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Ayala Boulevard, Ermita, Manila


Research #600
Tech V

Gonzales, Mark Daniel L.. (BSA – 4B)

Archt. Sonny Alcantara

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Composite Construction Method

Composite construction dominates the non-

residential multi-storey building sector. This has
been the case for over twenty years. Its
success is due to the strength and stiffness that
can be achieved, with minimum use of

 Composite construction refers to two

load-carrying structural members that
are integrally connected and deflect as a single unit are integrally connected and deflect as
a single unit. An example of this is composite metal deck with concrete fill, steel filler beams,
and girders made composite by using headed stud connectors
 A steel beam which is made composite by using shear connectors, composite metal decking
and concrete is much stronger and stiffer than the composite metal decking and concrete is
much stronger and stiffer than the base beam alone
 Composite floor systems are considered by many to be the highest quality type of
 This has become a standard type of construction selected by many architects, engineers, and


 In a composite floor system the concrete acts together with the steel to create a stiffer, lighter,
less expensive structure.
 Connecting the concrete to the steel beams can have several advantages:
 It is typical to have a reduced It is typical to have a reduced Shallower beams may be used
structural steel frame cost
 Weight of the structural steel frame may be decreased which
 Shallower beams may be used which might reduce building height
 Increased span lengths are possible
 frame may be decreased which may reduce foundation costs
 Reduced live load deflections possible
 Stiffer floors


 The additional sub- contractor need de for shear connector installation will increase field costs
 Installation of shear connectors is another operation to be included in the schedule
 A concrete flatwork contractor who has experience with elevated composite slabs should be
secured for the job

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Metal Decking

 Composite decking works together with the concrete fill to make a stiff, light-weight,
economical floor system
 Composite decking is available in various profiles and thicknesses
 Decking with deformed ribs (or embossed decking), is commonly used
 The deformations on the ribs allow for a stronger bond between the concrete and the decking

Installation of Decking

 Metal decking is placed on the structural steel at predetermined points in the erection
 Metal decking may be installed by the steel erection contractor or a separate decking
 As an alternative to welding, powder actuated tools may be used to attach metal decking to
structural steel
 Powder actuated tools use the expanding gases from a powder load, or booster, to drive a
 A nail-like fastener is driven through the metal deck into the steel beam
 The powder actuated tool, powder load, and fastener must be matched to the thickness of
the structural steel beam flanges

Shear Connectors

 Depending on the welding process used, the tip of the shear connector may be placed in a
ceramic ferrule (arc shield) during welding to retain the weld
 Shear connectors create a strong bond between the steel beam and the concrete floor slab
which is poured on top of the metal decking
 This bond allows the concrete slab to work with the steel beams to reduce live load deflection

Installation of Shear Connectors

 The electrical arc process is commonly used for stud welding

o An arc is drawn between the stud and the base metal

o The stud is plunged into the molten steel which is contained by the ceramic ferrule
o The metal solidifies and the weld is complete

 The ferrules are removed before the concrete is poured

Installation of Concrete

 Concrete is installed by a concrete contractor on top of the composite metal decking, shear
connectors, and welded wire fabric or rebar grid (crack control reinforcing)
 Pumping is a typical installation method for concrete being placed on metal decking
 10,000 to 15,000 sq. ft. of concrete slab may be installed per day depending on slab thickness
and crew size (Ruddy 1986)

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Tensile and Cable Structure
A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension and no compression or bending.
The term tensile should not be confused with tensegrity, which is a structural form with both tension
and compression elements. Tensile structures are the most common type of thin-shell structures.

Most tensile structures are supported by some form of compression or bending elements, such as
masts (as in The O2, formerly the Millennium Dome), compression rings or beams.

A tensile membrane structure is most often used as a roof, as they can economically and attractively
span large distances

There are many examples of this type of construction used as industrial buildings where the roof
structure, either as a single or as a double cantilever, is suspended from cables, which in turn are
anchored on robust pylons above the roof level.

In this type of construction, the cables behave as simple suspension elements, while the roof structure
itself behaves like a normal load resisting unit, subject to moments, shears, and other kinds of action
effect. It is expected that the suspending elements remain in tension, even under wind uplift, due to
the dead weight of the roof

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Membrane Structure
Membrane structures are spatial structures made out of tensioned
membranes. The structural use of membranes can be divided into
pneumatic structures, tensile membrane structures, and cable
domes. In these three kinds of structure, membranes work together
with cables, columns and other construction members to find a form.

 Tension/suspension membrane structures are more popular

and have been used to construct the roofs of various sports
facilities around the world.
 Pneumatic structure, Membrane structure that is stabilized by
the pressure of compressed air. Air-supported structures are
supported by internal air pressure.
 The frame structure is usually steel space frame, steel frame,
or space truss which are all capable of supporting different
weight loads

PTFE Fiberglass Membrane

PTFE, or polytetrafluoroethylene, is a Teflon®-coated woven fiberglass membrane that is extremely

durable, weather resistant and a highly sustainable building material for roofing applications. PTFE
fiberglass membranes can be installed in climates ranging from the frigid arctic to the scorching
desert heat with a project life in some cases exceeding 30 years.


ETFE (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene) can be applied in multiple ways such as single, double or triple
layered tensile architecture applications. The material is durable, highly transparent and very
lightweight in comparison to glass structures.


PVC, or polyvinyl chloride, is available as a woven or non-woven material. PVC membrane fabric
canopies are a cost-effective alternative to traditional roofing or façade systems and can be
produced in a multitude of colors to coordinate with individual building project needs.

Insulated Tensioned Membrane

Is a composite system comprised of a PTFE fiberglass membrane exterior skin, a thin translucent
insulation blanket embedded with aerogel, and a thinner and lighter acoustic or vapor barrier interior

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PTFE-coated, high translucency (ePTFE) fabric membrane is a dynamic tensile material unmatched
for its aesthetics and durability, which is a woven, non-flammable material that uses 100 percent
fluoropolymer coating and can offer up to 40 percent light transmission (versus just 13 percent with
PVC), eliminating glare to allow broad illumination throughout a given interior space

Thin Shell Structure

Thin-shell structures are also called plate and shell structures. They are lightweight constructions using
shell elements. These elements, typically curved, are assembled to make large structures. Typical
applications include aircraft fuselages, boat hulls, and the roofs of large buildings

A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is small compared to its other dimensions and in
which deformations are not large compared to thickness. A primary difference between a shell
structure and a plate structure is that, in the unstressed state, the shell structure has curvature as
opposed to the plates structure which is flat. Membrane action in a shell is primarily caused by in-
plane forces (plane stress), but there may be secondary forces resulting from flexural deformations.
Where a flat plate acts similar to a beam with bending and shear stresses, shells are analogous to a
cable which resists loads through tensile stresses. The ideal thin shell must be capable of developing
both tension and compression

Shell structure, In building construction, a thin, curved plate structure shaped to transmit applied
forces by compressive, tensile, and shear stresses that act in the plane of the surface. They are usually
constructed of concrete reinforced with steel mesh.

Shell construction began in the 1920s; the shell emerged as a major long-span concrete structure
after World War II. Thin parabolic shell vaults stiffened with ribs have been built with spans up to about
300 ft (90 m).

More complex forms of concrete shells have been made, including hyperbolic paraboloids, or
saddle shapes, and intersecting parabolic vaults less than 0.5 in. (1.25 cm) thick. Pioneering thin-shell
designers include Felix Candela and Pier Luigi Nervi.

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