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This article is about the country. For other uses, see Nepal (disambiguation).

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

 सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणति नेपाल (Nepali)

 Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl



Motto: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वगाादमप गरीयसी (Sanskrit)

Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven (English)

Capital Kathmandu
and largest city 28°10′N 84°15′ECoordinates:
28°10′N 84°15′E

Official languages Nepali

Recognised  Awadhi
regional languages  Bhojpuri
 Bajjika
 Gurung
 Kiranti
 Limbu
 Magar
 Maithili
 Newar
 Rai
 Sherpa
 Tamang
 Tharu
 Urdu[1]
Ethnic groups(2011[2][needs
Ethnic demography[show]
update] )

Religion 81.3% Hinduism

9% Buddhism
4.4% Islam
3% Kirant
1.4% Christianity
0.4% Animism
0.5% Irreligion[3][4]

Demonym Nepalese

Government Federal parliamentaryrepublic

• President Bidhya Devi Bhandari

• Vice President Nanda Kishor Pun
• Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba
• Speaker of House Onsari Gharti Magar
• Chief Justice Gopal Parajuli

Legislature Federal Parliament

• Upper house Rastriya Sabha

• Lower house Pratinidi Sabha

• Kingdom declared 25 September 1768[5]
• State declared 15 January 2007
• Republic declared 28 May 2008

• Total 147,181 km2(56,827 sq mi) (93rd)
• Water (%) 2.8

• 2016 estimate 28,982,771[6] (48th)
• 2011 census 26,494,504[2]
• Density 180/km2 (466.2/sq mi) (62nd)

GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate

• Total $74.020 billion[7]
• Per capita $2,573[7]

GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate

• Total $24.067 billion[7] ((107th))
• Per capita $837[7]

Gini (2010) 32.8[8]


HDI (2016) 0.558[9]

medium · 144th

Currency Nepalese rupee (NPR)

Time zone Nepal Standard Time(UTC+05:45)

DST not observed

Drives on the left

Calling code +977

ISO 3166 code NP

Internet TLD .np

.ने पाल

Nepal (/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[10] Nepali: नेपाल Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic
Republic of Nepal (Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणति नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra
Nepāl),[11] is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. Nepal is divided into 7
states and 77 districts[12] and 744 local units including 4 metropolises, 13 sub-metropolises, 246
municipal councils and 481 villages.[13] It has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest
country by area.[2][14] Bordering China in the north and India in the south, east, and west, it is the
largest sovereign Himalayan state. Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only
27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip. Neither does it border Bhutan due to the Indian state
of Sikkim being located in between. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile
plains,[15] subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount
Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and largest city. Nepal is a
multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language.
The territory of Nepal has a recorded history since the Neolithic age. The name "Nepal" is first
recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era which founded Hinduism, the predominant religion of
the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism,
was born in southern Nepal. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet.
The Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal became known as Nepal proper because of its complex
urban civilisation. It was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala.
The highest elevation in Nepal is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m (29,029 ft)
above sea level. The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's
traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. By the 18th
century, the Gorkha Kingdomachieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established
the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rana
dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonised but served as a buffer state between Imperial
Chinaand Colonial India.[16][17][18] In the 20th century, Nepal ended its isolation and forged strong ties
with regional powers. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended
by Nepalese monarchs in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil Warresulted in the proclamation of
a republic in 2008, ending the reign of the world's last Hindu monarchy.[19]
Modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic. It has seven states. Nepal is a developing
nation, ranking 144th on the Human Development Index (HDI) in 2016. The country struggles with
the transition from a monarchy to a republic. It also suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty.
Despite these challenges, Nepal is making steady progress, with the government declaring its
commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022.[20][21] Nepal also has a
vast potential to generate hydropower for export.
Nepal's foreign relations expanded after the Anglo-Nepal Treaty of 1923, which was recognised by
the League of Nations. After a Soviet veto in 1949, Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in
1955. Friendship treaties were signed with the Dominion of India in 1950 and the People's Republic
of China in 1960.[22][23] Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for
Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member. Nepal is also a member of
the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. The military of Nepal is the fifth largest
in South Asia and is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a
significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.


 1Etymology
 2History
o 2.1Ancient
o 2.2Medieval
o 2.3Kingdom of Nepal (1768–2008)
o 2.4Republicanization (2008)
 3Geography
o 3.1Climate
o 3.2Geology
o 3.3Environment
 4Politics
o 4.1Constitution
o 4.2Government
 4.2.1Executive
 executive
 executive
 4.2.2Legislative
 legislature
 of Representatives
 Assembly
 legislature
 4.2.3Judiciary
o 4.3Foreign relations
o 4.4Military
o 4.5States
o 4.6Largest cities
 5Economy
 6Infrastructure
o 6.1Energy
o 6.2Transport
o 6.3Telecommunications and mass media
o 6.4Education
o 6.5Health
o 6.6Community forestry
 7Science and technology
 8Crime and law enforcement
 9Demographics
o 9.1Languages
o 9.2Religion
o 9.3Largest cities
 10Culture
o 10.1Holidays and festivals
o 10.2Cuisine
o 10.3Sports
o 10.4Units of measurement
 11In popular media
o 11.1Books
o 11.2Films
 12Gallery
 13See also
 14References
 15Further reading
 16External links

Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley
of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, and that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was
protected ("pala" in Pali) by the sage "Nemi". It is mentioned in Vedic texts that this region was called
Nepal centuries ago. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called "Nemi" used to live in
the Himalayas.[24] In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a saint and a protector.[25] He is said
to have practised meditation at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers[26] and to have taught there.[27]
The name of the country is also identical in origin to the name of the Newar people. The terms
"Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, and
instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history. Nepal is the
learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form.[28] A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE
found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals"
indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people.[29][30]
It has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a later
form of "Nepal".[31] According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari"
are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, and L to R.[32]

Main article: History of Nepal
Lumbini, listed as the birthplace of Gautama Buddha by the UNESCO World Heritage Convention


A ceremonial crown of Nepalese royalty

Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan
region for at least eleven thousand years.[33] From the ancient records it seems that Nepal was
originally inhabited by the Mongoloid people.[34] According to B.H. Hodgson in 1847 the earliest
inhabitants of Nepal were properly the Kusunda people and were properly of Proto-Australoid
Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, and in
the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad.[36] In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a
border country. The Skanda Purana has a separate chapter known as "Nepal Mahatmya" which
explains in more detail about the beauty and power of Nepal.[37] Nepal is also mentioned
in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.[36]
Very little is known about the early history of Nepal, legends and documented references reach far
back to the 30th century BC.[38] Gopal Bansa, cow herding tribes are said to be one of the earliest
inhabitants of Kathmandu valley however the evidence and sources are lacking. The earliest well
known rulers of Nepal were the Kirats or Kiratis and often mentioned as Kiratas (Kirata kingdom) in
Hindu texts, documented references them ruling Nepal from 3102 B.C. to 7th century A.D.[38] From
various sources we can find the mentioning of 27 to 32 Kirati kings who had ruled over Nepal. Gopal
genealogy mentions 32 Kirati Kings to have ruled over Nepal.[39]
Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of
Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who later renounced his status to lead
an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, and came to be known as Gautama Buddha (traditionally dated
563–483 BCE).[40]
By 250 BC, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North
India and later became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century AD.[40]
There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese
Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE.[41][42] Stone inscriptions in the
Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of Lichhavi dynasty have been found to rule Nepal after the Kirat monarchical dynasty.
The context that ‘Suryavansi Kshetriyas had established new regime by defeating the Kirats’ can be
found in some genealogies and Puranas.[39] It is not clear yet that when the Lichhavi dynasty was
established in Nepal. According to the opinion of Baburam Acharya, the prominent historian of
Nepal, Lichhavies were able to establish their independent Lichhavi rule by abolishing Kirati state
that prevailed in Nepal around 250 AD.[39]
The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late 8th century and was followed by
a Newar or Thakuri era. Thakuri kings ruled over the country up to the middle of the 12th century
A.D, King Raghav Dev is said to have founded the ruling dynasty in October, 869 A.D.[43] King
Raghav Dev also started the Nepal Sambat.[44]
Main article: Malla (Nepal)

Tara, ca. 13th century, Nepal, Walters Art Museum

Basantpur royal complex

In the early 12th century, leaders emerged in far western Nepal whose names ended with the
Sanskrit suffix malla ("wrestler"). These kings consolidated their power and ruled over the next 200
years, until the kingdom splintered into two dozen petty states. Another Malla dynasty beginning
with Jayasthiti emerged in the Kathmandu valley in the late 14th century, and much of central Nepal
again came under a unified rule. In 1482 the realm was divided into three
kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur.
Kingdom of Nepal (1768–2008)
Main article: Kingdom of Nepal

Sino-Nepalese War

King Tribhuvan giving an audience to British general Claude Auchinleck at the royal palace in Kathmandu,

Elvis Presley with King Mahendraand Queen Ratna of Nepal in 1960

Prime Minister of Israel David Ben Gurion and Prime Minister of Nepal B. P. Koirala

In the mid-18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would
become present-day Nepal. He embarked on his mission by securing the neutrality of the bordering
mountain kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur, he
managed to conquer the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. A detailed account of Prithvi Narayan Shah's
victory was written by Father Giuseppe, an eyewitness to the war.[45]
The Gorkha dominion reached its height when the North Indian territories of
the Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms in the west to Sikkim in the east came under Nepal rule. At its
maximum extent, Greater Nepal extended from the Teesta River in the east, to Kangra, Himachal
Pradesh, across the Sutlej in the west as well as further south into the Terai plains and north of the
Himalayas than at present. A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri
valleys of Tibet forced the Qing Emperor of China to start the Sino-Nepali Warcompelling the Nepali
to retreat and pay heavy reparations to Peking.
Rivalry between Kingdom of Nepal and the East India Company over the annexation of minor states
bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepali War (1815–16). At first the British underestimated
the Nepali and were soundly defeated until committing more military resources than they had
anticipated needing. They were greatly impressed by the valour and competence of their
adversaries. Thus began the reputation of Gurkhas as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in
the Sugauli Treaty, under which Nepal ceded recently captured portions of Sikkim and lands in Terai
as well as the right to recruit soldiers. Madhesis, having supported the East India Company during
the war, had their lands gifted to Nepali.[46]
Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of instability. In 1846 a plot was discovered
revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Bahadur Kunwar, a fast-rising
military leader. This led to the Kot massacre; armed clashes between military personnel and
administrators loyal to the queen led to the execution of several hundred princes and chieftains
around the country. Jung Bahadur Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana dynasty, later
known as Jung Bahadur Rana. The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister
was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during
the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (and later in both World Wars). Some parts of the Terai region
populated with non-Nepali peoples were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture because
of her military help to sustain British control in India during the rebellion. In 1923, the United
Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship that superseded the Sugauli Treaty
of 1816.[46]
Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924.[47] Nevertheless, debt bondage even involving debtors'
children has been a persistent social problem in the Terai. Rana rule was marked by
tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation and religious persecution.[48][49]
In the late 1940s, newly emerging pro-democracy movements and political parties in Nepal were
critical of the Rana autocracy. Meanwhile, with the invasion of Tibet by China in the
1950s, India sought to counterbalance the perceived military threat from its northern neighbour by
taking pre-emptive steps to assert more influence in Nepal. India sponsored both King
Tribhuvan (ruled 1911–55) as Nepal's new ruler in 1951 and a new government, mostly comprising
the Nepali Congress, thus terminating Rana hegemony in the kingdom.[46]
After years of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra (ruled 1955–
72) scrapped the democratic experiment in 1959, and a "partyless" Panchayat system was made to
govern Nepal until 1989, when the "Jan Andolan" (People's Movement) forced King Birendra (ruled
1972–2001) to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament that took seat in
May 1991.[50] In 1991–92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 Bhutanese citizens of Nepali descent,
most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since.[51]
In 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal started a violent bid to replace the royal parliamentary
system with a people's republic. This led to the long Nepali Civil War and more than 12,000 deaths.
On 1 June 2001, there was a massacre in the royal palace. King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and
seven other members of the royal family were killed. The alleged perpetrator was Crown Prince
Dipendra, who allegedly committed suicide (he died three days later) shortly thereafter. This outburst
was alleged to have been Dipendra's response to his parents' refusal to accept his choice of wife.
Nevertheless, there is speculation and doubts among Nepali citizens about who was responsible.
Following the carnage, King Birendra's brother Gyanendra inherited the throne. On 1 February 2005,
King Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers to quash the
violent Maoist movement,[50] but this initiative was unsuccessful because a stalemate had developed
in which the Maoists were firmly entrenched in large expanses of countryside but could not yet
dislodge the military from numerous towns and the largest cities. In September 2005, the Maoists
declared a three-month unilateral ceasefire to negotiate.
In response to the 2006 democracy movement, King Gyanendra agreed to relinquish sovereign
power to the people. On 24 April 2006 the dissolved House of Representatives was reinstated.
Using its newly acquired sovereign authority, on 18 May 2006 the House of Representatives
unanimously voted to curtail the power of the king and declared Nepal a secular state, ending its
time-honoured official status as a Hindu Kingdom. On 28 December 2007, a bill was passed in
parliament to amend Article 159 of the constitution – replacing "Provisions regarding the King" by
"Provisions of the Head of the State" – declaring Nepal a federal republic, and thereby abolishing the
monarchy.[52] The bill came into force on 28 May 2008.[53]
Republicanization (2008)
The Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) won the largest number of seats in the Constituent
Assembly election held on 10 April 2008, and formed a coalition government which included most of
the parties in the CA. Although acts of violence occurred during the pre-electoral period, election
observers noted that the elections themselves were markedly peaceful and "well-carried out".[54]
Dr. Ram Baran Yadav, the first President of Nepal

The newly elected Assembly met in Kathmandu on 28 May 2008, and, after a polling of 564
constituent Assembly members, 560 voted to form a new government,[53] with the
monarchist Rastriya Prajatantra Party, which had four members in the assembly, registering a
dissenting note. At that point, it was declared that Nepal had become a secular and inclusive
democratic republic,[55][56] with the government announcing a three-day public holiday from 28–30
May. The king was thereafter given 15 days to vacate Narayanhity Palace so it could reopen as a
public museum.[57]
Nonetheless, political tensions and consequent power-sharing battles have continued in Nepal. In
May 2009, the Maoist-led government was toppled and another coalition government with all major
political parties barring the Maoists was formed.[58] Madhav Kumar Nepal of the Communist Party of
Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) was made the Prime Minister of the coalition government.[59] In
February 2011 the Madhav Kumar Nepal Government was toppled and Jhala Nath Khanal of the
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) was made the Prime Minister.[60] In August 2011
the Jhala Nath Khanal Government was toppled and Baburam Bhattarai of the Communist Party of
Nepal (Maoist) was made the Prime Minister.[61]
The political parties were unable to draft a constitution in the stipulated time.[62] This led to dissolution
of the Constituent Assembly to pave way for new elections to strive for a new political mandate. In
opposition to the theory of separation of powers, then Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi was made the
chairman of the caretaker government. Under Regmi, the nation saw peaceful elections for the
constituent assembly. The major forces in the earlier constituent assembly (namely CPN Maoists
and Madhesi parties) dropped to distant 3rd and even below.[63][64]
In February 2014, after consensus was reached between the two major parties in the constituent
assembly, Sushil Koirala was sworn in as the new prime minister of Nepal.[65][66]
In 20 September 2015, a new constitution, the "Constitution of Nepal 2015" (Nepali: ने पालको संमिधान
२०७२) was announced by President Ram Baran Yadav in the constituent assembly. The constituent
assembly was transformed into a legislative parliament by the then-chairman of that assembly. The
new constitution of Nepal has changed Nepal practically into a federal democratic republic by
making 7 unnamed states.
On 25 April 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal.[67] Two weeks later, on 12 May, another
earthquake with a magnitude of 7.3 hit Nepal, which left more than 8,500 people dead and about
21,000, injured.[68]
In October 2015, Bidhya Devi Bhandari was nominated as the first female president.[69]

Main article: Geography of Nepal

A map of Nepal.

A topographic map of Nepal.

Nepal map of Köppen climate classification.

Nepal is of roughly trapezoidal shape, 800 kilometres (497 mi) long and 200 kilometres (124 mi)
wide, with an area of 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi). See List of territories by size for the comparative
size of Nepal. It lies between latitudes 26° and 31°N, and longitudes 80° and 89°E.
Nepal is commonly divided into three physiographic areas: Himal, Pahad and Terai. These
ecological belts run east–west and are vertically intersected by Nepal's major, north to south flowing
river systems.
The southern lowland plains or Terai bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-
Gangetic Plain.Terai is a lowland region containing some hill ranges. They were formed and are fed
by three major Himalayan rivers: the Kosi, the Narayani, and the Karnali as well as smaller rivers
rising below the permanent snowline. This region has a subtropical to tropical climate. The
outermost range of foothills called Sivalik Hills or Churia Range cresting at 700 to 1,000 metres
(2,297 to 3,281 ft) marks the limit of the Gangetic Plain, however broad, low valleys called Inner
Tarai Valleys (Bhitri Tarai Uptyaka) lie north of these foothills in several places.
Pahad is a mountain region which does not generally contain snow. The mountains vary from 800 to
4,000 metres (2,625 to 13,123 ft) in altitude with progression from subtropical climates below 1,200
metres (3,937 ft) to alpine climates above 3,600 metres (11,811 ft). The Lower Himalayan
Rangereaching 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,921 to 9,843 ft) is the southern limit of this region, with
subtropical river valleys and "hills" alternating to the north of this range. Population density is high in
valleys but notably less above 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) and very low above 2,500 metres (8,202 ft)
where snow occasionally falls in winter.
Himal is the mountain region containing snow and situated in the Great Himalayan Range, makes up
the northern part of Nepal. It contains the highest elevations in the world including 8,848 metres
(29,029 ft) height Mount Everest (Sagarmāthā in Nepali) on the border with China. Seven other of
the world's "eight-thousanders" are in Nepal or on its border with China: Lhotse, Makalu, Cho
Oyu, Kangchenjunga, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Manaslu.
Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. The tropical and subtropical
zones lie below 1,200 metres (3,937 ft), the temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 metres (3,937 to
7,874 ft), the cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 metres (7,874 to 11,811 ft), the subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400
metres (11,811 to 14,436 ft), and the Arctic zone above 4,400 metres (14,436 ft).
Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. The Himalaya
blocks cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and forms the northern limit of the monsoon wind
patterns. In a land once thickly forested, deforestation is a major problem in all regions, with resulting
erosion and degradation of ecosystems.
Nepal is popular for mountaineering, having some of the highest and most challenging mountains in
the world, including Mount Everest. Technically, the southeast ridge on the Nepali side of the
mountain is easier to climb, so most climbers prefer to trek to Everest through Nepal.
The highest mountains in Nepal are given here:[70]

Mountain Height Section Location

Mount Khumjung VDC, Solukhumbu District, Sagarmatha

8,848 m 29,029 ft KhumbuMahalangur
Everest(Highest) Zone ( Nepal China Border)

Kangchenjunga (3rd Northern Lelep VDC / Yamphudin VDC, Taplejung

8,586 m 28,169 ft
highest) Kanchenjunga District, Mechi Zone ( Nepal SikkimBorder)

Khumjung VDC, Solukhumbu District, Sagarmatha

Lhotse (4th highest) 8,516 m 27,940 ft Everest Group
Zone ( Nepal China Border)

Makalu VDC, Sankhuwasabha District, Kosi Zone (

Makalu (5th highest) 8,462 m 27,762 ft Makalu Mahalangur
Nepal China Border)

Khumjung VDC, Solukhumbu District, Sagarmatha

Cho Oyu (6th highest) 8,201 m 26,906 ft Khumbu Mahalangur
Zone ( Nepal China Border)

Dhaulagiri (7th Mudi VDC / Kuinemangale VDC, Myagdi

8,167 m 26,795 ft Dhaulagiri
highest) District, Dhawalagiri Zone

Samagaun VDC, Gorkha

Manaslu (8th highest) 8,156 m 26,759 ft Mansiri District / Dharapani VDC, Manang District, Gandaki

Ghandruk VDC, Kaski District, Gandaki

Annapurna (10th
8,091 m 26,545 ft Annapurna Zone / Narchyang VDC, Myagdi District, Dhawalagiri

Main article: Geology of Nepal

Edmund Hillary and Tenzing NorgaySherpa from New Zealand and Nepal respectively became the first people
to summit Mt Everest ; 'Top of the World' in Nepal in 1953

The collision between the Indian subcontinent and Eurasia, which started in Paleogene time and
continues today, produced the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau. Nepal lies completely within this
collision zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2,400 km
(1,500 mi)-long Himalayas.[71][72][73][74][75][76]
The Indian plate continues to move north relative to Asia at the rate of approximately 50 mm (2.0 in)
per year.[77] This is approximately twice the speed at which human fingernails grow, which is very fast
given the size of the blocks of Earth's crust involved.[original research?]As the strong Indian continental crust
subducts beneath the relatively weak Tibetan crust, it pushes up the Himalayan Mountains. This
collision zone has accommodated huge amounts of crustal shortening as the rock sequences slide
one over another.
Based on a study published in 2014, of the Main Frontal Thrust, on average a great earthquake
occurs every 750 ± 140 and 870 ± 350 years in the east Nepal region.[78] A study from 2015 found a
700-year delay between earthquakes in the region. The study also suggests, that because of
tectonic stress transfer, the earthquake from 1934 in Nepal and the 2015 earthquake are connected
– following a historic earthquake pattern.[79]
Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows via several great
rivers: the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River systems to the Indian Ocean.[80]
The dramatic differences in elevation found in Nepal result in a variety of biomes, from tropical
savannas along the Indian border, to subtropical broadleaf and coniferous forests in the Hill Region,
to temperate broadleaf and coniferous forests on the slopes of the Himalaya, to montane grasslands
and shrublands and rock and ice at the highest elevations.
At the lowest elevations is the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. These form a mosaic
with the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests, which occur from 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to
3,300 ft) and include the Inner Terai Valleys. Himalayan subtropical pine forests occur between
1,000 and 2,000 metres (3,300 and 6,600 ft).
Above these elevations, the biogeography of Nepal is generally divided from east to west by the
Gandaki River. Ecoregions to the east tend to receive more precipitation and to be more species-
rich. Those to the west are drier with fewer species.
From 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900 to 9,800 ft), are temperate broadleaf forests:
the eastern and western Himalayan broadleaf forests. From 3,000 to 4,000 metres (9,800 to
13,100 ft) are the eastern and western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. To 5,500 metres
(18,000 ft) are the eastern and western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows.

 Landscapes and Climates of Nepal

NASA Landsat-7 Image of Nepal. Nepal shares its boundaries with India and China

Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth, lies on the Nepal-China border

Barun Valley, one of many valleys in the Himalaya created by glacier flows.

View of Khartuwa village from Thakuri village of Sitalpati, Shankhuwasabha, eastern Nepal.

The Annapurna range of the Himalayas.

Phoksundo Lake

Kali Gandaki Gorge is one of the deepest gorges on earth.

Marshyangdi Valley

Wind erosion in Kalopani

A field in Terai

Phulchowki Hill

Hills view of Ghorahi, Dang

View of mountains

Main article: Politics of Nepal
Bidhya Devi Bhandari Sher Bahadur Deuba
President since 2015 Prime Minister since June 7, 2017

Nepal has seen rapid political changes during the last two decades. Up until 1990, Nepal was a
monarchy under executive control of the King. Faced with a communist movement against absolute
monarchy, King Birendra, in 1990, agreed to a large-scale political reform by creating
a parliamentary monarchy with the king as the head of state and a prime minister as the head of the
Nepal's legislature was bicameral, consisting of a House of Representatives called the Pratinidhi
Sabha and a National Council called the Rastriya Sabha. The House of Representatives consisted
of 205 members directly elected by the people. The National Council had 60 members: ten
nominated by the king, 35 elected by the House of Representatives, and the remaining 15 elected by
an electoral college made up of chairs of villages and towns. The legislature had a five-year term but
was dissolvable by the king before its term could end. All Nepali citizens 18 years and older became
eligible to vote.
The executive comprised the King and the Council of Ministers (the cabinet). The leader of the
coalition or party securing the maximum seats in an election was appointed as the Prime Minister.
The Cabinet was appointed by the king on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Governments
in Nepal tended to be highly unstable, falling either through internal collapse or parliamentary
dissolution by the monarch, on the recommendation of the prime minister, according to the
constitution; no government has survived for more than two years since 1991.
The movement in April 2006 brought about a change in the nation's governance: an interim
constitution was promulgated, with the King giving up power, and an interim House of
Representatives was formed with Maoist members after the new government held peace talks with
the Maoist rebels. The number of parliamentary seats was also increased to 330. In April 2007,
the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) joined the interim government of Nepal.
In December 2007, the interim parliament passed a bill making Nepal a federal republic, with a
president as head of state. Elections for the constitutional assembly were held on 10 April 2008; the
Maoist party led the results but did not achieve a simple majority of seats.[81] The new parliament
adopted the 2007 bill at its first meeting by an overwhelming majority, and King Gyanendra was
given 15 days to leave the Royal Palace in central Kathmandu. He left on 11 June.[82]
On 26 June 2008, the prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala, who had served as Acting Head of State
since January 2007, announced that he would resign on the election of the country's first president
by the Constituent Assembly. The first round of voting, on 19 July 2008, saw Parmanand Jha win
election as Nepali vice-president, but neither of the contenders for president received the required
298 votes and a second round was held two days later. Ram Baran Yadav of the Nepali
Congress party defeated Maoist-backed Ram Raja Prasad Singh with 308 of the 590 votes
cast.[83] Koirala submitted his resignation to the new president after Yadav's swearing-in ceremony on
23 July 2008.

Prachanda speaking at a rally in Pokhara.

On 15 August 2008, Maoist leader Prachanda (Pushpa Kamal Dahal) was elected Prime Minister of
Nepal, the first since the country's transition from a monarchy to a republic. On 4 May 2009, Dahal
resigned over on-going conflicts with regard to the sacking of the Army chief. Since Dahal's
resignation, the country has been in a serious political deadlock with one of the big issues being the
proposed integration of the former Maoist combatants, also known as the People's Liberation Army,
into the national security forces.[84] After Dahal, Jhala Nath Khanal of CPN (UML) was elected the
Prime Minister. Khanal was forced to step down as he could not succeed in carrying forward the
Peace Process and the constitution writing. On August 2011, Maoist Babu Ram Bhattarai became
third Prime Minister after the election of constituent assembly.[85] On 24 May 2012, Nepals's Deputy
PM Krishna Sitaula resigned.[86] On 27 May 2012, the country's Constituent Assembly failed to meet
the deadline for writing a new constitution for the country. Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai
announced that new elections will be held on 22 November 2012. "We have no other option but to
go back to the people and elect a new assembly to write the constitution," he said in a nationally
televised speech. One of the main obstacles has been disagreement over whether the states which
will be created will be based on ethnicity.[87]
Nepal is one of the few countries in Asia to abolish the death penalty.[88] Nepal is the only Asian
country where the possibility of same-sex marriage has been proposed in the high court and in the
legislature although same-sex marriage currently does not exist in Nepal (see also LGBT rights in
Nepal and Same-sex marriage in Nepal). The decision was based on a seven-person government
committee study, and enacted through Supreme Court's ruling November 2008. The ruling granted
full rights for LGBT individuals, including the right to marry[89] and now can get citizenship as a third
gender rather than male or female as authorised by Nepal's Supreme Court in 2007.[90]
Nepal is governed according to the Constitution of Nepal, which came into effect on 20 September
2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007. The Constitution was drafted by the Second
Constituent Assembly following the failure of the First Constituent Assembly to produce a
constitution in its mandated period. The constitution is the fundamental law of Nepal. It defines Nepal
as having multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural characteristics with common
aspirations of people living in diverse geographical regions, and being committed to and united by a
bond of allegiance to national independence, territorial integrity, national interest and prosperity of
Nepal. All the Nepali people collectively constitute the nation.
Entrance to Singha Durbar, the seat of the Nepali government in Kathmandu

The Constitution of Nepal has defined three organs of the government.[91]

The form of governance of Nepal shall be a multi-party, competitive, federal democratic republican
parliamentary system based on plurality.
Federal executive
The executive power of Nepal shall rest with the Council of Ministers in accordance with the
Constitution and law. The President shall appoint the parliamentary party leader of the political party
with the majority in the House of Representatives as a Prime Minister, and a Council of Ministers
shall be formed in his/her chairmanship
State executive
The executive power of the State shall, pursuant to the Constitution and laws, be vested in the
Council of Ministers of the State. Provided that the executive power of the State shall be exercised
by the State Head in case of absence of the State Executive in a State of Emergency or
enforcement of Federal rule. Every state shall have a State Head as the representative of the
Federal government. The President shall appoint a State Head for every state. The State Head shall
exercise the rights and duties as specified in the constitution or laws. The State Head shall appoint
the leader of the parliamentary party with majority in the State Assembly as the Chief Minister and
the State Council of Ministers shall be formed under the chairpersonship of the Chief Minister.
Federal legislature
There shall be a Legislature, called Federal Parliament, consisting of two Houses, namely the House
of Representatives and the National Assembly.
House of Representatives
Except when dissolved earlier, the term of House of Representatives shall be five years. The House
of Representatives shall consist of 275 members as follows:

 165 members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member
from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal
into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
 110 elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties,
while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency.
National Assembly
The National Assembly shall be a permanent house. The tenure of members of National Assembly
shall be six years. The National Assembly shall consist of two 59 members as follows:

 56 members elected from an Electoral College comprising members of State Assembly and
chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of
Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with eight members from each state,
including at least three women, one Dalit, one person with disability or minority;
 3 members, including at least one woman, to be nominated by the President on the
recommendation of Government of Nepal.
State legislature
There shall be a unicameral legislature in a state which shall be called the State Assembly. Every
State Assembly shall consist of the following number of members:

 Members equal to double the number of members to be elected through the first-past-the-post
(FPTP) election system to the House of Representatives from the concerned state,
 The number of members to be elected through the Proportional Representation (PR) election
system equal to the number equivalent to the remaining forty per cent when the number of
members from FPTP is regarded as sixty per cent.
Powers relating to justice in Nepal shall be exercised by courts and other judicial institutions in
accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, other laws and recognised principles of justice.
There shall be the following courts in Nepal:

 Supreme Court
 High Courts
 District Courts
Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of Nepal
Embassy of Nepal in Washington, D.C.

Nepal has close ties with both of its neighbors, India and China. In accordance with a long-standing
treaty, Indian and Nepali citizens may travel to each other's countries without a passport or visa.
Nepali citizens may work in India without legal restriction. The Indian Armymaintains seven Gorkha
regiments consisting of Gorkha troops recruited mostly from Nepal.
However, in the years since the Government of Nepal has been communised and dominated by
socialists, and India's government has been controlled by more right-wing parties, India has been
remilitarising the "porous" Indo-Nepali border to stifle the flow of Islamist groups.[92]
Nepal established relations with the People's Republic of China on 1 August 1955, and relations
since have been based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Nepal has aided China in
the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and China has provided economic assistance for
Nepali infrastructure. Both countries have cooperated to host the 2008 Summer Olympics summit of
Mt. Everest.[93]Nepal has assisted in curbing anti-China protests from the Tibetan diaspora.[94]
Main article: Nepalese Armed Forces

Gurkha Memorial, London

Nepal's military consists of the Nepali Army, which includes the Nepali Army Air Service. The Nepali
Police Force is the civilian police and the Armed Police Force Nepal[95] is the paramilitary force.
Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Nepal spends $99.2 million
(2004) on its military—1.5% of its GDP. Much of the equipment and arms are imported from India.
Consequently, the US provided M16s, M4s and other Colt weapons to combat communist (Maoist)
insurgents. The standard-issue battle rifle of the Nepali army is the Colt M16.[96]
In the new regulations by Nepali Army, female soldiers have been barred from participating
in combat situations and fighting in the frontlines of war. However, they are allowed to be a part of
the army in sections like intelligence, headquarters, signals and operations.[97]
Main article: Nepalese Federal States
The administrative subdivisions of Nepal (states and districts).

As of 20 September 2015, Nepal is divided into 7 states and 75 districts. It has 744 local units. There
are 4 metropolises, 13 sub-metropolises, 246 municipal councils and 481 village councils for official
works. The constitution grants 22 absolute powers to the local units while they share 15 more
powers with the central and state governments.[13]
State No. 1
1 – Bhojpur District 8 – Panchthar District
2 – Dhankuta District 9 – Sankhuwasabha District
3 – Ilam District 10 – Solukhumbu District
4 – Jhapa District 11 – Sunsari District
5 – Khotang District 12 – Taplejung District
6 – Morang District 13 – Terhathum District
7 – Okhaldhunga District 14 – Udayapur District
State No. 2
1 – Bara District 5 – Rautahat District
2 – Dhanusha District 6 – Saptari District
3 – Mahottari District 7 – Sarlahi District
4 – Parsa District 8 – Siraha District
State No. 3
1 – Bhaktapur District 8 – Makwanpur District
2 – Chitwan District 9 – Nuwakot District
3 – Dhading District 10 – Ramechhap District
4 – Dolakha District 11 – Rasuwa District
5 – Kathmandu District 12 – Sindhuli District
6 – Kavrepalanchok District 13 – Sindhupalchok District
7 – Lalitpur District
State No. 4
1 – Baglung District (eastern 7 – Myagdi District
part) 8 – Nawalparasi District (east of Bardaghat
2 – Gorkha District Susta)
3 – Kaski District 9 – Parbat District
4 – Lamjung District 10 – Syangja District
5 – Manang District 11 – Tanahun District
6 – Mustang District

Tangbe village, Mustang District

State No. 5
1 – Arghakhanchi District* 8 – Nawalparasi District (west of Bardaghat
2 – Baglung District (western Susta)
part) 9 – Palpa District*
3 – Banke District 10 – Pyuthan District*
4 – Bardiya District 11 – Rolpa District*
5 – Dang Deukhuri District 12 – Rukum District (eastern part)*
6 – Gulmi District* 13 – Rupandehi District
7 – Kapilvastu District
State No. 6
1 – Dailekh District 6 – Kalikot District
2 – Dolpa District 7 – Mugu District
3 – Humla District 8 – Rukum District (western part)
4 – Jajarkot District 9 – Salyan District
5 – Jumla District 10 – Surkhet District
State No. 7
1 – Achham District 6 – Darchula District
2 – Baitadi District 7 – Doti District
3 – Bajhang District 8 – Kailali District
4 – Bajura District 9 – Kanchanpur District
5 – Dadeldhura District
– denotes the districts that are proposed to be re-allocated to State No. 4 and State No. 6
Largest cities

 v

 t

 e
Largest cities or towns in Nepal
Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development [1]
Rank Name District Pop. Rank Name
1 Kathmandu Kathmandu 975,453 11 Tulsipur
2 Pokhara Lekhnath Kaski 414,141 12 Itahari
3 Lalitpur Lalitpur 284,922 13 Nepalgunj
4 Bharatpur Chitwan 280,502 14 Butwal
5 Biratnagar Morang 214,663 15 Dharan
6 Birgunj Parsa 204,816 16 Kalaiya
7 Ghorahi Dang 156,164 17 Jitpur Simara
8 Janakpur Dhanusha 153,614 18 Mechinagar
9 Hetauda Makwanpur 152,875 19 Budhanilkantha

10 Dhangadhi Kailali 147,741 20 Gokarneshwar

Pokhara Lekhnath

Main article: Economy of Nepal

A proportional representation of Nepal's exports.

The Mountain Museum in Pokhara, the country's second largest city and a hub of tourism in Nepal
Terraced rice farming in Nepal

Nepalese silver currency, 1695

Nepalese Chamber of Commerce, Lhasa, 1955

Nepal's gross domestic product (GDP) for 2012 was estimated at over $17.921 billion (adjusted
to nominal GDP).[7] In 2010, agriculture accounted for 36.1%, services comprised 48.5%, and
industry 15.4% of Nepal's GDP.[98] While agriculture and industry are contracting, the contribution by
the service sector is increasing.[98][99]
Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce, services 18% and manufacturing and craft-based industry
6%. Agricultural produce – mostly grown in the Terai region bordering India – includes tea, rice,
corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, and water buffalo meat. Industry mainly involves the
processing of agricultural produce, including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Its workforce of
about 10 million suffers from a severe shortage of skilled labour.
Nepal's economic growth continues to be adversely affected by the political uncertainty.
Nevertheless, real GDP growth was estimated to increase to almost 5 percent for 2011–2012. This
is an improvement from the 3.5 percent GDP growth in 2010–2011 and would be the second-highest
growth rate in the post-conflict era.[100] Sources of growth include agriculture, construction, financial
and other services. The contribution of growth by consumption fuelled by remittances has declined
since 2010/2011. While remittance growth slowed to 11 percent (in Nepali Rupee terms) in
2010/2011, it has since increased to 37 percent. Remittances are estimated to be equivalent to 25–
30 percent of GDP. Inflation has been reduced to a three-year low of 7 percent.[100]
The proportion of poor people has declined substantially since 2003. The percentage of people living
below the international poverty line (people earning less than US$1.25 per day) has halved in seven
years.[100] At this measure of poverty the percentage of poor people declined from 53.1% in
2003/2004 to 24.8% in 2010/2011.[100] With a higher poverty line of US$2 per-capita per day, poverty
declined by one-quarter to 57.3%.[100] However, the income distribution remains grossly uneven.[101]

Kathmandu street vendors

In a recent survey, Nepal has performed extremely well in reducing poverty along with Rwanda and
Bangladesh as the percentage of poor dropped to 44.2 percent of the population in 2011 from 64.7
percent in 2006—4.1 percentage points per year, which means that Nepal has made improvement in
sectors like nutrition, child mortality, electricity, improved flooring and assets. If the progress of
reducing poverty continues at this rate, then it is predicted that Nepal will halve the current poverty
rate and eradicate it within the next 20 years.[102][103]
The spectacular landscape and diverse, exotic cultures of Nepal represent considerable potential
for tourism, but growth in the industry has been stifled by political instability and poor infrastructure.
Despite these problems, in 2012 the number of international tourists visiting Nepal was 598,204, a
10% increase on the previous year.[104] The tourism sector contributed nearly 3% of national GDP in
2012 and is the second-biggest foreign income earner after remittances.[105]
The rate of unemployment and underemployment approaches half of the working-age population.
Thus many Nepali citizens move to other countries in search of work. Destinations include India,
Qatar, the United States, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Brunei Darussalam,
Australia, and Canada.[106][107] Nepal receives $50 million a year through the Gurkha soldiers who
serve in the Indian and British armies and are highly esteemed for their skill and bravery. As of 2010,
the total remittance value is around $3.5 billion.[107] In 2009 alone, the remittance contributed to
22.9% of the nation's GDP.[107]
A long-standing economic agreement underpins a close relationship with India. The country receives
foreign aid from the UK,[108][109] India, Japan, the US, the EU, China, Switzerland, and Scandinavian
countries. Poverty is acute; per-capita income is around $1,000.[110] The distribution of wealth among
the Nepali is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of
households control 39.1% of the national wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%.
The government's budget is about $1.153 billion, with an expenditure of $1.789 billion (FY
20005/06). The Nepali rupee has been tied to the Indian rupee at an exchange rate of 1.6 for many
years. Since the loosening of exchange rate controls in the early 1990s, the black market for foreign
exchange has all but disappeared. The inflation rate has dropped to 2.9% after a period of higher
inflation during the 1990s.
Nepal's exports of mainly carpets, clothing, hemp, leather goods, jute goods and grain total $822
million. Import commodities of mainly gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products and
fertiliser total US$2 billion. European Union (EU) (46.13%), the US (17.4%), and Germany (7.1%)
are its main export partners. The European Union has emerged the largest buyer of Nepali ready-
made garments (RMG). Exports to the EU accounted for "46.13 percent of the country's total
garment exports".[111] Nepal's import partners include India (47.5%), the United Arab Emirates
(11.2%), China (10.7%), Saudi Arabia (4.9%), and Singapore (4%).
Besides having landlocked, rugged geography, few tangible natural resources and poor
infrastructure, the ineffective post-1950 government and the long-running civil war are also factors in
stunting the nation's economic growth and development.[112][113][114]

Main article: Energy in Nepal

Middle Marshyandi Hydroelectricity Dam. Nepal has significant potential to generate hydropower, which it plans
to export across South Asia

The bulk of the energy in Nepal comes from fuel wood (68%), agricultural waste (15%), animal dung
(8%), and imported fossil fuels (8%).[115][116] Except for some lignite deposits, Nepal has no known oil,
gas or coal deposits. All commercial fossil fuels (mainly oil and coal) are either imported from India
or from international markets routed through India and China. Fuel imports absorb over one-fourth of
Nepal's foreign exchange earnings.[116]
Only about 1% energy need is fulfilled by electricity. The perennial nature of Nepali rivers and the
steep gradient of the country's topography provide ideal conditions for the development of some of
the world's largest hydroelectric projects. Current estimates put Nepal's economically feasible
hydropower potential to be approximately 83,000 MW from 66 hydropower project
sites.[116][117] However, currently Nepal has been able to exploit only about 600 MW from 20 medium to
large hydropower plants and a number of small and micro hydropower plants.[115]There are 9 major
hydropower plants under construction, and additional 27 sites considered for potential
development.[115] Only about 40% of Nepal's population has access to electricity.[115] There is a great
disparity between urban and rural areas. The electrification rate in urban areas is 90%, whereas the
rate for rural areas is only 5%.[116] Power cuts of up to 22 hours a day take place in peak demand
periods of winter and the peak electricity demand is almost the double the capability or dependable
capacity.[118] The position of the power sector remains unsatisfactory because of high tariffs, high
system losses, high generation costs, high overheads, over staffing, and lower domestic demand.[116]
Main article: Transport in Nepal

Means of transport in mountain area

Nepal remains isolated from the world's major land, air and sea transport routes although, within the
country, aviation is in a better state, with 47 airports, 11 of them with paved runways;[119] flights are
frequent and support a sizable traffic. The hilly and mountainous terrain in the northern two-thirds of
the country has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. In 2007
there were just over 10,142 km (6,302 mi) of paved roads, and 7,140 km (4,437 mi) of unpaved
road, and one 59 km (37 mi) railway line in the south.[119]
More than one-third of its people live at least a two hours walk from the nearest all-season road; 15
out of 75 district headquarters are not connected by road. In addition, around 60% of the road
network and most rural roads are not operable during the rainy season.[120] The only practical seaport
of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Kolkata in West Bengal state of India. Internally, the poor
state of development of the road system makes access to markets, schools, and health clinics a
Telecommunications and mass media
According to the Nepal Telecommunication Authority MIS May 2012 report,[121] there are seven
operators and the total voice telephony subscribers including fixed and mobile are 16,350,946 which
gives a penetration rate of 61.42%. The fixed telephone service account for 9.37%, mobile for
64.63%, and other services (LM, GMPCS) for 3.76% of the total penetration rate. Similarly, the
numbers of subscribers to data/internet services are 4,667,536 which represents 17.53% penetration
rate. Most of the data service is accounted by GPRS users. Twelve months earlier the data/internet
penetration was 10.05%, thus this represents a growth rate of 74.77%.[121]
Not only has there been strong subscriber growth, especially in the mobile sector, but there was
evidence of a clear vision in the sector, including putting a reform process in place and planning for
the building of necessary telecommunications infrastructure. Most importantly, the Ministry of
Information and Communications (MoIC) and the telecom regulator, the National
Telecommunications Authority (NTA), have both been very active in the performance of their
respective roles.[122]
Despite all the effort, there remained a significant disparity between the high coverage levels in the
cities and the coverage available in the underdeveloped rural regions. Progress on providing some
minimum access had been good. Of a total of 3,914 village development committees across the
country, 306 were unserved by December 2009.[122] In order to meet future demand, it was estimated
that Nepal needed to invest around US$135 million annually in its telecom sector.[122] In 2009, the
telecommunication sector alone contributed to 1% of the nation's GDP.[123] As of 30 September 2012,
Nepal has 1,828,700 Facebook users.[124]
As of 2007, the state operates two television stations as well as national and regional radio stations.
There are roughly 30 independent TV channels registered, with only about half in regular operation.
Nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly 300 operational.[119] According to the 2011
census, the percentage of households possessing radio was 50.82%, television 36.45%, cable TV
19.33%, computer 7.23%.[2] According to the Press Council Nepal, as of 2012 there are 2,038
registered newspapers in Nepal, among which 514 are in publication.[125] In 2013, Reporters Without
Borders ranked Nepal at 118th place in the world in terms of press freedom.[126][127]
Main article: Education in Nepal
The overall literacy rate (for population age 5 years and above) increased from 54.1% in 2001 to
65.9% in 2011. The male literacy rate was 75.1% compared to the female literacy rate of 57.4%. The
highest literacy rate was reported in Kathmandu district (86.3%) and lowest
in Rautahat (41.7%).[2] While the net primary enrollment rate was 74% in 2005;[128] in 2009, that
enrollment rate was 90%.[129]
However, increasing access to secondary education (grade 9–12) remains a major challenge, as
evidenced by the low net enrollment rate of 24% at this level. More than half of primary students do
not enter secondary schools, and only one-half of them complete secondary schooling. In addition,
fewer girls than boys join secondary schools and, among those who do, fewer complete the 10th
Nepal has seven universities: Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu University, Pokhara
University, Purbanchal University, Mahendra Sanskrit University, Far-western University,
and Agriculture and Forestry University.[131] Some newly proposed universities are Lumbini Bouddha
University, and Mid-Western University. Some fine scholarship has emerged in the post-1990 era.[132]
Main article: Health in Nepal

Kunde Hospital in remote Himalayan region

Public health and health care services in Nepal are provided by both the public and private sectors
and fare poorly by international standards.[citation needed] According to 2011 census, more than one-third
(38.17%) of the total households do not have a toilet.[2] Tap water is the main source of drinking
water for 47.78% of households, tube well/hand pump is the main source of drinking water for about
35% of households, while spout, uncovered well/kuwa, and covered well/kuwa are the main source
for 5.74%, 4.71%, and 2.45% respectively.[2]Based on 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) data,
Nepal ranked 139th in life expectancy in 2010 with the average Nepali living to 65.8 years.[133][134]
Diseases are more prevalent in Nepal than in other South Asian countries, especially in rural areas.
Leading diseases and illnesses include diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, goitres, intestinal
parasites, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and tuberculosis.[135] About 4 out of 1,000 adults aged 15 to
49 had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the HIV prevalence rate was
0.5%.[136][137] Malnutrition also remains very high: about 47% of children under five are stunted, 15
percent wasted, and 36 percent underweight, although there has been a declining trend for these
rates over the past five years, they remain alarmingly high.[138] In spite of these figures, improvements
in health care have been made, most notably in maternal-child health. In 2012, the under-five infant
mortality was estimated to be 41 out of every 1000 children.[139][140] Overall Nepal's Human
Development Index (HDI) for health was 0.77 in 2011, ranking Nepal 126 out of 194 countries, up
from 0.444 in 1980.[141][142]
Community forestry
The Community Forestry Program in Nepal is a participatory environmental governance that
encompasses well-defined policies, institutions, and practices. The program addresses the twin
goals of forest conservation and poverty reduction. As more than 70 percent of Nepal's population
depends on agriculture for their livelihood, community management of forests has been a critically
important intervention. Through legislative developments and operational innovations over three
decades, the program has evolved from a protection-oriented, conservation-focused agenda to a
much more broad-based strategy for forest use, enterprise development, and livelihood
improvement. By April 2009, one-third of Nepal's population was participating in the program, directly
managing more than one-fourth of Nepal's forest area.[143][144]
The immediate livelihood benefits derived by rural households bolster strong collective action
wherein local communities actively and sustainably manage forest resources. Community forests
also became the source of diversified investment capital and raw material for new market-oriented
livelihoods. Community forestry shows traits of political, financial, and ecological sustainability,
including an emergence of a strong legal and regulatory framework, and robust civil society
institutions and networks. However, a continuing challenge is to ensure equitable distribution of
benefits to women and marginalised groups. Lessons for replication emphasise experiential learning,
establishment of a strong civil society network, flexible regulation to encourage diverse institutional
modalities, and responsiveness of government and policymakers to a multistakeholder collaborative
learning process.[145][146]

Science and technology

Main article: Science and technology in Nepal
Erected by King Bhupatindra Malla in 1702, Nyatapola is an important tourist attraction in the historical city
of Bhaktapur.

Historical kingdoms that existed in the Kathmandu valley are found to have made use of some clever
technologies in numerous areas such as architecture, agriculture, civil engineering, water
management, etc. The Gopals and Abhirs, who ruled the valley up until c. 1000 BC, used temporary
materials for construction such as bamboo, hay, timber, etc. The Kirat period (700 BC – 110 AD)
employed the technology of brick firing as well as produced quality woolen shawls. Similarly, stupas,
idols, canals, self-recharging ponds, reservoirs, etc. constructed during the Lichhavi era (110–879
AD) are intact to this day, which manifests the ingenuity of traditional architecture. Moreover,
the Malla period (1200–1768 AD) saw an impressive growth in architecture, on par with its advanced
contemporaries. An archetypal example of Malla architecture is Nyatapola, a five-storied, 30-metre
tall temple in Bhaktapur, which has strangely survived at least four major earthquakes, including
the April 2015 Nepal earthquake.[147]
Nepal was a late entrant into the modern world of science and technology. Nepal’s first institution of
higher education, Tri-Chandra College, was established by Chandra Shumsher in 1918. The college
introduced science at the Intermediate level a year later, marking the genesis of formal science
education in the country.[147] However, the college was not accessible to the general public, but only
to a handful of members of the Rana regime. Throughout the Rana regime that lasted for well over a
century, Nepal was effectively isolated from the rest of the world. Owing to this isolation, Nepal was
relatively untouched by and unfamiliar of social transformations brought about by the British
invasion in India and the Industrial Revolution in the West.[148] However, after the advent of
democracy and abolition of Rana regime in 1951, Nepal broke free from the shackles of self-
imposed isolation and opened up to the outside world. This opening marked the initiation of S&T
activities in the country.[149]
An underdeveloped country, Nepal is plagued with problems such
as poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, and the like. Consequently, science and technology have
invariably lagged behind in the priority list of the government. On the other hand, citing poor
university education at home, tens of thousands of Nepali students leave the country every year,
with half of them never returning.[150][151] These factors have been huge deterrents to the development
of science and technology in Nepal.

Crime and law enforcement

Main article: Law enforcement in Nepal
See also: Directorate of Military Intelligence, Nepal; National Investigation Department of Nepal;
and Human trafficking in Nepal
Law enforcement in Nepal is primarily the responsibility of the Nepali Police Force which is the
national police of Nepal.[152] It is independent of the Nepali Army. In the days of its establishment,
Nepal Police personnel were mainly drawn from the armed forces of the Nepali Congress
Party which fought against the feudal Rana autocracy in Nepal. The Central Investigation
Bureau (CIB) and National Investigation Department of Nepal (NID) are the investigation agencies of
Nepal. They have offices in all 75 administrative districts including regional offices in five regions and
zonal offices in 14 zones. Numbers vary from three to five members at each district level in rural
districts, and numbers can be higher in urban districts. They have both Domestic and International
surveillance unit which mainly deals with cross border terrorists, drug trafficking and money
A 2010 survey estimated about 46,000 hard drug users in the country, with 70% of the users to be
within the age group of 15 to 29.[157] The same survey also reported that 19% of the users had been
introduced to hard drugs when they were less than 15 years old; and 14.4% of drug users were
attending school or college.[157] Only 12 of the 17 municipalities studied had any type of rehabilitation
centre.[157][158] There has been a sharp increase in the seizure of drugs such as hashish, heroin and
opium in the past few years; and there are indications that drug traffickers are trying to establish
Nepal as a transit point.[159]
Human trafficking and child labour are major problems in Nepal.[160][161][162] Nepali victims are trafficked
within Nepal, to India, the Middle East, and other areas such as Malaysia and forced to become
prostitutes, domestic servants, beggars, factory workers, mine workers, circus performers, child
soldiers, and others. Sex trafficking is particularly rampant within Nepal and to India, with as many
as 5,000 to 10,000 women and girls trafficked to India alone each year.[163][164][165]
Capital punishment was abolished in Nepal in 1997.[166] In 2008, the Nepali government abolished
the Haliya system of forced labour, freeing about 20,000 people.[167] However, the effectiveness of
this has been questioned by the Asian Legal Resource Centre.[168]

Main article: Demographics of Nepal
Nepalese gentlemen in 1940

Nepalese women dancing for Teej

Population density map of Nepal

Comparison Of Nepal Population

According to the 2011 census, Nepal's population grew from 9 million people in 1950 to 26.5 million.
From 2001 to 2011, the average family size declined from 5.44 to 4.9. The census also noted some
1.9 million absentee people, over a million more than in 2001; most are male labourers employed
overseas, predominantly in South Asia and the Middle East. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio
from 94.41 as compared to 99.80 for 2001. The annual population growth rate is 1.35%.[2]
The citizens of Nepal are known as Nepali or Nepalese. The country is home to people of many
different national origins. As a result, Nepalese do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but
with citizenship and allegiance. Although citizens make up the majority of Nepalese, non-citizen
residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may also claim a Nepalese identity. Nepal is multicultural
and multiethnic country because it became a country by occupying several small kingdoms such
as Mustang, Videha(Mithila), Madhesh, and Limbuwan in the 18th century. The oldest settlements
in Mithila and Tharuhat are Maithil. Northern Nepal is historically inhabited by
Kirants Mongoloid, Rai and Limbupeople. The mountainous region is sparsely populated above
3,000 m (9,800 ft), but in central and western Nepal ethnic Sherpa and Lamapeople inhabit even
higher semi-arid valleys north of the Himalaya. The Nepali speaking Khas people mostly inhabit
central and southern regions. Kathmandu Valley, in the middle hill region, constitutes a small fraction
of the nation's area but is the most densely populated, with almost 5 percent of the nation's
population. The Nepali are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet, and North
Burma and the Chinese state of Yunnan via Assam. Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of
east mid-region, Newars of the Kathmandu Valley, aboriginal Tharus of Tharuhat,
Despite the migration of a significant section of the population to the Madhesh (southern plains) in
recent years, the majority of Nepalese still live in the central highlands; the northern mountains are
sparsely populated. Kathmandu, with a population of over 2.6 million (metropolitan area: 5
million),[dubious – discuss] is the largest city in the country and the cultural and economic heart.
According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the US Committee for Refugees and
Immigrants, Nepal hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers in 2007 numbering
approximately 130,000. Of this population, approximately 109,200 persons were from Bhutan and
20,500 from People's Republic of China.[169][170] The government of Nepal restricted Bhutanese
refugees to seven camps in the Jhapa and Morang districts, and refugees were not permitted to
work in most professions.[169] At present, the United States is working towards resettling more than
60,000 of these refugees in the US.[51]

Population Structure

Data Size

Population 26,494,504 (2011)

Growth Rate 1.35%

Population below 14 Years old 34.19%

Population of age 15 to 59 54.15%

Population above 60 8.13%

Median age (Average) 20.07

Median age (Male) 19.91

Median age (Females) 20.24

Ratio (Male:Female) 100:94.16

Life expectancy (Average) (Reference:[171]) 66.16 Years

Life expectancy (Male) 64.94

Life expectancy (Female) 67.44

Literacy Rate (Average) 65.9%

Literacy Rate (Male) 75.1%

Literacy Rate (Female) 57.4%

A Nepalese Tibetan monk

Main article: Languages of Nepal
Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage stems from three major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-
Burman, and various indigenous language isolates. The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken
as native language) according to the 2011 census are Nepali (44.6%), Maithili (11.7%), Bhojpuri
(Awadhi Language) (6.0%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Nepal Bhasa (3.2%), Bajjika (3%)
and Magar (3.0%), Doteli (3.0%), Urdu (2.6%) and Sunwar. Nepal is home to at least four
indigenous sign languages.
Derived from Sanskrit, Nepali is written in Devanagari script. Nepali is the official language and
serves as lingua franca among Nepali of different ethnolinguistic groups. The regional
languages Maithili, Awadhi, Bhojpuri and rarely Urdu of Nepali Muslims are spoken in the
southern Madheshregion. Many Nepali in government and business speak Maithili as the main
language and Nepali as their de facto lingua franca. Varieties of Tibetanare spoken in and north of
the higher Himalaya where standard literary Tibetan is widely understood by those with religious
education. Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop
systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet.
Main article: Religion in Nepal
Religion in Nepal (2011)[3]
religion percent
Hindu   81.3%
Buddhist   9.0%
Muslim   4.4%
Folk   3.0%
Christian   1.42%
Other   0.9%

Sadhus in Pashupatinath Temple

The significant majority of the Nepalese population follows Hinduism. Shiva is regarded as the
guardian deity of the country.[172]Nepal is home to the famous Lord Shiva temple,
the Pashupatinath Temple, where Hindus from all over the world come for pilgrimage. According to
Hindu mythology, the goddess Sita of the epic Ramayana, was born in the Mithila Kingdom of King
Janaka Raja.
Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site and UNESCO World Heritage Site in the Kapilavastu district.
Traditionally it is held to be the birthplace in about 563 B.C. of Siddhartha Gautama, a Kshatriya
caste prince of the Sakya clan, who as the Buddha Gautama, founded Buddhism.
The holy site of Lumbini is bordered by a large monastic zone, in which only monasteries can be
built. All three main branches of Buddhism exist in Nepal and the Newa people have their
own branch of the faith.[173] Buddhism is also the dominant religion of the thinly populated northern
areas, which are mostly inhabited by Tibetan-related peoples, such as the Sherpa.
The Buddha, born as a Hindu, is also said to be a descendant of Vedic Sage Angirasa in many
Buddhist texts.[174] The Buddha's family surname is associated with Gautama
Maharishi.[175] Differences between Hindus and Buddhists have been minimal in Nepal due to the
cultural and historical intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs. Moreover, traditionally Buddhism
and Hinduism were never two distinct religions in the western sense of the word. In Nepal, the faiths
share common temples and worship common deities. Among other natives of Nepal, those more
influenced by Hinduism were the Magar, Sunwar, Limbu and Rai and the Gurkhas.[176] Hindu
influence is less prominent among the Gurung, Bhutia, and Thakali groups who employ Buddhist
monks for their religious ceremonies.[176] Most of the festivals in Nepal are Hindu.[177] The
Machendrajatra festival, dedicated to Hindu Shaiva Siddha, is celebrated by many Buddhists in
Nepal as a main festival.[178] As it is believed that Ne Muni established Nepal,[179] some important
priests in Nepal are called "Tirthaguru Nemuni". Islam is a minority religion in Nepal, with 4.2% of the
population being Muslim according to a 2006 Nepali census.[180] Mundhum, Christianity
and Jainism are other minority faiths.[181]
Largest cities


The 14 largest cities by population as per the 2011 census[2]

Main article: List of cities in Nepal

 Kathmandu (Pop.: 975,453)

 Pokhara (Pop.: 255,465)
 Lalitpur (Pop.: 220,802)
 Biratnagar (Pop.: 201,125)
 Bharatpur (Pop.: 143,836)
 Birganj (Pop.: 135,904)
 Butwal (Pop.: 118,462)
 Dharan (Pop.: 116,181)
 Bhim Datta (Pop.: 104,599)
 Dhangadhi (Pop.: 101,970)
 Janakpur (Pop.: 97,776)
 Hetauda (Pop.:84,671)
 Madhyapur Thimi (Pop.: 83,036)
 Bhaktapur (Pop.: 81,748)
 Nepalgunj (Pop.:73,779)

Main articles: Culture of Nepal and Music of Nepal
The Nepalese actress and UN Goodwill Ambassador Manisha Koirala

Folklore is an integral part of Nepali society. Traditional stories are rooted in the reality of day-to-day
life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts and thus reflect local lifestyles,
culture, and beliefs. Many Nepali folktales are enacted through the medium of dance and music.
Most houses in the rural lowlands of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a
mud and cow-dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter.
Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations
construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs.
Nepal's flag is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape.[182] The constitution
of Nepal contains instructions for a geometric construction of the flag.[183] According to its official
description, the red in the flag stands for victory in war or courage, and is also the colour of
the rhododendron, the national flower of Nepal. Red also stands for aggression. The flag's blue
border signifies peace. The curved moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of
Nepali, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepali warriors.
Holidays and festivals
Main article: List of festivals in Nepal
With 36 days a year, Nepal is the country that enjoys the most number of public holidays in the
world.[184] The Nepali year begins in 1st of Baisakh in official Hindu Calendar of the country,
the Bikram Sambat, which falls in mid-April and is divided into 12 months. Saturday is the official
weekly holiday. Main annual holidays include the Martyr's Day (18 February), and a mix of Hindu
and Buddhist festivals such as Dashain in autumn, Tihar in mid-autumn and Chhath in late autumn.
During Swanti, the Newars perform the Mha Puja ceremony to celebrate New Year's Day of the
lunar calendar Nepal Sambat. Being a Secular country Nepal has holiday on main festivals of
minority religions in the nation too.[177]
Main article: Nepalese cuisine
The national cuisine of Nepal is Dhindo and Gundruk.The staple Nepali meal is dal bhat. Dal is a
lentil soup, and is served over bhat (boiled rice), with tarkari (curried vegetables) together
with achar (pickles) or chutni (spicy condiment made from fresh ingredients). It consists of non-
vegetarian as well as vegetarian items. Mustard oil is a common cooking medium and a host of
spices, including cumin, coriander, black pepper, sesame seeds, turmeric, garlic, ginger, methi
(fenugreek), bay leaves, cloves, cinnamon, chilies and mustard seeds are used in cooking. Momo is
a type of steamed dumpling with meat or vegetable fillings, and is a popular fast food in many
regions of Nepal.
Main article: Sports in Nepal
Association football is the most popular sport in Nepal[185] and was first played during the Rana
dynasty in 1921.[186] The one and only international stadium in the country is the Dasarath Rangasala
Stadium where the national team plays its home matches.[187]
Cricket has been gaining popularity since the last decade. Since the establishment of the national
team, Nepal has played its home matches on the Tribhuvan University International Cricket
Ground.[188] The national team has since won the 2012 ICC World Cricket League Division Four and
the 2013 ICC World Cricket League Division Three[189] simultaneously, hence qualifying for 2014
Cricket World Cup Qualifier. They also qualified for the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 in
Bangladesh,[190] and this qualification has been the farthest the team have ever made in an ICC
event. On 28 June 2014, the ICC awarded T20I status to Nepal, who took part and performed
exceptionally well in the 2014 ICC World Twenty20.[191][192]Nepal had already played
three T20I matches before gaining the status, as ICC had earlier announced that all matches at
the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 would have T20I status.[193]Nepal won the 2014 ICC World Cricket
League Division Three held in Malaysia and qualified for the 2015 ICC World Cricket League
Division Two.[194]
Nepal finished fourth in the 2015 ICC World Cricket League Division Two in Namibia[195] and qualified
for the 2015–17 ICC World Cricket League Championship.[196] But Nepal failed to secure promotion
to Division One and qualification to 2015–17 ICC Intercontinental Cup after finishing third in the
round-robin stage.[197][198] Basanta Regmi became the first bowler to take 100 wickets in the World
Cricket League. He achieved this feat after taking 2 wickets against Netherlands in the
Units of measurement
Main article: Nepalese customary units of measurement
Although the country has adopted the metric system as its official standard since 1968,[200] traditional
units of measurement are still commonplace. The customary units of area employed in
the Terai region – such as katha, bigha, etc. – sound similar to those used elsewhere in South Asia.
However, they vary markedly in size, as they seem to have been standardised to different measures
of area. For instance, a katha in Nepal is arbitrarily set at 338.63 m², while a katha
in Bangladesh means about 67 m² of land area. In addition to native ones, imperial units pertaining
to length (specifically inch and foot) and metric units such as kilogram and litre are also fairly
common in everyday trade and commerce.

In popular media
Some notable books and films set against the backdrop of Nepal include:

 Suyin, Han (1958). The Mountain Is Young.

 Matthiessen, Peter (1978). The Snow Leopard.
 Thapa, Manjushree (2001). The Tutor of History.
 Wilson-Howarth, Jane (2007). A Glimpse of Eternal Snows.
See also: List of foreign films shot in Nepal

 The Golden Child (1986)

 Seven Years in Tibet (1997)
 Little Buddha (1993)
 Everest (2015)
 Doctor Strange (2016)


Holi festival celebrations in Nepal

Pashupatinath Temple

Traditional Pahadi folk dress

Nepal cricket team

Musicians playing devotional songs

One of the Rani palace of Nepal

Urban Newari cuisine

Nepali Momos

See also
 Outline of Nepal
 Human rights in Nepal
 Gender inequality in Nepal

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Further reading
 Shaha, Rishikesh (1992). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. New Delhi: Manohar Publications. ISBN 81-85425-
 Tiwari, Sudarshan Raj (2002). The Brick and the Bull: An account of Handigaun, the Ancient Capital of
Nepal. Himal Books. ISBN 99933-43-52-8.
 "India Nepal Open Border". Nepal Democracy. Retrieved 23 September 2005.
 "Football at the heart of the Himalaya". FIFA. Archived from the original on 9 September 2005.
Retrieved 23 September 2005.
 "Nepal: Information Portal". Explore Nepal. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
 Haven, Cynthia (24 August 2010). "The Best Memoir You Never Heard Of: "Shadow Over Shangri-
La"". San Francisco Chronicle.
 "Nepal: A state under siege". The South Asian: Featured Articles. Archived from the original on 31
December 2004. Retrieved 23 September 2005.
 "Nepal: Basic Fact Sheet". Nepal homepage. Archived from the original on 24 May 2005. Retrieved 23
September 2005.
 Sharma, Sushil (29 August 2005). "Jailed ex-PM in Nepal court plea". BBC News. Retrieved 29
September 2005.
 "Nepal's new emblem". Citizen Journalism Nepal. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007.
Retrieved 7 February 2007.
 Hagmuller, Gotz (2003). Patan Museum: The Transformation of a Royal Palace in Nepal. London:
Serindia. ISBN 978-0-906026-58-8.
 Dixit, Kunda (2006). A people war: Images of the Nepal conflict 1996–2006. Kathmandu: nepa-laya.
 Crossette, Barbara (1995). So Close to Heaven: The Vanishing Buddhist Kingdoms of the Himalayas. New
York: Vintage. ISBN 0-679-74363-4.
 Bista, Dor Bahadur (1967). People of Nepal. Department of Publicity, Ministry of Information and
Broadcasting, Government of Nepal. ISBN 99933-0-418-2.
 Whelpton, John (2005). A History of Nepal. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521804707.
 Michael Hutt, ed., Himalayan 'people's war' : Nepal's Maoist rebellion, London: C. Hurst, 2004
 Matthiessen, Peter (1993). The Snow Leopard. Penguin. ISBN 0-00-272025-6.
 Simpson, Joe (1997). Storms of Silence. Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0-89886-512-3.
 Upadhyay, Samrat (2001). Arresting God in Kathmandu. Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-04371-3.
 Joseph R. Pietri (2001). The King of Nepal. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Creative Arts. ISBN 0-615-11928-X.
 Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-55821-549-2.
 Murphy, Dervla (1968). The Waiting Land: A Spell in Nepal. Transatlantic Arts. ISBN 0-7195-1745-1.
 Rishikesh Shaha (2001). Modern Nepal: A Political History. Manohar Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 81-
 Jane Wilson-Howarth (2012). A Glimpse of Eternal Snows: a family’s journey of love and loss in Nepal.
Bradt Travel Guides, UK. p. 390. ASIN B009S7FHU4. ISBN 978-1-84162-435-8.
 Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in Nepal. – International Centre for Integrated Mountain
Development, Kathmandu, March 2011