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INTRODUCTION

The main theoretical model was used to study the anxiety level that is related to performance

that is Multidimensional Anxiety Theory (MAT; Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990).

Based onto MAT, anxiety can be divided into cognitive or psychology reaction, and somatic or

physiology reaction. Cognitive anxiety is related to something negative that will cause an

individual to feel worried prior to competition. Somatic anxiety in the other hand, is related to

pressure such as nervous or stress. In addition, theoretically, cognitive anxiety has a negative

relationship with performance while somatic anxiety has an inverse relationship.

Anxiety is a situation where one feels nervous and stressed because of the demand by

the environment that leads to an imbalance between the demand and the ability of an individual

to fulfill the expectation. Anxiety during the game in the other hand is defined as nervousness or

and/or physical stress that is related to imbalance between the demand on performance and the

capability of an individual to achieve that objective

The research on anxiety and anxiety direction indicated a difference between male and

female. Some researchers reported difference in gender when they carried out a study on the

forms of anxiety and self confidence. (Jones &Cale 1989; Jones, Swain, &Cale, 1991). In a

study that focused on anxiety frequency, (e.g how often does an individual suffer anxiety

symptom before a competition), Swain and Jones (1993) reported that cognitive anxiety and

somatic symptom increase significantly on both male and female as the competition is coming

close. Females were reported to score higher in somatic anxiety compared to males. Wiggins

(1998) reported the difference based on time in terms of gender where females showed higher

cognitive anxiety intensity within 24 hours before the competition. In the other hand, they did not

show any difference in anxiety direction. In addition to the past studies that focused on
situational measure, researchers also conducted a study on anxiety direction in terms of

attributes. The attributes of competition anxiety is related to anxiety on performance. It has been

defined as an anxiety symptom that influences someone to interpret the surrounding as a threat.

(Weinberg & Gould, 2007).

Consciously or unconsciously, the elements of anxiety have a major influence in the

athletes’ performance in any sport. Therefore, there need to be an in depth study to solve the

problems that rise because of the effect of anxiety on athletes. Past researches focused more

on elite athletes or athletes that have performed in high level sport or competition (Aufenanger,

2005). There need to be a positive thinking and better mental skills to solve the problems that

may arise because of anxiety. If it is not handled well or misinterpreted, the athlete will lose

control and their performance will decrease. (Hardy &Fazey, 1987; Martens, Burton, &Vealey,

1990;Gualberto& Wiggins, 2008).

Researchers have reported that over 50 percent of consultations among athletes at Olympic

Games or sport events were related to stress or anxiety problems (Murphy, 1988; Jones 2000).

Athletes, who experience high levels of anxiety, are also more likely to withdraw from sport

(Cox, 2007; Ampofo-Boateng, 2009), suffer muscle pain, sickness and become aggressive

during competitions (Weinberg &Gould, 1999). Furthermore, they experience sleeping problems

(Savis, 1994), injuries in sports (Lavallee& Flint, 1996) and have very low self-confidence (Abel

& Larkin, 1990). Anxiety is a negative emotion that affects perceptions in sport competitions,

and this leads to majority of athletes to consider anxiety to be debilitative towards performance,

which may result in decreases in performance (Weinberg & Gould, 1999; Raglin&Hanin, 2000).

When anxiety is not managed appropriately, athletes lose control and performance levels

decrease (Martens, Vealey& Burton, 1990).


METHOD

Participant

The participant were recruited from the Sukan Malaysia athletes. The total numbers of athletes

are 1485 which make up of 100 percent. Overall, the total number of male athletes answered

the questionnaire were higher which are 929 (62.56 percent) compared to 556 (37.44percent) of

female athletes. The highest numbers of athletes are within 19-23 years old age groups (816

athletes, 558 males, 258 females). Second higher numbers of athletes are within 16-18 years

old group (523 athletes, 301 males. 222 females), followed by 13-15 years old group (131

athletes, 63 males, 68 females) and 10-12 years old group (15 athletes, 7 males, 8 females).

Sampling Design

To conduct a research on state anxiety and BRUMS manifested during competencies among

athletes, convenience sampling were used to representing the SUKMA athletes. The objective

is to reach a targeted sample while this sampling can be very useful for situations where we

need to reach a targeted sample quickly.

……

PROCEDUR

The athletes were asked to answer a set of questionnaire containing four main sections. The

Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R) (Cox et al. 2003) will be used to

examine the multidimensional pre-competitivestate anxiety of athletes. The questionnaire

contains three subscales: Somatic Anxiety, Cognitive Anxiety and Self-confidence. The CSAI-2R

comprises 17 items, with seven items in somatic anxiety subscale and five items in each of the

subscales of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence respectively. The responses would be taken
on 4-point Likert scales where categories vary from not at all (1), somewhat (2), moderately (3)

to very much (4).

RESULT

The objectives of CSAI-2R are:

a) To examine the somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence pattern among

athletes.
b) To determine any differences in gender, sport type and levels of athlete on state anxiety

level among athletes.


c) To determine the relationship between somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self

confidence.

Based on the descriptive of Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R),

Figure 1 shows that male athletes and female athletes scored more than 75 percentfor somatic

anxiety level is low prior to competition. Only 16.70 percent (male athletes) and 23.20

percent(female athletes) performed on moderate level. While a few of male athletes and female

athletes scored at high level.Totally, most of athletes scored at low level of somatic anxiety and

the rest of them scored at moderate level (19.10 percent) and high level (0.70 percent).
Figure 1: Somatic Anxiety Level

Refer to Figure 2, the male athletes and female athletes performed are difference pattern which

is more than 50 percent of male athletes has a low level of cognitive anxiety while female

athletes has moderate level. Male athletes typically display lower level of cognitive anxiety than

female athletes. Overall, more than half of the athletes scored at low level, at moderate level

(41.48 percent) and at high level (6.53 percent).

Figure 2: Cognitive Anxiety Level


Based on Figure 3, the high level of self confidence of male athletes and female athletes

represent 65.88 percentand 54.14 percent respectively. 30.79 percent (male athletes) and 39.93

percent (female athletes)at moderate level. Meanwhile, 3.34 percent (male athletes) and 6

percent(female athletes) at low level. Most of the athletes have high self confidence before the

competition.

Figure 3: Self-Confidence Level

Second objective is according on differences in gander, sport type and athlete state anxiety

level among athletes. In gander, there were difference at five percent level of significance

between male athletes and female athletes in somatic anxiety (t= 5.551),cognitive anxiety

(t = 7.398) and self-confidence (t= 4.950). Therefore, the gender does influence on level of

anxiety and self confidence. The result also shows that male athletes typically display lower

levels of anxiety and higher self confidence than female athletes. From that mean itself, it shows

that mean for male athletes is lower than mean for female athletes in somatic anxiety and

cognitive anxiety. While in self-confidence, mean for male athletes higher than female athletes

(Table 4.). This result also supported by Wiggins (1998). Wiggins reported the difference based
on time in terms of genderwhere female athletes showed higher cognitive anxiety intensity

within 24 hours before the competition.

Table 4: Summary of result of independent samples t-test

Std. Test
Subscales Type N Mean p-value
Deviation statistic
Somatic Anxiety Male 929 16.611 4.231 5.551
9.6 X 10-8
Female 556 17.939 4.827
Cognitive Anxiety Male 929 20.405 5.846 7.398
2.3 X 10-13
Female 556 22.723 5.840
Self – Confidence Male 929 32.980 5.729 4.950
8.3 X 10-7
Female 556 31.424 6.071

Second, the influence of sport types on the somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self

confidence was also examined and the result is shown in Table 5. The independent sample t-

test, revealed no significant difference on somatic anxiety (p>0.05) and cognitive anxiety

(p>0.05). From the mean itself, the difference mean between sport type is small (somatic

anxiety = 0.384; cognitive anxiety = 0.514). Self – confidence(t= 4.660) is difference at five

percent level of significance between individual sportathletes and team sportathletes. Thus, the

sport type does not influence on level ofanxiety.Athletes in individual sport would report higher in

somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety while lower state self-confidence than would athlete in

team sport. Individual sports are expected to create higher competitive anxiety state than are

team sport because of the threat of evaluation is maximized (Scanlan, 1975).


Table 5: Summary of result of independent samples t-test

Std. Test
Subscales Type N Mean p-value
Deviation statistic
Somatic anxiety Individual 771 17.293 4.461 1.642 0.101
Team 714 16.909 4.553
Cognitive anxiety Individual 771 21.520 5.835 1.666 0.096
Team 714 21.006 6.062
Self – Confidence Individual 771 31.715 6.006 4.660 3.4 X 10-6
Team 714 33.134 5.708

Third, the influence of athlete level on the somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence

was also examined using by independent sample t-test. The result revealed there are significant

differences on somatic anxiety (t= 2.288),cognitive anxiety(t = 2.182) and self-confidence (t=

2.635) at five percent level of significance between young athletes and adult athletes (Table 6)

The results also indicate that adult athletes typically display lower levels of anxiety and higher

self confidence than young athletes. It might be because of their experience in Malaysia Games.

Table 6: Summary of result of independent samples t-test

Std. Test
Subscales Level N Mean p-value
Deviation statistic
Somatic anxiety Young 669 17.403 4.578 2.288 0.022
Adult 816 16.866 4.438
Cognitive anxiety Young 669 21.644 5.903 2.182 0.029
Adult 816 20.968 5.972
Self – Confidence Young 669 31.952 6.071 2.635 0.008
Adult 816 32.762 5.744
Third objective is relationship between somatic anxiety, cognitive anxietyand self

confidence. Pearson correlation was conducted to know either the multidimensional

competitive state anxiety is relating each other or not. The results of correlation are

presented in Table 7.Result shows that, at one percent level of significance. All pairs

variables have the correlation (p< 0.01) which are somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety

(r = 0.477), somatic anxiety and self confidence (r = -0.107), while cognitive anxiety and

self confidence (r = -0.171). Somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety is positively

relationship; self-confidence and somatic anxiety (negatively relationship); and self-

confidence and cognitive anxiety (negatively relationship).Furthermore, each

component is influenced differently by competitive conditions and uniquely related to

performance.This supports the multidimensional nature of competitive state anxiety and

corroborates previous research (Gould et al., 1984; Martens et al., 1983).

Table 7: Correlations between pre-competition CSAI-2R subscales

Subscales Somatic Cognitive Self Confidence

Somatic -

Cognitive 0.477** -

Self Confidence -0.107** -0.171** -


** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
CONCLUSION

It seems that there are still differences between genders. Female athletes show higher somatic

anxiety and cognitive anxiety levels than male athletes because of physiological and effective

elements of the anxiety experience also mental component of anxiety caused by negative

expectations about success or by negative self-evaluation (Martin, Vealey& Burton,

1990).Findings revealed no significant difference between sport type and the mean of each

sport type supported by the previous research.Although there are difference between adult and

young athletes, the result are still did not show a large amount of difference mean for somatic

anxiety and cognitive anxiety.

The results revealed that state anxiety is a multidimensional construct consisting of

psychological components that are weakly related to one another and change differently over

time. This finding is a con-founding result because of the data collected on several sports.