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Coordinates: 7.608°S 110.204°E

Borobudur, or Barabudur (Indonesian: Candi Borobudur, Javanese:
, translit. Candhi Barabudhur) is a 9th-century
Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia, and the
Native name
world's largest Buddhist temple.[1][2][3] The temple consists of nine stacked
platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. It is
decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. The central
dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated

Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty, the
temple design follows Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends the
Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship and the Buddhist concept
of attaining Nirvana.[3] The temple demonstrates the influences of Gupta
art that reflects India's influence on the region, yet there are enough Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage
indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to make Borobudur uniquely Site
Indonesian.[5][6] The monument is a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place
Location Magelang, Central
for Buddhist pilgrimage. The pilgrim journey begins at the base of the
monument and follows a path around the monument, ascending to the top
through three levels symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: Kāmadhātu (the Coordinates 7.608°S 110.204°E
world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the Built Originally built in the
world of formlessness). The monument guides pilgrims through an 9th century during the
extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief reign of the Sailendra
panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and Dynasty
most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world.[3] Restored 1835

Evidence suggests Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and Restored by Sir Thomas Stamford
abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java Raffles
and the Javanese conversion to Islam.[7] Worldwide knowledge of its Architect Gunadharma
existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the
British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians.
UNESCO World Heritage Site
[8] Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. The Type Cultural
largest restoration project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the
Criteria i, ii, vi
Indonesian government and UNESCO, followed by the monument's listing
Designated 1991 (15th session)
as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[3]
Part of Borobudur Temple
Borobudur remains popular for pilgrimage. Once a year, Buddhists in Compounds
Indonesia celebrate Vesak at the monument, and Borobudur is Indonesia's
Reference no. 592 (http://whc.unesco.
single most visited tourist attraction.[9][10][11]
State Party Indonesia
Region Southeast Asia
Contents 1/26
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The three temples
Ancient lake hypothesis
Location within Java
Contemporary events
Religious ceremony
Security threats
Visitor overload problem

Building structure
The law of karma (Karmavibhangga)
The story of Prince Siddhartha and the birth of Buddha
The stories of Buddha's previous life (Jataka) and other legendary
people (Avadana)
Sudhana's search for the ultimate truth (Gandavyuha)
Buddha statues
Gallery of reliefs
Gallery of Borobudur
See also
Further reading
External links

In Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi; thus locals refer to "Borobudur Temple" as Candi Borobudur. The
term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates and baths. The origins of the name Borobudur,
however, are unclear,[12] although the original names of most ancient Indonesian temples are no longer known.[12] The
name Borobudur was first written in Sir Thomas Raffles's book on Javan history.[13] Raffles wrote about a monument
called Borobudur, but there are no older documents suggesting the same name.[12] The only old Javanese manuscript that
hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a
Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365.[14] 2/26
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Most candi are named after a

nearby village. If it followed
Javanese language conventions
and was named after the nearby
village of Bore, the monument
should have been named
"BudurBoro". Raffles thought that
Budur might correspond to the
modern Javanese word Buda
("ancient")—i.e., "ancient Boro".
Candi Borobudur view from the northwest, the monument was mentioned in
He also suggested that the name
Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscription.
might derive from boro, meaning
"great" or "honourable" and Budur
for Buddha.[12] However, another archaeologist suggests the second component of the name (Budur) comes from Javanese
term bhudhara ("mountain").[15]

Another possible etymology suggests that Borobudur is a corrupted simplified local Javanese pronunciation of Biara
Beduhur written in Sanskrit as Vihara Buddha Uhr. The term Buddha-Uhr could mean "the city of Buddhas", while
another possible term Beduhur is probably an Old Javanese term, still survived today in Balinese vocabulary, which means
"a high place", constructed from the stem word dhuhur or luhur (high). This suggests that Borobudur means vihara of
Buddha located on a high place or on a hill.[16]

The construction and inauguration of a sacred Buddhist building—possibly a reference to Borobudur—was mentioned in
two inscriptions, both discovered in Kedu, Temanggung Regency. The Karangtengah inscription, dated 824, mentioned a
sacred building named Jinalaya (the realm of those who have conquered worldly desire and reached enlightenment),
inaugurated by Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga. The Tri Tepusan inscription, dated 842, is mentioned in
the sima, the (tax-free) lands awarded by Çrī Kahulunnan (Pramodhawardhani) to ensure the funding and maintenance of
a Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra.[17] Kamūlān is from the word mula, which means "the place of origin", a sacred
building to honor the ancestors, probably those of the Sailendras. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra,
which in Sanskrit means "the mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood", was the original name
of Borobudur.[18]


The three temples

Approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Yogyakarta and 86
kilometres (53 mi) west of Surakarta, Borobudur is located in an elevated area
between two twin volcanoes, Sundoro-Sumbing and Merbabu-Merapi, and two
rivers, the Progo and the Elo. According to local myth, the area known as Kedu
Plain is a Javanese "sacred" place and has been dubbed "the garden of Java" Borobudur Temple is surrounded by
due to its high agricultural fertility.[19] During the restoration in the early 20th mountains nearby
century, it was discovered that three Buddhist temples in the region,
Borobudur, Pawon and Mendut, are positioned along a straight line.[20] A ritual
relationship between the three temples must have existed, although the exact ritual process is unknown.[14] 3/26
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Ancient lake hypothesis

Speculation about a surrounding lake's existence
was the subject of intense discussion among
archaeologists in the 20th century. In 1931, a Dutch
artist and scholar of Hindu and Buddhist
architecture, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, developed a
hypothesis that the Kedu Plain was once a lake and
Borobudur initially represented a lotus flower
floating on the lake.[15] It has been claimed that
Borobudur was built on a bedrock hill, 265 m
(869 ft) above sea level and 15 m (49 ft) above the Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
floor of a dried-out paleolake.[21]

Dumarçay together with Professor Thanikaimoni took soil samples in 1974 and again in 1977 from trial trenches that had
been dug into the hill, as well as from the plain immediately to the south. These samples were later analysed by
Thanikaimoni, who examined their pollen and spore content to identify the type of vegetation that had grown in the area
around the time of Borobudur's construction. They were unable to discover any pollen or spore samples that were
characteristic of any vegetation known to grow in an aquatic environment such as a lake, pond or marsh. The area
surrounding Borobudur appears to have been surrounded by agricultural land and palm trees at the time of the
monument's construction, as is still the case today. Caesar Voûte and the geomorphologist Dr J.J. Nossin in 1985–86 field
studies re-examined the Borobudur lake hypothesis and confirmed the absence of a lake around Borobudur at the time of
its construction and active use as a sanctuary. These findings A New Perspective on Some Old Questions Pertaining to
Borobudur were published in the 2005 UNESCO publication titled "The Restoration of Borobudur".


There are no known records of construction or the intended
purpose of Borobudur.[22] The duration of construction has been
estimated by comparison of carved reliefs on the temple's hidden
foot and the inscriptions commonly used in royal charters during
the 8th and 9th centuries. Borobudur was likely founded around
800 CE.[22] This corresponds to the period between 760 and
830 CE, the peak of the Sailendra dynasty rule of Mataram
kingdom in central Java,[23] when it was under the influence of
the Srivijayan Empire. The construction has been estimated to
have taken 75 years with completion during the reign of
Samaratungga in 825.[24][25]
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916—1919)
reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its
There is uncertainty about Hindu and Buddhist rulers in Java
around that time. The Sailendras were known as ardent followers
of Buddhism, though stone inscriptions found at Sojomerto also
suggest they may have been Hindus.[24] It was during this time that many Hindu and Buddhist monuments were built on 4/26
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the plains and mountains around the Kedu Plain. The Buddhist monuments, including Borobudur, were erected around
the same period as the Hindu Shiva Prambanan temple compound. In 732 CE, the Shivaite King Sanjaya commissioned a
Shivalinga sanctuary to be built on the Wukir hill, only 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Borobudur.[26]

Construction of Buddhist temples, including Borobudur, at that time was possible because Sanjaya's immediate successor,
Rakai Panangkaran, granted his permission to the Buddhist followers to build such temples.[27] In fact, to show his
respect, Panangkaran gave the village of Kalasan to the Buddhist community, as is written in the Kalasan Charter dated
778 CE.[27] This has led some archaeologists to believe that there was never serious conflict concerning religion in Java as
it was possible for a Hindu king to patronize the establishment of a Buddhist monument; or for a Buddhist king to act
likewise.[28] However, it is likely that there were two rival royal dynasties in Java at the time—the Buddhist Sailendra and
the Saivite Sanjaya—in which the latter triumphed over their rival in the 856 battle on the Ratubaka plateau.[29] Similar
confusion also exists regarding the Lara Jonggrang temple at the Prambanan complex, which was believed to have been
erected by the victor Rakai Pikatan as the Sanjaya dynasty's reply to Borobudur,[29] but others suggest that there was a
climate of peaceful coexistence where Sailendra involvement exists in Lara Jonggrang.[30]

Borobudur lay hidden for centuries under layers of volcanic ash and jungle
growth. The facts behind its abandonment remain a mystery. It is not known
when active use of the monument and Buddhist pilgrimage to it ceased.
Sometime between 928 and 1006, King Mpu Sindok moved the capital of the
Medang Kingdom to the region of East Java after a series of volcanic eruptions;
it is not certain whether this influenced the abandonment, but several sources
mention this as the most likely period of abandonment.[7][21] The monument is
mentioned vaguely as late as c. 1365, in Mpu Prapanca's Nagarakretagama,

Borobudur stupas overlooking a written during the Majapahit era and mentioning "the vihara in Budur".[31]
mountain. For centuries, it was Soekmono (1976) also mentions the popular belief that the temples were
deserted. disbanded when the population converted to Islam in the 15th century.[7]

The monument was not forgotten completely, though folk stories gradually
shifted from its past glory into more superstitious beliefs associated with bad luck and misery. Two old Javanese
chronicles (babad) from the 18th century mention cases of bad luck associated with the monument. According to the
Babad Tanah Jawi (or the History of Java), the monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a rebel who revolted against
Pakubuwono I, the king of Mataram in 1709.[7] It was mentioned that the "Redi Borobudur" hill was besieged and the
insurgents were defeated and sentenced to death by the king. In the Babad Mataram (or the History of the Mataram
Kingdom), the monument was associated with the misfortune of Prince Monconagoro, the crown prince of the Yogyakarta
Sultanate in 1757.[32] In spite of a taboo against visiting the monument, "he took what is written as the knight who was
captured in a cage (a statue in one of the perforated stupas)". Upon returning to his palace, he fell ill and died one day

Following its capture, Java was under British administration from 1811 to 1816. The appointed governor was Lieutenant
Governor-General Thomas Stamford Raffles, who took great interest in the history of Java. He collected Javanese antiques
and made notes through contacts with local inhabitants during his tour throughout the island. On an inspection tour to
Semarang in 1814, he was informed about a big monument deep in a jungle near the village of Bumisegoro.[32] He was not
able to make the discovery himself and sent H.C. Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate. In two months, Cornelius 5/26
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and his 200 men cut down trees, burned down vegetation and dug away the earth to
reveal the monument. Due to the danger of collapse, he could not unearth all galleries.
He reported his findings to Raffles, including various drawings. Although the discovery
is only mentioned by a few sentences, Raffles has been credited with the monument's
recovery, as one who had brought it to the world's attention.[13]

Hartmann, a Dutch administrator of the Kedu region, continued Cornelius's work, and
in 1835, the whole complex was finally unearthed. His interest in Borobudur was more
personal than official. Hartmann did not write any reports of his activities, in
particular, the alleged story that he discovered the large statue of Buddha in the main
stupa.[33] In 1842, Hartmann investigated the main dome, although what he discovered
is unknown and the main stupa remains empty. Borobudur's main stupa in
mid 19th-century, a wooden
The Dutch East Indies government then deck had been installed
commissioned F.C. Wilsen, a Dutch above the main stupa.
engineering official, who studied the
monument and drew hundreds of relief
sketches. J.F.G. Brumund was also appointed to make a detailed study of the
monument, which was completed in 1859. The government intended to publish
an article based on Brumund's study supplemented by Wilsen's drawings, but
Brumund refused to cooperate. The government then commissioned another
scholar, C. Leemans, who compiled a monograph based on Brumund's and
Borobudur in 1872. Wilsen's sources. In 1873, the first monograph of the detailed study of
Borobudur was published, followed by its French translation a year later.[33]
The first photograph of the monument was taken in 1872 by a Dutch-Flemish
engraver, Isidore van Kinsbergen.[34]

Appreciation of the site developed slowly, and it served for some time largely as a source of souvenirs and income for
"souvenir hunters" and thieves. In 1882, the chief inspector of cultural artifacts recommended that Borobudur be entirely
disassembled with the relocation of reliefs into museums due to the unstable condition of the monument.[34] As a result,
the government appointed Groenveldt, an archaeologist, to undertake a thorough investigation of the site and to assess the
actual condition of the complex; his report found that these fears were unjustified and recommended it be left intact.

Borobudur was considered as the source of souvenirs, and parts of its sculptures were looted, some even with colonial-
government consent. In 1896 King Chulalongkorn of Siam visited Java and requested and was allowed to take home eight
cartloads of sculptures taken from Borobudur. These include thirty pieces taken from a number of relief panels, five
buddha images, two lions, one gargoyle, several kala motifs from the stairs and gateways, and a guardian statue
(dvarapala). Several of these artifacts, most notably the lions, dvarapala, kala, makara and giant waterspouts are now on
display in the Java Art room in The National Museum in Bangkok.[35]

Borobudur attracted attention in 1885, when Yzerman, the Chairman of the Archaeological Society in Yogyakarta, made a
discovery about the hidden foot.[36] Photographs that reveal reliefs on the hidden foot were made in 1890–1891.[37] The
discovery led the Dutch East Indies government to take steps to safeguard the monument. In 1900, the government set up
a commission consisting of three officials to assess the monument: Brandes, an art historian, Theodoor van Erp, a Dutch
army engineer officer, and Van de Kamer, a construction engineer from the Department of Public Works. 6/26
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In 1902, the commission submitted a threefold plan of proposal to the

government. First, the immediate dangers should be avoided by resetting the
corners, removing stones that endangered the adjacent parts, strengthening
the first balustrades and restoring several niches, archways, stupas and the
main dome. Second, after fencing off the courtyards, proper maintenance
should be provided and drainage should be improved by restoring floors and
spouts. Third, all loose stones should be removed, the monument cleared up to
the first balustrades, disfigured stones removed and the main dome restored.
The total cost was estimated at that time around 48,800 Dutch guilders.
Borobudur after Van Erp's
The restoration then was carried out between 1907 and 1911, using the restoration in 1911. Note the
reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on
principles of anastylosis and led by Theodor van Erp.[38] The first seven
top of the main stupa (now
months of restoration were occupied with excavating the grounds around the
monument to find missing Buddha heads and panel stones. Van Erp
dismantled and rebuilt the upper three circular platforms and stupas. Along
the way, Van Erp discovered more things he could do to improve the
monument; he submitted another proposal, which was approved with the
additional cost of 34,600 guilders. At first glance, Borobudur had been
restored to its old glory. Van Erp went further by carefully reconstructing the
chhatra (three-tiered parasol) pinnacle on top of the main stupa. However, he
later dismantled the chhatra, citing that there were not enough original stones
used in reconstructing the pinnacle, which means that the original design of
Borobudur's pinnacle is actually unknown. The dismantled chhatra now is
stored in Karmawibhangga Museum, a few hundred meters north from The Unfinished Buddha from the
main stupa of Borobudur at
Karmawibhangga Museum, to which
the Buddhists give offerings, along
Due to the limited budget, the restoration had been primarily focused on
with the main stupa's chhatra on its
cleaning the sculptures, and Van Erp did not solve the drainage problem.
Within fifteen years, the gallery walls were sagging, and the reliefs showed
signs of new cracks and deterioration.[38] Van Erp used concrete from which
alkali salts and calcium hydroxide leached and were transported into the rest of the construction. This caused some
problems, so that a further thorough renovation was urgently needed.

Small restorations have been performed since then, but not sufficient for complete
protection. During World War II and Indonesian National Revolution in 1945 to 1949,
Borobudur restoration efforts were halted. The monument suffered further from the
weather and drainage problems, which caused the earth core inside the temple to
expand, pushing the stone structure and tilting the walls. By 1950s some parts of
Borobudur were facing imminent danger of collapsing. In 1965, Indonesia asked the
UNESCO for advice on ways to counteract the problem of weathering at Borobudur and
other monuments. In 1968 Professor Soekmono, then head of the Archeological Service
Embedding concrete and of Indonesia, launched his "Save Borobudur" campaign, in an effort to organize a
pvc pipe to improve massive restoration project.[39]
Borobudur's drainage
system during the 1973 In the late 1960s, the Indonesian government had requested from the international
restoration community a major renovation to protect the monument. In 1973, a master plan to
restore Borobudur was created.[40] Through an Agreement concerning the Voluntary
Contributions to be Given for the Execution of the Project to Preserve Borobudur 7/26
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(Paris, 29 January 1973), 5 countries agreed to contribute to the restoration: Australia

(AUD $200,000), Belgium (BEF fr.250,000), Cyprus (CYP £100,000), France (USD
$77,500) and Germany (DEM DM 2,000,000).[41] The Indonesian government and
UNESCO then undertook the complete overhaul of the monument in a big restoration
project between 1975 and 1982.[38] In 1975, the actual work began. Over one million
stones were dismantled and removed during the restoration, and set aside like pieces of
a massive jig-saw puzzle to be individually identified, catalogued, cleaned and treated
for preservation. Borobudur became a testing ground for new conservation techniques,
including new procedures to battle the microorganisms attacking the stone.[39] The
foundation was stabilized, and all 1,460 panels were cleaned. The restoration involved
the dismantling of the five square platforms and the improvement of drainage by
embedding water channels into the monument. Both impermeable and filter layers A 1968 Indonesian stamp
were added. This colossal project involved around 600 people to restore the monument promoting restoration of
and cost a total of US$6,901,243.[42] Borobudur

After the renovation was finished, UNESCO listed Borobudur as a World Heritage Site
in 1991.[3] It is listed under Cultural criteria (i) "to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius", (ii) "to exhibit an
important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in
architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design", and (vi) "to be directly or tangibly
associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding
universal significance".[3]

Contemporary events

Religious ceremony
Following the major 1973 renovation funded by UNESCO,[40] Borobudur is
once again used as a place of worship and pilgrimage. Once a year, during the
full moon in May or June, Buddhists in Indonesia observe Vesak (Indonesian:
Waisak) day commemorating the birth, death, and the time when Siddhārtha
Gautama attained the highest wisdom to become the Buddha Shakyamuni.
Vesak is an official national holiday in Indonesia,[43] and the ceremony is
centered at the three Buddhist temples by walking from Mendut to Pawon and Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the
ending at Borobudur.[44] top platform

The monument is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia. In 1974, 260,000 tourists, of whom 36,000 were
foreigners, visited the monument.[10] The figure climbed to 2.5 million visitors annually (80% were domestic tourists) in
the mid-1990s, before the country's economic crisis.[11] Tourism development, however, has been criticized for not
including the local community, giving rise to occasional conflicts.[10] In 2003, residents and small businesses around
Borobudur organized several meetings and poetry protests, objecting to a provincial government plan to build a three-
storey mall complex, dubbed the "Java World".[45]

International tourism awards were given to Borobudur archaeological park, such as PATA Grand Pacific Award 2004,
PATA Gold Award Winner 2011, and PATA Gold Award Winner 2012. In June 2012, Borobudur was recorded in the
Guinness Book of World Records as the world's largest Buddhist archaeological site.[46] 8/26
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UNESCO identified three specific areas of concern under the present state of
conservation: (i) vandalism by visitors; (ii) soil erosion in the south-eastern
part of the site; and (iii) analysis and restoration of missing elements.[47] The
soft soil, the numerous earthquakes and heavy rains lead to the destabilization
of the structure. Earthquakes are by far the most important contributing
factors, since not only do stones fall down and arches crumble, but the earth
itself can move in waves, further destroying the structure.[47] The increasing
popularity of the stupa brings in many visitors, most of whom are from
Indonesia. Despite warning signs on all levels not to touch anything, the
regular transmission of warnings over loudspeakers and the presence of
guards, vandalism on reliefs and statues is a common occurrence and problem,
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
leading to further deterioration. As of 2009, there is no system in place to limit
the number of visitors allowed per day or to introduce mandatory guided tours

In August 2014, the Conservation Authority of Borobudur reported some

severe abrasion of the stone stairs caused by the scraping of visitors' footwear.
The conservation authority planned to install wooden stairs to cover and
protect the original stone stairs, just like those installed in Angkor Wat.[48]

Borobudur was heavily affected by the eruption of Mount Merapi in October
and November 2010. Volcanic ash from Merapi fell on the temple complex,
which is approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi) west-southwest of the crater. A
Tourists in Borobudur
layer of ash up to 2.5 centimetres (1 in)[49] thick fell on the temple statues
during the eruption of 3–5 November, also killing nearby vegetation, with
experts fearing that the acidic ash might damage the historic site. The temple
complex was closed from 5 to 9 November to clean up the ashfall.[50][51]

UNESCO donated US$3 million as a part of the costs towards the

rehabilitation of Borobudur after Mount Merapi's 2010 eruption.[52] More than
55,000 stone blocks comprising the temple's structure were dismantled to
restore the drainage system, which had been clogged by slurry after the rain.
The restoration was finished in November.[53]

In January 2012, two German stone-conservation experts spent ten days at the
site analyzing the temples and making recommendations to ensure their long-
term preservation.[54] In June, Germany agreed to contribute $130,000 to
UNESCO for the second phase of rehabilitation, in which six experts in stone
conservation, microbiology, structural engineering and chemical engineering
would spend a week in Borobudur in June, then return for another visit in
September or October. These missions would launch the preservation activities
Location of Borobudur relative to
recommended in the January report and would include capacity building
Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
activities to enhance the preservation capabilities of governmental staff and
young conservation experts.[55] 9/26
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On 14 February 2014, major tourist attractions in Yogyakarta and Central Java, including Borobudur, Prambanan and
Ratu Boko, were closed to visitors, after being severely affected by the volcanic ash from the eruption of Kelud volcano in
East Java, located around 200 kilometers east from Yogyakarta. Workers covered the iconic stupas and statues of
Borobudur temple to protect the structure from volcanic ash. The Kelud volcano erupted on 13 February 2014 with an
explosion heard as far away as Yogyakarta.[56]

Security threats
On 21 January 1985, nine stupas were badly damaged by nine bombs.[57][58] In 1991, a blind Muslim preacher, Husein Ali
Al Habsyie, was sentenced to life imprisonment for masterminding a series of bombings in the mid-1980s, including the
temple attack.[59] Two other members of the Islamic extremist group that carried out the bombings were each sentenced to
20 years in 1986, and another man received a 13-year prison term.

On 27 May 2006, an earthquake of 6.2 magnitude struck the south coast of Central Java. The event caused severe damage
around the region and casualties to the nearby city of Yogyakarta, but Borobudur remained intact.[60]

In August 2014, Indonesian police and security forces tightened the security in and around Borobudur temple compound,
as a precaution to a threat posted on social media by a self-proclaimed Indonesian branch of ISIS, citing that the terrorists
planned to destroy Borobudur and other statues in Indonesia.[61] The security improvements included the repair and
increased deployment of CCTV monitors and the implementation of a night patrol in and around the temple compound.
The jihadist group follows a strict interpretation of Islam that condemns any anthropomorphic representations such as
sculptures as idolatry.

Visitor overload problem

The high volume of visitors ascending the Borobudur's narrow stairs, has caused a severe wear out on the stone of the
stairs, eroding the stones surface and made them thinner and smoother. Overall, Borobudur has 2,033 surfaces of stone
stairs, spread over four cardinal directions; including the west side, the east, south and north. There are around 1,028
surfaces of them, or about 49.15 percent are severely worn out.[62]

To avoid further wear of stairs' stones, since November 2014, two main sections of Borobudur stairs — the eastern
(ascending route) and northern (descending route) sides — are covered with wooden structures. The similar technique has
been applied in Angkor Wat in Cambodia and Egyptian Pyramids.[62] In March 2015, Borobudur Conservation Center
proposed further to seal the stairs with rubber cover.[63] Proposals have also been made that visitors be issued special

The archaeological excavation into Borobudur during reconstruction suggests that adherents of Hinduism or a pre-Indic
faith had already begun to erect a large structure on Borobudur's hill before the site was appropriated by Buddhists. The
foundations are unlike any Hindu or Buddhist shrine structures, and therefore, the initial structure is considered more
indigenous Javanese than Hindu or Buddhist.[65]

Borobudur is built as a single large stupa and, when viewed from above, takes the form of a giant tantric Buddhist
mandala, simultaneously representing the Buddhist cosmology and the nature of mind.[66] The original foundation is a
square, approximately 118 metres (387 ft) on each side. It has nine platforms, of which the lower six are square and the 10/26
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upper three are circular.[67] The upper platform features seventy-two small
stupas surrounding one large central stupa. Each stupa is bell-shaped and
pierced by numerous decorative openings. Statues of the Buddha sit inside the
pierced enclosures.

The design of Borobudur took the form of a step pyramid. Previously, the
prehistoric Austronesian megalithic culture in Indonesia had constructed
several earth mounds and stone step pyramid structures called punden
berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan site near Cisolok[68] and in Cipari
near Kuningan.[69] The construction of stone pyramids is based on native
beliefs that mountains and high places are the abode of ancestral spirits or
hyangs. [70] The punden berundak step pyramid is the basic design in
Borobudur,[71] believed to be the continuation of older megalithic tradition
Borobudur ground plan taking the incorporated with Mahayana Buddhist ideas and symbolism.[72]
form of a Mandala
The monument's three divisions
symbolize the three "realms" of
Buddhist cosmology, namely Kamadhatu (the world of desires), Rupadhatu
(the world of forms), and finally Arupadhatu (the formless world). Ordinary
sentient beings live out their lives on the lowest level, the realm of desire.
Those who have burnt out all desire for continued existence leave the world of
desire and live in the world on the level of form alone: they see forms but are
not drawn to them. Finally, full Buddhas go beyond even form and experience
reality at its purest, most fundamental level, the formless ocean of nirvana.[73]
Borobudur architectural model
The liberation from the cycle of Saṃsāra where the enlightened soul had no
longer attached to worldly form corresponds to the concept of Śūnyatā, the
complete voidness or the nonexistence of the self. Kāmadhātu is represented by the base, Rupadhatu by the five square
platforms (the body), and Arupadhatu by the three circular platforms and the large topmost stupa. The architectural
features between the three stages have metaphorical differences. For instance, square and detailed decorations in the
Rupadhatu disappear into plain circular platforms in the Arupadhatu to represent how the world of forms—where men
are still attached with forms and names—changes into the world of the formless.[74]

Congregational worship in Borobudur is performed in a walking pilgrimage. Pilgrims are guided by the system of
staircases and corridors ascending to the top platform. Each platform represents one stage of enlightenment. The path
that guides pilgrims was designed to symbolize Buddhist cosmology.[75]

In 1885, a hidden structure under the base was accidentally discovered.[36] The "hidden footing" contains reliefs, 160 of
which are narratives describing the real Kāmadhātu. The remaining reliefs are panels with short inscriptions that
apparently provide instructions for the sculptors, illustrating the scenes to be carved.[76] The real base is hidden by an
encasement base, the purpose of which remains a mystery. It was first thought that the real base had to be covered to
prevent a disastrous subsidence of the monument into the hill.[76] There is another theory that the encasement base was
added because the original hidden footing was incorrectly designed, according to Vastu Shastra, the Indian ancient book
about architecture and town planning.[36] Regardless of why it was commissioned, the encasement base was built with
detailed and meticulous design and with aesthetic and religious consideration.

Building structure 11/26
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Approximately 55,000 cubic metres (72,000 cu yd) of andesite

stones were taken from neighbouring stone quarries to build the
monument.[77] The stone was cut to size, transported to the site
and laid without mortar. Knobs, indentations and dovetails were
used to form joints between stones. The roof of stupas, niches
and arched gateways were constructed in corbelling method.
Reliefs were created in situ after the building had been

The monument is equipped with a good drainage system to cater

to the area's high stormwater run-off. To prevent flooding, 100
spouts are installed at each corner, each with a unique carved
gargoyle in the shape of a giant or makara.
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot,
body and head, respectively Borobudur differs markedly
from the general design of
other structures built for this
purpose. Instead of being built on a flat surface, Borobudur is built on a natural hill.
However, construction technique is similar to other temples in Java. Without the inner
spaces seen in other temples, and with a general design similar to the shape of pyramid,
Borobudur was first thought more likely to have served as a stupa, instead of a
temple.[77] A stupa is intended as a shrine for the Buddha. Sometimes stupas were built
only as devotional symbols of Buddhism. A temple, on the other hand, is used as a
house of worship. The meticulous complexity of the monument's design suggests that
Borobudur is in fact a temple.

Little is known about Gunadharma, the architect of the complex.[78] His name is
recounted from Javanese folk tales rather than from written inscriptions. Stairs of Borobudur through
arches of Kala
The basic unit of measurement used during construction was the tala, defined as the
length of a human face from the forehead's hairline to the tip of the chin or the distance
from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the middle finger when both fingers are stretched
at their maximum distance.[79] The unit is thus relative from one individual to the next,
but the monument has exact measurements. A survey conducted in 1977 revealed
frequent findings of a ratio of 4:6:9 around the monument. The architect had used the
formula to lay out the precise dimensions of the fractal and self-similar geometry in
Borobudur's design.[79][80] This ratio is also found in the designs of Pawon and Mendut,
nearby Buddhist temples. Archeologists have conjectured that the 4:6:9 ratio and the
tala have calendrical, astronomical and cosmological significance, as is the case with
the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia.[78]

The main structure can be divided into three components: base, body, and top.[78] The
base is 123 m × 123 m (404 ft × 404 ft) in size with 4 metres (13 ft) walls.[77] The body is
A narrow corridor with
composed of five square platforms, each of diminishing height. The first terrace is set
reliefs on the wall
back 7 metres (23 ft) from the edge of the base. Each subsequent terrace is set back 2
metres (6.6 ft), leaving a narrow corridor at each stage. The top consists of three
circular platforms, with each stage supporting a row of perforated stupas, arranged in concentric circles. There is one
main dome at the center, the top of which is the highest point of the monument, 35 metres (115 ft) above ground level. 12/26
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Stairways at the center of each of the four sides give access to the top, with a number of arched gates overlooked by 32 lion
statues. The gates are adorned with Kala's head carved on top of each and Makaras projecting from each side. This Kala-
Makara motif is commonly found on the gates of Javanese temples. The main entrance is on the eastern side, the location
of the first narrative reliefs. Stairways on the slopes of the hill also link the monument to the low-lying plain.

Borobudur is constructed in such a way that it reveals various levels of
terraces, showing intricate architecture that goes from being heavily
ornamented with bas-reliefs to being plain in Arupadhatu circular terraces.[81]
The first four terrace walls are showcases for bas-relief sculptures. These are
exquisite, considered to be the most elegant and graceful in the ancient
Buddhist world.[82]

The bas-reliefs in Borobudur depicted many scenes of daily life in 8th-century

ancient Java, from the courtly palace life, hermit in the forest, to those of
commoners in the village. It also depicted temple, marketplace, various flora
and fauna, and also native vernacular architecture. People depicted here are
the images of king, queen, princes, noblemen, courtier, soldier, servant,
The position of narrative bas-reliefs commoners, priest and hermit. The reliefs also depicted mythical spiritual
stories on Borobudur wall beings in Buddhist beliefs such as asuras, gods, bodhisattvas, kinnaras,
gandharvas and apsaras. The images depicted on bas-relief often served as
reference for historians to research for certain subjects, such as the study of
architecture, weaponry, economy, fashion, and also mode of transportation of 8th-century Maritime Southeast Asia. One
of the famous renderings of an 8th-century Southeast Asian double outrigger ship is Borobudur Ship.[83] Today, the
actual-size replica of Borobudur Ship that had sailed from Indonesia to Africa in 2004 is displayed in the Samudra Raksa
Museum, located a few hundred meters north of Borobudur.[84]

The Borobudur reliefs also pay close attention to Indian aesthetic discipline, such as pose and gesture that contain certain
meanings and aesthetic value. The reliefs of noblemen, and noble women, kings, or divine beings such as apsaras, taras
and boddhisattvas are usually portrayed in tribhanga pose, the three-bend pose on neck, hips, and knee, with one leg
resting and one upholding the body weight. This position is considered as the most graceful pose, such as the figure of
Surasundari holding a lotus.[85]

During Borobudur excavation, archeologists discovered colour pigments of blue, red, green, black, as well as bits of gold
foil, and concluded that the monument that we see today — a dark gray mass of volcanic stone, lacking in colour — was
probably once coated with varjalepa white plaster and then painted with bright colors, serving perhaps as a beacon of
Buddhist teaching.[86] The same vajralepa plaster can also be found in Sari, Kalasan and Sewu temples. It is likely that the
bas-reliefs of Borobudur was originally quite colourful, before centuries of torrential tropical rainfalls peeled-off the colour

Borobudur contains approximately 2,670 individual bas reliefs (1,460 narrative and 1,212 decorative panels), which cover
the façades and balustrades. The total relief surface is 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft), and they are distributed at the
hidden foot (Kāmadhātu) and the five square platforms (Rupadhatu).[87]

The narrative panels, which tell the story of Sudhana and Manohara,[88] are grouped into 11 series that encircle the
monument with a total length of 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). The hidden foot contains the first series with 160 narrative
panels, and the remaining 10 series are distributed throughout walls and balustrades in four galleries starting from the 13/26
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eastern entrance stairway to the left. Narrative

panels on the wall read from right to left, while those Narrative Panels Distribution[87]
on the balustrade read from left to right. This section location story #panels
conforms with pradaksina, the ritual of
hidden foot wall Karmavibhangga 160
circumambulation performed by pilgrims who move
in a clockwise direction while keeping the sanctuary Lalitavistara 120
main wall
to their right.[89] Jataka/Avadana 120
first gallery
The hidden foot depicts the workings of karmic law. Jataka/Avadana 372
The walls of the first gallery have two superimposed Jataka/Avadana 128
series of reliefs; each consists of 120 panels. The balustrade Jataka/Avadana 100
upper part depicts the biography of the Buddha, second gallery
main wall Gandavyuha 128
while the lower part of the wall and also the
balustrades in the first and the second galleries tell main wall Gandavyuha 88
third gallery
the story of the Buddha's former lives.[87] The balustrade Gandavyuha 88
remaining panels are devoted to Sudhana's further
main wall Gandavyuha 84
wandering about his search, terminated by his fourth gallery
attainment of the Perfect Wisdom. balustrade Gandavyuha 72
Total 1,460

The law of karma (Karmavibhangga)

The 160 hidden panels do not form a continuous story, but each panel provides
one complete illustration of cause and effect.[87] There are depictions of
blameworthy activities, from gossip to murder, with their corresponding
punishments. There are also praiseworthy activities, that include charity and
pilgrimage to sanctuaries, and their subsequent rewards. The pains of hell and
the pleasure of heaven are also illustrated. There are scenes of daily life,
complete with the full panorama of samsara (the endless cycle of birth and
death). The encasement base of the Borobudur temple was dissembled to
The Karmavibangga scene on
reveal the hidden foot, and the reliefs were photographed by Casijan Chepas in
Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right
1890. It is these photographs that are displayed in Borobudur Museum
depicting sinful act of killing and
(Karmawibhangga Museum), located just several hundred meters north of the cooking turtles and fishes, on the
temple. During the restoration, the foot encasement was reinstalled, covering left those who make living by killing
the Karmawibhangga reliefs. Today, only the southeast corner of the hidden animals will be tortured in hell, by
foot is revealed and visible for visitors. being cooked alive, being cut, or
being thrown into burning house.

The story of Prince Siddhartha and the birth of Buddha

The story starts with the descent of the Lord Buddha from the Tushita heaven and ends with his first sermon in the Deer
Park near Benares.[89] The relief shows the birth of the Buddha as Prince Siddhartha, son of King Suddhodana and Queen
Maya of Kapilavastu (in present-day Nepal).

The story is preceded by 27 panels showing various preparations, in the heavens and on the earth, to welcome the final
incarnation of the Bodhisattva.[89] Before descending from Tushita heaven, the Bodhisattva entrusted his crown to his
successor, the future Buddha Maitreya. He descended on earth in the shape of white elephants with six tusks, penetrated 14/26
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to Queen Maya's right womb.

Queen Maya had a dream of this
event, which was interpreted that
his son would become either a
sovereign or a Buddha.

While Queen Maya felt that it was

Prince Siddhartha Gautama became the time to give birth, she went to
an ascetic hermit. the Lumbini park outside the
Kapilavastu city. She stood under a Queen Maya riding horse carriage
plaksa tree, holding one branch retreating to Lumbini to give birth to
Prince Siddhartha Gautama
with her right hand, and she gave birth to a son, Prince Siddhartha. The story
on the panels continues until the prince becomes the Buddha.

The stories of Buddha's previous life (Jataka) and other legendary people (Avadana)
Jatakas are stories about the Buddha before he was born as Prince Siddhartha.[90] They are the stories that tell about the
previous lives of the Buddha, in both human and animal form. The future Buddha may appear in them as a king, an
outcast, a god, an elephant—but, in whatever form, he exhibits some virtue that the tale thereby inculcates.[91] Avadanas
are similar to jatakas, but the main figure is not the Bodhisattva himself. The saintly deeds in avadanas are attributed to
other legendary persons. Jatakas and avadanas are treated in one and the same series in the reliefs of Borobudur.

The first twenty lower panels in the first gallery on the wall depict the Sudhanakumaravadana, or the saintly deeds of
Sudhana. The first 135 upper panels in the same gallery on the balustrades are devoted to the 34 legends of the
Jatakamala.[92] The remaining 237 panels depict stories from other sources, as do the lower series and panels in the
second gallery. Some jatakas are depicted twice, for example the story of King Sibhi (Rama's forefather).

Sudhana's search for the ultimate truth (Gandavyuha)

Gandavyuha is the story told in the final chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra about Sudhana's tireless wandering in search of
the Highest Perfect Wisdom. It covers two galleries (third and fourth) and also half of the second gallery, comprising in
total of 460 panels.[93] The principal figure of the story, the youth Sudhana, son of an extremely rich merchant, appears on
the 16th panel. The preceding 15 panels form a prologue to the story of the miracles during Buddha's samadhi in the
Garden of Jeta at Sravasti.

During his search, Sudhana visited no fewer than thirty teachers, but none of them had satisfied him completely. He was
then instructed by Manjusri to meet the monk Megasri, where he was given the first doctrine. As his journey continues,
Sudhana meets (in the following order) Supratisthita, the physician Megha (Spirit of Knowledge), the banker Muktaka, the
monk Saradhvaja, the upasika Asa (Spirit of Supreme Enlightenment), Bhismottaranirghosa, the Brahmin Jayosmayatna,
Princess Maitrayani, the monk Sudarsana, a boy called Indriyesvara, the upasika Prabhuta, the banker Ratnachuda, King
Anala, the god Siva Mahadeva, Queen Maya, Bodhisattva Maitreya and then back to Manjusri. Each meeting has given
Sudhana a specific doctrine, knowledge and wisdom. These meetings are shown in the third gallery.

After the last meeting with Manjusri, Sudhana went to the residence of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, depicted in the fourth
gallery. The entire series of the fourth gallery is devoted to the teaching of Samantabhadra. The narrative panels finally
end with Sudhana's achievement of the Supreme Knowledge and the Ultimate Truth.[94] 15/26
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Buddha statues
Apart from the story of the Buddhist cosmology carved in stone, Borobudur has many
statues of various Buddhas. The cross-legged statues are seated in a lotus position and
distributed on the five square platforms (the Rupadhatu level), as well as on the top
platform (the Arupadhatu level).

The Buddha statues are in niches at the Rupadhatu level, arranged in rows on the outer
sides of the balustrades, the number of statues decreasing as platforms progressively
diminish to the upper level. The first balustrades have 104 niches, the second 104, the
third 88, the fourth 72 and the fifth 64. In total, there are 432 Buddha statues at the
Rupadhatu level.[4] At the Arupadhatu level (or the three circular platforms), Buddha
statues are placed inside perforated stupas. The first circular platform has 32 stupas,
A Buddha statue with the
hand position of the second 24 and the third 16, which adds up to 72 stupas.[4] Of the original 504
dharmachakra mudra Buddha statues, over 300 are damaged (mostly headless), and 43 are missing. Since the
monument's discovery, heads have been acquired as collector's items, mostly by
Western museums.[95] Some of these Buddha heads are now displayed in numbers of
museums, such as the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam and The British Museum in London.[96]

At first glance, all the Buddha statues appear similar, but there is a subtle difference
between them in the mudras, or the position of the hands. There are five groups of
mudra: North, East, South, West and Zenith, which represent the five cardinal compass
points according to Mahayana. The first four balustrades have the first four mudras:
North, East, South and West, of which the Buddha statues that face one compass
direction have the corresponding mudra. Buddha statues at the fifth balustrades and
inside the 72 stupas on the top platform have the same mudra: Zenith. Each mudra
represents one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas; each has its own symbolism.[97]

Following the order of Pradakshina (clockwise circumumbulation) starting from the

East, the mudras of the Borobudur buddha statues are:

Head from a Borobudur

Buddha statue in

Headless Buddha statue in

Borobudur, since its
discovery numbers of
Buddha's head has been
stolen and ended up in
museums abroad. 16/26
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Lion gate guardian

Symbolic Dhyani Cardinal
Statue Mudra of the
meaning Buddha Point

Calling the niches on
Earth to Aksobhya East the first four
witness eastern

niches on
Vara mudra Ratnasambhava South the first four
alms giving

Concentration niches on
Dhyana mudra and Amitabha West the first four
meditation western

niches on
Abhaya mudra Amoghasiddhi North the first four

niches in all
Reasoning directions
Vitarka mudra Vairochana Zenith
and virtue on the fifth
in 72
Turning the perforated
Wheel of Vairochana Zenith stupas on
dharma (law) three
platforms 17/26
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The aesthetic and technical mastery of Borobudur, and also its sheer size, has
evoked the sense of grandeur and pride for Indonesians. Just like Angkor Wat
for Cambodian, Borobudur has become a powerful symbol for Indonesia — to
testify for its past greatness. Sukarno made a point of showing the site to
foreign dignitaries. The Suharto regime — realized its important symbolic and
economic meanings — diligently embarked on a massive project to restore the
monument with the help from UNESCO. Many museums in Indonesia contain
a scale model replica of Borobudur. The monument has become almost an
icon, grouped with the wayang puppet play and gamelan music into a vague Sukarno took Nehru to visit
classical Javanese past from which Indonesians are to draw inspiration.[98] Borobudur in June 1950.

Several archaeological relics taken from

Borobudur or its replica have been displayed in some museums in Indonesia and
abroad. Other than Karmawibhangga Museum within Borobudur temple ground, some
museums boast to host relics of Borobudur, such as Indonesian National Museum in
Jakarta, Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam, British Museum in London, and Thai National
Museum in Bangkok. Louvre museum in Paris, Malaysian National Museum in Kuala
Lumpur, and Museum of World Religions in Taipei also displayed the replica of
Borobudur.[86] The monument has drawn global attention to the classical Buddhist
civilization of ancient Java.

Emblem of Central Java

The rediscovery and reconstruction of Borobudur has been hailed by Indonesian
displaying Borobudur.
Buddhist as the sign of the Buddhist revival in Indonesia. In 1934, Narada Thera, a
missionary monk from Sri Lanka, visited Indonesia for the first time as part of his
journey to spread the Dharma in Southeast Asia. This opportunity was used by a few local Buddhists to revive Buddhism
in Indonesia. A bodhi tree planting ceremony was held in Southeastern side of Borobudur on 10 March 1934 under the
blessing of Narada Thera, and some Upasakas were ordained as monks.[99] Once a year, thousands of Buddhist from
Indonesia and neighboring countries flock to Borobudur to commemorate national Vesak ceremony.[100]

The emblem of Central Java province and Magelang Regency bears the image of Borobudur. It has become the symbol of
Central Java, and also Indonesia on a wider scale. Borobudur has become the name of several establishments, such as
Borobudur University, Borobudur Hotel in Central Jakarta, and several Indonesian restaurants abroad. Borobudur has
been featured in Rupiah banknote, stamps, numbers of books, publications, documentaries and Indonesian tourism
promotion materials. The monument has become one of the main tourism attraction in Indonesia, vital for generating
local economy in the region surrounding the temple. The tourism sector of the city of Yogyakarta for example, flourishes
partly because of its proximity to Borobudur and Prambanan temples.


Gallery of reliefs 18/26
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Relief panel of a ship at Musicians performing a The Apsara of The scene of King and Queen with their
Borobudur. musical ensemble, Borobudur. subjects.
probably the early form
of gamelan.

One relief on a corridor wall. A weapon, probably the early A detailed Tara holding Surasundari

form of keris. carved relief a Chamara holding a

stone. lotus

Close up of a relief Great Departure from Lalitavistara

Gallery of Borobudur

World Heritage inscription of The The inscription of Borobudur The scattered parts of A Buddha statue
Borobudur Temple procedures restoration in 1973 by the Borobudur Temple at inside a stupa
signage for former Indonesian president Karmawibhangga Museum.
visiting Soeharto People still can't locate their
Borobudur original positions.
Temple 19/26
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See also
Ancient monuments of Java
Architecture of Indonesia
Candi of Indonesia
Trail of Civilizations
Unfinished Buddha

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Parmono Atmadi (1988). Some Architectural Design Principles of Temples in Java: A study through the buildings
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Further reading
Luis O. Gomez & Hiram W. Woodward (1981). Barabudur, history and significance of a Buddhist monument.
presented at the Int. Conf. on Borobudur, Univ. of Michigan, 16–17 May 1974. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press.
ISBN 0-89581-151-0.
August J.B. Kempers (1976). Ageless Borobudur: Buddhist mystery in stone, decay and restoration, Mendut and
Pawon, folklife in ancient Java. Wassenaar: Servire. ISBN 90-6077-553-8.
John Miksic (1999). The Mysteries of Borobudur. Hongkong: Periplus. ISBN 962-593-198-8.
Morton III, W. Brown (January 1983). "Indonesia Rescues Ancient Borobudur". National Geographic. 163 (1): 126–
142. ISSN 0027-9358 ( OCLC 643483454 (
Adrian Snodgrass (1985). The symbolism of the stupa. Southeast Asia Program. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University.
ISBN 0-87727-700-1.

External links
Official site of Borobudur, Prambanan, and Ratu Boko Park (
Borobudur Temple Compounds short documentary ( by UNESCO
and NHK
Wonderful Indonesia's Guide on Borobudur (
Learning From Borobudur documentary ( about Borobudur's bas-
reliefs stories of Jatakas, Lalitavistara and Gandavyuha in YouTube
Australian National University's research project on Borobudur (
Analysis of Borobudur's hidden base (
Explore Borobudur on Global Heritage Network (
Photographs of Borobudur Stupa (
"Yogyakarta. Temple Ruins: Details of Sculpted Figures" ( is a photograph with
commentary by Frank G. Carpenter.
Wacana Nusantara (

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