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SUPPORT CELLS AND THE EXTRACELLULAR

MATRIX (Connective Tissue) ii. Reticular


- supporting framework of sssssssss
Connective Tissue sss hematopoietic and lymphoid organs
 Loosely arranged cells and abundant stroma - contains reticulin fibers (argyrophilic
ddd fibers)
Functions: - surrounds other tissues and cells i.e.
Support Hematopoietic dwww adipose, muscle, basal lamina,
Protection Immunologic sff endoneurium, stroma of glandular ss
Transport Tissue Repair ss organs
Insulation
iii. Adipose
Embryonic origin - mesoderm (primitive - parenchyma: fat cells/adipocytes
mesenchymal cell) - large, oval shape, "signet ring" sss s s
ss appearance
Sarcomas - malignant tumours - function: fat storage, insulation, a aaa
ssss mechanical support
Classification of Connective Tissue
A. Adult Connective Tissue Types:
1. Connective Tissue Proper  Yellow/white (unilocular)
a. General  Brown (multilocular)
i. Loose (areolar)
- widely distributed 2. Embryonic Connective Tissue
- superficial and deep fascia a. Mesenchymal
- few collagen fibers
b. Mucous
ii. Dense - distinctive cell of mucous CT is the
- close packing of collagen fibers adddd primitive fibroblast
- spindle shaped or stellate
> Dense Regular - location: Wharton's Jelly of the umbilical
- fibers oriented in one direction cxxxxx cord
and and parallel to each other
- tendons, ligaments, aponeurosis Cellular components of Connective Tissue:
1. Fibroblast
> Dense Irregular - principal cells of connective tissue
- collagen fibers in bundle randomly - synthesis of fibers and amorphous ground
kkk oriented substance
- dermis, GIT submucosa, capsule of
o0 organs periosteum/pericondrium 2. Macrophage
- Tissue phagocytes

b. CT w/ specialized properties 3. Adult Fat Cells (adipocytes)


i. Elastic - heat production
- slender, refractile fibers with elastin - storage of neutral fats
- walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, - "signet ring" appearance
s trachea, bronchi yellow ligaments,
ssggg suspensory ligaments
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4. Plasma Cells - Protects vital organs of the cranial and thoracic
- infrequent ccavities
- usually seen in areas of inflammation -for storage of calcium in the body
- produces antibodies
- "cartwheel" or "spoke-wheel" appearing nucleus Types of bones
- with inclusion bodies called "Russell bodies" (based on the organization of its type I collagen fibers)

5. Mast Cells 1. Lamellar


- with granules containing heparin, histamine, and - collagen fibers are deposited in parallel arrays
jjserotonin - synthesized more slowly
- Anaphylactic sensitivity reactions - less cellular
- smaller osteocyte and lacunae
Connective Tissue Fibers: - distributed in a more organized fashion
1. Collagen fibers - process of mineralization occur more slowly and
- most numerous hcontinues long after the organic matrix is initially
- most abundant protein in the human body ddeposited
- with tropocollagen molecules - has greater rigidity and tensile strength
- less elasticity than woven bone
Types: (I-XXVIII)
I - dermis, bone, tendon, fibrocartilage Forms of Lamellar bones:
II - hyaline, elastic cartilage a. Cancellous or spongy bone
III - endomysium, smooth m., liver, spleen, kidney, (substancia spongiosa)
jj lungs
IV - basal lamina b. Compact bone
V- Fetal membrane, blood vessels (substancia compacta)

2. Woven
- collagen fibers are arranged in an irregular f
jjfeltwork
BONE & OSSIFICATION - fabricated during periods of rapid bone growth
- Rigid form of CT with cell, fibers and ground ((embryogenesis, reactive, neoplastic)
ssubstance/matrix - hypercellular
- Ground substance is calcified (becomes hard and - with large osteocyte and lacunae
bbrittle) - distributed in a haphazard fashion
- Calcified matrix made up of organic elements - long axes follow the direction of the neighboring
n(collagen, protein polysaccharide and chondroitin ccollagen fibers
vsulfate) - has high mineral content compared to lamellar
- Inorganic elements (calcium, magnesium, and bbone
ssodium) make up the greater portion of the matrix - deposited outside the collagen fiber
- resist forces equally in all directions
Functions - weaker, less rigid, more flexible than lamellar
- Internal support of the body bbone (greenstick fracture)
- Attachment of muscles and tendons for
klocomotion *see table of lamellar vs woven sa ppt ni sir*
- Contains the bone marrow (the blood forming
eelements)

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3. Long Bones Microscopic Structure
 Shaft/Diaphysis - thick walled hollow A. Spongy bone
cylinder e/ a central medullary cavity - irregular branching bony spicules forming a
containing the bone marrow nnetwork of interconnecting spaces containing
bbone marrow
 Epiphysis - ends of long bones made up of - with thin trabeculae made of irregular lamellae of
spongy bone covered by a thin cortex of bbone with lacuna containing osteocytes.
compact bone - absence of haversian system
- trabeculae lined by endosteum containing
 Epiphyseal Plate - separates the epiphysis oosteoblasts and osteoclasts
from the diaphysis
B. Compact bone
 Metaphysis - a transitional region - parallel columns made up of concentric bony
connecting the epiphyseal plate to lilayers surrounding the Haversian canal
diaphysis - between lamellae are osteocytes in lacuna

 Periosteum - a layer of specialized CT w/  Canaliculi - numerous minute


osteogenic potential interconnecting canals

 Endosteum - a thin cellular layer w/  Haversian system - haversian channel with


osteogenic properties covering the marrow the concentric bony lamellae.
cavity
 Volkmann's channel - at right angle to the
Bone Cells haversian canal
1. Osteoprogenitor cells
- undifferentiated cells
- on free bony surfaces, endosteum, lining of the Histogenesis of Bone
hHaversian canal, epiphyseal plate 1. Intramembranous Ossification
- with pale staining nucleus and faintly basophilic - bone formation occurs directly in primitive CT w/o
ccytoplasm ccartilage formation
- divide (osteoblasts) - commonly seen in the flat bones of the face and
- unite (osteoclasts) sskull

2. Osteoblasts 2. Intracartilaginous Endochondral Ossification


- bone forming cells responsible for the - replacement of cartilage model by bone
ddevelopment of the bony matrix - cartilage destruction is a pre-requisite
- location: surfaces of developing bones - involves the bones of the entire skeletal system
- arranged in an epitheloid layer of cuboidal cells eexcept the bones of the face and skull

3. Osteoclasts  Ectopic bone formation - when bone arises


- giant multinucleated cells closely associated with in tissues not belonging to the skeletal
aareas of resorption system in CT w/o osteogenic properties
- found in shallow concavities of the bone surface
ccalled Lacuna of Howship
- active in bone resorption
*Ruffled border - radial striations found close to
the bone
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BLOOD b) Leukocytes (wbc)
Classifications of WBC
Functions:
(based on the presence of cytoplasmic granules)
1. Transport of O2 and CO2
 Granular WBC
2. Carries nutrients from GIT to different tissues
 Neutrophils
3. Brings waste products to kidneys
- most common (40-75%)
4. Distributes hormones to their target organs
- with 2 or more nuclei
- "polys" /PMN
Composition:
- "drumstick" chromosome
- life span: about 8 days
Plasma
- 55% of total blood quantity
 Eosinophils
-H2O, organic and inorganic substance, hormones
- 1-2% of WBC population
and enzymes
- w/ bilobed nucleus
serum: w/o fibrinogen content
- w/ eosinophilic specific granules
Solid Elements:
 Basophils
- 40-60% of blood volume
- least common (<1%)
- w/ U shaped nucleus
A. Cellular elements
- w/ basophilic specific granules
a) Erythrocytes (RBC)
- not true cells; no nucleus
 Non-granular WBC
- specialized for O2 and CO2 transport
 Lymphocytes
- 5.4 million/mm3 in men
- smallest wbc
- 4.8 million/mm3 in women
- 2nd most common (20-35%)
- life span: 120 days
Types of lymphocytes
 Hemoglobin (based on the site of information)
- gives acidophilic color to rbc 1. T- lymphocytes
- O2 and CO2 carrier - "memory" cells
- normal: 12-15 gm/100 mL - arises from bone marrow &
jllllllhuhjjgf proliferates in the thymus
 Normochromic - normal Hgb - activates B lymphocytes
 Hyperchromic - increase Hgb
 Hypochromic - decrease Hgb 2. B- lymphocytes
- does not pass the thymus
 Poikilocytosis - different shapes - produces antibodies
 Anisocytosis - different sizes - life span: few days
 Rouleaux formation
 Agglutination  Monocyte
- largest WBC
Effects of salt solution - 2 to 10 % of WBC population
 Hypertonic solution – crenation - w/ horseshoe-shaped nucleus
 Hypotonic solution - hemolysis

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c) Platelets CARTILAGE
- small, colorless, non-nucleated - a semi-rigid form of connective tissue
- non-motile cytoplasmic fragments - made up of cells, matrix and fibers
- normal: 200,000 - 400,000/mm3 - ground substance = chondromucoid rich on
schondroitin sulfate ( firmness and resiliency)
- w/ collagen and elastic fibers in matrix (tensile
B. Non-cellular elements sstrength & elasticity)
a.) Chylomicrons - w/ perichondrium (dense fibrous CT)
b.) Hematokonia/blood dust - avascular

Functions:
Hematopoiesis 1. Provide structural support
(Development of blood cells) 2. Flexibility w/o distortion

Two tissues producing blood cells: Classification:


1. Lymphoid (based on the kind & abundance of fibers)
- spleen & LN;
- produce lymphocytes 1. Hyaline cartilage
-most common
2. Myeloid (red bone marrow) -skeletal model for bones (in embryo)
- produce rbc, (wbc? natakpan kasi sa ppt haha), -for structural support (in adults)
jj and platelets
Three subtypes:
Fetal Hematopoiesis a.) Adult hyaline
(shifts from one region to another) - location: respiratory system
- surrounded by perichondrium; inner dd
Three phases: dd chondrogenic layer
 Mesoblastic - blood islands - found in its matrix: chondrocytes in
 Hepatic - liver and spleen kjkjkjj lacunae (central ovoid nucleus); has
 Myeloid - bone marrow kkkkkkkk granular basophilic cytoplasm
- cell nest/isogenous group (cells in single
Stages of RBC Formation jjj lacunae)
1. Proerythroblast/Rubriblast - matrix appears homogenous & deeply
2. Basophilic erythroblast jjjjjj basophilic
3. Polychromatophilic erythroblast - interterritorial matrix & territorial/ jjjjj
4. Acidophilic erythroblast kkk capsular matrix
5. Reticulocyte - collagen fibers are abundant in jjjj ll k
6. Erythrocyte mjj intercapsular matrix

Stages of Granulopoiesis Degenerative Changes


1. Pro- myelocyte  Calcification- deposition of calcium salts in
2. Myelocyte the matrix; occurs in primary bone
3. Metamyelocyte formation
4. Mature form

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 Asbestos transformation - due to - chondrocytes: smaller, fewer, arranged singly in
formation and deposition of localized, rrows between bundles of collagen fibers
- avascular
thick, abnormal collagen fibrils in the
matrix; softening of matrix; cavity Histogenesis of Cartilage
formation a. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into
chondroblasts
b.) Articular hyaline
- location: between articulating surfaces b. Chondroblasts divide, multiply, grow &
- no perichondrium in articulating surfaces prod. cartilage matrix
- more cellular; bigger chondrocytes
- w/ cell; bigger chondrocytes c. Surrounded by matrix & trapped in lacunae
- w/ cell families to mature into chondrocytes
- matrix - similar to AHC
-avascular d. cell families, CT fibers appear in the matrix

c.) Fetal hyaline


- location: skeletal system of embryo exc. Types of Growth
Kkk face and skull
- w/ young chondroblasts; numerous, small, 1. Interstitial/ Endogenous growth
jjjjjj irreg. arranged - takes place in the middle portion of the cartilage
- no cell families - multiplication of chondrocytes & prod. of new
- matrix being formed omatrix between cells; expansion from within
- avascular - increase in size and length of cartilage by
- w/ perichondrium nhyperplasia
- functions: framework for endochondral jjjj - can occur if the cartilage is soft and yielding
kkk ossification & represents early stage in the
hh dev. of all types of cartilage 2. Appositional/ Exogenous growth
- takes place in the chondrogenic layer of the
2. Elastic cartilage pperichondrium
- w/perichondrium - chondroblasts differentiate into chondrocytes
- fewer cell families - new cells and matrix are added into the surface
- avascular - increase in width (hypertrophy)
- fatty degeneration - starts later but continuous throughout life
- modification of adult HC - can only occur in mature cartilage
- location: Eustachian tube, epiglottis, etc.
- w/ elastic fiber in the matrix (more flexible and
elastic)

3. Fibro-cartilage
- location: intervertebral disc, tendons to bone
- transition between dense fibrous CT and hyaline
iicartilage
- no perichondrium
- scanty matrix w/ thick collagen fibers arranged in
pparallel

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