ANALYSING THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN STRUCTURAL DETAILS

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ANALYSING THE FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN STRUCTURAL DETAILS

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345-361, 1996

0013-7944(95)00149-2

Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

0013-7944/96 $15.00 + 0.00

STRUCTURAL DETAILS

G. S. WANG

Department of Light-Weight Structures, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm and The

Structures Division, The Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, P.O. Box 11021, S-161 11, Bromma,

Sweden

Abstraet--A unified procedure is proposed to compute both the stress intensity factor (SIF) and the fatigue

crack growth for part-through cracks in complex structural details. This method is an extension of the

approximate three-dimensional (3D) weight function (WF) method in solving both SIF and fatigue crack

growth problems for complex structural details using only the stress distribution in perspectivecrack sites.

The fatigue crack growth analysis is based on the plastic deformation induced crack closure mechanism

which is determined according to the strip yieldingmodel. Cycle-by-cyclefatigue crack growth predictions

have been made based on Elber's crack growth relation. The fatigue crack growth analysisis closelyrelated

to the cyclic stress experience, the configuration of structural detail, the applied load spectrum and the

material property. The advantage and limitation of the method have been discussed. Some examples have

been provided for the fatigue crack growth analyses for structural details of a Swedish fighter/attacker

aircraft to demonstrate the methodology. This paper shows that an efficient, solid, unified theoretical

frame can be established for reliable analyses of the fatigue crack growth in complex structural details

for general engineering applications.

INTRODUCTION

IN THE engineering fatigue crack growth analysis, fracture mechanics based models are often used.

The Paris [l, 2] type of crack growth laws [3-5] (including Wheeler's [6] and Willenborg's [7]

models, etc.), the C T O D method [8] and Elber's relation [9] etc. are based on various aspects of

the crack tip plastic deformation. The Paris law benefits from the close relation between the crack

tip plasticity and stress intensity factor (SIF)[10, 11]. The C T O D method is intended to use the

crack tip plastic deformation directly as a parameter to characterise the fatigue crack growth.

Eiber's closure model is a supplement to the Paris law by taking consideration of the plastic

deformation on the fatigue crack surface. The retardation models of Wheeler and Willenborg are

more specified to the effect of overload to the crack growth rate by accounting for the plastic zone

change due to overload. In these models, the SIF range, AK, is used, but modified in one way or

another. The partial success of these models for different aspects of fatigue crack growth suggests

that a general fatigue crack growth model can possibly be developed if the plasticity around the

crack tip under cyclic loading can be analysed.

In a fatigue crack growth process, the structure is subjected to cyclic loading and unloading.

During the process o f unloading, the same as for the loading, the material at the crack tip cannot

sustain the high compression stress concentration at the crack tip due to the plastic deformation

at the crack tip under loading process, a reverse yielding will happen at some level -fiery [see

Fig. l(d)], where fl is used to represent the Baushinger effect. As a result of this reverse yielding,

the crack tip is resharpened after a crack increment due to the plastic deformation for both loading

and unloading. It is possible that the reverse yielding adds another crack length increment due to

the damage of plastic buckling. The resharpening of the crack tip creates a possibility for the crack

increment for the next load cycle. The movement of the reverse yielding as a function of the cyclic

load history is probably the major plasticity driving force for the fatigue crack growth. Here, the

plastic stretches on the crack surface play the same ihaportant role to affect the crack growth as

the plastic deformation ahead of the crack tip.

The reverse yielding at the crack tip begins almost immediately after unloading because of the

highest stress concentration at the crack tip caused by previous plastic deformations. The reverse

yielding will be dramatically reduced if the crack surface begins to contact. The amount of reverse

yielding during the unloading process may determine the amount of crack length increment for

each load cycle. The reverse yielding after the crack closure is insignificant as the crack tip stress

345

346 G.S. WANG

Om,n

Om,0; (c)

Fig. I. Schematicof the plasticityinducedcrack closure and the strip fatiguecrack growth model.

concentration is now substantially reduced. The AKo~is closely related to the reverse yielding, the

fatigue crack growth driving force, because it accounts for the SIF for the load range when the

crack tip is still open. As a fatigue crack growth parameter, AK~ correlates well the material

property to the mechanical crack driving force at the crack tip so long as the crack opening level

can be determined. Similar to the AK concept, AKc~rhas an advantage of simplicity compared to

the direct evaluation of the crack tip reverse yielding.

The application of the AKin-concept is not simple. The crack closure is a kind of structural

memory for a load history. It varies as a complicate function of load spectrum and geometry. A

detailed plastic deformation solution both ahead of the crack tip and on the crack surfaces is needed

to determine AKc~based on the cycle-by-cycle load sequence which simulates the load experience

of structures. Accurate solution can only be realised by using numerical methods for general

problems based on the cycle-by-cycle crack growth evaluation under variable amplitude loading.

However significant advances have been made for the general purpose numerical methods

such as the FE method[12, 13], the boundary element method[14, 15], the alternative FE

method [16, 17] and the p-version FE [ 18] etc. for the computation of accurate SIFs. These methods

usually need large computer capability and their modelling of cracks is often cumbersome when

the whole range of SIFs as functions of crack shape and size is needed for the fatigue crack growth

analysis. Most of all, it is now still unrealistic to solve the elastic-plastic crack closure problem

for spectrum load by using the general purpose numerical methods. These numerical methods are

inherently inefficient in solving the crack front stress singularity, the large plastic deformation at

the crack front, the elastic-plastic contact on the crack surfaces and the plastic reverse yielding

around the crack front. It is often time consuming, inaccurate and cumbersome to model structural

details using these numerical methods for the cycle-by-cycle based fatigue crack growth analysis.

A special purpose numerical model should be developed to analyse the fatigue crack growth

problems.

When an accuracy less than 10% can be accepted, conservative SIFs can be efficiently solved

based on accurate solutions for similar simple configurations using only the stress distribution

solution for uncracked structure by using the weight function (WF) method for part-through

cracks [19, 20]. The most important part of the application of the WF method is that the method

Fracture crack growth in structural details 347

also provides an efficient way to solve the crack tip plasticity under cyclic fatigue loading based

on the strip yielding model for most of ductile materials.

The strip fatigue crack growth analysis model is based on the Dugdale [21]-Barenblatt [22]

crack tip material strip yielding assumption. In this model, the plastic deformation ahead of the

crack tip is left on the crack surface when the fatigue crack tip moves into the plastic zone (Fig. 1).

By solving the effect of the plastic deformation both ahead of the crack tip and on the crack surface,

the crack tip reverse yielding and crack closure can be determined. In application, the strip model

analysis was intended to supplement Elber's crack closure concept which is a modification of the

Paris law by the acknowledgement of the crack closure phenomenon. This model can be used to

approximately solve fatigue crack growth problems. The model is initially developed to solve crack

tip plastic deformation problems for the plane stress state. In the last decade, it has been extended

to solve the fatigue crack growth problems for plane strain state as well. In the present

investigation, the strip model will be further extended to solve part-through crack problems. The

strip model is based on elastic methods. It is much more simple and matured than other

elastic-plastic methods for solving the elastic-plastic crack related problems, especially when the

model is combined with the WF theory [23, 24].

Although the basic lay-out of the strip yielding model has been established through the early

works of Dill and Saff[25], Fuehring and Seeger [26], Budiansky and Hutchinson [27], and

Newman [28], the model was limited to simple configurations until Wang and Blom [29] developed

a new procedure which combined the latest development in the WF theory. The new procedure

has overcome many limitations of previous procedures so that it can be used now for serious

applications to solve crack problems for general structural problems.

In this paper, combined with the recent development in WF methods for part-through cracks,

the strip model is further extended to the fatigue crack growth of part-through cracks in complex

structural details. In this development, the SIF is determined using only the stress results in the

uncracked structural details based on an approximate 3D WF method. Then, a simplified

procedure is developed based on experimental observations for fatigue striations on the crack

surface to compute the crack surface displacement for the strip tension on the crack surface for

part-through cracks to realise the strip model analysis. Some examples for comparison of the

computed and experimental crack growth results for some realistic structural details are presented

to demonstrate this procedure. Discussions are added to illustrate the advantage and limitation of

the method. This procedure consists of the SIF computation and crack growth model. They will

be separately introduced in the following sections.

For a cracked body subjected to any two systems of crack surface pressures, it has been shown

by Bueckner [23] in 1970 and Rice [24] in 1972 that there is a relation:

S

for the SIF K~> for load system (1) and SIF KTM for load system (2). Here, H is a generalised elastic

modulus, which is equal to E for the plane stress state and E/(1 - v 2) for the plane strain state.

E is Young's modulus and v is Poisson's ratio. AS is a virtual crack front growth. 6 w ~ is the virtual

crack opening displacement (COD) increment due to the virtual crack front growth AS for the load

system (1) and 6 w ~ is the virtual COD increment due to the virtual crack front growth AS for

the load system (2). rrI~) and rr~21are the crack surface pressure distributions, respectively, for load

systems (1) and (2). S is the crack surface area.

For a given geometry, eq. (1) gives a relation between K~) and 6 w ~ for load system (1), and

/~2) and the corresponding crack surface pressure a ¢2) for load system (2), or vice versa. Once K~1

and ~wm for load system (l) are known, it is possible to determine K~2~for load system (2) from

only the knowledge of the crack surface pressure a <2). This makes it possible to compute the SIF

for general load according to the superposition principle of linear elasticity based on some reference

solution for simple load cases or even the solutions for some similar geometry.

348 G. S, WANG

Although varieties of SIFs are now available (e.g. in the collection of Murakami et al. [30]),

the corresponding COD fields are seldom provided. The development of approximate W F methods

which are mainly based on the pioneer work of Petroski and Achenbach [31], depends on the

success of approximately solving the COD fields [32-36], based on both a reference SIF result and

the corresponding crack surface pressure which can be more easily obtained based on the

superposition principle. All these approximate COD fields can be generally expressed as a series

extension of:

1

with a limited number of terms. Dimensions in eq. (2) are shown schematically in Fig. 2. Using

this expression, the variation of the COD field due to any virtual crack front growth AS can be

solved as:

where

&:- ~, ~ + ~ 1- (5)

).=0 ()1 + 2~0

and

f aA~

~ = ~ --(a;. +

l

~)A:.pa 0p&:

q~- - t - ~ @

L (~. + ~)&. P ~ (6)

defines the crack shape, size and spatial position.

A derivative on both sides of the W F relation, eq. (1), with respect to an arbitrary crack front

increment AS gives a simpler relation of:

Here K r is a SIF corresponding to the COD field wr or the crack surface pressure o"r for a

reference load case. K is the SIF for the crack surface pressure tr or the COD field w.

Write the reference SIF as:

K r = ~K0, (8)

Fracture crack growth in structural details 349

where

Kr

Y c - /Co (9)

is a geometry function which accounts for the boundary effect on the SIF. K0 is the exact SIF

solution for an embedded crack in an infinite body under a remote uniform tension perpendicular

to the crack plane, which is analytically expressed as:

Ko - Q ~ c o s 2 0 + sin-0 , (10)

Assuming a series expression [19, 20, 37] for the SIF to be computed as:

K = Zc~,co,(q~)K0, (11)

where ~ is a group of coefficients which is a function of crack size a and c, and ~ol is a group of

assumed element functions used to approximate the variation of SIF along the crack front (function

of parameter angle ~b, see Fig. 2).

For a given crack size a and c, the following linear equation with respect to coefficients ~, can

be derived according to eqs (7) and (11) as:

(13)

-- ,D,,<,[, - ( )7

where

0N

(14)

"~ OK

c~ = Z ~ OAS,'

~-=1

The linear equation group of eq, (12) can be explicitly expressed as:

where

S~ (16)

oJr' ~-JTv "-~-~[ E 0(£)r ]dS.

In principle, the SIF for arbitrary crack surface pressure a can be acceptably determined with

EFM 53/~-D

350 G.S. WANG

the coefficients ~i solved according to the linear equation of eq. (15) for a given reference boundary

effect function ~ and the corresponding COD solution ~r, if the elementary function group o9~is

correctly assumed. The maximum number of independent terms in the approximate SIF expression

(terms of ~i and o~,) in eq. (11) is determined by the maximum number of independent virtual crack

front growth AS.,.

Based on the superposition principle of linear elasticity, many of the remote load cases can

be substituted by using a system of crack surface pressure. The above WF procedure can then be

used to compute the SIFs. References [20, 34, 35, 37] give detailed solutions for application of this

method.

For the fatigue crack growth analysis, the modified strip yielding model can be approximately

used even for part-through cracks. The strip closure model is started from the Dugdale-Barenblatt

strip yield assumption that the cancellation of the physical impossible stress singularity (infinite

of stress magnitude) at the crack tip is caused by the plastic yield of the material at the crack tip

following an assumed strip manner in the crack tip plastic zone [see the shaded area ahead of the

crack tip shown in Fig. l(b)]. From this assumption, not only the solution for the plastic zone size

[ro in Fig. l(b)] but also the amount of elastic deformation and plastic deformation [the shaded

area ahead of the crack tip in Fig. l(a, b)] can be quantitatively solved.

The existence of plastically stretched materials in the plastic zone will lead to a system of

residual stresses in the plastic zone at the zero load state [Fig. 1(d)]. The plastic stretch in the plastic

zone acts like a wedge to prevent the crack surface from closing [Fig. 1(c, d)]. The sharp edge of

this plastic wedge near the physical crack tip means a high reverse stress concentration in the

unloading process. This stress concentration will probably exceed the reverse yield stress of material

and the reverse plastic deformation will happen at the physical crack tip [Fig. l(c, d)].

This is the knowledge which can be retrieved from the original Dugdale-Barenblatt concept.

The main approximation in this concept is the single axial strip yielding assumption made for the

material in the plastic zone. The effect of stresses on the crack tip yielding for other load directions

is neglected. This concept is traditionally restricted to the plane stress condition. Many experiments

in plane stress conditions are supportive for this approximation. In the plane stress condition, the

constrained through-thickness plastic flow (necking in the thickness direction) can be more easily

imagined to fill the gap and form a plastic wedge. Arguments arise mainly for the application of

the strip model to the plane strain condition because "extra" plastic stretches needed to fill the

gap between the Dugdale crack surfaces in the plastic zone are not straightforward to be

demonstrated.

However, even for a perfect plane strain condition, enough plastic stretches, as demonstrated

by the 3D FE fatigue crack growth computation [38], are still possible to be formed by the in-plane

plastic deformation because the amount of plastic stretches needed to fill the gap is small due to

the three-axial stress state at the crack tip and the incomplete contact due to the necking induced

crack surface striation caused by the cyclic load. Similar to Irwin's plane strain plastic model, a

constraint factor, which is used to account for the effect of stresses in the tangential direction of

the crack front, can be used to approximate the yield stress in the plastic zone according to the

Von Mises yielding criterion (J2 flow theory). The Dugdale model, modified with a constraint factor

which accounts for the 3D effect according to the general yield criterion, is used for the plane strain

condition to approximate the major feature of the crack tip plasticity.

According to the Dugdale-Barenblatt strip yield assumption, the plastic zone size rp (Fig. 1)

can be solved by a condition of:

which removes the stress singularity at the edge of plastic zone. Here, /~L is the K factor due to

a unit remote load and K~ (p, p + rp) is the K factor due to a unit strip tension on the strip p

p + rp at the crack front. The strip tension at the crack tip represents the effect of plastic yielding.

Fracture crack growth in structural details 351

After the crack front plastic zone size r o has been determined from eq. (17), the plastic

deformation ahead of the crack tip, 6p(r), can be approximately computed for the first load cycle by:

6p(r) = ~rcw?_(r,p + rp) -- aoW",(r,p, p + ro), (18)

where w~(r, p + rp) is the crack surface displacement due to a unit remote load and wg(r, p, p + ro)

is the crack surface displacement due to a unit uniform tension acting on the strip of p ~ p + rp.

or0 is the material yield stress at the crack tip.

The solution of 6o(r) represents the permanent plastic deformation ahead of the crack tip due

to the material yielding at a yield stress of tr0. In the strip plastic solution, not only the SIF is

required, but also the corresponding crack surface displacement solution is needed.

The basic W F relation ofeq. (7) for part-through crack problems can be simplified using polar

coordinates as shown in Fig. 2.

Based on fractographic observations for most of experimental fatigue crack surfaces that the

naturally developed fatigue cracks usually have approximately constant aspect ratio, the crack

surface stress and residual stress both ahead of the crack front and on the crack surface can be

approximated as a single function of r/p (constant aspect ratio). Then, the W F solution of eq. (19)

can be simplified. In this case, the SIF K t2) for arbitrary crack surface pressure a 12~can be explicitly

solved as:

K~2)=

fo"a<2~(r/P)KH~u pr OW~c ;o"

c3p~)dr = a~2)(r/p)m(r,p) dr, a/c=constant, (20)

where

I

H r Ow~ X~p r ~ ( r)'-~ (21)

m(r,p)-- [(,, p Op -- P ~i(p) 1-- P

is a generalised W F expression which, in analogy to the solutions [39] for the plane crack problems,

can be solved with the local SIF solution and the corresponding crack surface pressure. Here, fl~(p)

is a group of coefficients as function of the crack size p and r is the polar coordinate (see the

geometry relation shown in Fig. 2). From this relation, the SIF due to the crack tip strip tension

a acting on r - p can be solved by an integration of:

1

),p (22)

cp

where K~,(r, p) is the SIF for a unit tension acting on r - p, which can be analytically solved as

/~.(r, p) = 2 ,~ fl~(P) (2i + 3)(2i + 1) (1 -- r/p) i+ (23)

The crack surface displacement due to any crack surface pressure cr(r/p) or a load which leads

to a SIF K can be generally solved according to the basic W F relation of eq. (20) as:

From this relation, the crack surface displacement for a unit pressure acting on the strip of

r - p can be solved by a single integration of:

wY,(ro,r, p) = ~

1;" Kg(ro,p) p m(r,p) dp, (25)

352 G.S. WANG

where K~(r, p) has been analytically solved in eq. (23). The crack surface displacement due to a

unit remote load can also be solved according to eq. (24) as

r dp, (26)

Jr

where/~L is the SIF due to a unit remote load. This integration can be efficiently solved by numerical

methods, e.g. the Gaussian quadrature [40].

Combined with the yield condition of eq. (17) and the crack surface displacement solved for

both the remote load and crack tip plastic yielding stress, the plastic zone size and plastic

deformation wedge ahead of the crack front can be solved by the superposition principle of linear

elasticity.

In a cyclic fatigue crack growth process, the plastic wedge ahead of the crack tip will move

onto the crack surface when the crack grows into the plastic zone. Upon unloading, these residual

plastic wedges on the crack surface may make contact before the minimum load is reached,

preventing further crack tip reverse plastic yielding. By computing the contact of these plastic

wedges, the crack tip closure condition can be determined.

In the strip model, the crack closure at the crack tip is computed by dividing the residual plastic

wedge both ahead of the crack front and on the crack surface into a system of elements [Fig. l(b,

d)]. The stress both ahead of and behind the crack front is approximated using a step function

[Fig. l(c, d)] with a constant stress of:

a,-

ri + I -- Fi

~r/+ I a0(r) dr (27)

on each element. The elements are rigid perfectly-plastic ones with constant stresses. When a large

enough number of elements with adaptive sizes is used according to the stress gradient, the stress

distribution [29] in the plastic wedge can be satisfactorily approximated [41] (Fig. 1).

The fatigue crack growth for the plane strain condition can be approximately analysed using

a modified strip treatment by introducing a constraint factor to account for the 3D constraint for

the crack tip plastic deformation. The 3D constraint is mainly within the plastic zone under

maximum load. It has less effect to the plastic deformation near the crack tip due to the free surface

at the crack tip after initial crack tip deformation (bluntness).

The 3D constraint effect is minimal for the crack surface plastic wedges due to the crack

surface striations (incomplete contact). It can be approximately assumed, as proposed by

Newman [28], for a yielding constraint condition of -fla0. Here, fl is a coefficient used to account

for the Baushinger effect. The yielding condition for the elements can be written as:

- flao <_ at <%Otao r ~ (p, p -[- rp) (28)

for elements in the plastic zone and

- flao <_ at < O r ~ (O, p) (29)

for elements on the crack surface. Here, ~ is Irwin's constraint factor to account for the 3D

constraint along the crack front, iT0 is a flow stress which is an average of the ultimate stress ~b

and yield stress ay.

At any loading level ~L, the wedging of the residual plastic stretches in both the plastic zone

and on the crack surface will induce a system of residual stresses on the elements [Fig. l(d)]. Let

at represent the stress on element i. The deformation on all the elements must meet a displacement

compliance requirement of:

t=l

where 6p(r) is the size of the plastic wedge, w~(r, p -F rp) is the crack surface displacement due to

a unit remote load for a crack size of p + rp and w~(rt, rt +~, r, p + rp) is the crack surface

Fracture crack growth in structural details 353

displacement due to a unit strip crack surface tension acting on the strip of r, - r, +~ for a crack

size of p + rr. Here, rp is the plastic zone size which is determined from eq. (17).

Under constraint conditions ofeqs (28) and (29), the stress on each element can be numerically

solved [42] from the displacement compliance relation ofeq. (30) according to a recurrence iterative

relation:

i=l,i~k

oh = w~(rk, rk+ ~, rk, p + rp) (31)

For the element which has met the yield condition, the plastic stretches 6p should be

recalculated by:

i=1

The crack opening stress can then be computed as a remote load level O-opwhich makes the

residual stress at the crack tip element, a,~o, equal to zero:

a,~p(aop) = 0. (33)

In this model, the load history will be recorded by the deformation of the elements so that

most of the plastic deformation related fatigue crack growth feature can be accounted for.

The crack surface displacement due to a unit strip tension on the strip of r0 - r~ on the crack

surface, wU(r0,r~, r, p), can be solved by the superposition of solution w~(ro, r, p) given in eq. (25)

as:

where w~(ro, r, p ) is the crack surface displacement for a unit strip tension acting on the strip of

r0 -- r.

The cycle-by-cycle fatigue crack growth is then computed according to Elber's type of crack

growth relation:

dp

d N = f [AKe~(p )], (35)

where

m g e f f ( p ) = (O'ma x - - O ' o p ) g ~ ( p ) . (36)

Here, K~_ is the K factor for a unit applied load.

With the above introduced procedure, many part-through crack problems in complex

structural details can be approximately analysed for ductile materials. In this section, several

examples will be provided for the application of the procedure to some crack growth analysis

problems for a Swedish fighter/attacker [43]. The advantage and limitation of the procedure will

also be discussed. The problems involved are the crack growth analysis for a critical detail in the

forward fin attachment and the fatigue crack growth analyses for several details in the main wing

attachment. These details are considered to be vital structural details for the safety of the aircraft.

The material used for both the fin attachment and wing attachment is a Swedish aluminium

AA7009 alloy (7075 type of aluminium alloy). The static strength and fatigue crack growth rate

for constant amplitude cyclic load are shown in Fig. 3. The crack growth rate and effective AKe~

relation is obtained by using the crack growth rate for a high stress ratio (R = 0.7) in an empirical

fitted relation [44, 45] obtained from the experimental crack growth data for several different load

ratios because the crack closure for such a high stress ratio is negligible. The fatigue crack growth

base-line data (the symbols in Fig. 3) are then approximately represented by a piece-wise-linear

354 G.S. WANG

IB-4

AA7009 L-S/L-T

8

1E-5 Aluminium Alloy

1E-6-

Gb=500 MPa

1E-8 E=70600 MPa

approximation

1E-11 ~

1 10 100

A K e f f (MPa~/m)

Fig. 3. Fatigue crack growth rate against effectiveK factor range relation and the static strength of the

aluminium alloy AA7009.

relation shown in Fig. 3 as a solid curve. From the material data shown in Fig. 3, the fatigue crack

growth for spectrum load can be analysed by using the present procedure so long as the static stress

at the possible crack location in the structural detail is available.

The first example of the fatigue crack growth computation is for a crack growth at the leg

of the forward fin attachment. At this location, a naturally developed crack has been discovered

during the component fatigue test at about two times the design frame life. The experimental fatigue

crack growth history has then been traced back from the fractographic observation and

reconstructed as a function of life time as the symbolised curve shows in Fig. 3. The schematic

of FE analysis has been made to compute the stress distribution for this component [43]. The FE

model is shown in Fig. 4. From the FE computation, the stress in the perspective crack plane is

obtained.

By using a SIF and the corresponding crack surface pressure for a much simpler configuration,

the configuration of a corner crack located at the edge of a large straight end plate as a reference,

the SIF for the crack at the leg of the forward fin attachment is approximately computed by using

Fracture crack growth in structural details 355

0.02

Forward fin attachment l'

• ' I I

"" "0" "" Experimental a ~ i'

o.o-I /

d"~

0"001

v I - I I I I

Design Life

Fig. 5. C o m p a r i s o n o f the predicted a n d experimental fatigue crack g r o w t h for a corner crack at the leg

of the forward fin attachment.

the FE stress at the perspective crack plane. As the WF for the straight end plate is larger than

the WF for the concave end, the computed SIF by using the WF for the straight end plate is

conservative (5% for most cases and 10% for the extreme case [20, 37]).

The computed SIF is used as a basic reference to analyse the fatigue crack growth by using

the strip fatigue crack growth model. The initial crack size used in the crack growth model is

obtained by extrapolating the experimental data to the service time zero (Fig. 5). By using this

initial crack size and the basic material data shown in Fig. 3, the fatigue crack growth at this

location is computed for the same spectrum as that used in the laboratory. The load spectrum is

a Gaussian type of symmetrical load sequence which approximately represents the load experience

on the fin. The predicted fatigue crack growth is shown in Fig. 5 as solid curves. The predicted

crack size agrees with the experimental result very well, but there is a considerable disagreement

for the aspect ratio. The predicted result tends to be a quarter-circular crack while the experimental

result shows a much smaller nearly constant aspect ratio. This difference is due to the simplified

WF used in the crack growth analysis model. In the analysis, the WF has been simplified by using

the WF for a straight end plate which is considerably different from the detail in the forward fin

attachment (Fig. 4). In damage tolerance analysis of the structural details, it is often the crack size,

instead of the crack shape, which is more important. The prediction result shown in Fig. 5 by using

the present procedure is considered satisfactory. The good agreement is due to the good SIF

solution which is directly computed from the stress in the structural detail and the good

approximation by using the WF for the simple configuration.

The second example is for the analysis of fatigue crack growth at a large fuel hole in the main

wing attachment, the lower fuel hole. The FE analysis for the whole main wing attachment has

been performed [43, 46] (see the FE model shown in Fig. 6). The edge of the fuel hole is identified

as one of the critical areas in the wing attachment due to its high stress concentration. A fatigue

experiment has been made for the crack growth at this area by introducing an initial crack of the

size 1.27 mm with an aspect ratio of 1. The frame is then subjected to a type of FALSTAFF wing

root load spectrum which is representative for corresponding fighter missions. Experimental fatigue

crack growth results are shown in Fig. 7 as symbols.

Again, using the reference SIF and corresponding stress distribution for a similar simple

356 G.S. WANG

A

configuration, the single corner crack at the edge of a hole in a large plate, the SlFs for the fatigue

crack at the lower fuel hole have been computed based on the FE stress results in the perspective

crack plane. Then the strip model is established according to the procedure introduced in the

previous section. Using the same initial crack size of 1.27 mm with an aspect ratio of 1, the fatigue

crack growth is computed for the same load spectrum as used in the laboratory based on the basic

material data given in Fig. 3. The curves in Fig. 7 show the computed results. The predicted results

agree very well with experimental results for both the crack size and aspect ratio. For this case,

no computation has been made for larger crack sizes as the reference WF is no longer valid.

The use of the present procedure does not always provide such good results for the analysis

of fatigue crack growth under spectrum loading if the basic understanding of the methodology is

not obtained. The dashed curves shown in Fig. 8 give the predicted results using the same procedure

for the corner crack growing at the upper fuel hole (Fig. 6). At this location, as revealed by the

FE stress analysis, a high stress concentration is observed. It is also one of the critical areas for

the safety of the main wing attachment. A 1.27 mm initial crack with an aspect ratio of 1 is

introduced at this location and the fatigue experiment has been performed to investigate the growth

0.025 o

Main wing attachment

Lower fuel hole

0.02 - 0

I"1 Experimental a

,~ O Exper~ental c [ ~ :11"1

0.015 - 9

.~ Predicted ¢ []

r~ DO

....... Predicted a []

0.01- • [] 0

0.0050

Design L i f e

Fig. 7. Comparison of the predicted and experimentalfatiguecrack growth for a corner crack at the lower

fuel hole in the main wing attachment.

Fracture crack growth in structural details 357

0.02

Main wing attachmentupperfuel hole

e-WF-Exp. / 0

0.015

a-WF-Exp. 0

I

....... c,-WF-FE

"~ 0.01 .......... a-WF-FE //' / J-/

* a-Exp,fjLO / /

• e-Exp.~ .,. ,s

0°005 .,,."

,a,l i . m, o It ~ l t ~

o~ • oalpo~'

0 I I I

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Design Life

Fig. 8. Comparison of the predicted and experimental fatigue crack growth for a corner crack at the upper

fuel hole in the main wing attachment.

of this crack. The experimental results are shown in Fig. 8 as symbols. The crack became very large

even for the first design life span. Compared to the lower fuel hole, this location is more severe

for the safety of the wing attachment. At this hole, it takes nearly a factor of 1 less time for a crack

to grow to the same size compared to the lower fuel hole.

The predicted results (dashed curves) overestimate the fatigue crack growth in this detail by

about a factor of 1. Such prediction is not appropriate even for the implementation of the half

life time inspection. Such crack growth analysis leads to unsafe structural detail which is not

acceptable in the application.

As the WF used in the analysis is conservative, the strip model is a relatively reliable model

for the crack growth prediction. Suspicion has been concentrated on the accuracy of the FE stress

result. Unlike the lower fuel hole, the upper fuel hole is very close to the side flange of the main

wing attachment which changes dramatically in thickness and adds structural concave corners in

the near hole area (see the FE model in Fig. 6), the stress result is very sensitive to the FE modelling

of the detail geometry near the flange area. Relatively raw meshes have been used in the FE model

within this area to save the FE analysis time.

Fortunately, some experimental stress measurements have been performed for this area. The

experimental measured peak stress at this location is about 14% higher than the FE result.

Calibrating the FE results by a 14% increase in the stress amplitude, the SIF and crack growth

were recomputed. The calibrated crack growth results are shown in Fig. 8 as solid curves. Here,

the predicted crack growth agrees very well with the experimental results. Compared to the original

fatigue crack growth predictions based on the FE stress result, the predicted fatigue crack growth

by using the modified stress is about a factor of 1 less than that predicted directly from the FE

stress result.

The lesson learned in this analysis is that the present procedure requires very high stress

accuracy in order to be able to provide reliable fatigue crack growth prediction results. A 10%

underestimation in the stress result may lead to a 100% overestimation of the fatigue life.

Generally, by considering the conservative nature of the approximate WF solution, less than 10%

of underestimating of the stress result, and preferably less than 5% of underestimating of the stress,

is the first requirement for the reliable fatigue crack growth analysis when using the present

procedure. When the geometry can be accurately modelled by using the advanced FE pre-processor

358 G.S. WANG

and the high accurate FE code (p-version for example) is available, this requirement seems not to

be a difficulty for engineering stress analyses for complex structural details so long as the boundary

conditions can be correctly modelled.

Suppose the stress can be accurately solved for the crack growth details, we still have to face

another problem when using the present procedure. The advantage of the procedure is the use of

the WF function method. The whole procedure is as a matter of fact based on a crack surface

approximate WF concept. This concept gives the convenience in computing both the SIF and the

crack surface displacement for the arbitrarily applied load based on the superposition principle of

linear elasticity. According to the superposition principle, both the SIF and COD for arbitrary

applied load can be solved for a crack by using the stress distribution along the perspective crack

plane in a crack-free structure via a system of integrations. The premise of the principle is that

the load and displacement boundary conditions of the investigated object should be exactly the

same before and after the crack is introduced. Any violation to the premise will lead to incorrect

results.

Here, an example is provided for a detail in the main wing attachment, the upper wing bolt

hole. In this detail, a bolt is inserted in the hole with bushing in the main wing attachment to

connect the wing and fuselage of the aircraft (see the illustration shown in the insert of Fig. 9).

An initial corner crack has been introduced at the edge of the upper wing bolt hole as the

FE stress analysis showed that this location is also one of the high stress concentrations in the

attachment frame. A spectrum load sequence is applied to drive this crack. The experimental fatigue

crack growth is given in Fig. 10 as symbols. Only the crack growth data on the surface are recorded

because of the difficulty in the fatigue test to access the bore area in the bolt hole.

The fatigue crack growth prediction has been made dogmatically according to the general

procedure; the SIF is computed from the FE stress results in the perspective crack plane based on

the WF for a similar crack at the edge of a hole in a large plate, the WF for the strip model is

generated and the fatigue crack growth is computed. The predicted results are shown in Fig. 10

as dashed curves. In this computation, the predicted fatigue crack growth is about a factor between

3 and 4 faster than the experimental results. The prediction is unacceptably overconservative. It

may lead to overweighed structural details or unnecessarily short inspection intervals.

Here, we get a good example that the superposition principle of linear elasticity should not

2.5-

. a/c l

I c

t.5.

oo.o. °

0.5- [] WF results

0 I I I I I

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Fig. 9. Schematicof a cornercrack at a bolt holewithbushingand pin load, and comparisonof the stress

intensity factors computed by the FE pin/hole model and the weightfunctionmethod.

Fracture crack growth in structural details 359

0.02

0

Main wing attachment

Upper wing bolt hole

0.015

.2

0.01

/.."

~lmlleam c-WF-FE

0 a-WF-FE

0.005

c-SIF-Pin

0 c-Exp.

I I I I !

0 l 2 3 4 5

Design Life

Fig. 10. Comparison of the predicted and experimental fatigue crack growth for the upper wing bolt hole.

be abused. In the application of the superposition principle for this bolt hole, we in fact assumed,

no matter of actually being aware of it or not, that the load distribution transfer between the

bushing and the hole is exactly the same before and after the crack is introduced, This, however,

does not happen in reality. From the extensive investigations [47-53] of lug problems, it has been

shown that the load transfer between the bushing and hole changes significantly when a crack is

introduced. The bushing will exert increasingly higher pressure on the mouth of the crack with

increase of the crack size. Thus, the SIF will be significantly reduced.

Taking an example SIF solution from the ESACRACK [54] for the pin loaded hole for a crack

with an aspect ratio of 1 and compare it to the WF computed SIF (Fig. 9), we can find that the

WF computed SIFs are more than 20% larger than the FE computed SIFs.

Using the SIF solution from ESACRACK with the modification based on the difference in

the stress concentration, the fatigue crack growth is recomputed using the strip model. The

recomputed results are shown in Fig. 10 as a solid curve. The modified computation of the fatigue

crack growth agrees very well with the experimental results for a wide range of crack sizes.

Here, we are dealing with a load shedding problem (the applied load changes with the change

of the crack size). It is closely related to the multiple load path problem, or even the multiple site

crack or multiple element damage problem. If such load shedding effect can be accounted for, as

shown by the example, the crack growth analyses can still be satisfactorily performed using the

WF based strip model.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the plastically induced fatigue crack closure mechanism, this paper showed that

it is possible to rationally analyse the part-through fatigue crack growth at complex structural

details under spectrum loading using only the stress results in the uncracked structural details along

the perspective crack planes. The proposed procedure is based on an approximate 3D WF function

method so that the SIFs for complex structural details can be computed with good and somewhat

conservative results from the WFs for much simpler basic configurations. The crack closure analysis

can be performed based on a strip model which is based on Green functions derived from the same

WF relation.

360 G.S. WANG

r e q u i r e s o n l y the static s t r e n g t h d a t a a n d fatigue c r a c k g r o w t h rate d a t a for c o n s t a n t a m p l i t u d e

l o a d as n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l d a t a to p r e d i c t the fatigue c r a c k g r o w t h in g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r a l details for

s p e c t r u m l o a d i n g . T h i s p r o c e d u r e p r o v i d e s a n effective a n d efficient w a y to a n a l y s e the fatigue c r a c k

g r o w t h in c o m p l e x s t r u c t u r a l details o n c e the stress a n a l y s i s is finished.

T o be reliably u s e d in the a n a l y s i s o f the fatigue c r a c k g r o w t h , this m e t h o d requires r a t h e r

a c c u r a t e stress results. T h e stress result a l o n g the p e r s p e c t i v e crack p l a n e m u s t have less t h a n 10%

o f e r r o r a n d p r e f e r a b l y less t h a n 5 % o f error. T h i s m e t h o d s h o u l d be very c a u t i o u s l y used for the

case w h e r e l o a d s h e d d i n g m a y h a p p e n . I n such cases, the s u p e r p o s i t i o n p r i n c i p l e o f l i n e a r elasticity

c a n n o l o n g e r be used a n d o v e r c o n s e r v a t i v e c r a c k g r o w t h will be predicted.

Acknowledgements--The author is grateful to Bjorn Palmberg for providing the material data, and all the stress and

experimental fatigue crack growth results for the concerning aircraft frame details, and Klas Levin for the help in using

computer facilities. Financial support from both FMV, the Swedish Defence Material Administration, and NUTEK, the

Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, is also gratefully acknowledged.

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