10MBd digital
ured when output is logic LOW, and termined by measuring the CMR CMOS optocoupler, ACPL-M61L, is
CMRH for output logic HIGH. CMRL performance when the inputs and tested at VDD = 5V, with a 5MHz os-
/CMRH specification has been the outputs are switching, thereby simu- cillator to simulate input data rate of
de facto standard when measuring lating the actual operation of an iso- 10MBd. The output did not show any
and comparing CMR performances lator. Figure 12 below shows the test significant sign of disturbance even
of isolators but this may not be ad- circuit to measure dynamic CMR. after an injection of a high voltage
equate. pulse measuring 48kV/ μs @ VCM
The test setup is somewhat similar to
=1kV. This exceeded the 35kV/ μs @
CMRL /CMRH is measured under that for measuring static CMR except
VCM =1kV typical value specified in
static DC input/output condition, that an oscillator chip is connect-
the component datasheet. Figure 13
i.e. the same condition when the ed to provide the switching input
shows the scope shot taken during
end application is in an idle, standby signal. A signal generator equip-
the dynamic CMR measurement for
mode. However, it is often more ment should never be used in place
ACPL-M61L.
critical to understand the CMR per- of the oscillator as the injection of a
formance when the system is active high common mode voltage could
with the isolators’ input and output lead to a destructive voltage spike
signals changing momentarily. The on the equipment’s GND line.

Figure 12. Test Circuit for dynamic common mode rejection.

Common Mode Common Mode


Transient Transient
Output Output

Figure 13. High voltage common mode noise spike hardly causes a ripple in the output of 10MBd digital optocoupler ACPL-M61L.

AV02-4387EN 9 Avago Technologies


Calculate the LED Lifetime Performance
in Optocouplers to Predict Reliability
Calculate the LED Lifetime Performance in Optocouplers to Predict Reliability
LED Reliability Stress Tests
Optocouplers use a LED to transmit CTR is defined as the ratio of the 2 AlGaAs LEDs are mainly used in
digital or analog information across output collector current (IC) caused Avago’s optocoupler families that
an isolation (or insulation) barrier by the light detected by the pho- handle high-speed digital signals
(often just an air gap). On the other todiode to the forward LED input and low-power 10 Mbit/s digital op-
side of the barrier is a phototransis- current (IF) that generates the light, tocouplers. Lastly, the GaAsP LEDs
tor or other light-sensing device that and is denoted as a percentage. De- are used in a broad range of opto-
converts the optical signal back into signers can use the change in CTR couplers, from digital optocouplers,
an electrical signal. Designers can over time to gauge the degree of analog optocouplers, gate drivers
set an input current-limiting resis- LED degradation. for intelligent power management
tor that defines a recommended and many other applications. Tables
IC
input drive current (IF) to the LED Current Transfer Ratio, CTR = ×100% 1, 2 and 3 show some examples of
IF
to produce the desired light output. Avago optocoupler product families
However, the optocoupler’s LED Due to input current and tempera- and their part numbers’ LED type.
quantum efficiency (total photons ture, LEDs will degrade due to heat
Each LED type employs a different
per electron of input current) de- stress in the LED crystalline struc-
manufacturing process (diffusion
creases over time due to thermal ture. Thus, even though IF stays con-
type or epitaxial growth), and differ-
and electrical stressing of the LED stant, the light output from the LED
ent doping content concentration.
PN junction. To determine opto- decreases over time. The photodi-
This allows the LED designer to cus-
coupler reliability, you can perform ode’s IC and CTR will thus decrease.
tomize the LED light output power
stress testing to determine LED deg- At each pre-determined point of
vs current flow to address the differ-
radation for periods of continuous stress test hours (168hrs, 500hrs,
ent speed and power performance
operation up to 10,000 hours for 1000hrs etc), IC is measured and the
requirements of the optocoupler.
the various LED types that are used CTR is calculated. LED degradation
Among the three different LED
in different models of optocouplers. performance is plotted using this
types, GaAsP-based LEDs are the
Unfortunately optocoupler vendors collection of data points to show
most mature, but have the lowest
don’t always provide stress test data the change in CTR vs the number of
light output power, while AlGaAs
in the device datasheets. Further- hours that the stress test runs.
type 1 offers the highest light
more, each vendor’s stress-test con-
The LEDs used in optocouplers are output power. This allows AlGaAs
ditions may differ so it can be hard to
fabricated from either Aluminum type 1 LEDs to be used in the more
directly compare stress-test results.
Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) type 1, stringent isolation applications that
For example, the IF used by the LED
2 or Gallium Arsenide Phosphide require high creepage/clearance
can be set at any value ranging from
(GaAsP). Each vendor will opti- distances inside the optocoupler
a few milliamps to 20 mA or more,
mize their optocouplers to lever- package. AlGaAs type 2 has a per-
thus the stress on the LED will differ
age the LED technology that best formance level that falls between
and thus reliability results could
suits the application. Additionally, the other two LED types and can be
span a wide range.
optocoupler vendors have devel- used in a wide range of applications
For example, one of the stress tests oped a wide variety of devices that that require speed or power per-
performed by Avago – a High Tem- have various types of interfaces to formance. All three LED types have
perature Operating Life (HTOL) test suit many different applications. At similar degradation characteristics,
– is performed with the LED oper- Avago, for example, Type 1 AlGaAs with <10% loss from the original CTR
ating at 125°C and a continuous IF LEDs are mainly used in optocoupler value after 30 field years of typical
of 20mA. The Current Transfer Ratio product families that include digital operation conditions.
(CTR) is an electrical parameter optocouplers, isolation amplifiers,
usually specified for an optocoupler. gate drivers and IPM drivers. Type

AV02-4387EN 10 Avago Technologies


Calculate the LED Lifetime Performance
in Optocouplers to Predict Reliability
Table 1. Avago optocouplers with AlGaAs (type 1) LED Acceleration Factor Based on Black Model
Product Family Part Number An Acceleration Factor (AF) based on the Black
10MBD LOGIC ACNV2601, HCNW137 Model can be used to correlate the actual HTOL
5MBD LOGIC HCNW2211 stress test data points, taken at elevated tempera-
tures and stress levels in short periods of time, to
1MBD TRANSISTOR ACPL-M50L/054L
the expected lifetime according to the actual ap-
100KBD DARLINGTON HCNW138 plication operating conditions of the optocoupler.
ANALOG HCNR200/201, HCNW4562 However, not all the values needed to calculate
ISOLATION AMPLIFIER ACPL-796J/C784/785J the AF value are on the vendor data sheets. Often,
ACPL-7900/7970/C797/C790 you may have to contact the vendor to obtain the
HCPL-7840/7860 necessary information to do the calculations.
GATE DRIVER ACPL-331J/332J, ACNW3190 N
HCNW3120, HCPL-316J/314J  J  E  1 1  
AF =  acc  exp a  −   --- Equation (1)
IPM DRIVER ACNV4506, ACPL-P484/W484  Jnorm   K  Tnorm Tacc  
HCNW4503/4506
AF = Acceleration Factor
Table 2. Avago optocouplers with AlGaAs (type 2) LED Jacc = Accelerated current density (HTOL stress input
current)
Product Family Part Number
Jnorm = Nominal operation current density (applica-
HIGH SPEED CMOS ACPL-072L/772L tion operating input current at 100% duty cycle)
HCPL-0710/0720
Ea = Activation energy of 0.43 eV
20MBD LOGIC HCPL-2400/2430
K = Boltzmann’s constant of 8.62 x 10-5 eV/K
10MBD LOGIC ACPL-M61L/064L
Tnorm = Nominal operating temperature (application
8MBD LOGIC HCPL-0300/2300 ambient operating temperature)
100KBD DARLINGTON HCPL-070A/4701 Tacc = Accelerated operating temperature (HTOL stress
ANALOG ACPL-K376, HCPL-4562 temperature)
N = Model parameter of 2
Table 3. Avago optocouplers with GaAsP LED
For the same CTR degradation performance, the
Product Family Part Number field lifetime of the LED can be projected accord-
HIGH SPEED CMOS HCPL-0708/0738 ing to following equation:
15MBD HS CMOS ACPL-071L/074L LED projected field hours = AF x LED stress hours
15MBD LOGIC ACPL-M60L/W60L --- Equation (2)
HCPL-060L/263L
To illustrate the AF as a multiplier, consider a nu-
10MBD LOGIC ACPL-P611/W611 merical example using stress data from one of
6N137, HCPL-2611/2630/M611 Avago’s optocouplers. The stress data conditions
5MBD LOGIC HCPL-0201/2231 include: IF = 20mA, temperature = 125°C, and LED
1MBD TRANSISTOR 6N136, HCPL-050L/053L type “AA”. At a stress test length of 1000 hours, the
HCPL-250L/253L CTR degradation is measured as 99.2%. If that op-
100KBD DARLINGTON 4N45, 6N138, tocoupler is used with application conditions of
HCPL-070L/073L, HCPL-270L/273L/M700 IF= 5mA (assume 100% duty cycle operation) and
ANALOG ACPL-K370,
an ambient temperature of 60°C, the AF is calcu-
HCPL-2602/4100 lated as:
2
GATE DRIVER ACPL-3130/W302/P314/H312  20mA   0.43  1 1 
AF =   exp −5 
−  
HCPL-3120 /3150  5mA   8. 62 × 10  273 + 60 273 + 125 
IPM DRIVER ACPL-4800/P480/W454 ≈ 184.7
HCPL-0453/0454/4504/ M456

AV02-4387EN 11 Avago Technologies


Calculate the LED Lifetime Performance
in Optocouplers to Predict Reliability
The projected field lifetime for the In Figures 14a-c, the performance years operation. Depending on the
LED = AF × stress hours = 184.7 × degradation in CTR is plotted for system design to expected lifespan
1000 = 184,767 hours (or 21 years). the different LED types over 30 field usage, the degradation calculations
This is the projected field time of the years of operation at an ambient give designers more flexibility in
LED type “AA” that will degrade to temperature of 80°C. As the graphs choosing the IF value. They can thus
99.2% CTR. With the AF value calcu- show, the LED types degrade by optimize their system designs to
lated, all data points of stress hours no more than 10% (the CTR main- achieve the best combination reli-
are able to map to the expected field tains greater than 90% of its initial able operating lifetime and power
lifetime time of the LED. value) typically at the end of 30 field consumption.

AlGaAs (type 1) LED Performance vs Field Years


110%
100%
90%
80%
CTR Degradation

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20% Ave
10% Ave-3Std (worst-case)
0%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Field Years
Figure 14a. CTR degradation performance vs field years for AlGaAs (Type 1) LED (operating IF=16mA, 50% duty cycle, TA=80°C)

AlGaAs (type 2) LED Performance vs Field Years


110%
100%
90%
80%
CTR Degradation

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20% Ave
10% Ave-3Std (worst-case)
0%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Field Years
Figure 14b. CTR degradation performance vs field years for AlGaAs (Type 2) LED (operating IF=5mA, 100% duty cycle, TA=80°C)

AV02-4387EN 12 Avago Technologies


Calculate the LED Lifetime Performance
in Optocouplers to Predict Reliability
Figure 15 illustrates the trend of LED High-reliability LEDs in Avago tures up to 125°C. The LEDs used for
degradation performance at differ- Optocouplers R2Coupler™ optocouplers typically
ent forward LED input current (IF) drops by <20% at 125°C, whereas
for AlGaAs (type 2) LED. As the graph As a further demonstration of the commercially available (consumer
shows, the LED has minimal deg- reliability and robustness of Avago grade and general purpose indus-
radation across the optocoupler’s LEDs, Avago Technologies’ isolation trial) infrared LEDs typically experi-
recommended operating range for products portfolio is able to add ence a drop of up to 60% at 125°C.
IF and for over a 20+ year lifetime, automotive grade optocouplers. As this is beyond the recommended
the degradation is less than 10%. In As part of the R2Coupler™ family, temperature range for commer-
general, there are three basic factors these AEC-Q100 qualified automo- cially available LEDs, it highlights
to consider maximizing the LED op- tive grade optocouplers address the importance that only specially
erating lifetime: all emerging automotive isolation designed LEDs for high temperature
applications, particularly in applica- operation can be used for automo-
1. Operate the LED at a lower IF. tions requiring reliable long term tive grade optocouplers.
2. Operate at lower duty cycle (less operation at high ambient tempera-
than 100%).
3. Operate at an ambient tempera-
ture of less than 125°C.

GaAs LED Performance vs Field Years


110%
100%
90%
80%
CTR Degradation

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20% Ave
10% Ave-3Std (worst-case)
0%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Field Years
Figure 14c. CTR degradation performance vs field years for GaAsP LED (operating IF=16mA, 50% duty cycle, TA=80°C)

AlGaAs (type 2) LED degradation at different iF


110%
Note: IF=20mA condition projects
100%
till 22.6 field years due to actual
90% stress data collected up to 10khrs.
80% This does not mean LED fails at
CTR Degradation

70% 22.6 projected field years. Longer


60% >10khrs stress data points will be
50% needed for projecting longer field
40% 20 mA year
15 mA
30% 10 mA
20% 5 mA
10% 3 mA
0%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Field Years
Figure 15. CTR degradation performance vs field years for AlGaAs (Type 2) LED at different IF (50% duty cycle, TA=80°C)

AV02-4387EN 13 Avago Technologies


Guidelines for Printed Circuit Board Assembly and Layout

Avago optocouplers are suitable Solvent Cleaning: The solvent tem- electrical disturbances. It is therefore
for automatic printed circuit board perature and immersion time should necessary to have proper shield-
(PCB) assembly operations including not exceed 45°C and three minutes ing and bypassing of the VCC and
surface mount assembly. The follow- respectively. For ultra­sonic cleaning, Ground traces. Bypassing closely
ing guidelines are recommended for environmentally safe solvents such to each of the optocouplers VCC-to-
proper opera­tion and long term reli- as ethyl and methyl alcohol are rec- Ground pins with low-inductance
ability of Avago optocouplers. ommended. ceramic capacitor is recommended
as shown in Figure 17.
Solder Reflow Process: Only one sol- ESD Precautions: Standard electro-
dering operation is recom­mended static discharge precau­tions should Figure 17 shows an optional PCB
within the thermal profile shown be taken in handling and assem- layout for a high speed digital op-
in Figure 16. With infrared lamp bly of the optocouplers to prevent tocoupler for improving electrical
heating, use precautions to avoid damage or degradation of the noise immunity. The optional VCC
localized temperature rise in the device. and Ground traces between the pin
resin. Also, the resin should not be rows of the optocoupler help shield
Printed Circuit Board Layout: An op-
immersed in the solder. To prevent the output circuitry from electrical
tocoupler performs reliably only in
chloride corrosion of the lead frame, disturbances on the input pins, thus
a correctly designed circuit. In most
halide fluxes should not be used. improving common-mode rejection.
digital optocoup­ lers the amplifier
Wave Soldering: The maximum at the output is required to operate
solder temperature allowed is 260°C with the very low photocurrent from
for 10 seconds, with the solder 1.6 the photodetector. Consequently
mm below the seating plane. these ampli­fiers can be sensitive to

250

Pre Heating Rate: 3°C+1°C/-0.5°C/sec. Peak Temperature


245°C Peak Temperature
Reflow Heating Rate: 2.5°C±0.5°C/sec. 240°C
Peak Temperature
230°C
200 2.5°C±0.5°C/sec. 200°C
TEMPERATURE (°C)

180°C Soldering Time


150°C 200°C
140°C 30 sec
3°C+1°C/-0.5°C
30 sec

100 50 sec
Pre Heating Time
150°C, 90±30 sec.

TIGHT
Room TYPICAL
Temperature LOOSE

0
0 50 100 150 200 250

TIME (seconds)

Figure 16. Temperature/Time Thermal Profile.

HCPL-2601/11 HCPL-2601/11

VCC BUS 1 8 VCC

ANODE 2 7 VE
0.1µF

CATHODE 3 6 VOUT
OUTPUT

4 5 GND
GND BUS

10 mm MAX

Figure 17. Optional Printed Circuit Board Layout for Improved Electrical Noise Immunity.

AV02-4387EN 14 Avago Technologies


Digital Optoisolators:
An Overview
Introduction
Avago Technologies offers a wide PHOTO
HCPL-4504
DIODE
array of Optoisolators for noise (PIN) HCPL-0454 V+
HCNW4504
rejection, ground loop current
elimination, and high voltage
1 8
isolation for digital data trans-
mission and communication ap-
RIN
plications. The product offering VIN 2 7 RL

includes low speed (100 kbit/s to IF


1  M bit/s) split Darlington or single
3 6 VOUT
transistor type optoisolators to high
speed 25 M bit/s cascaded amplifier
stage optoisolators with Schottky 4 5 TRANSISTOR
SHIELD AMPLIFIER
transistor or CMOS output stage. 1

Description LED 2

Figure 1 shows a Photodiode/Transis- Figure 1. Photodiode/Transistor Optoisolator


tor Optoisolator where a PIN photo-
diode detector is coupled to a single
transistor amplifier output stage (e.g.
HCPL-4504). Compared to a typical
phototransistor optoisolator, a PIN PHOTO
photodetector diode reduces the DIODE HCPL-0701
(PIN) 6N139/8
base-collector “Miller” capacitance and HCPL-4701/4731
allows operability at a much higher
speed. 1 8 VCC

Figure 2 shows a Split Darlington


R1
Output Stage, where an emitter-fol- VIN 2 7 RL
lower stage is added between a PIN
IF
photodiode and the output ampli-
fier. This allows the optoisolator to be 3 6 VOUT
driven at a much lower input drive
current, as low as 40 mA for the HCPL- SPLIT
4 5
4701/HCPL-4731 family or 0.5  mA for SHIELD DARLINGTON
1 AMPLIFIER
the 6N139 family. This allows much
higher current transfer ratio (CTR) or
2
current gain at the output, and TTL/ LED

CMOS gates can be easily driven. Figure 2. Split Darlington Transistor Optoisolator

AV02-4387EN 14 Avago Technologies


Digital Optoisolators:
An Overview
Figure 3 shows a photodiode cas- CASCADED
AMPLIFIER
caded amplifier, coupled to a Schott- PHOTO
ky transistor, open collector output DIODE
HCPL-2601
VCC
(PIN)
stage. In order for an open collector
output stage to function, a pull-up
8
resistor is required at the output of
the Optoisolator. VIN
R1 2
ENABLE R2
7
Figure 4 shows a photodiode and LED
cascaded amplifier, coupled to a VOUT
3 6
totem pole output stage. This type
of output stage eliminates the ne- HIGH SPEED
cessity of using a pull-up resistor 1
SHIELD 5 SCHOTTKY
TRANSISTOR
at the output. The outputs can sink
or source current allowing higher 2

output power drive capability. Figure 3. Cascaded Amplifier Optoisolator


Figure 5 shows a push-pull CMOS
output stage. These types of optoi- CASCADED
solators are designed to achieve HCPL-2400 AMPLIFIER
HCPL-2430
highest speed performance (up to PHOTO HCPL-2201
VCC
DIODE HCPL-2230
25 M bit/s for HCPL-7721/7720). The (PIN)

amplifier stage presents very low


input impedance to the photodiode, 8

and does not become saturated, R1 2


ENABLE
while allowing the signal to be am- VIN
7
plified several folds through the am-
plifier stages, allowing operation at VOUT
relatively low LED drive currents (2 3 6

to 5 mA). TOTEM POLE


OUTPUT STAGE
SHIELD 5
1

LED 2

Figure 4. Totem Pole Output Optoisolator

INTEGRATED
CURRENT
SOURCE HCPL-7721
HCPL-0721

VDD1 1 8 VDD2

C1

VIN 2 7 C2

LOGIC
GATE INPUT NC* 3 6 VOUT

CMOS
PUSH-PULL
4 5 OUTPUT
SHIELD STAGE

1 2

*PIN 3 IS THE ANODE OF THE INTERNAL LED AND MUST BE LEFT UNCONNECTED FOR
GUARANTEED DATA SHEET PERFORMANCE.
C1, C2 = 0.01 TO 0.1 µF

Figure 5. High Speed CMOS Optoisolators

AV02-4387EN 15 Avago Technologies


Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications

TTL Interface with Series LED Drive


HCPL-2201

R IN 1 VCC2 8 VCC2
VCC1
(+5 V)
(+5 V) TTL/
2 7 LSTTL DATA
OUTPUT
DATA TTL/
LSTTL 3 6 0.1 µF
INPUT

GND
4 5

TOTEM
POLE
OUTPUT
GATE 1 2

VCC1 - VF - VOL
RIN =
IF

RECOMMENDED R IN = 1.1 kΩ

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The circuit shown is an interface • Maximum optocoupler propa­ 1) HCPL-07XX, HCPL-2730/1, HCPL-
between two TTL gates using an gation delay: 300 ns (refer to 4701, 6N138/9, CNW138/9 Low
active output (totem pole) opto­ alternative Avago parts for lower Input Current Optocouplers
coupler, the HCPL-2201. A series propagation delay times) 2) HCPL-0201/11 Small-Outline
switching circuit drives the optocou- • Typical signaling rate: dc to 5 MBd Logic-Gate Optocoupler
pler LED. The designer chooses RIN (refer to alternative Avago parts 3) HCPL-52XX Hermetically Sealed
to agree with the equation shown in for higher speeds) Logic-Gate Optocoupler
the schematic. The active output of • Typical optocoupler LED drive 4) CNN2201/11 Widebody Logic-
the HCPL-2201 can be directly con- current: 2 mA Gate Optocoupler
nected to a TTL gate, and no pull-up
5) HCPL-2230/1 Dual-Channel Log-
resistor is required. The HCPL-2201 Benefits ic-Gate Optocoupler
can sink enough current to handle
• No pull-up resistor required on 6) HCPL-05XX, HCPL-2530/1,
up to 16 LSTTL or 4 TTL loads.
the optocoupler output interface HCNW135/6, 6N135/6 High
• Low power dissipation on the op- Speed Optocoupler
tocoupler input circuit 7) HCPL-250L/260L/270L, HC-
• Up to 20 V supply voltage for the PL‑050L /060L/070L 3.3 V Opto-
HCPL-2201 couplers

AV02-4387EN 16 Avago Technologies


Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications

Level Shifting/TTL Interface with Shunt LED Drive


+5 V
HCPL-4502/3

R IN 1 8

IF
VIN 74LS05 2 7 RL

IO I IL
3 6 VOUT

VOL IO (min) = IF • CTR (min)


4 5
RL (min) = 15 – VOL
R IN = 5 - V F
IO (min) + IIL
IF
-15 V

NOTE: FOR BEST CMR PERFORMANCE, CONNECT PIN 7 TO PIN 8.

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The above circuit shows how a 0 to 5 • Maximum optocoupler propa- 1) HCPL-07XX, HCPL-2730/1, HCPL-
V logic signal can be level shifted to a gation delay: 2 µs (refer to al- 4701, 6N138/9, HCNW138/9 Low
-15 to 0 V signal. The circuit can safely ternative Avago parts for lower Input Current Optocouplers
be used for level shifting up to ±800 propagation delays) 2) HCPL-55XX Hermetically Sealed
V. The circuit uses an open collector • Typical signaling rate: dc to 1 MBd High Speed Optocoupler
output logic gate, the 74LS405, to (refer to alternative Avago parts 3) HCPL-0710 SO-8 High Speed
drive the LED of the HCPL-4502/3 for higher speeds) CMOS Optocoupler
optocoupler. The HCPL-4502/3 also • Typical optocoupler LED drive 4) HCPL-250L/260L/270L, HC-
has an open-collector output. The current: 10 to 16 mA PL‑050L /060L/070L 3.3 V Opto-
designer chooses RIN to agree with • Maximum output supply voltage couplers
the equation shown in the schemat- (pins 8-5): 30 V
ic. This equation sets the value of the
• Minimum CMR: 15 kV/µs slew
optocoupler LED forward current.
rate, 1500 V peak
The output of the HCPL-4502/3 re-
quires a pull-up resistor, RL. The cur-
rent-transfer ratio (CTR) of the opto­ Benefits
coupler determines the maximum • Reduces transient immunity
amount of current the optocoupler problems
output can sink while maintaining • Convenient way of replacing
the output voltage (between pins 5 pulse transformer for high-volt-
and 6) of 0.5 V or less. age level shifting

AV02-4387EN 17 Avago Technologies


Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications

Low Power 8 MBd CMOS Interface


CD4050 HCPL-2300/HCPL-0300 CD4050
5V

8 0.1 VDD2
VDD1 20 pF 1 kΩ µF
RL
7
VIN VO
2 6
RI

3
5
1 2

VDD1 RI RL VDD1
(V) (kΩ) (kΩ) (V)

5 5.11 1 5
10 13.3 2.37 10
15 19.6 3.16 15

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


A CMOS-to-CMOS interface is pos- • Optocoupler LED current: 0.5 mA 1) HCPL-7721/7720/7710 High
sible with Avago opto-couplers. minimum Speed CMOS Optocoupler
The above circuit shows an inter- • Typical signaling rate: dc to 2) HCPL-0721//0720/0710 Small
face circuit for 8  MBd applications. 8 MBd Outline High Speed CMOS Opto-
Over the tempera­ture range a CMOS coupler
CD4050 Hex Buffer can source about Benefits
0.7 mA (minimum), which is suffi- • Low power consumption
cient to drive the HCPL‑2300/HCPL-
• Simple interface
0300 ­opto­coupler. The 20 pF capaci-
tor allows peaking currents to assist
the LED turn on and off quickly.

AV02-4387EN 18 Avago Technologies


Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications

25 MBd CMOS Interface


HCPL-7721

VDD1 1 8 VDD2

C1 C2
VIN 2 7
74HCTO4
IO 74HCTO4
NC 3 6 VOUT

LED1

GND1 4 5 GND2
SHIELD

C1, C2 = 0.01 µF TO 0.1 µF

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


Up to 25 MBd CMOS-to-CMOS inter- • Typical logic low input power 1) HCPL-0721: SO8 package
face is possible with the HCPL-7721 supply current for HCPL-7721: 1.5 2) HCPL-7720/0720: 25 MBd,
optocouplers. The above circuit re- mA 8 ns PWD CMOS interface opto-
quires only a bypass capacitor on • Typical logic low input power coupler
each of the HCPL-7721 input-side supply current for HCPL-7721: 7 3) HCPL-7710/0710: 25 MBd,
and output-side power supply pins. mA 8 ns PWD CMOS interface opto-
• Typical HCPL-7721 signalling rate: coupler
dc to 25 MBd
• Typical HCPL-7721 pulse-width
distortion: 3 ns
• Typical HCPL-7721 propagation
delay: 20 ns

Benefits
• Lower power consumption
• Very simple interface

AV02-4387EN 19 Avago Technologies


Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications

Low Power 100 kBd CMOS Interface


6N139

1 8
1/6 74HCTO4
R1
VIN 2 7 4.7 kΩ
* 1/4 74HC/HCT08
3 6 VOUT

4 5

R 1 = VOH - VF
IF

* USE ANY SIGNAL DIODE FOR CMR PROTECTION

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


A CMOS-to-CMOS interface is pos- • Minimum optocoupler LED turn- 1) HCPL-4701 Very Low Power High
sible with Avago opto-couplers. The on current: 0.5 mA (The HCPL- Gain Optocoupler
above circuit shows a cost-effective 4701 optocoupler requires only 2) HCPL-2730/1 Dual Channel High
interface for 100 kBd applications. 40 µA) Gain Optocoupler
The 74HCT04 CMOS Hex Inverter • Typical signaling rate: dc to 100 3) HCPL-0731 Small Outline High
that drives the optocoupler LED can kBd Gain Optocoupler
source and sink up to 4 mA current. • Minimum optocoupler current 4) HCPL-57XX, HCPL-67XX, 6N140
The 6N139 optocoupler requires transfer ratio: 400% Hermetically Sealed High Gain
only 0.5 mA LED current for opera- Optocoupler
tion. The signal diode across resistor Benefits 5) HCPL-270L 3.3V Optocoupler
R1 protects against common-mode
• Low power consumption
transient voltages and is optional.
The output circuit uses a 74HCT08 • Simple interface
so that the signal from VIN to VOUT is
not inverted.

AV02-4387EN 20 Avago Technologies


Digital Logic Interface/Level Shifting Applications

Isolated 3 V Logic Interface/Battery Operated Applications


HCPL-4701 RECOMMENDED VCC FILTER
VCC1 = 3 V 100 Ω
* VCC2 = 3 V

V IN 0.1 µF 10.0 µF
RL
R1 2 2
74LVU04

1 VOUT

* USE ANY 1
SIGNAL DIODE

TYPICAL POWER DISSIPATION FOR 3 V APPLICATION


(VCC1 , VCC2 = 3.0 V, RL = 11 kΩ, R1 = 43.8 kΩ)

VCC1 SIDE: VCC2 SIDE:


OPTOCOUPLER LED 50 µW OPTOCOUPLER (VO , VCC2) 85 µW
INPUT RESISTOR R1 70 µW PULL-UP RESISTOR RL 790 µW
TOTAL VCC1 SIDE 120 µW TOTAL VCC2 SIDE 875 µW

Description Performance of Optocoupler Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-4701 low-power optocou- • Typical optocoupler current trans- 1) HCPL-4731 Dual Low Power Op-
pler is used for 3 V-to-3 V Logic inter- fer ratio: 3500% at tocoupler
face across an isolation barrier. Only IF = 40 µA 2) HCPL-070A SO-8 Low Power Op-
40 µA of LED current (IF) is required • Input current for optocoupler tocoupler
to turn-on the optocoupler. Typical turn-on: 40 µA 3) HCPL-073A SO-8 Dual Channel
power for dissipation for just the Low Power Optocoupler
optocoupler is 135 µW at IF = 40 µA, Benefits 4) HCPL-050L/060L/070L, HC-
and 965 µA at IF = 500 µA. • Low power dissipation PL‑250L /260L/270L 3.3 V Opto-
couplers

AV02-4387EN 21 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated RS-232C/E Interface


6N139

1 8 VCC

3.3 kΩ
RS-232C 2 7 RL
INPUT
(± 3 V TO ± 25 V)
1N4150
3 6 VO

CMOS or LSTTL
4 5

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The above schematic shows a very • RS-232C link twisted pair cable 1) HCPL4701, 6N138/9, 4N45/6,
simple RS-232C data communication length: up to 120 m for low data HCPL-2730/1 High-Gain, Low In-
isolation interface using a 6N139 op- rates put Current Optocoupler
tocoupler. This circuit operates with • Typical optocoupler propaga­tion 2) HCPL-0700/1, HCPL-0730/1,
an LED forward current of 0.5 mA delay: 20 µs HCPL-M700/1 Small Outline
when the input is at 3 V. The 1N4150 High-Gain, Low Input Current
diode protects the LED during nega- Benefits Optocoupler
tive signal voltages. Since a low • Simple, low cost isolated interface 3) HCPL-270L/HCPL-070L 3.3V, 100
diode current is used to operate the kBd Optocoupler
• Meets worldwide regulatory stan-
6N139, the twisted pair line can be
dards for isolation
up to 120 m. However, the data rate
may have to be lowered to account
for slower charging and discharging
of the total line capacitance.

AV02-4387EN 22 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated 3.3V RS-232 Interface


3.3V
HCPL-260L DS14C335

R1
R2
RS232
OUTPUT

1 2
DIGITAL
LOGIC
3.3V
HCPL-260L

R4
R3 RS232
INPUT

1 2

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The above isolated RS-232 circuit • Typical signaling rate: up to 1) HCPL-263L/HCPL-063L Dual Low
uses two high-speed 3.3V optocou- 15 MBd Power Optocoupler
plers that can switch up to 15 MBd • Optocoupler LED drive current: 5 2) HCPL-250L or HCPL-270L for low
signals. An isolated power supply mA data rate applications
is required to power the DS14C335 • Typical Optocoupler Transient Re-
driver/receiver integrated circuit. jection: 10,000 V/µs slew rate, 50 V
peak

Benefits
• Compact design with small out-
line optocouplers
• Prevents common-mode tran-
sients from interfering with the
signal
• Low power dissipation

AV02-4387EN 23 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated RS-485 Bus Interface

+5 V +5 V COMMON
ISOLATED
SUPPLY

TERMINATION

DS75176A
DATA IN
RS-485
HCPL-2631 LINE
DR/RX
ENABLE

VCC

DS75176A DATA IN
DATA OUT
HCPL-2601
RS-485
LINE HCPL-2631
DRIVER
GND 1 RECEIVER
ENABLE

TERMINATION
VCC
ISOLATION RS-485 BUS

DATA OUT
HCPL-2601

GND

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The above isolated RS-485 interface • Typical optocoupler signaling 1) HCPL-2400/30 High Speed Opto-
circuit uses the HCPL-26XX High rate: greater than 10 MBd coupler
Speed CMOS optocoupler, which • Typical optocoupler propagation 2) HCPL-7721/7720/7710 High
can transmit digital signals faster delay: 28 ns Speed CMOS Optocoupler
than 10 MBd. An isolated 5 V power • Typical optocoupler pulse-width 3) HCPL-54XX Hermetically Sealed
supply is required to power the distortion: 2 ns High Speed Optocoupler
RS-485 bus side of the circuit. 4) HCPL-0721/0720/0710 SO-8 High
Benefits Speed CMOS Optocoupler
• Low signal distortion 5) HCPL-260L/263L 3.3V Optocou-
• Good transient immunity plers

AV02-4387EN 24 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated Device Net/CAN Communication Interface


5V

REGULATOR

+ +
5V 5V
HCPL-0720

1 8 5V 2

TX 2 7
3
0.1 µF
VCC
3 6 TXD
5 V+
1
0.1 µF C4 +
0.01
4 5 7
SHIELD µF CANH 4 CAN+

1 2
3 SHIELD
5V 5V 82C250
HCPL-0720
6
CANL 2 CAN-
8 1
5 VREF
0.1 µF RS REF
8 1 V-
7 2
RXD
GND 4
RX 6 3 2 D1
0.1 µF 30 V
C1 R1
5 4 1M Ω
SHIELD 2 0.01 µF

1
2
2 500 V

Description Performance of Circuit


DeviceNet, a factory floor com­ • Typical data rate (NRZ): Up to 12 Alternative Avago Parts:
munication network standard, Mbit/s 1) HCPL-7721/7720/7710 High
sometimes may require connect­ing • Compatible with 5 V CMOS and Speed CMOS Optocoupler
devices to be electrically isolated. TTL logic gates 2) HCPL-0721/0720/0710 SO-8 High
The HCPL-0720 high speed CMOS • Minimum common mode tran- Speed CMOS Optocoupler
optocoupler with a 40 ns maximum sient immunity: 10 kV/µsec at VCM
propagation delay time meets the = 1000 V
DeviceNet physical layer specifica-
tion. Benefits
• Direct interface to the optoisola-
tor input and output (No external
resistors necessary)
• Speed optimized for Profibus, RS-
485, DeviceNet/CAN
• Small outline surface mount
package offers space/footprint
saving
• Performance guaranteed over
industrial temperature range (0 to
85°C)

AV02-4387EN 25 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated 4-20 mA Analog Current Loop Transmitter/Receiver


HCNR200
+ILOOP LED
0.001µF HCNR200/201
Z1 1 NC 8
R1 5.1V R5
10kΩ R4 80kΩ LED
180Ω 0.1 µF 2 NC 7
LM158 Vcc
+ 5.5V K1 K2
2N3906
HCNR200 – – 3 6
PD1 + Vout
R2
10kΩ 0.001µF LM158
HCNR200
PD 2 4 PD1 PD2 5

2
-ILOOP R3
25Ω
A) RECEIVER

+ILOOP
Vcc
5.5V
R8 2N3904
R2 100kΩ R3
0.001µF 150Ω LM158 10kΩ
HCNR200 Z1 2N3904 +
R1 Vcc LED 5.1V –
Vin 80kΩ 0.1µF HCNR200
– 2N3906 2N3904
+ R6 0.001µF R4 PD 2
HCNR200 LM158 R7 140Ω 10kΩ
PD 1 3.2kΩ

1
R5 -ILOOP
25Ω
B) TRANSMITTER

NOTE: The two OP-AMPS shown are two separate LM158, and NOT two channels in a single DUAL package;
otherwise, the LOOP saide and input sied will not be properly isolated.

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The HCNR200/1 Analog Optocoup­ • Converts an analog voltage input 1) HCPL-4100 20 mA Current Loop
ler isolates both the transmitter and to an analog current and vice Transmitter
receiver circuit from the 4 ‑ 20 mA versa 2) HCPL-4200 20 mA Current Loop
Analog Current Loop. One impor- • HCNR200/1 nonlinearity: 0.1% Receiver
tant feature of this circuit is that the • HCNR201 gain tolerance: ±5%
loop side of the circuit is powered by
the loop current. No isolated power Benefits
supply is required.
• Low-cost simple circuit
• No isolated power supply needed
on the 4 - 20 mA side of the circuit

AV02-4387EN 26 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated 20 mA Current Loop Interface

Description Performance of Circuit


The above half-duplex, point-to- • 1 mA noise margin in the “space”
point, multi-drop, 20 mA current state
loop configuration can alternat­ingly • 8 mA noise margin in the “mark”
transmit bi-directional data over state
two wires. Only one current source is • Typical signal rate and distance:
required. Each isolated station with 40 m at 100 kBd; over 200 m at 10
an HCPL-4100 transmitter and HCPL- kBd
4200 receiver optocouplers provides
excellent common-mode rejection. Benefits
• Maintains data integrity
• Simple data transmission system
for industrial applications

AV02-4387EN 27 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Multidrop Line Receiver


UP TO 90 m 22 GA TW. PR. SHIELDED
1/2 DM8830

39 Ω

39 Ω
1 2 3 6 7 8
YX YX YX YX YX YX

6N138

1 8 +5 v

560 Ω
X 2 7 2.2 kΩ
IF
Y 3 6 VO

4 5

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The above differentially driven • Typical signaling rate: 18 kBd 1) HCPL-0700/01/30/31, HCPL-
circuit can use up to eight 6N138 (faster signaling rates can be M700/1, HCNW138/9, and HCPL-
optocouplers at various receivers obtained with HCNW139 and 2730/31 Low-Input Current
along the 90 m line. All stations are 6N139) Optocouplers
isolated. The first station would draw • Typical optocoupler propaga­tion 2) HCPL-57XX, HCPL-67XX, and
approximately 2.7 mA current, and delay time: tPHL = 2 µs; tPLH = 20 µs 6N140 Hermetically Sealed Low-
the last station 1.8 mA of LED drive • Up to 90 m distance Input Current Optocouplers
current. The output grounds of the 3) HCPL-2300 High Speed, Low In-
optocoup­ ler may be electrically Benefits put Current Optocoupler
separate. • Simple, low-cost, multidrop cir-
cuit for low signaling rates

AV02-4387EN 28 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 1

100M

BALANCED
TYPICAL SIGNAL RATE – BAUD

SPLIT PHASE
10M 10% PULSE WIDTH DISTORTION
22 AWG UNSHIELDED TWISTED
PAIR WIRE CABLE (DEARBORN
NO. 862205)
1M
TA = 25 °C
BALANCED
(SINGLE
100K HCPL-2300
NO EX- OR FF)

10K
1 10 100 1000 10,000

L – LINE LENGTH – METERS

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


A balanced RS-422 line driver differ- • Signaling rate: > 10 MBd at 100 m HCPL-2602/12 High CMR Line Re-
entially drives a twisted pair line. Two line length ceiver
HCPL-2300s provide balanced signal • Common mode rejection:
direction for this line. The thresh- > 15,000 V/µs
olds of the HCPL-2300 will be nearly
equal, provid­ing symmetrical signal Benefits
detection level. Since the propaga- • Very high common-mode tran-
tion delays of the two optocouplers sient rejection
are similar, the pulse-width distor-
• Data transmission for up to 1 km
tion for this scheme will be quite low
distance
for considerable line lengths. The
Exclusive-Or flip-flop circuit at the
optocoupler output increases CMR
protection to an extremely high
level and balances the propagation
delays. For less demanding noise
environments, only one HCPL-2300
with no EX-OR flip-flop may be used.
The maximum data rate, however,
will be somewhat lower.

AV02-4387EN 29 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated Balanced Line Receiver - Circuit No. 2


+5 V

HCPL-2631
H RL H
H H
L
DATA

L 0.1 µF RL
RS L
L H

Z
ICM VCM LSTTL EXCLUSIVE–
OR FLIP FLOP
1 2

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


This is a differential receiver using • Signaling rate: up to 10 MBd 1) HCPL-0631 Small Outline, Dual-
a dual-channel HCPL-2630 Opto- • Optocoupler common mode re- Channel, High Speed Optocou-
coupler. The receiver circuit can jection: 10,000 V/µs pler
handle data up to 10 Mbd for short 2) HCPL-4661 High-CMR, Dual-
line lengths. The capaci­ tance of Benefits Channel Optocoupler
the twisted-pair wire introduces a • Dual channel optocoupler reduc- 3) HCPL-56XX Hermetically Sealed
propagation delay and, as a result, es boardspace High Speed Optocouplers
the data rate decreases with increas- • Balanced circuit increases CMR
ing line length. At the optocoupler performance thereby eliminat­ing
output, an optional Exclusive-Or or reducing transient interference
circuit can be used to increase CMR
and to balance the propagation
delays.

AV02-4387EN 30 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated Tri-State Line Driver


LOCAL VCC

RS HCPL-4661 8
RL RL 2
1 4
7
5
H L
DATA IN 2 3

4
ENABLE 6 6
(HIGH)
3 1/2 75159
5

LINE SIGNAL LINE


GND LINE VCC

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The above circuit converts a single- • Optocoupler signaling rate: up to 1) HCPL-063N SO-8 High CMR Dual
ended signal to a split-phase signal 10 MBd Channel Optocoupler
with a 75159 Tri-State Line Driver • Optocoupler CMR: 15,000 V/µs at 2) HCPL-2631 Dual Channel High
and dual- channel HCPL-4661 High 1000 V peak (typical) Speed Optocoupler
CMR Optocoupler. When Input 3) HCPL-0631 Small Outline, Dual
Enable goes low, the lower channel Benefits Channel Optocoupler
of the optocoupler operates the • Higher data rate than a current 4) HCPL-56XX Hermetically Sealed
“strobe” input of the 75159 to make source pull-up High Speed Optocouplers
both outputs open.
• High CMR performance reduces 5) HCPL-053L/063L/073L, HC-
or eliminates transient noise PL‑253L /263L/273L 3.3 V Opto-
couplers

AV02-4387EN 31 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated Unbalanced Line Receiver

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The above illustration is an unbal- • Signaling rate: up to 2 MBd at 1) HCPL-2611 High CMR, High
anced line receiver using the inte- 90 m (up to 10 MBd with polarity Speed Optocoupler
grated voltage-clamp input opto- non-reversing driver) 2) HCPL-0601/0631 Small Outline,
coupler, HCPL-2602. The circuit is • Optocoupler common-mode High Speed Optocoupler
unbalanced because the termina- transient rejection: 3) HCNW2601 Widebody, High
tion impedance is different for both 10,000 V/µs (typical) Speed Optocoupler
“ends” of the differential signal re-
ceived by the HCPL-2602. TTL data is Benefits
con­verted to a differential signal via • Integrated line termination and
the differential line driver 9614, and voltage clamping saves board
transmitted over twisted-pair wire. space
The Schottky diode helps to improve
• Differential driver and optical iso-
the turn-on and turn-off delays.
lated receiver reduce or eliminate
transient noise interference

AV02-4387EN 32 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

PROFIBUS/RS-422 1.5 MB/s


5V

8 1
ISO 5 V
ISO 5 V

680 Ω 7 2 REG
0.01 µF
820 Ω
RX 6 3

5 4
SHIELD

HCPL-061N

ISO 5 V
5V

8
ISO 5 V 1 VCC
1 kΩ 1 kΩ R
0.01
1 8
µF 6
680 680 A +
TX Ω Ω 4
2 7 D RT
SN75176
0.01 µF 3 7
3 6 DE B –
TX
ENABLE
4 5 2 1M
SHIELD
RE GND 0.01 µF
5
HCPL-063N

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


Profibus (Process Fieldbus) is essen- • Typical data rate (NRZ): Up to 10 • Low input drive current maximiz-
tially a twisted wire pair serial link Mbit/s es LED lifetime/reliability
very similar to RS-485 or 422. Profi- • Multipoint bus transmission line • Speed optimized for Profibus (1.5
bus speed standard is either lower application MBd) and RS-422 (10 MBd)
speed (1.5 MBd) or higher speed (12 • Open collector output, HCMOS/ • Performance guaranteed over
MBd). In this application circuit the TTL compatible temperature (-40 to 85°C)
Profibus is shown to be isolated with • Maximum propagation delay of
HCPL‑061N (single channel optoiso- optoisolator: 0.1 µsec Alternative Avago Parts
lator) and HCPL-063N (dual channel • Minimum common mode tran- 1) HCPL-0261 Single Channel Opto-
optoisolator). sient immunity: 15 kV/µsec at VCM coupler
= 1000 V 2) HCPL-56XX High CMR, Hermeti-
• Low minimum drive current: 3 mA cally Sealed Optocoupler
3) HCPL-050L/060L/070L, HC-
PL‑250L /260L/270L 3.3 V Opto-
couplers
4) HCPL-053L/063L/073L, HC-
PL‑253L /263L/273L 3.3 V Opto-
couplers

AV02-4387EN 33 Avago Technologies


Data Communications Applications

Isolated PROFIBUS/RS-485 12 MB/s Communication Application


HCPL-0721 ISO 5 V
5V

8 1 ISO 5 V
0.01 µF
7 2 REG

RX 6 3
0.01 µF

5 4
SHIELD

HCPL-0721 ISO 5 V ISO 5 V


5V

1 8 8
1 VCC
R
TX 2 7 0.01 µF
0.01
µF 6
4 A +
3 6 D
0.01 µF
RT
4 5
SHIELD 75ALS176D
3 7
DE B –
ISO 5 V

5V 1 8
2
680 RE
2 7 GND

0.01 µF 5
1 kΩ
3 1M
6 0.01 µF
TX
ENABLE
4 5
SHIELD
HCPL-061N

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


Profibus (Process Fieldbus) is essen- • Typical data rate (NRZ): Up to 12 • Low input drive current maximiz-
tially a twisted wire pair serial link Mbit/s es LED lifetime/reliability
very similar to RS-485 or 422. Profi- • Multipoint bus transmission line • Speed optimized for Profibus and
bus speed standard is either lower application RS-485
speed (1.5 MBd) or higher speed • Compatible with 5 V CMOS and • Performance guaranteed over
(12 MBd). In this isolated multipoint TTL logic gates temperature (-40 to 85°C)
transmission application circuit, two • Maximum propagation delay of
different optoisolators are utilized optoisolator: 0.04 µsec
(HCPL-0721 and HCPL-061N). • Minimum common mode tran-
sient immunity: 10 kV/µsec at VCM
= 1000 V

AV02-4387EN 34 Avago Technologies


Telecommunications Applications

Telephone Ring Detection


6N139
0.02 µF
100 kΩ
R(–) 1 8 +5 V

56 kΩ
22 MΩ
2 7
-48 V dc 0.1 µF 2N3906
1N4150
3 6
10 kΩ
100 kΩ
R(+) 4 5 VOUT
1 kΩ

Description Performance of Circuit References


The 6N136 Low-Input Current Op- • Can detect 20 to 60 Hz, 30 to 80 6N139 Low-Input Current Optocou-
tocoupler is used to detect stand- VRMS telephone ring signals pler Technical Data
ard telephone ring signals. At the
optocoupler output, a 0.1 µF base- Benefits Alternative Avago Parts
collector capacitor provides a large • Simple and inexpensive circuit for 1) HCPL-0701 Small Outline, Low-
enough Miller-capacitance so that ring signal detection Input Current Optocoupler
a low-frequency ring signal (20 to • Meets worldwide regulatory iso- 2) HCPL-3700/60 Threshold Sensing
60 Hz) causes the output to remain lation standards Optocoupler
low when ringing occurs. 3) HCNW139 Low-Input Current Op-
tocoupler

AV02-4387EN 35 Avago Technologies


Telecommunications Applications

ISDN Interface
TELEPHONE LINE
ISOLATION BARRIER

RECEIVE
2-WIRE
ISDN PROTECTION
LINE CIRCUIT
TRANSMIT

1 8

2 7 LINE POLARITY
HCPL-4731
3 6
LINE RESPONSE
4 5
TELEPHONE
LINE
8 INTERFACE
PRIMARY–SECONDARY 2
POWER ISOLATION HCPL-4701 6 CIRCUIT
3 SECONDARY/
BARRIER 5 EMERGENCY
EMERGENCY
POWER POWER

SWITCHED–
MODE
VCC
SECONDARY
PRIMARY P0WER VCC – RETURN
AC VOLTAGE SUPPLY POWER
POWER
SUPPLY

Description Performance of Optocoupler References


The HCPL-4701 Low Power Opto- • Input current for turn-on: 40 µA • HCPL-4701 Lower Power Optocou-
coupler is suitable for standard tel- • Typical total power dissipation pler Technical Data
ephone line interface functions such with IF = 40 µA: < 3 mW • HCPL-270L 3.3V Optocoupler
as: ring detection, line polarity, and • Typical propagation delay: 65 µs Technical Data
power on/off detection. Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN) Benefits
applica­tions severely restrict the • Low power dissipation
input power that an optocoupler in-
• Compatible with 3 V Logic
terface circuit can use, which makes
the HCPL-4701 an ideal choice. Simi-
larly, HCPL-270L, 3.3V optocoupler
could be used which is compatible
with JEDEC low voltage specifica-
tions.

AV02-4387EN 36 Avago Technologies


Analog Isolation Applications

Introduction
HCNR200/1
Optoisolators transfer analog and The HCNR200/1 optoisolator can be used
1 NC 8
digital signals from one circuit as a basic analog isolation building block
LED
section or module to another in the for a wide variety of applications that
2 NC 7
presence of a large potential dif- require good stability, linearity, band-
K1 K2
ference or induced electrical noise width and low cost. The HCNR200/1 is
3 6
between the ground or common very flexible and, by appropriate design
points of these modules. Examples of the application circuit, is capable of
4 PD1 PD2 5
of analog isolation applications operating in many different modes, in-
cluding unipolar, bipolar, ac/dc, invert-
are interfaces to: A/D converters,
ing and non-inverting. Figure 1. HCNR-200/1 High Linearity Analog
sensing circuits such as thermocou-
ples and transducers, patient moni- The HCPL-4562 and HCNW4562 are Isolator
toring equipment, motor speed recommended for very high band-
and position measurement circuits, width (up to 15 MHz) AC analog
audio and video amplifiers, and designs. If the output transistor
power supply feedback. is biased in the active region, the NC 1 8 V CC
current transfer ratio relationship for
Basic Building Blocks for Analog the HCPL-4562 can be represented ANODE 2 7 VB
Isolation as:
CATHODE 3 6 VO
Avago Technologies’ HCNR200/1 and IC = K ( IF / IFQ ) n
HCPL4562 constitute basic optical cou- where IC is the collector current; IF NC 4 5 GND
pling building blocks for high linearity is the LED input current, IFQ is LED
isolation applications. Figures 1 and 2 input current at which K is meas-
show the respective optical coupling Figure 2. HCPL-4562 High Bandwidth Analog
ured; K is the collector current when
mechanisms for these two optoisola- Isolator
IF = IFQ; and n is the slope of IC vs. IF
tors. Both these isolators use high-per-
on logarithmic scale.
formance AlGaAs LEDs and photodiode
combinations with higher speed and The exponent n varies with IF, but
HCPL-4562
linearity compared to conventional op- over some limited range of DIF, n can 80
toisolators. The HCNR200/1 LED illumi- be regarded as a constant. For ac-
70
nates two closely matched photodiodes, signal applications, the HCPL-4562
IPB - BASE PHOTO CURRENT - µA

one on the input side, and another on can be biased at an appropriate 60


the output side. With a suitable appli- quiescent current where the ratio of 50
cations circuit for the HCNR200/1, the the incremental photodiode current
nonlinearity and drift characteristics of 40
to incremental LED current is nearly
the LED can be virtually eliminated. The
constant. Figure 3 shows the linear- 30
output photodiode produces a photo-
ity characteristics of the HCPL‑4562.
current that is linearly related to the light 20
TA = 25 °C
VPB > 5 V
output of the LED. The close matching of
10
the photodiodes and advanced design
of the package ensure the high linear- 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
ity and stable gain characteristics of the IF - INPUT CURRENT - mA
optoisolator. Figure 3. HCPL-4562 Base Photo Current vs.
Input Current

AV02-4387EN 37 Avago Technologies


Analog Applications

High Speed Isolation Amplifier

VCC2 +5 V
VCC1 +5 V

R2 R5 R7
LED
R3 68 kΩ 10 kΩ 470
10 kΩ VOUT
R1 Q2 Q4
68 kΩ 2N3904 2N3904
Q1 Q3
VIN
2N3906 2N3906
R4 R6
PD1 10 Ω PD2 10 Ω

HCNR200/1
1 NC 8
LED
2 NC 7
ISOLATION
BARRIER K1 K2
3 6

4 PD1 PD2 5

Description Performance of Optocoupler References


This is a high-speed, low-cost isola- • 1.5 MHz bandwidth HCNR200/1 Technical Data
tion amplifier for use in the feedback • Stable gain
path of switch-mode power supplies • Low-cost support circuit Alternative Avago Parts
or motor speed and position meas- • Circuit couples only positive volt- 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800, HCPL-
urement. This circuit can be used age signals 7840 Isolation Amplifier
in applica­tions where high band- 2) HCPL-4562 Wideband Analog/
width, low-cost, and stable gain are Benefits Video Optocoupler
required, but where accuracy is not 3) HCPL-785X Hermetically Sealed
• Low cost solution for coupling
critical. Isolation Amplifier
positive voltage analog signals
• Simple way for sending power
supply voltage feedback signal
across isolation barrier

AV02-4387EN 38 Avago Technologies


Analog Applications

Precision Isolation Amplifier for Unipolar Signals

VCC1 +15 V VCC2 +15 V


C5
0.1µF
C3
0.1µF R4 R5
2.2 kΩ 270 Ω
Q1
2N3906
R1 C1 R6 C2 R2
200 kΩ 47 PF 6.8 kΩ 33 PF 174 kΩ 50 kΩ
INPUT OUTPUT
BNC 1% BNC
1% 2 – 7 7 –2
PD1 6 6 PD2
3 A1 A2 3
+ 4 LT1097 LT1097
4 +
C4 C6
R3 0.1µF
0.1µF 33 kΩ

D1
VEE1 -15 V LED 1N4150 VEE2 -15 V

HCNR200/1
1 NC 8
LED
ISOLATION 2 NC 7
BARRIER
K1 K2
3 6

4 PD1 PD2 5

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit uses the HCNR200/1 • DC to 10 kHz bandwidth HCNR200/1 Technical Data
High-Linearity Analog Optocoup­ler • Stable gain
to achieve high accuracy and wide • 0.1% nonlinearity Alternative Avago Parts
dynamic range at a reason­able cost. • 1 mV to 10 V input/output volt- 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800, HCPL-
This is accomplished by using low- age range 7840 Isolation Amplifier
cost, precision op-amps with very 2) HCPL-4562 Wideband Analog/
low input bias currents and offset Benefits Video Optocoupler
voltages. The circuit couples only 3) HCPL-785X Hermetically Sealed
• Low-cost, high-accuracy solu­tion
positive voltage analog signals. Isolation Amplifier
for coupling analog signals
• Easy availability of support circuit
components
• No offset adjustment is required

AV02-4387EN 39 Avago Technologies


Analog Applications

Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 1

C3 10 pF
C1 10 pF
R6 R7
180 kΩ 50 kΩ
R2
180 kΩ D1 R4
– 680 Ω GAIN
OC1 + OC1 OC1 –
R1 PD1 LED PD2 VOUT
VIN 50 kΩ +
BALANCE
OC2 OC2 OC2
PD1 + LED PD2
– R5
R3 D2 680 HCNR200/1
180 kΩ 1 NC 8
LED
C2 10 pF
2 NC 7

ISOLATION K1 K2
BARRIER 3 6

4 PD1 PD2 5

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit shows how the HCNR200 • 0.01% nonlinearity HCNR200/1 Technical Data
High Linearity Opto­coupler can be • Bandwidth: dc to 100 Hz
used for trans­mit­ting bipolar analog • Low transfer gain variation: ±5% Alternative Avago Parts
signals across an isolation boundary. (K3 of HCNR201) 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800, HCPL-
This circuit uses two optocouplers: 7840 Isolation Amplifier
OC1 and OC2; OC1 handles the posi- Benefits 2) HCPL-785X Hermetically Sealed
tive portions of the input signal and • Low drift Isolation Amplifier
OC2 handles the negative portions.
• Low crossover distortion within
Diodes D1 and D2 help reduce cross-
the dc to 100 Hz frequency band
over distor­tion by keeping both am-
plifiers active during both positive • Good linearity
and negative portions of the input • Very low offset
signal.

AV02-4387EN 40 Avago Technologies


Analog Applications

Isolation Amplifier for Bipolar Signals - Circuit No. 2


10 pF

D1 D3 R4
– 680 kΩ
CNR201
+ C3 10 pF
R2 R3
10 kΩ 4.7 kΩ R5 R6
VIN LED 180 kΩ 50 kΩ

D2 +
GAIN
– CONTROL

D4 VMAGNITUDE

+
+
C2 10 pF
VCC
6N138
+

– R7
10 kΩ R8
2.2 kΩ

VSIGN

Description Performance of Optocoupler References


This circuit shows how bipolar • 0.01% nonlinearity HCNR200/1 Technical Data
analog signals can be transmitted • Wide bandwidth: dc to 1 MHz
across an isolation boundary by • Low transfer gain variation: ±5% Alternative Avago Parts
using just one HCNR200 opto­coup­ (K3 of HCNR201) 1) HCPL-7800A, HCPL-7800, HCPL-
ler. This circuit provides an easy in- 7840 Isolation Amplifier
terface to A/D converters with two Benefits 2) HCNW2601 High Speed Digital
output signals: an analog signal pro- • Low drift Optocoupler (for the Sign signal)
portional to the magni­tude of the 3) HCPL-785X Hermetically Sealed
• Very low offset
input signal, and a digital signal cor- Isolation Amplifier
responding to the Sign of the input
signal. The HCNW138 optocoupler,
which couples the Sign signal, can
be substituted with a faster opto­
coupler in case the Sign changes
faster than 50 kHz.

AV02-4387EN 41 Avago Technologies


Analog Applications

AC-Coupled Isolation Amplifier


+5 V
HCPL-4562
ID
+5 V 1 8

IF KPD R5 R7
5.6 kΩ 470 Ω
2 7
VOUT
R1 2 µF
2.2 kΩ 3 6 Q3
2 µF R4
18 kΩ I3
VIN Q2
Q1 4 5
R2
1.8 kΩ R6
D1 R3 Q1 2N3904 82 Ω
1N4150 330 Ω Q3 2N3904

2
1
GAIN 1 • KPD • R4 • R7 1
R3 R6

KPD = 0.0032 TYPICALLY

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit with the HCPL-4562 • Typical bandwidth: 13 MHz 1) HCPL-4562 Wideband Analog/
Wideband Analog/Video Optocou- • Nominal gain of circuit: 1 Video Optocoupler Technical
pler functions as an ac-coupled iso- • Isolation-mode rejection: 46 dB at Data
lation amplifier that can be used for 1 kHz 2) Application Note 951-2, “Linear
coupling audio or video signals. The • Overall nonlinearity: 0.5% Applications of Optocouplers”
input circuit biases the optocoupler
• Optocoupler input current range:
LED at a quiescent current of about Alternative Avago Parts
4 mA-8 mA
6 mA, determined primarily by resis- 1) HCPL-2502, 6N135, 6N136 High
tors R1, R2, and R3. Diode D1 helps to Speed Transistor Output Opto-
stabilize the operating point over Benefits
couplers
the operating temperature range. • Simple solution for coupling au-
dio and video signals 2) HCNW4562 Widebody Wide­band
An ac-coupled signal will modu­late
Analog/Video Optocoupler
the collector current of transistor
Q1 and the optocoupler LED. The 3) HCPL-55XX, 4N55, HCPL‑6530/1
output circuit consists of a simple Hermetically Sealed High Speed
transresistance (current-in, voltage- Optocoupler
out) amplifier followed by a com- 4) HCPL-05XX Small-Outline High
mon-emitter amplifier stage. Speed Optocoupler

AV02-4387EN 42 Avago Technologies


Analog Applications

Isolated Video Interface

Description Performance of Circuit References


This circuit, with the HCPL-4562 • Typical bandwidth: 15 MHz HCPL-4562 Wideband Analog/Video
Wideband Analog/Video Optocou- • Typical Gain variation: -1.1 dB at 5 Optocoupler Technical Data
pler, is optimized for video signal MHz with reference at 0.1 MHz
coupling. The peaked response of • Isolation Mode Rejection: 122 dB Alternative Avago Parts
the detector circuit helps extend the at 120 Hz HCNW4562 Widebody Wideband
frequency range over which the gain Analog/Video Optocoupler
is relatively constant. The number of Benefits
gain stages, the overall circuit topol- • Cost-effective, high perfor­mance
ogy, and the dc bias points are all video interface circuit
chosen to maximize the bandwidth.

AV02-4387EN 43 Avago Technologies


Inverter Design Using Gate Drive
and Current Sense Optocouplers
System Overview Isolated Gate Drive and IPM Interface
A typical motor drive and power Many motor drive and power control and IPM interface optocouplers
control system shown in Figure 1 systems use pulse width modulation meet stringent industrial require-
requires isolation between the high switching of power devices to gen- ments with critical performance:
voltage devices (IGBT/MOSFET) and erate a three phase variable voltage • Minimum Common Mode Rejec-
the low voltage devices (micro-con- and variable frequency power tion: 10 kV/µs slew rate at 1,500 V
troller). In addition to meeting the source. High performance motor peak transients
severe drives require precision timing
• Wide Operating Temperature
for turning on and turning off the
requirements for the isolation func- Range: -40°C to +85°C
power devices on the inverter.
tion, Avago Technologies optocou- • Over Current Protection and Fault
The micro-controller that controls
plers provide customized function- Feedback (HCPL-316J)
the turn-on and turn-off of these
ality such as direct gate drive for
power devices needs to be isolated • Safety Standards Certifications:
IGBTs or power MOSFETs, and analog
from the high voltage inverter side. UL, CSA, IEC/EN/DIN EN 60747-5-2
isolation for motor current sensing,
Avago Technologies offers a variety • Fast Switching Speeds: 500 ns
voltage sensing, speed measure-
of optocouplers that have built-in range (see detailed part number
ment, and position measurement.
gate drive capability. For solutions specifications)
that require only a simple isolation • Wide Supply Voltage Range: 15 V
interface, Avago provides Intelligent to 30 V
Power Module (IPM) interface opto-
couplers. All of Avago’s gate drive

+HV

GATE GATE GATE CURRENT


DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE SENSE
U+ V+ W+
A

3- PHASE
OUTPUT

VOLTAGE
SENSE GATE GATE GATE
DRIVE DRIVE DRIVE
C U- V- W-
B

CURRENT
SENSE
-HV

U+, U-, V+, V-, W+, W- A, B, C


ANALOG
ISOLATION

MICRO-
MOTOR SPEED, POSITION
CONTROLLER

Figure 1. Isolation Circuits for Power Control – System Overview

AV02-4387EN 44 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Isolated Current and Voltage Sens- Analog Signal Isolation for Speed perturbations in the LED current
ing and Position Measurement during common mode transients
and becomes the major source of
Avago Technologies provides several Avago Technologies offers a low CMR failures for a shielded optocou-
analog isolation amplifier prod- cost, high accuracy, isolated ampli- pler. The main design objective of a
ucts for isolated precision current fier solution for the measurement high CMR LED drive circuit becomes
and voltage sensing for monitor- of speed and position in a motor. keeping the LED in the proper state
ing motor performance. Avago With the use of Avago Technologies’ (on or off ) during common mode
also offers a digital output isolation HCNR201 and low cost operational transients. The recommended
amplifier for direct connection to amplifiers, circuit designers have
a micro-controller. Compared to the flexibility of designing analog application circuits for Avago’s gate
Hall-Effect sensors, Avago’s isolation isolation amplifiers that have low drive applications can achieve 15
amplifiers have excellent gain and input bias currents, high bandwidth, kV/µs CMR while minimizing com-
offset characteristics, especially very stable gain, and very high linearity. ponent complexity.
low offset drift over a wide tempera- Another cause of CMR failure for a
ture range. In addition, they provide Common Mode Rejection shielded optocoupler is direct cou-
a compact, low-cost, and reliable so- The detector shield in the opto- pling to the optocoupler output
lution for motor drive designers that coupler prevents CMR failure due pins through CLED01 and CLED02 in
need to accurately measure motor to capacitive coupling from the Figure 2. Many factors influence the
voltage and current. Some of the key input side of the optocoupler, effect and magnitude of the direct
performance features include: through the package, to the detec- coupling including: the use of an
• 12-bit linearity (HCPL-7860) tor IC. However, this shield does not internal or external output pull-up
• over current detection (HCPL- eliminate the capacitive coupling resistor, the position of the LED
788J) between the LED and the optocou- current setting resistor, the connec-
• ±200 mV input range pler output pins and output ground tion of the unused input package
• -40°C to +85°C operating tem- as shown in Figure 2. This capacitive pins, and the value of the capaci-
perature range coupling causes tor at the optocoupler output (CL).
• 15 kV/µs isolation transient im- The recommended gate drive and
munity IPM interface application circuits for
• Safety Standards Certifications: Avago optocouplers have been op-
UL, CSA, IEC/EN/DIN EN 60747-5- 1 8
timized to reduce the likelihood of
2 CMR failure.
20 kΩ
CLEDP
2 CLED02 7
CLED01

3 6
CLEDN

4 5
SHIELD

Figure 2. AC Equivalent for a Digital Optocoupler

AV02-4387EN 45 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

IPM Dead Time and Propagation Delay Specifications

Many of Avago’s gate drive and IPM analyzed in the same way) it is im- consideration are typically mounted
interface optocouplers include a portant to know the minimum and in close proximity to each other.
Propagation Delay Difference (PDD) maximum turn-on (tPHL ) and turn- (Specifically, tPLH max and tPHLmin in
specification intended to help de- off (tPLH ) propagation delay specifi- the Figure 3 equations are not the
signers minimize “dead time” in their cations, preferably over the desired same as the tPLH max and tPHL min,
power inverter designs. Dead time is operating temperature range. over the full operating temperature
the time periods during which both range, specified in the data sheet.).
The limiting case of zero dead time
the high and low side power transis-
occurs when the input to Q1 turns This delay is the maximum value
tors (Q1 and Q2) of a power module
off at the same time that the input for the propagation delay differ-
are off. Any overlap in Q1 and Q2 con-
to Q2 turns on. This case determines ence specification that is specified
duction will result in large currents
the minimum delay between LED1 at 450 ns for the HCPL-4506 over
flowing through the power devices
turn-off and LED2 turn-on, which is an operating temperature range of
between the high and low voltage
related to the worst case optocou- -40°C to +100°C. Delaying the LED
motor rails.
pler propagation delay waveforms, signal by the maximum propaga-
To minimize dead time the design- as shown in Figure 3. A minimum tion delay difference ensures that
er must consider the propagation dead time of zero is achieved in the minimum dead time is zero, but
delay characteristics of the optocou- Figure 3 when the signal to turn on it does not tell a designer what the
pler as well as the characteristics of LED2 is delayed by (tPLH max - tPHL min ) maximum dead time will be. The
the IGBT gate drive circuit. Consider- from the LED1 turn off. Note that the maximum dead time occurs in the
ing only the delay characteristics of propagation delays used to calcu- highly unlikely case where one op-
the optocoupler (the characteristics late PDD are taken at equal temper- tocoupler with the fastest tPLH and
of the IGBT gate drive circuit can be atures since the optocouplers under another with the slowest tPHL are in
the same inverter leg. The maximum
ILED1
dead time in this case becomes the
sum of the spread in the tPLH and
tPHL propagation delays as shown in
Q1 OFF
VOUT1
Q1 ON Figure 3.
VOUT2
Q2 OFF
Q2 ON
The maximum dead time is also
equivalent to the difference between
the maximum and minimum propa-
ILED2
tPLH gation delay difference specifica-
MIN. tions. The maximum dead time
tPLH (due to the optocouplers) for the
MAX.
PDD*
HCPL-4506 is 600 ns over an operat-
MAX. tPHL ing temperature range of -40°C to
MIN. +100°C.
tPHL
MAX.

MAX.
DEAD TIME

MAXIMUM DEAD TIME (DUE TO OPTOCOUPLER)


= (tPLH MAX. - tPLH MIN.) + (tPHL MAX. - tPHL MIN.)
= (tPLH MAX. - tPHL MIN.) + (tPLH MIN. - tPHL MAX.)
= PDD* MAX. - PDD* MIN.
PROPAGATION DELAY DIFFERENCE (PPD) MAX.
= (tPLH - tPHL) MAX. = (tPLH MAX. - tPHL MIN.)
NOTE: THE PROPAGATION DELAYS USED TO CALCULATE THE
PDD AND MAXIMUM DEAD TIME ARE TAKEN AT EQUAL TEMPERATURES.

Figure 3. Propagation Delay and Dead Time

AV02-4387EN 46 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Bootstrap Power Supply Circuit for Power Control Systems


Figure 4 shows a bootstrapped out- Component values were chosen for When M2 (low IGBT) switches off
put power supply circuit that has a 350 V rail = and M1 (upper IGBT) switches on,
the following benefits: HV+ - HV - (240 V x 1.414). VE(H) pulls up to HV+ -VSATM1. This
• eliminates the need for an iso- When the lower IGBT is turned on, causes C4H to become charged
lated power supply or a dc-to-dc VC1H charges up (through through D2H. Charge sharing be-
converter, tween C1H and C4H
D1H ) to a voltage of:
• lower cost solution compared to results in the voltage across C4H
VC1H = HV+ - [HV- + VSATM2+ VCC2H + which (in the absence of clamping
transformer based power supply,
• less printed circuit board space. VF (D1H )] diode DZ2H ) can be approximated
by:
This circuit includes a bootstrap = 350 V - 3 V - 18 V - 1 V
circuit for providing output power C4H × ∆VC4H = C1H × 328 V
= 328 V
to the HCPL-316J gate drive opto- -> ∆VC4H = 19.6 V
where VSATM2 is the saturation or
couplers, thereby eliminating the where ∆VC4H = the voltage drop
“on” voltage across the collector-
need for isolated power supplies or across C4H . The negative gate bias
emitter of IGBT M2; VF (D1H) is the
dc-to-dc converters. It can be modi- then is held at 12 V by clamping
voltage across diode DD1H ; and
fied to suit other Avago gate drive Zener DZ2H.
HV+, HV- are the rail voltages.
optocouplers and current/voltage HV+
HV+
sensing isolation amplifiers.
15 nF
C1H
R1H
47K R2H
20
VCC2(H)

D1H
A14P
1,000 V
VDESAT(H)
HV+
HIGH GATE-DRIVE 1k DUAL IGBT
DDSH
C2H RDESATH
HCPL-316J RTONH C3H A14P
1 16 1.2 µF
VIN+ VE 10 0.1 µF 1,000 V
2 15 (20%)
VIN– VLED2+ N/C
3 14
VCC1 DESAT
4 13 DZLH
GND1 VCC2 VC(H)
5 12 18 V
RESET VC
6 11 VO(H)
FAULT VOUT M1 DFBHI
7 10
VLED1+ VEE RGH (DSE130-12A,
8 9
VLED1– VEE 12.5 IXYS)
RBIASDH
20K

VE(H)
AC
DZ2H C4H MOTOR
12 V 250 nF
VEE(H)
R1L 15nF
D2H 47K C1L
A14P R2L
1,000 V 20

LOW GATE-DRIVE
HCPL-316J 1K
1 16 DDSL
VIN+ VE RDESATL
2 15 HV DIODE
VIN– VLED2+
3 14 (LOW GATE-DRIVE CIRCUIT IS
VCC1 DESAT
4 13 M2
GND1 VCC2 IDENTICAL TO HIGH DFBLO
5 12 RGL
RESET VC GATE-DRIVE CIRCUIT) (DSE130-12A,
6 11 12.5
FAULT VOUT IXYS)
7 10
VLED1+ VEE
8 9
VLED1– VEE

HV–

Figure 4. Bootstrap Circuit for Power Control System


AV02-4387EN 47 Avago Technologies
Motor Control Applications

Shunt Resistor Selection for Current Sensing

The current-sensing shunt resis- Avago Technologies recommends


tor should have low resistance to Dale Electronics’ two-terminal shunt
minimize power dissipation, low in- resistors for low cost applications.
ductance to minimize di/dt induced These resistors are suitable for meas-
voltage spikes which could ad- uring current up to 28 Arms . See
versely affect operation, and reason- comparison table below.
able tolerance to maintain overall
Several four-terminal shunts from
circuit accuracy. Choosing a par-
Isotek suitable for sensing currents
ticular value for the shunt is usually
in motor drives up to 71 Arms (71
a compromise between minimizing
hp or 53 kW) are shown in the com-
power dissipation and maximizing
parison table below; the maximum
accuracy. Smaller shunt resistance
current and motor power range
decrease power dissipation, while
for each of the PBV-series shunts
larger shunt resistance can improve
are indicated. For shunt resistance
circuit accuracy by utilizing the full
from 50 mW down to 10 mW, the
input range of the isolated modula-
maximum current is limited by
tor.
the input voltage range of the iso-
lated modulator. For the 5 mW and
2 mW shunts, a heat sink may be re-
quired due to the increased power
dissipation at higher currents.

Low Cost Two Terminal Resistor Selection Guide (Supplier: Dale Electronics, Tel: 402-564-3131)
Shunt Resistor Shunt Price Tolerance Temp. Max. RMS Motor Power Range
Part Number Resistance Range Coefficient Current 120 Vac - 440 Vac
(mΩ) (US$) ( % ) (ppm/°C) (A) (hp) (kW)
LV-5.005 5 $0.40 - 1.00 1 <300 28.3 8 - 28 6 - 21
LVR-3.01 10 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 14.1 4 - 14 3 - 10
LVR-3.02 20 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 7 2 - 7 1.4 - 5
LVR-3.05 50 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 2.8 0.8 - 3 0.6 - 2
WSC-2.02* 20 $0.38 - 0.76 1 <300 7.1 2 - 7 1.4 - 5
* Surface Mount

High Performance Four-Terminal Shunt Resistor Selection Guide (Supplier: Isotek, Tel: 508-673-2900)
Shunt Resistor Shunt Unit Price Tolerance Temp. Max. RMS Motor Power Range
Part Number Resistance @ 2500 Qty. Coefficient Current 120 Vac - 440 Vac
(mΩ) (US$) ( % ) (ppm/°C) (A) (hp) (kW)
PBV-R050-0.5 50 $3.74 0.5 <30 3 0.8 - 3 0.6 - 2
PBV-R020-0.5 20 $3.74 0.5 <30 7 2 - 7 1.4 - 5
PBV-R010-0.5 10 $3.74 0.5 <30 14 4 - 14 3 - 10
PBV-R005-0.5 5 $4.09 0.5 <30 25 [28] 7-25 [8-28] 5-19 [6-21]
PBV-R002-0.5 2 $4.09 0.5 <30 39 [71] 11 - 39 8 - 29
[19 - 71] [14 - 53]
Note: Values in brackets are with a heatsink for the shunt.

AV02-4387EN 48 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Isolated Integrated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET

+5 V HCPL-3120
1 8 +HVDC
270 Ω + Vcc*
0.1 µF –
Rg
2 7

CONTROL
INPUT Q1
A 3-PHASE
3 6
– VEE* AC
+ OPTIONAL
74XXX
OPEN
4 5
COLLECTOR

Q2 –HVDC
*RECOMMENDED SUPPLY VOLTAGES
SINGLE SUPPLY Vcc = +18V VEE = 0V
DUAL SUPPLY Vcc = +15V VEE = -5V

VCC – VEE – VOL


Rg =
ION

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-3120 drives the IGBTs or • Peak output current of 2.0A im- 1) HCPL-3150 0.5 Amp Isolated IGBT
MOSFETs directly in this circuit and proves driving efficiency. Gate Driver
provides full regulatory approved • Superior common mode tran- 2) HCPL-3140 0.4 amp Isolated IGBT
isolation between the power and sient noise immunity: 15 kV/µs@ Gate driver
control circuits. The output power Vcm = 1500 V. 3) HCPL-314J 0.4 Amp Dual IGBT
supply can be derived from rail to rail • Low Icc current and wide Vcc Gate Driver
supply by using a bootstrap circuit range: 15 V - 30 V over -40°C to 4) HCPL-315J 0.5 Amp Dual IGBT
illustrated in the “Inverter Design 100°C. Gate Driver
using Gate Drive and Current Sense • Low VOL of 0.5 V eliminates the 5) HCPL-316J 2.0 Amp Isolated
Optocoupler” section. The value of need for negative Supply Voltage Gate Driver with Integrated
Rg in the above circuit is chosen to (Vee). Desaturation Detection and
control the peak gate charge and • World wide regulatory approval. Feedback.
discharge current as well as the • Fast under voltage lockout re-
output power dissipation. sponse: 0.6 µs.

AV02-4387EN 49 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Dual Channel Isolated Integrated Gate Driver for IGBT/MOSFET


+5 V
HCPL-314J FLOATING
SUPPLY
270 Ω 1 16 +HVDC
VCC = 18 V
CONTROL 0.1 µF +
INPUT –
2 15
Rg
74XXX
OPEN 3 14
COLLECTOR
GND 1
3-PHASE
+5 V AC
FLOATING
SUPPLY
270 Ω 6 11 VCC = 18 V
CONTROL 0.1 µF +
INPUT –
7 10
Rg
74XXX
OPEN 8 9
COLLECTOR
GND 1 –HVDC

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-314J drives 2 IGBTs or • Dual in 1 package saves assem- 1) HCPL-315J 0.5 Amp Dual IGBT
MOSFETs directly in this circuit and bly costs. Gate Driver
provides full regulatory approved • Peak output current of 0.4 A 2) HCPL-3150 0.5 Amp Isolated IGBT
isolation between the power and best suited for low and medium Gate Driver
control circuits. The output power power IGBTs. 3) HCPL-3140 0.4 amp Isolated IGBT
supply can be derived from rail to rail • Superior common mode tran- Gate driver
supply by using a bootstrap circuit sient noise immunity: 10 kV/µs@ 4) HCPL-3120 2.0 Amp IGBT Gate
illustrated in the “Inverter Design Vcm = 1500 V. Driver
using Gate Drive and Current Sense • Low Icc current and wide Vcc 5) HCPL-316J 2.0Amp Isolated Gate
Optocoupler” section. The value of range: 10 V - 30 V over -40°C to Driver with Integrated Desatura-
Rg in the above circuit is chosen to 100°C. tion Detection and Feedback.
control the peak gate charge and • Low VOL of 1V eliminates the
discharge current as well as the need for negative supply voltage
output power dissipation. (Vee).
• Worldwide regulatory approval.

AV02-4387EN 50 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Isolated Gate Drive for IGBT/MOSFET with Integrated Desaturation Protection and Fault Feedback

VCC2
RESET 18 V
(INPUT)

DRIVE
HCPL-316J
SIGNAL 74ACT04 0.1 µF
(INPUT) 1 16 20k
VIN+ VE VCC2
2 15 HV DIODE
VIN– VLED2+ 0.1 µF -5 V 1k
MICRO-CONTROLLER 3 14
VCC1 DESAT
4 13
VCC1 GND1 VCC2 RDESATH
0.1 µF 5 12
5V 3.3 k RESET VC 20k
6 11
FAULT VOUT
7 10
VLED1+ VEE 0.1 µF RGATEH
300 pF 8 9
VLED1– VEE

DESAT
FAULT
(OUTPUT)

3-PHASE
OUTPUT

VCC – VEE – VOL


Rg =
ION

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-316J drives IGBTs or • Gate Drive Current : 2.0 A 1) HCPL-315J 0.5 Amp Dual IGBT
MOSFETs directly and provides addi- • Common mode Transient Rejec- Gate Driver
tional IGBT desaturation protection. tion: 15 kV/µs@VCM = 1.5 kV 2) HCPL-3150 0.5 Amp Isolated IGBT
The Vce of the IGBT is monitored • IGBT gate protection response Gate Driver
by Desat pin and the IGBT will be time: 3 µs. 3) HCPL-J314 0.4 amp Isolated IGBT
slowly turned off if Vdesat exceeds • IGBT fault signal propagation de- Gate driver
a threshold of 7 V. A fault feedback lay: 10 µs. 4) HCPL-314J 0.4 Amp Dual IGBT
signal is propagated to the input Gate Driver
side to notify the micro-controller Benefits: 5) HCPL-3120 2.0Amp Isolated Gate
of the detected fault condition. Driver.
• Reduced assembly costs
This FAULT output remains low until
• CMOS/TTL compatible
the part is reset. The 100 pF blank-
ing capacitor shown in the diagram • Local IGBT soft shutdown
above will delay the rise of VDesat for • Worldwide regulatory approval
a period of around 4 µs to allow the
IGBT sufficient time to turn on and
the collector to settle to a low VDesat.

AV02-4387EN 51 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Isolated Interface for Intelligent Power Module Gate Drive

HCPL-4506

HCPL-4506
HCPL-4506
1 8 VCC1 HCPL-4506

0.1 µF HCPL-4506
20 KΩ
ILED1 20 KΩ
+5 V 2 7
+HV

310 Ω
VOUT1
3 6

CMOS
Q1

4 5 M
SHIELD

Q2
HCPL-4506
VCC2
1 8 –HV

20 kΩ 0.1 µF 20 KΩ
+5 V ILED2
2 7

310 Ω
3 6
VOUT2
CMOS IPM

4 5
SHIELD
HCPL-4506

Description Performance of Optocoupler Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-4506 provides isolation • Minimum 15 kV/µs transient 1) HCNW4506 widebody, VIORM =
between the controller and the IPM immunity 1414 V, HCPL-J456, VIORM = 891 V,
(Intelligent Power Module). This HCPL-0456, SO8 package.
• Maximum propagation delay:
optoisolator provides world wide 2) HCPL-4504, CNW4504, HCPL-
500 ns
safety certification (UL, CSA, IEC/EN/ J454, HCPL-0454.
• Maximum propagation delay dif-
DIN EN 60747-5-2). The HCPL-4506 3) HCPL-4503, HCNW4503, HCPL-
ference between any two HCPL-
optocouplers can reject common 0453.
4506s: 450 ns
mode transients that have slew rates
• Specification guaranteed over
as high as 15 kV/µs and peak voltage
-40°C to 100°C operating temper-
up to 1500 V. Furthermore, this op-
ature range.
tocoupler has guaranteed Pulse
Width Distortion and Propagation Benefits
Delay Difference specifications that
allow the circuit designer to reduce • World wide regulatory approval.
switching dead time and improve • Reduced deadtime
inverter efficiency.

AV02-4387EN 52 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing with Analog Output


HV+

150 pF

+SUPPLY
10.0 kΩ
+5 V +15 V
78L05
+5 V 0.1 µF
IN OUT
HCPL-7840
0.1 µF
1 8 0.1 µF
0.1 µF 8
2 7 2.00 kΩ 6 –
0.01 7
39 Ω 5 VOUT
µF 3 6 + MC34082A
+ – 4 5 2.00 kΩ
M 4
0.1 µF
RSENSE

150 pF 10.0 kΩ

-15 V

HV–

Description Performance of Circuit Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-7840 Isolation Amplifier • Sense current: Up to 200 A 1) HCPL-7800A: 1% part-to-part
can be used for isolating the motor • Optocoupler bandwidth: Up to gain tolerance, HCPL-7800: 3%
current sensing element from the 100 kHz part-to-part gain tolerance.
• Optocoupler nonlinearity: 0.2% 2) HCPL-788J: single ended output
control circuit while at the same • Optocoupler input offset voltage: isolation amplifier with integrat-
time transmitting precision analog 0.2 mV (typical) ed over current detection.
signals. This circuit requires a low • Optocoupler common-mode re- 3) HCPL-7860 and HCPL-7870/
cost shunt resistor for monitor- jection: 15 kV/µs HCPL-0870: isolated 15 bit A/D
ing the motor current. The voltage converter.
across the sensing resistor is fed
Benefits 4) HCPL-786J: isolated 15 bit A/D
to the HCPL-7840 input pins 2 and
• Small size and lower profile converter.
3. A floating power supply (which
in many applications could be the circuit compared to Hall-Effect
same one used to drive the high device current sensing circuits.
side power transistors) is regulated • Industry standard low profile
to 5 V using a simple three-terminal components are used in this cir-
voltage regulator, 78L05. The differ- cuit.
ential output from the HCPL-7840 • High precision measurement
isolation amplifier is converted to while maintaining common
a ground-referenced single-ended mode transient immunity.
output voltage with a simple differ-
ential amplifier circuit (MC34082A
and associated components).

AV02-4387EN 53 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Isolated A/D Converter for Phase Current Sensing


FLOATING
POSITIVE
SUPPLY +5V
HV+

GATE DRIVE
CIRCUIT

R1

CCLK VDD
D1 C1
0.1 µF CLAT CHAN
5.1 V
R2 39 Ω VDD1 VDD2 CDAT SCLK
VIN+ MCLK MCLK1 SDAT

MOTOR VIN- MDAT MDAT1 CS


+ - MCLK2 THR1
GND1 GND2 C3
RSENSE C2 0.1 µF
0.01 µF MDAT2 OVR1
HCPL-7860
GND RESET
TO
HCPL-X870 CONTROL
CIRCUIT
HV-

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


The HCPL-7860 Isolated Modulator • Resolution due to linearity: 12 • Integrated analog-to-digital con-
and the HCPL-x870 Digital Inter- bits at tDELAY = 18 µs, 14 bits at verter means fewer components
face IC together form an isolated tDELAY = 94 µs required.
programmable two-chip analog-to- • Common-mode transient rejec- • High common-mode transient
digital converter. The isolated mod- tion: dV/dt = 15 kV/µs @ VCM = rejection ensures no corruption
ulator allows direct measurement of 1500 V of data.
motor phase currents in power in- • Signal-to-Noise: SNR = 62 dB • Low gain temperature-coeffi-
verters while the digital interface IC (minimum) cient and offset voltage ensure
can be programmed to optimize the • Regulatory Isolation Ratings: VISO high accuracy measurements.
conversion speed and resolution. = 3750 V (per UL 1577), VIORM =
848 V; VIOTM = 6000 V References
• Input Offset Drift: 4 µV / °C (typi- 1) HCPL-7860/x870 Technical Data
cal) 2) High precision current sensing
• Reference Voltage Tolerance: resistor suppliers: Dale in USA;
±4% (±1% within shipment tube) Isabellenhutte in Germany; and
PCN in Japan

AV02-4387EN 54 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Low Cost Isolated Phase Current Sensing with Analog Output and Over Current Detection
HV +

FLOATING
GATE DRIVE POSITIVE
CIRCUIT SUPPLY

R4

C1
D1 0.1 µF
5.1 V 5 HCPL-788J GND2 16
VDD1
C6
0.1 µF
1 VIN+ VDD2 15 µC
R2 C2 R3 4.7 kΩ
39 Ω 0.1 µF 2 FAULT 14
MOTOR VIN– TO OTHER
+ R1 + PHASE
8 GND1 ABSVAL 13 OUTPUTS
RSENSE
7 VDD1 VOUT 12 A/D

3 CH VREF 11 VREF

4 CL VDD2 10 C8 C4 C7 C5

6 VLED+ GND2 9

GND
HV +

C5 = C7 = C8 = 470 pF
+5 V C4 = 0.1 µF

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


The HCPL-788J can be used for iso- • Overcurrent fault response: 3 µs • No additional fault detection cir-
lating the motor current sensing typical cuitry needed
element from the control circuit • Sense current up to 100 A or • Direct interface with micro-con-
while at the same time transmit- more troller
ting precision analog signals and • Bandwidth: 30 kHz typical • Smaller size and lower profile
over current fault signal. This circuit • Nonlinearity: 0.06% typical compared to Hall-Effect device
requires a high precision-sensing • Input offset voltage: 3 mV max. based current sensing circuits
resistor for monitoring the motor over temp. • High precision measurement
current. The voltage across the • Common-mode rejection: 10 kV/ while at the same time maintain-
sensing resistor is fed to the HCPL- µs@VCM = 15 kV min. ing transient immunity
788J input pins 2 and 3. The single-
ended output allows it to interface
directly with the A/D port of the
micro-controller. The sensing resis-
tor is available from several suppli-
ers, which are listed in the “Inverter
Design using Gate Drive and Current
Sense Optocoupler” section.

AV02-4387EN 55 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using an Isolation Amplifier


HV+

150 pF

R1

+SUPPLY
10.0 kΩ
+5 V +15 V
78L05
+5 V
IN OUT
HCPL-7840
0.1 µF
1 8 0.1 µF
0.1 µF 8
2 7 2.00 kΩ 6 –
0.1 7
39 5 VOUT
R2 µF 3 6 +
MC34082A
4 5 2.00 kΩ
4
0.1 µF

HV– 150 pF 10.0 kΩ

-15 V

Description Performance of Circuit Avago Alternative Parts


The HCPL-7840 isolation amplifier • 15 kV/µs transient rejection 1) HCPL-786J: isolated 15 bit A/D
can be used for sensing the rectified • 0.05% nonlinearity converter
dc power supply voltage in a power • 5% gain tolerance
inverter. An isolated 5 V power supply References
regulated to 5 V using a simple Benefits 1) HCPL-7860/x870 Technical Data
three-terminal voltage regulator 2) High precision current sensing
• Few components
powers the HCPL-7840 input circuit. resistor suppliers: Dale in USA;
The resistor divider network is used • High electrical noise immunity
Isabellenhutte in Germany; and
so that the full scale voltage at the PCN in Japan
HCPL-7840 input is 200 mV. The im-
pedance of the resistor divider must
be less than 1 kΩ so that the input
resistance (500 kΩ) and input bias
current (1 mA) of the isolation am-
plifier do not affect the accuracy of
the measurement. To obtain higher
bandwidths, the input bypass ca-
pacitor (across HCPL-7840’s pins 2
and 3 ) can be reduced, but it should
not be reduced much below 1000 pF
to maintain gain accuracy of the iso-
lation amplifier.

AV02-4387EN 56 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Isolated Inverter Rail Voltage Sensing using a Linear Optocoupler

HV+ VCC

VI
U1 U3
R1 HCPL-4562 HCPL-4562
8 8
R3
2 2
R4 R5
6 6
VO
3 5 5 3

R2

HV–
+ U2
ISOLATION
BARRIER –

VO R2
C1
VI R1

Description Performance of Circuit Benefits


The HCPL-4562 Linear Optocoupler • 122 dB isolation mode rejec­tion • No isolated 5 V input power sup-
is used in a servo circuit to sense the ratio ply is required for optocoupler U1
rectified dc power supply voltage of • 0.25% nonlinearity • Simple circuit
a power inverter. The series resistor • ±0.3%/°C gain variation tempera-
R1 limits the current that drives the ture coefficient Alternative Avago Parts
input LED of optocoupler U1. The 1) HCPL-7800A: 1% part-to-part
forward current through the LED gain tolerance
of the HCPL-4562 optocoupler is
2) HCPL-7800: 3% part-to-part gain
proportional to the dc high voltage
tolerance
power supply rail.
When the circuit is balanced with
the potentiometer R3, the output
voltage VO is proportional to the
high voltage dc power supply as
shown by the equation:
VO / VI = R2 / R1

AV02-4387EN 57 Avago Technologies


Motor Control Applications

Low Cost Isolation Amplifier for Motor Speed and Position Measurement

VCC2 +5 V

VCC1 +5 V

R5 R7
R2 10 kΩ 470
+ LED 68 kΩ
0-10 V R3
– VOUT
10 kΩ
R1 Q2 2N3904 Q4 2N3904
68 kΩ
VIN Q1 2N3906 Q3 2N3906
M
R4 R6
10 Ω 10 Ω
PD1 PD2

HCNR200/1
A 4-20 mA

ISOLATION
BARRIER

Description Performance of Circuit


This is a high-speed, low-cost isola- input operating voltage according • 1.5 MHz bandwidth
tion amplifier that can be used for to the following equation: • Stable gain
the measurement of motor speed • Low-cost support circuit
IF = (VIN / R1) / K1
and position. The analog signal • Circuit couples only positive volt-
coming from the motor is assumed age signals
where K1 (i.e., IPD1 /IF ) of the
to be 0 to 10 V, or 4 to 20 mA. This
optocoupler is typically about 0.5%.
circuit can be used in applications
R2 is then selected to achieve the
Benefits
where high bandwidth, low-cost, • Low cost solution for coupling
desired output voltage according to
and stable gain are required, but positive voltage analog signals
the equation, VOUT /VIN = R2 / R1. The
where accuracy is not critical. This • Simple way for isolating motor
purpose of R4 and R6 is to improve
circuit is a good example of how speed and position analog sig-
the dynamic response (i.e., stability)
a designer can trade off accuracy nals
of the input and output circuits by
to achieve improvements in band-
lowering the local loop gains. R3 and
width and cost. The circuit has a
R5 are selected to provide enough
bandwidth of about 1.5 MHz with
current to drive the bases of Q2 and
stable gain characteristics and re-
Q4. And R7 is selected so that Q4 op-
quires few external components. R1
erates at about the same collector
is selected to achieve an LED current
current as Q2.
of about 7 - 10 mA at the nominal

AV02-4387EN 58 Avago Technologies


Industrial Applications

AC/DC Voltage Threshold Sensing


VCC
HCPL-3700/60
RX/2
1 AC VCC 8

2 DC+ 7 RL
UP TO
800 Vac
3 DC- VO 6 VOUT HCPL-3700/60 SCHEMATIC

RX/2 DC+ INPUT VCC


4 AC GND 5
2 ICC 8
D1 D2
AC INPUT CONFIGURATION 1
AC IO V
O
INPUT D3 D4
VCC 6
HCPL-3700/60 4

1 AC VCC 8 3 5

RX/2 DC– INPUT GND


2 DC+ 7 RL
UP TO
1000 Vdc RX/2
3 DC- VO 6 VOUT

4 AC GND 5

DC INPUT CONFIGURATION

Description Performance of Circuit References


The HCPL-3700/60 Threshold- • HCPL-3760 optocoupler threshold 1) Avago Application Note AN 1004,
Sensing Optocoupler can be used input current: 1.3 mA (typical) “Threshold Sensing for Industrial
for sensing the ac/dc power on/off • Typical optocoupler propaga­tion Control Systems”
condition. At the optocoupler input, delay: 10 µs 2) HCPL-3700/60 Threshold Sensing
only a pair of series resistors RX/2 are • Optocoupler common mode tran- Optocoupler Technical Data
required to limit the current. The ac sient immunity: 600 V/µs (typical)
signal can be filtered with a capaci- • Maximum input voltage: up to Alternative Avago Parts
tor at either the input or the output 1000 Vdc, or 800 Vac HCPL-576X: Hermetically Sealed
of the optocoupler. For more infor- Threshold Sensing Optocoupler
mation refer to Avago Applica­tion
Benefits
Note AN 1004, “Threshold Sensing
for Industrial Control Systems.” The • HCPL 3700/60’s built-in diode
value of RX determines the threshold bridge and hysteresis circuit re-
sensing voltage. duces component count
• HCPL-3760’s low threshold sens-
ing current reduces power dissi-
pation
• Threshold voltage can be adjust-
ed by external resistor RX

AV02-4387EN 59 Avago Technologies


Industrial Applications

Optical Isolation In Flat-Panel Displays

HCPL-0708/HCPL-0738

HIGH VOLTAGE
DC SUPPLY

CONTROLLER ROW/ FLAT


STATE COLUMN PANEL
MACHINE DRIVERS DISPLAY

ISOLATION
BOUNDARY

Description Performance of Optocoupler Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-0708 high-speed, opto- • Maximum propagation delay 1) HCPL-0201/11 Small Outline Low
coupler isolates the low-voltage time: 60 ns Input Current Optocoupler
logic circuit from the high-voltage • Typical pulse width distortion of 2) HCPL-52XX Hermetically Sealed
Flat-Panel Display row/column 15 ns Low Input Current Optocoupler
drivers. Examples of Flat-Panel • Common-mode transient rejec- 3) HCNW-2201/11 Widebody Low
Display technologies requiring such tion: 15,000 V/µs at 1000 V peak Input Current Optocoupler
high voltage technologies are Elec- 4) HCPL-2430/1 20 MBd Logic-Gate
tro-Luminescence, Fluorescence, Benefits Optocoupler
and Plasma technologies. The opto-
• Compact size and easy interface
coupler serves the functions of level
compared to pulse transformers
shifting and safety isolation.
• Low input current allowing CMOS
interface
• Low component count

AV02-4387EN 60 Avago Technologies


Power Supply Applications

Optical Isolation in a Switching Power Supply - Circuit No. 1


ISOLATION
BOUNDARY

AC
RECTIFIER POWER OUTPUT
LOAD
SWITCH FILTER
MAINS

PWM
CONTROLLER
ISO-AMP WITH +
CNR200/1 GAIN SYSTEM
OPTOCOUPLER — REFERENCE

POWER-OFF
AND
UNDER-VOLTAGE SENSE DIGITAL INTERRUPT MICRO-
OPTOCOUPLER PROCESSOR

HCPL-0708

Description Performance of Optocoupler References


Switching power supplies often • HCNR200/1 has 0.01% non-linear- 1) HCNR200/1 Analog Optocoupler
need to couple digital and analog ity and up to 1 MHz bandwidth Technical Data
signals between the primary and • HCPL-0708 has 60 ns maximum 2) HCPL-0708 High Speed Optocou-
secondary circuits. The above propagation delay time pler Technical Data
schematic shows an analog error • Both HCNR200/1 and HCPL-0708
signal representing the difference optocouplers meet worldwide Alternative Avago Parts
between the output voltage and the regulatory insulation guidelines 1) HCPL-7800 Isolation Amplifier
reference voltage being fed back to
2) HCPL-4503, HCNW4503 High
the primary side using a HCNR200/1 Benefits CMR Digital Optocoupler
Analog Optocoupler. The analog
• Accurate monitoring and con­trol 3) HCNW2601/11 Widebody, High
error signal helps the pulse-width
of secondary output voltage Speed Digital Optocoupler
modulation (PWM) controller de-
termine the exact pulse-width to • Power off condition detectable 4) 4N25, 4N35, CNY17, HCPL-181,
make the filtered output voltage at an early stage enabling the HCPL-817 Phototransistor Opto-
match the system reference voltage. microprocessor to save critical couplers
In a similar manner, the HCPL-0708 information
Digital Optocoupler can be used to
monitor the primary side power-off
and under-voltage condition.

AV02-4387EN 61 Avago Technologies


Power Supply Applications

Optical Isolation in a Switching Power Supply - Circuit No. 2

D1 R3

C1 R4
5V R9 R13
+

CATHODE
SUS* R7
ANODE
D4
HCPL-2200
R1
D5 PWM CHIP
L

C8
AC L1
POWER
+
R10
C2 ISOLATED
N C6 C7
D2 DC
R2 HCPL-2200 OUTPUT

C3
R8 +
R12
5V R11
C4 R5
* SUS = SILICON UNILATERAL SWITCH

D3 R6

Description Performance of Optocoupler References


The above figure shows a push-pull • Maximum propagation delay: 300 HCPL-2200 High CMR Optocoupler
switching power supply that uti- ns Technical Data
lizes the HCPL-2200 optocoupler • Input turn-on current: 1.6 mA
to drive switching transistors. The • Common-mode transient rejec- Alternative Avago Parts
above circuit uses a silicon unilateral tion: 1000 V/µs 1) HCPL-2219 Very High CMR Opto-
switch (SUS) to bootstrap start the coupler
power supply when power is first Benefits 2) HCNW2601/11 Widebody High
applied. The inhibit function in the CMR Optocoupler
• The power switches are protected
HCPL-2200 optocoupler has been
from common-mode conduction
used to good advantage to provide
failures caused by EMI
a common-mode conduc­tion inter-
lock function that will not allow both • Regulation range is increased
the switching transistors to turn on since no deadtime is required
at the same time. • Design is tolerant to propaga­tion
delay changes due to lot-to-lot
component variations

AV02-4387EN 62 Avago Technologies


Power Supply Applications

Optical Isolation in a DC/DC Converter

Isolation Boundary

DC Input Synchronous
Power Switch Rectifier/ Load
Output Filter

Digital Optocoupler PWM Controller


HCPL-0708

Isolated
Bias Supply

Description Performance of Optocoupler Alternative Avago Parts


The HCPL-0708 high speed opto- • HCPL-0708: 60 ns maximum 1) HCPL-0600 High Speed Optocou-
coupler provides very good safety propagation delay time and 15 ns pler
isolation between primary and sec- typical pulse width distortion 2) HCPL-2200 High CMR Optocou-
ondary sections of the DC/DC con- • 10KV/µs minimum CMR @ Vcm = pler
verter as shown in the above figure. 1KV 3) 4N25, 4N35, CNY17, HCPL-181,
The switching frequency specifica- • Wide operating temperature: HCPL-817 Phototransistor Opto-
tion of the DC/DC converter is met -40 to 100°C couplers
by the low propagation delay (60 ns
max.) and 15 ns typical pulse width Benefits
distortion of HCPL-0708 CMOS com- • Accurate monitoring and control
patible high speed optocoupler. The of output voltage
smaller size, better noise immunity
• Low propagation delay
performance, high reliability and
wide operating temperature make • Small size and high reliability
HCPL-0708 ideally suited for such • CMOS compatible and easy inter-
applications. face

AV02-4387EN 63 Avago Technologies


Application Notes
The following application notes and technical articles are available on Avago Technologies’ web site at:
http://www.avagotech.com/view/optocouplers
They can also be obtained from your local Avago Technologies' sales office or authorized Avago distributor.

Pub. No AN No Title Pub. Date


5988-6491EN AB 102 Avago Optoisolation Product PN System 28/05/02
5964-3898E AN 951-1 Applications for Low Input Current, High Gain Optocouplers 11/99
5954-8430 AN 951-2 Linear Applications of Optocouplers 11/99
5953-0406 AN 1004 Threshold Sensing for Industrial Control Systems with the HCPL-3700 11/99
Interface Optocoupler
5953-9359 AN 1018 Designing with the HCPL-4100 and HCPL-4200 Current Loop Optocou- 11/99
plers
5954-1006 AN 1024 Ring Detection with the HCPL-3700 Optocoupler 11/99
5965-5980E AN 1036 Small Signal Solid State Relays 11/99
5965-5979E AN 1043 Common-Mode Noise: Sources and Solutions 11/99
5965-5978E AN 1046 Low On-Resistance Solid State Relays 11/99
5091-6315E AN 1059 High CMR Isolation Amplifier for Current Sensing 11/99
5965-5977E AN 1074 Optocoupler Input-Output Endurance Voltage 11/99
5965-5976E AN 1078 Designing With Avago Technologies Isolation Amplifiers 11/99
5965-5975E AN 1087 Thermal Data for Optocouplers 11/99
5988-3944EN AN 1252 Variable Speed Drive Applications in the Consumer Market 20/09/01
5988-3945EN AN 1253 Variable Speed Drive Applications in the Low-power Industrial Market 20/09/01
5988-3946EN AN 1254 Variable Speed Drive Applications in the Consumer Market 20/09/01
5988-8267EN AN 1321 High Speed CMOS Optocouplers Applications in Field Bus Networks 07/11/02
5988-8560EN AN1335 Main Applications and Selection of Gate Driver Optocouplers 09/01/03
5988-9262EN AN1357 Overview of High Performance Analog Optocouplers 16/04/03
5988-9769EN AN5004 Design and Applications of HCPL-3020 and 25/06/03
HCPL-0302 Gate Drive Optocouplers
5962-6894E SN 101 Overview of Avago Technologies Optical Isolation Technology and 06/96
Products for Motor Control Applications
White Papers: Bullet Proof Industrial Communications
5980-1297E Optocouplers for Variable Speed Motor 05/00
Control Electronics in Consumer Home Appliances
5988-5076EN Using 10 and 15 MBd Optocouplers and 08/02/02
Optically-isolated Gate Drivers with AC
Plasma Display Panel

For product information and a complete list of distributors, please go to our web site: www.avagotech.com

Avago, Avago Technologies, and the A logo are trademarks of Avago Technologies in the United States and other countries.
Data subject to change. Copyright © 2005-2014 Avago Technologies. All rights reserved. Obsoletes 5989-0802EN
AV02-4387EN - January 3, 2014