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1.

Addition rule - A rule of probability stating that the probability of any one of two or more mutually exclusive
events occurring can be determined by adding their individual probabilities.
2. Multiplication rule - A rule of probability stating that the probability of two or more independent events
occurring together can be determined by multiplying their individual probabilities.
3. Allele - Any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
4. Carrier - In genetics, an individual who is heterozygous at a given genetic locus for a recessively inherited
disorder. The heterozygote is generally phenotypically normal for the disorder but can pass on the recessive
allele to offspring.
5. Character - An observable heritable feature that may vary among individuals.
6. Codominance - The situation in which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote because
both alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways.
7. Complete dominance - The situation in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote
are indistinguishable.
8. Incomplete dominance - The situation in which the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the
phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele.
9. Dihybrid - An organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest. All the offspring from a cross
between parents doubly homozygous for different alleles are dihybrids. For example, parents of genotypes
AABB and aabb produce a dihybrid of genotype AaBb.
10. Monohybrid - An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. All the offspring from a
cross between parents homozygous for different alleles are monohybrids. For example, parents of genotypes AA
andaa produce a monohybrid of genotype Aa.
11. Monohybrid cross - A cross between two organisms that are heterozygous for the character being followed (or
the self-pollination of a heterozygous plant).
12. Dihybrid cross - A cross between two organisms that are each heterozygous for both of the characters being
followed (or the self-pollination of a plant that is heterozygous for both characters).
13. Dominant Allele - An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote.
14. Epistasis - A type of gene interaction in which the phenotypic expression of one gene alters that of another
independently inherited gene.
15. P generation The true-breeding (homozygous) parent individuals from which F1 hybrid offspring are derived in
studies of inheritance; P stands for “parental.”
16. F1 generation The first filial, hybrid (heterozygous) offspring arising from a parental (P generation) cross.
17. F2 generation The offspring resulting from interbreeding (or self-pollination) of the hybrid F1 generation.
18. Genotype - The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism.
19. Phenotype - The observable physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by its genetic
makeup.
20. Heterozygous - Having two different alleles for a given gene.
21. Homozygous - Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
22. Hybridization - In genetics, the mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties.
23. Law of Segregation - Mendel’s first law, stating that the two alleles in a pair segregate (separate from each
other) into different gametes during gamete formation.
24. Law of Independent Assortment - Mendel’s second law, stating that each pair of alleles segregates, or assorts,
independently of each other pair during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characters are located
on different pairs of homologous chromosomes or when they are far enough apart on the same chromosome to
behave as though they are on different chromosomes.
25. Multifactorial character- Referring to a phenotypic character that is influenced by multiple genes and
environmental factors.
26. Norm of reaction, describes the pattern of phenotypic expression of a single genotype across a range of
environments.
27. Pedigree - A diagram of a family tree with conventional symbols, showing the occurrence of heritable characters
in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
28. Punnett square - A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the predicted genotypic results of random
fertilization in genetic crosses between individuals of known genotype
29. Pleiotropy - The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
30. Polygenic inheritance -An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.
31. Quantitative character - A heritable feature that varies continuously over a range rather than in an either-or
fashion.
32. Recessive allele - An allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote.
33. Testcross - Breeding an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine
the unknown genotype. The ratio of phenotypes in the offspring reveals the unknown genotype.
34. True-breeding - Referring to organisms that produce offspring of the same variety over many generations of self-
pollination.