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A dozen facts about transport in Australia

The purpose of this Information Sheet is to provide the reader with a quick source of basic facts about the
Australian transport system. Beneath each fact there is the essential data (in figures and tables). If you need
to know more, the sources are provided at the end of the paper.

1. How big is the transport network?


There are 874,500 kms of road in Australia. Seventeen percent is urban, the rest is non-urban. It is one of the
world’s most extensive with a per capita length twice as much as New Zealand and Canada. There are
33,300 kms of heavy rail in Australia and 291 kms of light rail. It is the seventh largest system in the world.
There are 40 significant airports in Australia. Ten of these are international.
There are 37 ports in Australia with an annual throughput of over one billion dollars. The nation’s exports
are mainly through bulk ports with Port Headland the fifth largest port in the world measured by tonnage.
Imports mostly come through capital city container ports. Melbourne is the largest in Australia and handles
more than 2.5 million containers a year. It is 54 in the world’s container ports rankings with Sydney at 66.

Fi gu r e 1 : Tot a l ro a d len gt h b y u rb an an d Figure 2: Proportion of total road length by road type,


n on -u rb an b y ro a d t yp e, 2 0 1 5 2015
800 Highway
(6%)
Non-urban
600
Urban Arterial
Kms ('000)

(21%)
400
Local
200 (73%)

0
Highway Arterial Local

Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics, Table T 1.6, BITRE, Canberra. Infrastructure Statistics, Table T 1.6, BITRE, Canberra.

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Table 1: Route length open railway, Australia


Route-length
Kilometres Share (per cent)
Metropolitan 1 637 4.9
Non-metropolitan 31 706 95.1
Total 33 343 100.0
Sources: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Infrastructure Statistics, Table T 5.2a and BITRE (2012), Understanding Australia's urban
railways, Report 131, Table 1, BITRE, Canberra.

Figure 3: Air passenger carried by top 10 city-pairs, Figure 4: Aircraft movements by major airports,
March 2016 2014-15
800 40 000
Passenger numbers ('000)

Fare paying passengers February 2016

Air craft movement (number)


Aircraft movements 2014-15
600
30 000

400
20 000
200

10 000
0

Source: BITRE (2016), Australian domestic Aviation Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Activity Monthly, March 2016, Canberra, infrastructure statistics, Table T 6.4B, Canberra.

Fi gu r e 5 : Se le ct e d Au st ra li an se ap o rts b y Fi gu r e 6 : Se le cte d Au st ra li an se ap o rt s b y
v alu e o f in t ern at ion a l t r a de , 2 0 1 4 wei gh t , 2 0 1 4
80 400

60 300
Tonnes billions
A$ Billions

40 200

20 100

0 0
Geelong
Bunbury
Dampier

Hay Point
Melbourne

Brisbane

Fremantle
Newcastle

Port Walcott
Sydney

Port Kembla

Gladstone
Darwin

Offshore WA
Adelaide

Geraldton
Port Hedland

Townsville

Dampier

Weipa
Newcastle

Bunbury
Hay Point
Gladstone
Port Walcott

Melbourne
Brisbane
Fremantle

Sydney

Port Kembla

Whyalla
Geraldton

Esperance

Darwin
Abbot Point
Port Hedland

Sources: BITRE analysis of AVS International Cargo Sources: BITRE analysis of AVS International Cargo
Statistics. Statistics.

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2. How far do we travel?


On an average day in 2013-14, Australians travelled more than 1.15 billion kilometres on the passenger
network (all modes). In other words, on an average day in 2013-14 each Australian travelled 49 kilometres.

3. Is this increasing?
Yes. There are two factors that determine the rate of increase: vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) per capita
and population growth. Throughout most of the twentieth century, both increased rapidly until around 2004
when VKT per capita began to flatten as travel demand became saturated. However, Australia has one of the
highest rates of population growth in the developed world and passenger demand on the road and rail
network is increasing by around 1.5 per cent per year.

Fi gu r e 7 : Tot a l p as sen ge r t r a ve l b y al l mo de s, Fi gu r e 8 : An n u a l veh i cle -ki lo metr es tr a vel le d


1 9 7 0 -7 1 t o 2 0 1 3 -1 4 , Au st r al i a b y a ll mo des , 1 9 7 0 -7 1 t o 2 0 1 3 -1 4 , Au str al i a
500 20,000

375 15,000
Billions kms

kms
250 10,000

125 5,000

0 0
1970-71
1973-74
1976-77
1979-80
1982-83
1985-86
1988-89
1991-92
1994-95
1997-98
2000-01
2003-04
2006-07
2009-10
2012-13

1970-71
1973-74
1976-77
1979-80
1982-83
1985-86
1988-89
1991-92
1994-95
1997-98
2000-01
2003-04
2006-07
2009-10
2012-13
Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics, Table 3.1, BITRE, Infrastructure Statistics, Tables 3.1 and 11.5a, BITRE,
Canberra. Canberra.

4. How do we travel?
In 2013-14, 70 per cent of passenger travel is done on the road network in the nation’s 18 million registered
vehicles, while air handled 17 per cent. Rail carried four percent. Fifty five percent of surface travel is done in
capital cities, a figure that has scarcely changed for 40 years.

Figure 9: Proportion of passenger travel by road, rail and air, 2013-14, Australia
Rail
(4 per cent)

Air
(17 per cent)

Road
(79 per cent)

Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Infrastructure Statistics, Table T 3.1, BITRE, Canberra.
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5. Are we changing how we travel?


Our travel patterns have been generally stable since the 1970s. The major change is that the proportion
travel done by air has increased by 13 per cent and that done by car and intercity rail has decreased by the
same amount indicating that more people are heading to the airport when it comes to longer journeys.
Urban transport mode share has hardly changed in 40 years. Eighty percent of urban passenger kilometres
are done by car and ten percent is done by mass transit. Travel by commercial vehicles and motorcycles
make up the other ten percent.

Fi gu r e 1 0 : Tot a l p a ssen g er t ra ve l b y Fi gu r e 1 1 : Mo de sh are o f p ass en ger tr a ve l,


tran sp ort mo de , 1 9 7 0 -7 1 t o 2 0 1 3 -1 4 , 1 9 7 0 -7 1 to 2 0 1 3 -1 4 , Au str al i a
Au st r al i a
300 80
Billion passenger km

225 60
Passenger cars
Passenger cars

Per cent
Buses
Air
150 40 Rail
Other
Buses Air
Rail 20 Other
75

0 0

1974-75

1990-91

2006-07
1970-71

1978-79
1982-83
1986-87

1994-95
1998-99
2002-03

2010-11
1970-71
1974-75
1978-79
1982-83
1986-87
1990-91
1994-95
1998-99
2002-03
2006-07
2010-11

Note: Other includes on-business use of light Note: Other includes on-business use of light
commercial vehicles, motorcyles etc. commercial vehicles, motorcyles etc.
Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics, Table 3.1, BITRE, Canberra. Infrastructure Statistics, Table 3.1, BITRE, Canberra.

Fi gu r e 1 2 : Tot a l u rb an p as se n ger tr a ve l b y Figure 13: Mode share of urban passenger travel by


tran sp ort mo de , 1 9 7 0 -7 1 t o 2 0 1 3 -1 4 transport mode, 1970-71 to 2013-14
160 100

120 75
Urban - Per cent

Passenger cars
Commercial vehicles
Urban -Billion kms

Passenger cars Motor cycles


Commercial vehicles 50 Rail
80 Motor cycles Light rail
Rail Bus
Light rail Ferry
40 Bus
25

0 0
1976-77
1979-80
1982-83
1985-86
1988-89
1991-92
1994-95
1997-98
2000-01
2003-04
2006-07
2009-10
2012-13
1982-83

1991-92
1976-77
1979-80

1985-86
1988-89

1994-95
1997-98
2000-01
2003-04
2006-07
2009-10
2012-13

Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics, Table 3.1i, BITRE, Canberra. Infrastructure Statistics, Table 3.1i, BITRE, Canberra.

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6. Why do we travel like this?


Urban passenger transport is influenced by three main forces; spatial efficiency, network access and
peaking loads. Rail is especially efficient in its use of space. A single rail line operating at peak efficiency
can move as many people as a ten lane freeway. This means trains are the best mode where space is most
limited such as inner cities and peak hour traffic. Their ability to handle peaking loads such as the morning
peak is vital to the functioning of the network. The downside is that access to the rail network is poor
compared to cars. To use rail (or bus) without costly mode switching, people have to live within walking
distance of the station and their destination. This is why car travel is the dominant mode for passenger
travel in lower density parts of the city and outside peak hours.

Fi gu r e 1 4 : Nu mb e r of p eop le t r a ve l lin g on Fi gu r e 1 5 : A ver a g e jou r n ey -t o -w ork tr a ve l


week d a ys b y p r i va t e veh ic le s an d p u b l ic tim e, 2 0 1 2 -1 3 , M elb ou r n e
tran sp ort , 2 0 1 2 -1 3 , M el b ou rn e
500,000 80
Light passenger vehicle

Average journey-to-work travel time


Inner
Mass transit Middle
60
375,000 Outer

40

(minutes)
Persons

250,000
20
125,000
0

Other
Private vehicle

Walking

All modes
transport

Bicycle
Public
0
10.00am
11.30am
4.00am
5.30am
7.00am
8.30am

10.00pm
11.30pm
1.00pm
2.30pm
4.00pm
5.30pm
7.00pm
8.30pm

Transport mode
Source: Redrawn from Victorian Integrated Survey of Source: Victorian Department of Transport (2013),
Travel & Activity 2012-13 (https://public.tableau.com/ Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity,
profile/dedjtr#!/vizhome/VISTA2012 -13- <www.dtpli.vic.gov.au/transport/research -anddata/
Travelbytimeofday). statistics/victorian-integrated-survey-of-travel-and-
activity#data.

7. What about freight?


On an average day, nearly 5 million tonnes of freight are moved within Australia. Trucks move around 70
per cent (by weight) and dominate the non-bulk task. Rail moves 28 per cent and is stronger in bulk
transport. The remaining two percent is mainly coastal shipping with negligible amounts of domestic
freight carried by air. It is important to note that goods moved by rail (and coastal shipping) travel longer
distances and thus rail freight has the highest share (by tonne-kilometre or tkm). Since 2002-03, rail
freight share overtook road freight share. In 2013-14, rail freight share was 49 per cent, while road freight
share was 33.5 per cent. Freight moved by air is a very small component of total freight moved (around
0.4 billion tkm).

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Fi gu r e 1 6 : Tot a l do me st ic fr ei gh t (b u lk an d Fi gu r e 1 7 : Tot a l b u lk an d n on -b u lk do me sti c


n on -b u lk ) b y t r an sp ort mo de , 1 9 7 0 -7 1 to frei gh t , 1 9 7 0 -7 1 t o 2 0 1 3 -1 4 , Au str a li a
2 0 1 3 -1 4 , Au st r a li a
400 240
Total

Goods moved (billion tonne kms)


Road
Goods moved (billion tkm)

Non-bulk
300 Rail 180
Bulk
Coastal shipping
Air
200 120

100 60

0 0

1990-91
1992-93
1994-95
1996-97
1998-99
2000-01
2002-03
2004-05
2006-07
2008-09
2010-11
2012-13
1970-71
1973-74
1976-77
1979-80
1982-83
1985-86
1988-89
1991-92
1994-95
1997-98
2000-01
2003-04
2006-07
2009-10
2012-13
Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics 2015, Figure T 2.1c, BITRE, Infrastructure Statistics 2015, Tables T 2.1a and T 2.1b,
Canberra. BITRE, Canberra.

8. Is freight transport increasing?


Freight transport is increasing at a much faster rate than passenger transport. Road freight, for example,
has doubled in the last 20 years. Much of our freight involves international trade, with container
movement through ports growing at more than six per cent a year and bulk freight at ports growing by
nearly 4 per cent per annum.

Fi gu r e 1 8 : Tot a l f re igh t an d p a ssen ge r Fi gu r e 1 9 : Tot a l f re igh t an d p a ssen ge r (p er


tra ve l , 1 9 7 0 -7 1 t o 2 0 1 3 - 1 4 , Au s t r al i a c ap it a ), 1 9 7 0 -7 1 to 2 0 1 3 -1 4 , Au str a li a
800 30,000
Passenger (billion kms) / Freight (Billion

Total freight (billion tkm) Freight per capita (tonne kms)


Passenger kms/Freight tonne kms

Total passenger (billion kms) Passenger per capita (kms)


600 22,500
tkm)

400 15,000

200 7,500

0 0
1970-71
1973-74
1976-77
1979-80
1982-83
1985-86
1988-89
1991-92
1994-95
1997-98
2000-01
2003-04
2006-07
2009-10
2012-13

1970-71
1973-74
1976-77
1979-80
1982-83
1985-86
1988-89
1991-92
1994-95
1997-98
2000-01
2003-04
2006-07
2009-10
2012-13

Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics, Tables T 2.1c, T 3.1 and Figure Infrastructure Statistics, Tables 1 1.5c, T 2.1c and T
T2, BITRE, Canberra. 3.1, BITRE, Canberra.

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Fi gu r e 2 0 : Sh ip p in g c ar g o l o ad e d ( in clu d in g Fi gu r e 2 1 : C on t ain ers e x ch an ge d, se le ct ed


ex p orts ) an d c ar g o d is c h ar ge d ( in c lu din g Au st r al i an p orts , 1 9 9 3 -9 4 to 2 0 1 3 -1 4
imp orts ) at A u st r a li an p ort s
8000 3 000 000

Twenty foot equivalent unit (TEU)


Million tonnes Melbourne Sydney
$ billions 2 500 000 Brisbane Fremantle
Million tonnes or $ billions

6000 Adelaide
2 000 000

4000 1 500 000

1 000 000
2000
500 000

0 0

1993-94
1995-96
1997-98
1999-00
2001-02
2003-04
2005-06
2007-08
2009-10
2011-12
2013-14
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics, able 7.4a, Table 7.4b and ABS Infrastructure Statistics, Tables T 7.7, BITRE,
Customized data. Canberra.

9. Are we commuting longer?


As cities increase in size, commuting times rise until they reach about 35 minute for a one way commute -
the Marchetti’s constant and then stabilize. Australian cities generally have longer average commuting
times than US or Canadian cities of similar sizes.

Figure 22: Average duration of journey to work and average total daily travel time, 2012-13, Sydney Greater
Metropolitan Area

West 35 86

Central Coast 37 79

North 32 84

West Central 37 77

South West 37 77

Central 32 82

South 35 75

Lower Hunter 26 72

Illawarra 25 73

Average
0 duration25
of journey to50
work Average
75 total daily
100travel time125
Source: BTS (2014) 2012/13 Household Travel Survey Summary data.

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Figure 23: Relationship between population and average commuting trip duration, selected cities in Australia,
the USA and Canada
45
Average commuting trip duration (minutes)

Sydney
Brisbane
35 Melbourne
Toronto
Atlanta New York
Montreal Chicago
Perth
Philadelphia Los Angeles
25 Phoenix
Guelph

Regina
15

Alice Springs

5
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
Population ('000)
Note: The co-efficient of regression (R2) is 0.65.
Sources: For Australian cities, BITRE (2016) Lengthy Commutes in Australia, Report 144, BITRE, Canberra.
For USA cities, Gordon P and Lee B (2015) Spatial structure and travel: trends in commuting and non -commuting
travels in US metropolitan areas, Chapter 6, In: Handbook on Transport and Development (Edited by Hickman R,
Givoni M, Bonilla D and Banister D), Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK.
For Canadian cities, Statistics Canada (2011), National Household Survey and 2011 Census.

10. How do we pay for transport?


There is not a direct link between transport related revenue and expenditure in Australia. Rather,
transport related taxes and charges go into general revenue and transport expenditure comes from the
same source.

Road related revenue includes registration, license fees and vehicle related taxes, tolls and fuel excise. A
major challenge for road transport agencies around the world is that revenue from fuel excise is falling
due to more fuel efficient vehicles and the increasing penetration of electric vehicles into the fleet. Heavy
vehicles do more damage to roads and this is assessed annually by the National Transport Commission1
who sets the fees and charges for heavy vehicles accordingly.

Passenger rail and most bus systems are funded by a mixture of fare box revenue (around 25%) and
subsidies by state and territory taxpayers. Freight rail charging is usually separated into above and below
rail. The owners of the freight pay the rolling stock owner who then pays a portion of this to the rail
network owner.

In 2013-14, governments spent $26.8 billion on roads and $8.9 billion on rail.

1
National heavy vehicles charges, set by the Transport and Infrastructure Council based on recommendations from the National
Transport Commission aim to recover the capital and regulatory expenditure as well as road wear costs (approximated by maintenance
expenditure) attributable to heavy vehicles.

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Figure 24: Selected road-related taxes and Figure 25: Road-related expenditure by level of
charges government
30,000 28,000
Commonwealth
22,500 State/ Territory
21,000 Local
15,000 Total
$ million

$ million
7,500 14,000

0
2003–04

2004–05

2005–06

2006–07

2007–08

2008–09

2009–10

2010–11

2011–12

2012–13

2013–14
7,000

Luxury car tax Tolls


Stamp duty Driver's licence fees 0

1998-99

2000-01

2002-03

2004-05

2006-07

2008-09

2010-11

2012-13
Vehicle registration fees Passenger vehicles customs duty
Luxury car tax FIRS
Road-related FBT Road-related GST
Petroleum Products excise
Note: Constant 2013-14 prices, adjusted by ABS Consumer Note: Constant 2013-14 prices, adjusted by ABS
Price Index). Consumer Price Index).
Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook: Australian Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook: Australian
Infrastructure Statistics, Drawn from Table T 1.4, BITRE, Infrastructure Statistics, Drawn from Tables T 1.2e
Canberra. and T 1.4, BITRE, Canberra.

11. Is transport becoming more energy efficient and causing less emissions?
Yes. If you drove an average car out of the showroom in 1979 you would have expected its fuel
consumption to be around 10L/100km. Today your car would be nearly 50 per cent more powerful than
the 1979 model but could expect a little over 7L/100km. Fuel consumption trends are strongly
downward. Transport is emitting less greenhouse gases per kilometre but total transport demand is
rising faster. This means that emissions are rising by around one per cent per year. Since the turn of the
last century, nitrous oxide and methane levels have been falling.

Figure 26: Rated National Average Fuel Figure 27: Total road transport direct greenhouse
Consumption by Australian new passenger gas (carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions, 1989-90
vehicles, by type of vehicle, 1979–2013 to 2013-14, Australia
16 100 000
Gigagrams of CO2 equivalent
New passenger vehicle fuel
consumption (L/100km)

12 75 000

8 50 000

Total Light Vehicles 25 000


4 Cars
SUVs
LCVs 0
0
1989-90
1991-92
1993-94
1995-96
1997-98
1999-00
2001-02
2003-04
2005-06
2007-08
2009-10
2011-12
2013-14
2000
1979
1982
1985
1988
1991
1994
1997

2003
2006
2009
2012

Source: BITRE (2015), New passenger vehicle fuel Source: BITRE (2015), Yearbook 2015: Australian
consumption trends, 1979 to 2013, Information Sheet Infrastructure Statistics, Table T 9.5, BITRE. Canberra.
66, Redrawn from Figure 2b, BITRE, Canberra.

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12. Is transport safety improving?


Transport safety in Australia is really a story about roads. More than 1,150 people died on the nation’s
roads in 2014 compared to just 36 from trains, ships and aircraft combined.

The rate of road fatalities per 100,000 people has declined dramatically in Australia since 1970. Injury
rates are more difficult to measure, but the data we have suggests that after a period of decline, the rate
started to rise around the turn of the century. This indicates that the chances of being killed on the road
are vastly less than it was forty years ago, but the probability of being seriously injured has risen since
around 2000.

While the number of young people involves in serious road crashes is trending down, they are still
overrepresented compared to other age groups. Similarly, the accident rate in regional-remote areas is
also trending down, but remains well above the average.

Figure 28: Road fatalities and serious injuries, Figure 29: Road deaths and serious injuries per
1925-2015, Australia vehicle kilometre, 1925-2015, Australia
40 240 30.0

30 180 22.5

20 120 15.0

10 60 7.5

0 0 0.0
1925
1931
1937
1943
1949
1955
1961
1967
1973
1979
1985
1991
1997
2003
2009
2015

1925
1931
1937
1943
1949
1955
1961
1967
1973
1979
1985
1991
1997
2003
2009
2015
Fatalities per 100,000 people (left hand axis) Deaths per 100 million vehicle kilometres
Seriously injured per 100,000 people (right hand axis) Seriously injured per 100 million vehicle kilometres
Source: Updated Road Deaths in Australia 1925-2008, Information Sheet 38, Source: Updated Road Deaths in Australia 1925-2008, Information Sheet 38,
BITRE, Canberra. BITRE, Canberra.

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Want to know more?


BITRE Publication Link
COMMUTING
Lengthy commutes in Australia Report 144 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2016/rr_144.aspx
Population growth, jobs growth and commuting Report 142 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2013/report_142.aspx
flows—a comparison of Australia's four largest
cities
Population growth, jobs growth and commuting Report 134 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2013/report_134.aspx
flows in South East Queensland
Population growth, jobs growth and commuting Report 132 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2012/report_132.aspx
flows in Sydney
Population growth, jobs growth and commuting Report 125 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2011/report_125.aspx
flows in Melbourne
Population growth, jobs growth and commuting Report 119 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2010/report_119.aspx
flows in Perth
Australia's commuting distance: cities and regions Info Sheet 73 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2015/is_073.aspx
FREIGHT
Road freight estimates and forecasts in Australia: Report 121 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2010/report_121.aspx
interstate, capital cities and rest of state
Interstate freight in Australia Report 120 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2010/report_120.aspx
Freight Measurement and Modelling in Australia Report 112 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2006/report_112.aspx
Freightline 1 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2014/freightline_01.aspx
Freightline 2 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2014/freightline_02.aspx
Freightline 3 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2015/freightline_03.aspx
Australian road freight estimates: 2014 update Info Sheet 62 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2014/is_062.aspx
RAIL
TrainLine 1 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2012/train_001.aspx
TrainLine 2 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2014/train_002.aspx
TrainLine 3 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2015/train_003.aspx
Rail Freight Performance Indicators 2007–08 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2010/arfpi_2007_08.aspx
STATISTICAL YEAR BOOK
Australian infrastructure statistics—Yearbook 2015 Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2015/yearbook_2015.asp
and Key Australian infrastructure statistics booklet x
2015
ENERGY
Road vehicle-kilometres travelled: estimation from Report 124 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2011/report_124.aspx
state and territory fuel sales
State and Capital City vehicle kilometres travelled, Info Sheet 44 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2012/is_044.aspx
1990–2012
New passenger vehicle fuel consumption trends, Info Sheet 66 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2014/is_066.aspx
1979 to 2013
SAFETY
Impact of road trauma and measures to improve Report 140 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2014/report_140.aspx
outcomes
Cost of road crashes in Australia 2006 Report 118 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2010/report_118.aspx
Road Deaths in Australia 1925-2008 Info Sheet 38 http://bitre.gov.au/publications/2010/is_038.aspx
Road Safety Statistics Statistical Report http://bitre.gov.au/statistics/safety/index.aspx

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© Commonwealth of Australia 2016


ISSN 1440-9593
ISBN 978-1-925401-73-8
INFRA 2957 / August 2016
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence is a standard form licence agreement that allows you to copy, communicate and
adapt this publication provided that you attribute the work to the Commonwealth and abide by the other licence terms. A summary of
the licence terms is available from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/deed.en.
The full licence terms are available from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/legalcode.
This publication should be attributed in the following way; Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) 2016,
A dozen facts about transport in Australia, BITRE, Canberra.

Acknowledgement
Prepared by Dr Afzal Hossain and Warwick Jones. For further information on this publication please contact
bitre@infrastructure.gov.au

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The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet sets the terms under which the Coat of Arms is used. Please refer to the
Department’s Commonwealth Coat of Arms and Government Branding web page http://www.dpmc.gov.au/guidelines/index.cfm#brand
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Contact us
This publication is available in PDF format. All other rights are reserved, including in relation to any Departmental logos or trade marks
which may exist. For enquiries regarding the licence and any use of this publication, please contact:
Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development
Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE)
GPO Box 501, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
Phone: (international) +61 2 6274 7210
Fax: (international) +61 2 6274 6855
Email: bitre@infrastructure.gov.au
Website: www.bitre.gov.au

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