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Data Communication and Networking

Subject Code: MIT 204/PTN 102 BKID – B1389

Edition: Spring 2011
Sikkim Manipal University
Directorate of Distance Education

Department of Information Technology

Board of Studies
Directorate of Distance Education
Sikkim Manipal University (SMU DDE)

Board of Studies
Chairman Mr. Balasubramani R.
Head – IT Asst. Prof., Dept. of IT
SMU DDE, Manipal – 576 104 SMU-DDE, Manipal – 576 104
Additional Registrar Dr. A. Kumaran
SMU DDE Research Manager, Multilingual
Manipal – 576 104 Research, Microsoft (India)
Addl. Registrar (S.E.) Mr. Ashwin Krishna
Office of the Student Evaluation Director, Keystone Business
Manipal – 576 104 Bangalore
Dr. N. V. S. Subba Reddy Mr. Srinivas Deeduvanu
Director, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Engineering Manager
Technology Gangtok, Sikkim Yahoo (India), Bangalore
Dr. Ramprasad Vardhachar Dr. Rajasekar
Director, Computer Studies Image Quality Leader
Dayanand Sagar Institutions, Bangalore Wipro - GE (India), Bangalore
Prof. A. Srinivas Dr. Ashok Kumar T. K.
Director - Research and Consultancy and General Manager
Professor of Computer Science IBM (India), Bangalore
PES Institute of Technology
Bangalore – 560 085
Edition: Spring 2011
Printed: June 2012
This book is a distance education module comprising a collection of learning
materials for our students. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be
reproduced in any form by any means without permission in writing from Sikkim
Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim. Printed and Published on behalf of Sikkim
Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim by Manipal Global Education Services, Manipal
– 576 104. Printed at Manipal Technologies Limited, Manipal.
Author’s Profile
Mr. Purushotham U. is B.E, M.Tech (Electronics) and now pursuing Ph.D.
He has 9 years of experience in teaching. His areas of specialization
includes: Electronics and Communication, Digital Signal Processing, Control
systems, Mobile communication, Network analysis, Computer
Communication Network, Microprocessor, Multirate systems and filter
banks, Statistical Signal processing.

Peer Reviewer’s Profilee

Dr. R. Gunasekaram, is M.E, Ph.D and MBA. Presently he is Assistant
Professor in Department of Computer Technology, MIT Campus, Anna
university, Chennai. His field of interests are Mobile Ad hoc Networks,
WiMAX, Mobile Computing.

In House Technical Team

Content Review:
Mr. Murali Shayan H. is B.E., M.Tech. He is Assistant Professor in Sikkim
Manipal University - Distance education. He has 13 years of teaching
experience. His areas of specialization includes Digital communication,
Wireless mobile communication, Analog communication, Microprocessors,
Optical Fiber communication, Logic design, Network analysis, Computer
networks, Digital systems, Computer organization & Architecture, Basic
Electronics, Microcontroller.
MIT 204/PTN 102
Data Communication and Networking
Unit 1
Introduction to Computer Network 1
Unit 2
Data Communication 27
Unit 3
Data Encoding 47

Unit 4
Data Link Layer 76

Unit 5
Error Correction and Detection Protocols 98
Unit 6
Data Link Control Protocols 118

Unit 7
Wired LANs: Ethernet 137
Unit 8
Unicast Routing 162
Unit 9
Broadcast and Multicast Routing 178
Unit 10
Traffic Engineering Principles 191
Unit 11
Network Layer 213

Unit 12
Transport Layer 243
Unit 13
Application Layer 261
Unit 14
Internet and WWW 282
Acknowledgements, References and
Suggested Readings 305
MIT 204/PTN 103
Data Communication and Networking


‘Data Communication and Networking’ is a four credit subject in IT

Today computer is available in many offices and homes and therefore there
is a need to share data and programs among various computers. With the
advancement of data communication facilities the communication between
computers has increased and thus it has extended the power of computer
beyond the computer room. Now a user sitting at one place can
communicate with computers of any remote site through communication
channel. This SLM introduce you the various aspects of computer network.
The Self Learning Material (SLM) for this subject is divided into 14 units the
overview of which is given below:
Unit 1: Introduction to Computer Network
This unit provides definition of computer networks and discusses
applications of computer networks in the real world. You are also going to
learn about various types of computer networks and the base model of
entire networking, the ISO OSI model.
Unit 2: Data Communication
This unit covers various concepts of data communication like transmission
impairments, data, signals, bandwidth, Nyquist signaling rate and Shannon’s
channel capacity. It also describes different types of transmission modes
and transmission media available for data transmission.
Unit 3: Data Encoding
In this unit you are going to learn about various encoding techniques and
also about line coding. This unit also discusses about Analog-to-digital
conversion technology and Transmission modes.
Unit 4: Data Link Layer
This unit explains about various responsibilities of data link layer such as
error detection and correction, framing and flow & error control methods.
Unit 5: Error Correction and Detection Protocols
In this unit you are going to learn about protocols used in data link layer for
flow and error control. The discussion of protocols is divided into protocols
used for noiseless (error-free) channels and those that can be used in noisy
channel (real life).
Unit 6: Data Link Control Protocols
In this unit you will learn about bit oriented and byte-oriented protocols for
Data link layer such as HDLC and PPP protocols. This unit also describes
about MAC and LLC sub-layers, channel allocation problem, pure aloha,
slotted aloha and persistent & non-persistent CSMA protocols.
Unit 7: Wired LANs: Ethernet
This unit discuss about IEEE 802 standards, standard Ethernet, fast
Ethernet and gigabit Ethernet.
Unit 8: Unicast Routing
This unit discusses about routing characteristics, routing algorithms. A
comparison of routing algorithms is done at the end of the unit
Unit 9: Broadcast and Multicast Routing
This unit focuses on Broadcast and Multicast Routing. This unit also
discusses about routing in ad hoc networks
Unit 10: Traffic Engineering Principles
This unit focuses on congestion control algorithms and methods to improve
quality of service. The unit discusses general principles of congestion
control and congestion prevention policies .It also describes two algorithms
leaky bucket algorithm and token bucket algorithm which improve the quality
of service in networking.
Unit 11: Network Layer
This unit describes various responsibilities of network layer IP addressing
scheme, subnet addressing, subnet masking, IPV4 addressing, IPV6
addressing, address resolution protocol and reverse address resolution
Unit 12: Transport Layer
This unit concentrates on services and issues in transport layer. Some of
services discussed in this unit are connection establishment, connection
release. You will also learn about two transport protocols TCP protocol and
UDP protocol.
Unit 13: Application Layer
This unit provides you an overview of the TCP/IP application protocols
dealing with electronic mail, including Simple Mail Transport Protocol
Unit 14: Internet and WWW
This unit deals with web browsers, web servers and hypertext transfer
protocol. You will also learn about world wide web and security problems in
After studying this subject, you should be able to:
 define computer network
 explain on various components of data communication
 explain data encoding techniques
 describe services of data link layer
 discuss on error correction and detection protocols
 explain data link control protocols
 list and explain various types wired LAN s
 explain unicast, broadcast and multicast routing
 explain traffic engineering principles
 describe issues and services in network layer, transport layer and
application layer
 discuss on internet and world wide web
The subject requires fundamental knowledge and skills in computer
architecture and internet. For a better insight of the subject you can refer to
the following web sites