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Duhok Polytechnic University

College of Technical Engineering


Department of Petrochemical

LEVEL CONTROL
FLOW CONTROL
PRESSURE CONTROL

By

Siyar M. SALEEM
Nabee H. MULHAM
Ibrahim ABDULQADIR
Dildar MUSHIR
PROCESS CONTROL Practical
Group B
Report No. 1
TABLE CONTENT

Experiment C1: Level Control .....................................................................2


Experiment C2: Flow Control ................................................................... 10
Experiment C3: Pressure Control ............................................................... 21
Experiment C4: Temperature Control ........................................................ 29

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Experiment 1: Level Control

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OBJECTIVES
 To study the main components of a level control system.
 To study the influence of controller design on control action and
disturbance response.
 To study the stability of a control loop.
 To study the controller optimization.

INTRODUCTION
The RT 010 liquid level control model represents a typical loop
control system, as is standard and widespread in engineering.
The actual loop is a cylindrical liquid level tank made of transparent
plastic. A water supply tank positioned below it contains an electrically
operated immersion pump. This acts as the actuator and is used to deliver
water into the liquid level tank. The liquid level in the tank is measured
by a pressure sensor using the height of the water column and is
transmitted as an electric voltage signal. The liquid level can also be read
on a scale on the tank itself. To represent the removal of water from the
tank, an electric proportional valve acts as an adjustable discharge. This
means that additional disturbances are possible in the system. The water
pours back into the supply tank, resulting in a closed circuit that does not
require an additional water supply.
The model must be supplemented by a separate external controller to create
a complete control loop. It communicates with the peripheral equipment
(e.g. a PC) via a USB interface. The most suitable control and regulation
program is the associated software RT 010- RT 060.

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DESCRIPTION

1) EQUIPMENT LAYOUT:

1. Liquid level tank


2. Pump
3. Pump Overflow
4. Supply tank
7. Pump switch
8. Button for complete opening of bleeder valve (Z = 100 %)
9. Bleeder valve signal lamp
5. Bleeder valve, electric, proportional
6. Pump signal lamp
10. Master switch
11. Pressure hose for liquid level measurement

USB plug-in connection (rear of unit).


Mains connection (rear of unit).

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2) PROCESS DIAGRAM

3) FUNCTION

The RT 010 liquid level control model is used as a simple loop for a controller.
It does not include a controller itself; all control processes must be run
externally. The model communicates with external devices via a USB
interface, for which it has a plug-in connection on the rear.
The actuator is an electric immersion pump (2), which delivers water from
a supply (4) in to the liquid level tank (1). The pump must be actuated by
an external input signal, e.g. from a controller. The liquid level is recorded
using the pressure of the water column in the tank. The level tank
contains an ascending pipe for this purpose. An air hose (11) conveys the
pressure from its upper end to a pressure sensor inside the unit. The liquid
level is then provided as an electric voltage signal. The electrically operated
bleeder valve
(5) can be used to set the discharge from the tank by assigning the influencing
variable Z. the valve operates proportionally and can be variably adjusted.
Its position can only be influenced by external control (e.g. via a PC).

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The exception is a disturbance in the system. The bleeder valve can be
spontaneously switched to Z = 100% using the button (8).
The overflow (3) prevents water from escaping if the discharge through
the valve (5) is not sufficient. The pump signal lamp (6) and the bleeder
valve signal lamp (9) indicate whether the respective elements are actuated.

NOTE: to deliver water into the filling tank, the pump must overcome the
pressure of the water column up to the tank cover (~ 30cm = 30mbar). This
means that water only reaches the tank with an input signal above ~ y ≥ 40%.

4) COMMISSIONING

 Using the hole in the cover, fill the supply tank (4) with water until
the pump is completely submerged and all hoses and pipe ends are
below the water level (~3.5ltr)
 Connect the model to the mains using the connecting socket on the
rear.
 Using the USB port on the rear of the model, connect it to an
external controller (e.g. PC).
 Switch on the model at the master switch (10).
 Press the button (8) to check the functioning of the bleeder valve.
The model is now ready for use.

NOTE: Differing values for the liquid level maybe displayed on the PC. This
is because the water level in the ascending pipe does not exactly correspond
to that in the tank (e.g. due to residual water, air bubbles etc.).
REMEDY:
 Switch off the pump and completely drain the liquid level tank
by pressing the button (8).
 Carefully remove the air hose (11) on the top of the filling tank.
 Using the fitting, blow air into the ascending pipe to expel any
residual water or air bubbles located in the pipe.

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SHUTTING DOWN

To shut down, switch off the model at the master switch. If the model will
not be used for a long period of time, disconnect it from the mains and drain
the water.
To do this, allow the water to drain out through the bleeder on the rear of
the supply tank with a suitable hose.
The unit is maintenance free and does not require any additional servicing.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The loop behavior is determined by a step in the reference variable and


observation of the resulting transient response
 Select “Manual” operating mode.
 Set disturbance Z= 10 %
 Set manual regulation ratio Y= 40 %, wait for steady state, and
TAKE CARE OF OVERFLOW.
 Perform step in manual regulation ratio,
 Y= 40 % 100 %, wait for overflow of liquid level tank.
 Observe the response.
 Perform step in manual regulation ratio,
 Y= 100 % 0 %, allow liquid level to drain.
 Perform step in manual regulation ratio,
 Y= 0 % 50 %, wait for overflow of liquid level tank.
 Observe the response.

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Experiment 2: Flow Control

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OBJECTIVES
 To study the main components of a flow control system.
 To study the influence of controller design on control action and
disturbance response.
 To study the stability of a control loop.
 To study the controller optimization.

INTRODUCTION
The RT 020 flow control model represents a typical loop control system,
as is standard and widespread in engineering.
The actual loop is a piping system, through which water is constantly
pumped in a circuit from a tank. The flow in this system can be influenced
by an electric regulator valve.
To do this, it is actuated by an external controller. As a disturbance, the
speed of the pump can be changed. In the system, the flow is recorded
using an electric flow sensor on the turbine principle. The circuit also
contains a flow meter with float.
The model must be supplemented by a separate external controller to
create a complete control loop. It communicates with the peripheral
equipment
(e.g. a PC) via a USB interface. The most suitable control and regulation
program is the associated software RT 010- RT 060.

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DESCRIPTION

1) EQUIPMENT LAYOUT:

1. Flow meter, with float


2. Regulator valve
3. Pump signal lamp
4. Pump
5. Water tank
6. Flow meter, turbine
7. Master switch
8. Valve signal lamp
9. Pump switch

USB plug-in connection (rear of unit).


Mains connection (rear of unit).

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2) PROCESS DIAGRAM

3) FUNCTION

The RT 020 flow control model is used as a simple loop for a controller. It
does not include a controller itself; all control processes must be run
externally. The model communicates with external devices via a USB
interface, for which it has a plug-in connection on the rear.
A water tank (5) contains an immersion pump (4), which is responsible for
constantly delivering water through a piping system in a circuit. An
electrically operated proportional valve (2) acts as the actuator for this
circuit. This valve must be actuated by an external input signal, e.g. from a
controller. The flow is determined using a sensor, which works on the
turbine principle. It emits a pulse signal, the frequency of which is
proportional to the flow. This signal can be transmitted externally to a
meter output via the USB connection and then analyzed. In addition, the
piping system includes a float flow meter for verification and comparison
purposes. In normal operation, the pump always runs at Y=100 %. As a
disturbance, it can be throttled with the signal Z= 0…99 %. As this

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disturbance is subtracted directly from the input signal, Z= 100 % means
that the pump comes to a stop as there is no input signal remaining. The
pump signal lamp
(3) and the valve signal lamp (8) indicate whether the respective
elements are actuated.

4) COMMISSIONING

 Using the hole in the cover, fill the water tank (5) with water until
the pump is completely submerged and all hoses and pipe ends are
below the water level (~3.5 ltr)
 Connect the model to the mains using the connecting socket on the
rear.
 Using the USB port on the rear of the model, connect it to an
external controller (e.g. PC).
 Switch on the model at the master switch (7).
Switch on the pump (4).

SHUTTING DOWN

To shut down, switch off the model at the master switch. If the model will
not be used for a long period of time, disconnect it from the mains and drain
the water.
To do this, allow the water to drain out through the bleeder on the rear of
the water tank with a suitable hose.
The unit is maintenance free and does not require any additional servicing.

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

CONTROL ACTION OF FLOW LOOP:

The actuator on the RT 020 is an electrically operated pump. Observe


which flow values X occur when varying the actuation signal Y in
undisturbed operation.
Y= 0…100 %
Z= 0 %

DISTURBANCE RESPONSE OF FLOW LOOP:

Another important feature of a loop is its response to disturbances.


Observe the response of this loop to disturbance by actuating the actuator
(pump) with Y= 100 % and the disturbance variable Z is varied.
Y= 100 %
Z=
0…100%

DETERMINATION OF LOOP TYPE:

The loop behavior is determined by a step in the reference variable and


observation of the resulting transient response
Select “Manual” operating mode.
 Set disturbance Z= 0 %
 Set manual regulation ratio Y= 20 %, wait until a steady state is
reached. Perform step in manual regulation ratio,
 Y= 20 % 80 %
 Observe the response.

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Experiment 3: Pressure Control

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OBJECTIVES
 To study the main components of a pressure control system.
 To study the influence of controller design on control action and
disturbance response.
 To study the stability of a control loop.
 To study the controller optimization.

INTRODUCTION
The RT 030 pressure control model represents a typical loop control system,
as is standard and widespread in engineering. The actual loop is a cylindrical
metal pressure vessel. An externally actuated, electrically operated
compressor performs the function of the actuator and is used to increase
the air pressure in the vessel. The value of the relative excess pressure
in the vessel is recorded by piezo-electric pressure sensor and provided as an
electric voltage signal. Two valves are used to bleed the air from the vessel.
One of them is a manual valve, which can be used to simulate continuous
pressure tapping. An additional electric valve can also be connected as
a sudden disturbance.
The model must be supplemented by a separate external controller to create
a complete control loop. It communicates with the peripheral equipment
9e.g. a PC) via a USB interface. The most suitable control and regulation
program is the associated software RT 010- RT 060.

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DESCRIPTION

1) EQUIPMENT LAYOUT:

1. Compressor
2. Compressor switch
3. Bleeder valve
4. Disturbance valve, electrically operated
5. Pressure sensor

6. Manometer
7. Pressure vessel
8. Compressor signal lamp
9. Disturbance valve signal lamp
10. Master switch

USB plug-in connection (rear of unit).


Mains connection (rear of unit).

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2) PROCESS DIAGRAM

3) FUNCTION

The RT 030 pressure control model is used as a simple loop for a controller.
It does not include a controller itself; all control processes must be run
externally. The model communicates with external devices via a USB
interface, for which it has a plug-in connection on the rear.

A compressor (1), which is powered by a DC motor, is used as an actuator.


The compressor pumps air into a pressure vessel (7). This pressure is directly
indicated on a manometer (6) and is also measured using a piezo-electric
sensor, which outputs a corresponding voltage signal for possible control.
The bleeder valve (3) is used to set variable continuous pressure tapping.
As a disturbance in the system, a second electrically operated valve can be
connected. The disturbance valve can also be variably adjusted. Its switching
behavior is not proportional; it has binary switching (open or closed). The
disturbance valve can only be influenced by external control (e.g. via PC).

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Note: The compressor has a response threshold. This means that it
only starts to move when the control signal y is at least 30% of its full
final value (~ 3.5 V).
The compressor cannot start up against
pressure.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

PREPARING THE LOOP:

Switch on the master switch (10) and compressor switch (2) on the RT 030
unit and start the “RT 010 – 060 Principles of Control Engineering”
software.
Select “Manual” operating mode and set the manual regulation ratio to y =
100 %.
The compressor starts.
Open the bleeder valve (3) and adjust it to give a constant pressure of ~ 1 bar.
Then use the “Z” button to open the disturbance valve (4) and adjust it to
give a pressure of ~ 0.8 bar.

DETERMINATION OF LOOP TYPE:

The loop behavior is determined by a step in the reference variable and


observation of the resulting transient response

Select “Manual” operating mode, set the manual regulation ratio to y = 40 %


and wait until the pressure reaches a steady state.
Carry out a step in the manual regulation ratio of : y = 40 % y = 60 %
Observe the response.

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DISCUSSION

Why Control Valves used?


Process plants consist of hundreds, or even thousands, of control loops all
networked together to produce a product to be offered for sale. Each of these
control loops is designed to keep some important process variable such as
pressure, flow, level, temperature, etc. within a required operating range to
ensure the quality of the end product. Each of these loops receives and
internally creates disturbances that detrimentally affect the process variable,
and interaction from other loops in the network provides disturbances that
influence the process variable.
To reduce the effect of these load disturbances, sensors and transmitters
collect information about the process variable and its relationship to some
desired set point. A controller then processes this information and decides
what must be done to get the process variable back to where it should be
after a load disturbance occurs. When all the measuring, comparing, and
calculating are done, some type of final control element must implement the
strategy selected by the controller

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Principles of Operation
The most common final control element in the process control industries is
the control valve. The control valve manipulates a flowing fluid, such as gas,
steam, water, or chemical compounds, to compensate for the load
disturbance and keep the regulated process variable as close as possible to
the desired set point.
Control valves may be the most important, but sometimes the most
neglected, part of a control loop. The reason is usually the instrument
engineer's unfamiliarity with the many facets, terminologies, and areas of
engineering disciplines such as fluid mechanics, metallurgy, noise control,
and piping and vessel design that can be involved depending on the severity
of service conditions.
Any control loop usually consists of a sensor of the process condition, a
transmitter and a controller that compares the "process variable" received
from the transmitter with the "set point," i.e., the desired process condition.
The controller, in turn, sends a corrective signal to the "final control
element," the last part of the loop and the "muscle" of the process control
system. While the sensors of the process variables are the eyes, the controller
the brain, then the final control element is the hands of the control loop. This
makes it the most important, alas sometimes the least understood, part of an
automatic control system.

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