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MATRIX (Connective Tissue) ii. Reticular

- supporting framework of sssssssss
Connective Tissue sss hematopoietic and lymphoid organs
 Loosely arranged cells and abundant stroma - contains reticulin fibers (argyrophilic
ddd fibers)
Functions: - surrounds other tissues and cells i.e.
Support Hematopoietic dwww adipose, muscle, basal lamina,
Protection Immunologic sff endoneurium, stroma of glandular ss
Transport Tissue Repair ss organs
iii. Adipose
Embryonic origin - mesoderm (primitive - parenchyma: fat cells/adipocytes
mesenchymal cell) - large, oval shape, "signet ring" sss s s
ss appearance
Sarcomas - malignant tumours - function: fat storage, insulation, a aaa
ssss mechanical support
Classification of Connective Tissue
A. Adult Connective Tissue Types:
1. Connective Tissue Proper  Yellow/white (unilocular)
a. General  Brown (multilocular)
i. Loose (areolar)
- widely distributed 2. Embryonic Connective Tissue
- superficial and deep fascia a. Mesenchymal
- few collagen fibers
b. Mucous
ii. Dense - distinctive cell of mucous CT is the
- close packing of collagen fibers adddd primitive fibroblast
- spindle shaped or stellate
> Dense Regular - location: Wharton's Jelly of the umbilical
- fibers oriented in one direction cxxxxx cord
and and parallel to each other
- tendons, ligaments, aponeurosis Cellular components of Connective Tissue:
1. Fibroblast
> Dense Irregular - principal cells of connective tissue
- collagen fibers in bundle randomly - synthesis of fibers and amorphous ground
kkk oriented substance
- dermis, GIT submucosa, capsule of
o0 organs periosteum/pericondrium 2. Macrophage
- Tissue phagocytes

b. CT w/ specialized properties 3. Adult Fat Cells (adipocytes)

i. Elastic - heat production
- slender, refractile fibers with elastin - storage of neutral fats
- walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, - "signet ring" appearance
s trachea, bronchi yellow ligaments,
ssggg suspensory ligaments
4. Plasma Cells - Protects vital organs of the cranial and thoracic
- infrequent ccavities
- usually seen in areas of inflammation -for storage of calcium in the body
- produces antibodies
- "cartwheel" or "spoke-wheel" appearing nucleus Types of bones
- with inclusion bodies called "Russell bodies" (based on the organization of its type I collagen fibers)

5. Mast Cells 1. Lamellar

- with granules containing heparin, histamine, and - collagen fibers are deposited in parallel arrays
jjserotonin - synthesized more slowly
- Anaphylactic sensitivity reactions - less cellular
- smaller osteocyte and lacunae
Connective Tissue Fibers: - distributed in a more organized fashion
1. Collagen fibers - process of mineralization occur more slowly and
- most numerous hcontinues long after the organic matrix is initially
- most abundant protein in the human body ddeposited
- with tropocollagen molecules - has greater rigidity and tensile strength
- less elasticity than woven bone
Types: (I-XXVIII)
I - dermis, bone, tendon, fibrocartilage Forms of Lamellar bones:
II - hyaline, elastic cartilage a. Cancellous or spongy bone
III - endomysium, smooth m., liver, spleen, kidney, (substancia spongiosa)
jj lungs
IV - basal lamina b. Compact bone
V- Fetal membrane, blood vessels (substancia compacta)

2. Woven
- collagen fibers are arranged in an irregular f
BONE & OSSIFICATION - fabricated during periods of rapid bone growth
- Rigid form of CT with cell, fibers and ground ((embryogenesis, reactive, neoplastic)
ssubstance/matrix - hypercellular
- Ground substance is calcified (becomes hard and - with large osteocyte and lacunae
bbrittle) - distributed in a haphazard fashion
- Calcified matrix made up of organic elements - long axes follow the direction of the neighboring
n(collagen, protein polysaccharide and chondroitin ccollagen fibers
vsulfate) - has high mineral content compared to lamellar
- Inorganic elements (calcium, magnesium, and bbone
ssodium) make up the greater portion of the matrix - deposited outside the collagen fiber
- resist forces equally in all directions
Functions - weaker, less rigid, more flexible than lamellar
- Internal support of the body bbone (greenstick fracture)
- Attachment of muscles and tendons for
klocomotion *see table of lamellar vs woven sa ppt ni sir*
- Contains the bone marrow (the blood forming

3. Long Bones Microscopic Structure
 Shaft/Diaphysis - thick walled hollow A. Spongy bone
cylinder e/ a central medullary cavity - irregular branching bony spicules forming a
containing the bone marrow nnetwork of interconnecting spaces containing
bbone marrow
 Epiphysis - ends of long bones made up of - with thin trabeculae made of irregular lamellae of
spongy bone covered by a thin cortex of bbone with lacuna containing osteocytes.
compact bone - absence of haversian system
- trabeculae lined by endosteum containing
 Epiphyseal Plate - separates the epiphysis oosteoblasts and osteoclasts
from the diaphysis
B. Compact bone
 Metaphysis - a transitional region - parallel columns made up of concentric bony
connecting the epiphyseal plate to lilayers surrounding the Haversian canal
diaphysis - between lamellae are osteocytes in lacuna

 Periosteum - a layer of specialized CT w/  Canaliculi - numerous minute

osteogenic potential interconnecting canals

 Endosteum - a thin cellular layer w/  Haversian system - haversian channel with

osteogenic properties covering the marrow the concentric bony lamellae.
 Volkmann's channel - at right angle to the
Bone Cells haversian canal
1. Osteoprogenitor cells
- undifferentiated cells
- on free bony surfaces, endosteum, lining of the Histogenesis of Bone
hHaversian canal, epiphyseal plate 1. Intramembranous Ossification
- with pale staining nucleus and faintly basophilic - bone formation occurs directly in primitive CT w/o
ccytoplasm ccartilage formation
- divide (osteoblasts) - commonly seen in the flat bones of the face and
- unite (osteoclasts) sskull

2. Osteoblasts 2. Intracartilaginous Endochondral Ossification

- bone forming cells responsible for the - replacement of cartilage model by bone
ddevelopment of the bony matrix - cartilage destruction is a pre-requisite
- location: surfaces of developing bones - involves the bones of the entire skeletal system
- arranged in an epitheloid layer of cuboidal cells eexcept the bones of the face and skull

3. Osteoclasts  Ectopic bone formation - when bone arises

- giant multinucleated cells closely associated with in tissues not belonging to the skeletal
aareas of resorption system in CT w/o osteogenic properties
- found in shallow concavities of the bone surface
ccalled Lacuna of Howship
- active in bone resorption
*Ruffled border - radial striations found close to
the bone
BLOOD b) Leukocytes (wbc)
Classifications of WBC
(based on the presence of cytoplasmic granules)
1. Transport of O2 and CO2
 Granular WBC
2. Carries nutrients from GIT to different tissues
 Neutrophils
3. Brings waste products to kidneys
- most common (40-75%)
4. Distributes hormones to their target organs
- with 2 or more nuclei
- "polys" /PMN
- "drumstick" chromosome
- life span: about 8 days
- 55% of total blood quantity
 Eosinophils
-H2O, organic and inorganic substance, hormones
- 1-2% of WBC population
and enzymes
- w/ bilobed nucleus
serum: w/o fibrinogen content
- w/ eosinophilic specific granules
Solid Elements:
 Basophils
- 40-60% of blood volume
- least common (<1%)
- w/ U shaped nucleus
A. Cellular elements
- w/ basophilic specific granules
a) Erythrocytes (RBC)
- not true cells; no nucleus
 Non-granular WBC
- specialized for O2 and CO2 transport
 Lymphocytes
- 5.4 million/mm3 in men
- smallest wbc
- 4.8 million/mm3 in women
- 2nd most common (20-35%)
- life span: 120 days
Types of lymphocytes
 Hemoglobin (based on the site of information)
- gives acidophilic color to rbc 1. T- lymphocytes
- O2 and CO2 carrier - "memory" cells
- normal: 12-15 gm/100 mL - arises from bone marrow &
jllllllhuhjjgf proliferates in the thymus
 Normochromic - normal Hgb - activates B lymphocytes
 Hyperchromic - increase Hgb
 Hypochromic - decrease Hgb 2. B- lymphocytes
- does not pass the thymus
 Poikilocytosis - different shapes - produces antibodies
 Anisocytosis - different sizes - life span: few days
 Rouleaux formation
 Agglutination  Monocyte
- largest WBC
Effects of salt solution - 2 to 10 % of WBC population
 Hypertonic solution – crenation - w/ horseshoe-shaped nucleus
 Hypotonic solution - hemolysis

c) Platelets CARTILAGE
- small, colorless, non-nucleated - a semi-rigid form of connective tissue
- non-motile cytoplasmic fragments - made up of cells, matrix and fibers
- normal: 200,000 - 400,000/mm3 - ground substance = chondromucoid rich on
schondroitin sulfate ( firmness and resiliency)
- w/ collagen and elastic fibers in matrix (tensile
B. Non-cellular elements sstrength & elasticity)
a.) Chylomicrons - w/ perichondrium (dense fibrous CT)
b.) Hematokonia/blood dust - avascular

Hematopoiesis 1. Provide structural support
(Development of blood cells) 2. Flexibility w/o distortion

Two tissues producing blood cells: Classification:

1. Lymphoid (based on the kind & abundance of fibers)
- spleen & LN;
- produce lymphocytes 1. Hyaline cartilage
-most common
2. Myeloid (red bone marrow) -skeletal model for bones (in embryo)
- produce rbc, (wbc? natakpan kasi sa ppt haha), -for structural support (in adults)
jj and platelets
Three subtypes:
Fetal Hematopoiesis a.) Adult hyaline
(shifts from one region to another) - location: respiratory system
- surrounded by perichondrium; inner dd
Three phases: dd chondrogenic layer
 Mesoblastic - blood islands - found in its matrix: chondrocytes in
 Hepatic - liver and spleen kjkjkjj lacunae (central ovoid nucleus); has
 Myeloid - bone marrow kkkkkkkk granular basophilic cytoplasm
- cell nest/isogenous group (cells in single
Stages of RBC Formation jjj lacunae)
1. Proerythroblast/Rubriblast - matrix appears homogenous & deeply
2. Basophilic erythroblast jjjjjj basophilic
3. Polychromatophilic erythroblast - interterritorial matrix & territorial/ jjjjj
4. Acidophilic erythroblast kkk capsular matrix
5. Reticulocyte - collagen fibers are abundant in jjjj ll k
6. Erythrocyte mjj intercapsular matrix

Stages of Granulopoiesis Degenerative Changes

1. Pro- myelocyte  Calcification- deposition of calcium salts in
2. Myelocyte the matrix; occurs in primary bone
3. Metamyelocyte formation
4. Mature form

 Asbestos transformation - due to - chondrocytes: smaller, fewer, arranged singly in
formation and deposition of localized, rrows between bundles of collagen fibers
- avascular
thick, abnormal collagen fibrils in the
matrix; softening of matrix; cavity Histogenesis of Cartilage
formation a. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into
b.) Articular hyaline
- location: between articulating surfaces b. Chondroblasts divide, multiply, grow &
- no perichondrium in articulating surfaces prod. cartilage matrix
- more cellular; bigger chondrocytes
- w/ cell; bigger chondrocytes c. Surrounded by matrix & trapped in lacunae
- w/ cell families to mature into chondrocytes
- matrix - similar to AHC
-avascular d. cell families, CT fibers appear in the matrix

c.) Fetal hyaline

- location: skeletal system of embryo exc. Types of Growth
Kkk face and skull
- w/ young chondroblasts; numerous, small, 1. Interstitial/ Endogenous growth
jjjjjj irreg. arranged - takes place in the middle portion of the cartilage
- no cell families - multiplication of chondrocytes & prod. of new
- matrix being formed omatrix between cells; expansion from within
- avascular - increase in size and length of cartilage by
- w/ perichondrium nhyperplasia
- functions: framework for endochondral jjjj - can occur if the cartilage is soft and yielding
kkk ossification & represents early stage in the
hh dev. of all types of cartilage 2. Appositional/ Exogenous growth
- takes place in the chondrogenic layer of the
2. Elastic cartilage pperichondrium
- w/perichondrium - chondroblasts differentiate into chondrocytes
- fewer cell families - new cells and matrix are added into the surface
- avascular - increase in width (hypertrophy)
- fatty degeneration - starts later but continuous throughout life
- modification of adult HC - can only occur in mature cartilage
- location: Eustachian tube, epiglottis, etc.
- w/ elastic fiber in the matrix (more flexible and

3. Fibro-cartilage
- location: intervertebral disc, tendons to bone
- transition between dense fibrous CT and hyaline
- no perichondrium
- scanty matrix w/ thick collagen fibers arranged in