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# Q1.

Derive the transfer function of a DC motor whose input is Voltage and output
is position. Derive another transfer function whose output is velocity, given the
same input.
Solution. A DC motor can be either Armature Controlled or Field Controlled. In Armature Controlled
DC motors controlled signal is applied in the form of voltages at the armature terminals while keeping
the field terminals at constant-magnet field.

## Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of an armature-controlled DC motor

To model the shown DC motor, some parameters should be defined; which are given below.

## 𝑅𝑎 = 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑖𝑛 𝑜ℎ𝑚𝑠

𝐿𝑎 = 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑖𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑟𝑦𝑠
𝑖𝑎 = 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠
𝑖𝑓 = 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠
𝑒𝑎 = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠
𝑒𝑏 = 𝑏𝑎𝑐𝑘 𝑒𝑚𝑓 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑠
𝜃 = 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑠
𝑇 = 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑁𝑚
𝐽=
𝑏 = 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡, 𝑁𝑚. 𝑟𝑎𝑑−1 . 𝑠 −1
The flux ᴪ produced between the air gap is proportional to the field current and the torque T delivered
by the motor is proportional to the product of the flux ᴪ and the armature current.

𝑇 = 𝐾𝑎 𝑖𝑎 ᴪ
ᴪ = K f 𝑖𝑓

𝑇 = 𝐾𝑓 𝑖𝑓 𝐾𝑎 𝑖𝑎

𝐾𝑡 = 𝐾𝑎 𝐾𝑓 𝑖𝑓

## Thus torque becomes

𝑇 = 𝐾𝑡 𝑖𝑎
When the armature rotates, it also produce an emf inside the armature winding. This emf is called back
𝑑𝜃
emf and is proportional to the angular velocity 𝑑𝑡 = 𝜃 ′. Thus with a back emf constant Kb we have

𝑒𝑏 = 𝐾𝑏 𝜃 ′
In SI units both the motor torque and back emf constants are equal; 𝐾𝑏 = 𝐾𝑡 = 𝐾

For differential equation of the circuit by using KVL at the armature side of the circuit we get
𝑑𝑖
𝐿𝑎 = −𝑅𝑎 𝑖𝑎 + 𝑒𝑎 − 𝑒𝑏 (1)
𝑑𝑡

The current in the armature winding produces the torque which then can be applied to the inertia and
friction. By using law of equilibrium we get

𝑑2 𝜃 𝑑𝜃
𝐽 2
= −𝑓 +𝑇
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

Now, by assuming all the initial conditions to be zero, and then taking the Laplace transform of the
above three equations, we get

1. 𝐾𝑏 𝑠 𝜃(𝑠) = 𝐸𝑏 (𝑠)
2. (𝐿𝑎 𝑠 + 𝑅𝑎 )𝐼𝑎 (𝑠) + 𝐸𝑏 (𝑠) = 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)
3. (𝐽𝑠 2 + 𝑓𝑠)𝜃(𝑠) = 𝑇(𝑠) = 𝐾𝐼𝑎 (𝑠)

## 4. (𝐿𝑎 𝑠 + 𝑅𝑎 )𝐼𝑎 (𝑠) + 𝐾𝑏 𝑠𝜃(𝑠) = 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)

And from equation 3 & 4 we get
(𝐽𝑠2 +𝑓𝑠)𝜃(𝑠)
5. (𝐿𝑎 𝑠 + 𝑅𝑎 ) + 𝐾𝑏 𝑠𝜃(𝑠) = 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)
𝐾

By simplifying,
[(𝐿𝑎 𝑠+𝑅𝑎 )(𝐽𝑠2 +𝑓𝑠)+𝐾𝐾𝑏 𝑠]
6. 𝐾
𝜃(𝑠) = 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)

Taking 𝜃(𝑠) as output and 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠) as input the transfer function will be
𝜃(𝑠) K
7. 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)
= [(𝐿 2 +𝑓𝑠)+𝐾𝐾 𝑠]
𝑎 𝑠+𝑅𝑎 )(𝐽𝑠 𝑏

Or

𝜃(𝑠)
1. 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)
=
K
𝑠[𝐿𝑎 𝐽𝑠2 +(𝐿𝑎 𝑓+𝑅𝑎 𝐽)𝑠+𝑅𝑎 𝑓 +𝐾𝐾𝑏 ]
𝜃(𝑠) K
8. =
𝐸𝑎 (𝑠) 𝑠[𝐿𝑎 𝐽𝑠2 +(𝐿𝑎 𝑓+𝑅𝑎 𝐽)𝑠+𝑅𝑎 𝑓 +𝐾𝐾𝑏 ]

Now recalling that the angular velocity is the derivative of the angular position,
𝑑𝜃
𝜔=
𝑑𝑡
By taking the Laplace transform we get

𝜔(𝑠) = 𝑠𝜃(𝑠)
Thus substituting in equation 8 we get transfer function for angular velocity.

𝜔(𝑠) K
9. 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)
= [𝐿 2 +(𝐿
𝑎 𝐽𝑠 𝑎 𝑓+𝑅𝑎 𝐽)𝑠+𝑅𝑎 𝑓 +𝐾𝐾𝑏 ]

Q2. By ignoring the inductor, derive a new transfer function (ignore this if you
have made this assumption in the previous part). This transfer function would be
1st order transfer function (velocity output, voltage input).
Solution. By ignoring the inductor the transfer function will reduce to
𝜔(𝑠) K
10. 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)
=𝑅 𝑠𝐽+𝑅
𝑎 𝑎 𝑓 +𝐾𝐾𝑏

By simplifying,
𝜔(𝑠) K
11. 𝐸𝑎 (𝑠)
= 𝑅𝑎 𝐽
𝑅𝑎 𝑓 +𝐾𝐾𝑏 ( 𝑠+1)
𝑅𝑎𝑓 +𝐾𝐾𝑏

Now let,
𝐾
𝐾𝑚 = = 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑔𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑅𝑎 𝑓 + 𝐾𝐾𝑏
And
𝑅𝑎 𝐽
𝑇𝑚 = = 𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑅𝑎 𝑓 + 𝐾𝐾𝑏
Then the transfer function will become
𝜔(𝑠) 𝐾𝑚
12. =
𝐸𝑎 (𝑠) 𝑇𝑚 𝑠+1
Q3. Make a block diagram of the simplified DC motor in Simulink. Give it a step
input.
Solution.