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THERMAL-FLUID SCIENCES

An Integrated Approach

Thermal-Fluid Sciences is a truly integrated textbook for an engineering course covering thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. This integration is based on the fundamental conservation principles of mass, energy, and momentum; a hierarchical grouping of related topics; and the early introduction and revisiting of practical device examples and applications. As with all textbooks the focus is on accuracy and pedagogy. To enhance the learning experience Thermal-Fluid Sciences features full-color illustrations. The robust pedagogy includes chapter learning objectives, overviews, historical vignettes, and numerous examples that follow a consistent problem-solving format, enhanced by innovative self tests and color coding to highlight significant equations and advanced topics. Each chapter concludes with a brief summary and a unique checklist of key concepts and definitions. Integrated tutorials show the student how to use modern software including the NIST database (included on the in-text CD) to obtain thermodynamic and transport properties. Stephen R. Turns has been a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University since completing his Ph.D. at the University of Wisconsin in 1979. Before that Steve spent five years in the Engine Research Department of General Motors Research Laboratories in Warren, Michigan. His active research interests include the study of pollutant formation and control in combustion systems, combustion engines, combustion instrumentation, slurry fuel combustion, energy conversion, and energy policy. He has published numerous referreed journal articles on many of these topics. Steve is a member of the ASME and many other professional organizations and has been an ABET Program Evaluator since 1994. He is also a dedicated teacher, for which he has won numerous awards including the Penn State Teaching and Learning Consortium, Hall of Fame Faculty Award; Penn State’s Milton S. Eisenhower Award for Distinguished Teaching; the Premier Teaching Award, Penn State Engineering Society; and the Outstanding Teaching Award, Penn State Engineering Society. Steve’s talent as a teacher is also reflected in his best- selling advanced undergraduate textbook Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, 2nd ed. Steve’s commitment to students and teaching is shown in the innovative approach and design of Thermal-Fluid Sciences: An Integrated Approach and its companion volume Thermodynamics, also published by Cambridge University Press.

In lecturing on any subject, it seems to be the natural course to begin with a clear explanation of the nature, purpose, and scope of the subject. But in answer to the question “What is thermo-dynamics?” I feel tempted to reply “It is a very difficult subject, nearly, if not quite, unfit for a lecture.”

Osborne Reynolds On the General Theory of Thermo-dynamics November 1883

THERMAL-FLUID SC IENCES

AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

Stephen R. Turns

The Pennsylvania State University

THERMAL-FLUID SC IENCES AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Stephen R. Turns The Pennsylvania State University

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011–4211, USA www.cambridge.org Information on this title:

© Stephen R. Turns 2006

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2006

Printed in Hong Kong by Golden Cup Printing Co. Ltd.

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Pages 1157–1158 constitute a continuation of the copyright page.

Turns, Stephen R. Thermal-fluid sciences : an integrated approach / Stephen R. Turns. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-521-85043-8 (hardback : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-521-85043-6 (hardback : alk. paper) 1. Thermodynamics. 2. Gas flow. 3. Heat–Transmission. I. Title.

QC311.T86 2005

536'.7–dc22

2005026545

ISBN -13 978 0 521 85043 8 hardback ISBN -10 0 521 85043 6 hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

This book is dedicated to Mike, Matt, Sara, and Bryan

Contents

S AMPLE S YLLABI P REFACE

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xxiii

xxx iii

A BOUT THE AUTHOR

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xxxvii

A CKNOWLEDGMENTS

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xxxix

PART ONE: FUNDAMENTALS 1

 
Chapter 1 ● BEGINNINGS 2
 

Chapter 1 BEGINNINGS

2

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

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3

OVERVIEW

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4

1.1

 

WHAT ARE THE THERMAL-FLUID SCIENCES?

 

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1.2

SOME APPLICATIONS

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6

1.2a

Fossil-Fueled Steam Power Plants

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6

1.2b

Solar-Heated Buildings

Jet Engines

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11

1.2c

1.2d

Spark-Ignition Engines

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12

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1.2e

Biological Systems

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16

 

1.3

PHYSICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ANALYSIS

 

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1.3a

Systems

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17

1.3b

Control Volumes

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18

1.3c

Integral versus Differential Analyses

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19

1.4

PREVIEW OF CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES

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1.4a

1.4b

Generalized Formulation

. Motivation to Study Properties

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1.5

KEY CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

 

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1.5a

Properties

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24

1.5b

States

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24

viii
viii

Contents

viii Contents 1.5c Processes . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5c

Processes

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24

1.5d

Cycles

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25

1.5e

Equilibrium and the Quasi-Equilibrium Process

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1.5f

Local Equilibrium

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29

1.6

SOME GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REAL

 

FLOWS

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29

1.7

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

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31

1.8

PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD

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1.9

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

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SUMMARY

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. KEY CONCEPTS & DEFINITIONS CHECKLIST

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35

36

REFERENCES

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. QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS

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37

38

44

Chapter 2 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, PROPERTY

RELATIONSHIPS, AND PROCESSES

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

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47

OVERVIEW

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48

2.1

KEY DEFINITIONS

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48

2.2

FREQUENTLY USED THERMODYNAMIC

PROPERTIES

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50

2.2a

Properties Related to the Equation of State

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50

Mass

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50

Number of Moles

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50

Volume

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52

Density

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52

Specific Volume

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53

Pressure

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53

Temperature

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57

2.2b

Properties Related to the First Law and Calorific Equation

 

of State

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59

Internal Energy

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59

Enthalpy

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2.2c

Properties Related to the Second Law

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64

Entropy Gibbs Free Energy or Gibbs Function

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2.3

CONCEPT OF STATE RELATIONSHIPS

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66

2.3a

State Principle

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66

2.3b

2.3c

PvT Equations of State

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66

Calorific Equations of State

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66

 

Contents

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2.3d

Temperature–Entropy (Gibbs) Relationships

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67

2.4

2.4a

2.4b

2.4c

IDEAL GASES AS PURE SUBSTANCES

Ideal Gas Definition

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67

67

Ideal-Gas Equation of State

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68

Processes in P–v–T Space

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71

2.4d

2.4e

Ideal-Gas Calorific Equations of State Ideal-Gas Temperature–Entropy (Gibbs) Relationships

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80

2.4f

Ideal-Gas Isentropic Process Relationships

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83

2.4g

Processes in T–s and P–v Space

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84

2.4h

Polytropic Processes

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88

2.5

NONIDEAL GAS PROPERTIES

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90

2.5a

State (P–v–T ) Relationships

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Tabulated Properties

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