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# GEARS : BASIC CONCEPTS

Gears (a.k.a. cogwheels), are basically rotating machines (in the shape of
wheels or cylinders) that have cut teeth or cogs and mesh with another such
set up to transmit torque or rotary and reciprocating motion from one part of
a machine to another. Geared devices can change the speed, torque and
direction of a power source. Two or more gears, transmitting motion from one
shaft to another, constitute a gear train or a transmission. Gears almost always
produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their
gear ratio, and thus may be considered as a simple machine. When two gears
mesh, if one gear is bigger than the other, a mechanical advantage is
produced, with the rotational speeds, and the torques, of the two gears
differing in proportion to their diameters. The first ever use of gears dates back
to 4th century BCE in China.

TYPES OF GEARS:
 EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL GEARS : The external gears have their teeth
formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely,
an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a
cylinder or cone.
 SPUR GEAR: Also called as straight cut gears, they are the simplest type
of gears and consist of a cylinder or disk with teeth projecting radially.
Though the teeth are not straight-sided, the edge of each tooth is
straight and is aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. They need to be
fitted to parallel shafts for their proper meshing.
 HELICAL GEAR: the leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis
of rotation, but are set at an angle, which forms a helix like segment.
Helical gears can be arranged in both parallel and crossed orientations.
 DOUBLE HELICAL GEAR: A double helical gear can be thought of as two
mirrored helical gears joined together. This arrangement cancels out the
net axial thrust , since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite
direction resulting in a net axial force of zero. A similar type of gear is
the Herringbone gear.
 BEVEL GEAR: A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most
of its tip cut off. When two bevel gears mesh, their imaginary vertices
must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point,
forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle
between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees.
 SPIRAL BEVEL GEAR: Spiral bevel gears can be manufactured as Gleason
types (circular arc with non-constant tooth depth), Oerlikon and Curvex
types (circular arc with constant tooth depth), Klingelnberg Cyclo-Palloid
(Epicycloide with constant tooth depth) or Klingelnberg Palloid.
 HYPOID GEAR: Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft
axes do not intersect. The pitch surfaces appear conical but, to
compensate for the offset shaft, are in facthyperboloids of
revolution.Hypoid gears are almost always designed to operate with
shafts at 90 degrees.
 CROWN GEAR: Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of
bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to the plane of the wheel;
in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown. A crown
gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear, although crown
gears are sometimes seen meshing with spur gears.
 WORM GEAR: Worms resemble screws. A worm is meshed with a worm
wheel, which looks similar to a spur gear. Worm-and-gear sets are a
simple and compact way to achieve a high torque, low speed gear ratio.
 RACK AND PINION: A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of
as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. Torque can
be converted to linear force by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion
turns; the rack moves in a straight line.
 Various other types of gears include magnetic gear, cage gear, epicyclic
gear etc.
BASIC TERMINOLOGIES

##  PITCH CIRCLE-It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would

give the same motion as the actual gear.

 PITCH CIRCLE DIAMETER-It is the diameter o the pitch circle. The size of
the gear is usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called
the pitch diameter.

##  PITCH POINT-It is common point of contact between two pitch circles.

 PITCH SURFACE-It is the surface of the rolling discs which the meshing
gears have replaced at the pitch circle.

##  PRESSURE ANGLE OR ANGLE OF OBLIQUITY-It is the angle between the

common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the
common tangent to the pitch point. It is usually denoted by ɸ. The
standard pressure angles are 141/2O and 20O.

##  ADDENDUM-It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to

the top of the tooth.

##  DEDENDUM-It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to

the bottom of the tooth.

 ADDENDUM CIRCLE-It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth
and is concentric with the pitch circle.

##  DEDENDUM CIRCLE-It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the

teeth. It is also called root circle.

##  CIRCULAR PITCH-It is the distance measured on the circumference of the

pitch circle from a point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the
next tooth. It is usually denoted by pc.
 PATH OF CONTACT- Path followed by the point of contact between two
meshing gear teeth.
 LINE OF ACTION/PRESSURE LINE- Line along which the force between
two meshing gear teeth is directed. It has the same direction as the
force vector. In general, the line of action changes from moment to
moment during the period of engagement of a pair of teeth.

## Gears can be manufactured by a variety of processes including casting, forging,

extrusion, powder metallurgy and blanking. However machining is applied to
achieve the final dimensions, shape and surface finish in the gear. The initial
processes that produce a semi finished part ready for gear machining is
referred to as blanking. The starting product in gear machining is called a gear
blank.
BLANK PREPARATION
Raw Material Selection:
The material that can be selected for the preparation of the blank should
possess some characteristic properties, viz.

##  High tensile strength to prevent failure against static loads

 High endurance strength to withstand dynamic loads
 Low coefficient of friction
 High strength to weight ratio
 High yield strength and hardness
 Smooth surface
 Uniform and non distorted cross section
 Ductility
 Economic and easily available
 Good manufacturability

Forging:
Forging, process of shaping iron and other malleable metals by hammering or
pressing them after making them plastic by application of heat. Forging
techniques are useful in the working of metal because the metal can be given
the desired form, and the process improves the structure of the metal,
particularly by refining the grain size of the metal. Forged metal is stronger and
more ductile than cast metal and exhibits greater resistance to fatigue and
impact.

Rolling:
Cylindrical blanks are prepared by roll forming. In this type three rollers are
arranged and material is place in between them. So that a blank of required
surface finish is obtained.

Extrusion:
Extrusion is a process of forcing substances, especially metals or
thermoplastics, through a die to produce various shapes of uniform cross
section widely used in industry and constructions. Hot extrusion being more
common than cold extrusion. The manufacturing of cylindrical hollow blanks is
done by such extrusion process.

## CONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESSES IN GEAR

MANUFACTURING:
1.TURNING :-
This operation involves fixing the job or work piece on a lathe or turning
machine and rotating it at a very high speed and simultaneous removal
of material from the exterior or interior surface. This process is highly
essential and finds application in almost all stages of gear manufacturing
starting from blanking to teeth formation.
2.BROACHING :-
Broaching can also be used to produce gear teeth and is particularly
applicable to internal teeth. The process is rapid and produces fine
surface finish with high dimensional accuracy. However, because
broaches are expensive and a separate broach is required for each size
of gear, this method is suitable mainly for high-quantity production.
3.MILLING :-
Milling is a form-cutting process limited to making single gears for
prototype or very small batches of gears. In form milling, the cutter
called a form cutter travels axially along the length of the gear tooth at
the appropriate depth to produce the gear tooth. After each tooth is cut,
the cutter is withdrawn, the gear blank is rotated and the cutter
proceeds to cut another tooth. This process is repeated until all teeth is
cut. The depth of cut into the gear blank depends on the cutter strength,
set-up rigidity and machinability of the gear blank.

Milling process 1
4.PLANING OF GEAR :-
This process is also called as rack generation. This process is used for
shaping of spur and helical gear teeth with the help of a rack type cutter.
In this process the gear blank is mounted on a horizontal aims and
rotated impertinently. At the same time the gear blank is kept in mesh
with a reciprocating rack type cutter. The teeth cutter gradually removes
material to cut the teeth and to make the required profile. The whole
operation includes some important operations. These are feeding cutter
into the blank, rolling the blank intermittently and keeping cutter in
mesh with the rolling gear blank. After each mesh the gear blank is
rolled by an amount equal to one pitch of gear tooth. After each cutting,
the rack is withdrawn and re-meshed after the rotation of gear blank.

## 5.GEAR CUTTING BY GEAR SHAPER:

This process uses a pinion shaped cutter carrying clearance on the tooth
face and sides and a hole at its centre for mounting it on a stub arbour
or spindle of the machine. The cutter is mounted by keeping its axis in
vertical position. It is also made reciprocating along the vertical axis up
and down with adjustable and pre decided amplitude. The cutter and
the gear blank both are set to rotate at very low rpm about their
respective axis. The relative rpm of both (cutter and blank) can be fixed
to any of the available value with the help of a gear train. This way all
the cutting teeth of cutter come is action one-by-one giving sufficient
time for their cooling and incorporating a longer tool life. The specific
advantages of the process over other processes, its product cycle time is
very low and negligible dimensional variability from one unit to other in
case of mass production.

## Gear cutting using Gear shaper 1

6.GEAR GRINDING
The cylindrical grinder is a type of grinding machine used to shape the
outside of an object. The cylindrical grinder can work on a variety of
shapes; however the object must have a central axis of rotation. This
includes but is not limited to such shapes as a cylinder, an ellipse, a cam,
or a crankshaft.
Basically 5 kinds of cylindrical grinding operations are carried out during
gear machining.
 OUTSIDE DIAMETER GRINDING :-
OD grinding is grinding occurring on external surface of an
object between the centers. The centers are end units with a
point that allow the object to be rotated. The grinding wheel is
also being rotated in the same direction when it comes in
contact with the object. This effectively means the two
surfaces will be moving opposite directions when contact is
made which allows for a smoother operation and less chance
of a jam up.
 INSIDE DIAMETER GRINDING :-
ID grinding is grinding occurring on the inside of an object. The
grinding wheel is always smaller than the width of the object.
The object is held in place by a collet, which also rotates the
object in place. Just as with OD grinding, the grinding wheel
and the object rotated in opposite directions giving reversed
direction contact of the two surfaces where the grinding
occurs
 PLUNGE GRINDING :-
A form of OD grinding, however the major difference is that
the grinding wheel makes continuous contact with a single
point of the object instead of traversing the object
 CREEP FEED GRINDING :-
Creep Feed is a form of grinding where a full depth of cut is
removed in a single pass of the wheel. Successful operation of
this technique can reduce manufacturing time by 50%, but
often the grinding machine being used must be designed
specifically for this purpose. This form occurs in both
cylindrical and surface grinding.
 CENTERLESS GRINDING :-
It is a form of grinding where there is no collet or pair of
centers holding the object in place. Instead, there is a
regulating wheel positioned on the opposite side of the object
to the grinding wheel. A work rest keeps the object at the
appropriate height but has no bearing on its rotary speed. The
work blade is angled slightly towards the regulating wheel,
with the work piece centerline above the centerlines of the
regulating and grinding wheel; this means that high spots do
not tend to generate corresponding opposite low spots, and
hence the roundness of parts can be improved. Centerless
procedures than centered grinding; through feed grinding,
where the regulating wheel is held at a slight angle to the part
so that there is a force feeding the part through the grinder, is
particularly efficient.

7. GEAR HOBBING :-
In addition to the gear shaping process another process used for gear
generation is gear hobbing. In this process, the gear blank is rolled with a
rotating cutter called hob. Gear hobbing is done by using a multipoint
cutting tool called gear hob. It looks like a worm gear having a number of
straight flutes all around its periphery parallel to its axis. These flutes are
so shaped by giving proper angles to them so that these work as cutting
edges. In gear hobbing operation, the hob is rotated at a suitable rpm
and simultaneously fed to the gear blank. The gear blank is also kept as
revolving. Rpm of both, gear blank and gear hob are so synchronized
that for each revolution of gear bob the gear blank rotates by a distance
equal to one pitch distance of the gear to be cut. Motion of both gear
blank and hob are maintained continuously and steady.
Gear hobbing is also used for making a wide variety of gears like spur
gear, helical, hearing-bone, splines and gear sprockets, etc.
The hobbing processes can be classified basing upon the feed of the gear into
the machine, viz.

##  Hobbing with Axial Feed :-

In this process the gear hob is fed against the gear blank
along the face of the blank and parallel to its axis. This is
used to make spur and helical gears.
 Hobbing with Radial Feed :-
In this method the hob and gear blanks are set with their
axis normal to each other. The rotating hob is fed against
the gear blank in radial direction or perpendicular to the
axis of gear blank. This method is used to make the worm
wheels.
 Hobbing with Tangential Feed :-
This is also used for cutting teeth on worm wheel. In this
case, the hob is held with its axis horizontal but at right
angle to the axis of the blank. The hob is set at full depth of
the tooth and then fed forward axially. The hob is fed
tangential to the face of gear blank.

##  It’s an economic process since it is a fast and continuous process as

compared to other processes.
 Faster production rate
 Wider variability in production (splines, spur gears, sprockets, helical
gears, worms etc)
 Multiple gear blanks can be processed simultaneously.

## CNC MACHINES IN USE IN GEAR SHOP

The CNC machine comprises of the mini computer or the microcomputer that
acts as the controller unit of the machine. While in the NC machine the
program is fed into the punch cards, in CNC machines the program of
instructions is fed directly into the computer via a small board similar to the

In CNC machine the program is stored in the memory of the computer. The
programmer can easily write the codes, and edit the programs as per the
requirements. These programs can be used for different parts, and they don’t
have to be repeated again and again.

## Compared to the NC machine, the CNC machine offers greater additional

flexibility and computational capability. New systems can be incorporated into
the CNC controller simply by reprogramming the unit. Because of its capacity
and the flexibility the CNC machines are called as “soft-wired" NC.

## CNC GEAR SHAPING MACHINE

A CNC gear shaper incorporated the use of an electronic gear box in the late
eighties in place of the gear train indexing methods that were conventionally
used. The elimination of these traditional methods also reduced and
eliminated the inaccuracy errors that were previously caused by the torsional
wind up of gearing system. In the CNC mechanism, various DC/AC servo
motors drive the different axes. A CNC gear shaper has 8 axes in all for the
following drives :

## 1. Reciprocation with dead centre positioning - S axis.

2. Radial motion - X axis.
3. Rotation of cutter - D axis
4. Rotation of work gear - C axis
5. Stroke position - Z axis
6. Stroke length - V axis
7. Offset cutter head/work gear - Y axis
8. Relief angle for taper - B axis

Each axis has its own independent driving system and position measuring
system.

CNC machine requires (a) high quality guide ways for precise positioning of the
individual axes by traversing without stick slip, and (b) thermal and mechanical
stability for better and consistent accuracy.

## 1. HIGH PRECISION AND ACCURACY :

Highly accurate linear measuring permits very close tolerance on size.
On some machines, machine- mounted temperature and displacement
sensors detect dimensional variations in the machine structure due to
variations in operating or ambient temperatures. The control system
automatically compensates for the deviations, and guarantees almost
constant size of gears produced in a lot. Individually controlled cutter
and work piece rotation permits best cutting parameters at finish
generation stage. It results in reduced radial run out, pitch error, and
improved surface finish.
The new generation of CNC gear shaping machines are claimed to be
capable of producing AGMA class 11 or DIN 6 gears on production runs.
Minimum shoulder clearance is also reduced because of accuracy of
stroke reversal. This makes a compact design possible. CNC positively
improves both lead and pitch accuracy. Dropped tooth condition can
almost be eliminated. On a CNC machine, several gears of a work piece
(e.g. cluster gear) can be shaped in single setup with single or tandem
cutters. Similarly, an inside and outside gear can be finished with
tandem cutter in single setup on a CNC machine. Single setup shaping
naturally ensures better concentricity error and also if necessary very
close timed relation between the gears.

## On a CNC gear shaping machine, a number of setting activities are

eliminated depending on number of axes under NC control -
1. Index and feed gears need not be changed.
2. Stroke positioning/stroke length is not to be set.
3. Rapid motion and feed distances of the radial traverse (worktable or
cutter column) are not to be adjusted manually.
4. Radial feed is not to be adjusted and set for multi-cut cycle.
5. Cutter spindle stroking speed is not to be set.
6. Direction of cutter relieving from external gear cutting is not to be
changed for up cutting or for cutting internal gear.
On CNC machines, normal setup changeover may be completed within
10 minutes. This is far more less than the corresponding time required
for the setup of a conventional gear shaping machine.

## On CNC machine, the cycle time is reduced because of two main

reasons:
1. All rapid traverses can be set more accurately because of linear
transducers on slides.
2. Best possible combination of stroking speed, rotary feed and radial
infeed reduces the cycle time to minimum.
Cycle time for a typical gear has come down to less than a minute on a
modern CNC machine from about 4 minutes on conventional gear
shapers.
MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CNC GEAR
SHAPING MACHINE:
 Make - Gleason Pfauter, Germany
 Model - PSA-300
 Module - 0.5 to 6 mm
 Pressure angle – 10o to 40o
 Maximum outer diameter – 300mm
 Minimum root diameter – 5mm
 Maximum gear width - 100mm
 Profile error- 8micron
 Displacement tolerance-0.01mm
 Run out-0.04mm(with respect to surface)
 Oil cooled
 2 single point cutting tools (upside and downside)
 Reciprocating motion along the axes
 2 methods of operation : Infeed (maximum material removal) & Rotary
(To obtain the final profile on the job)

## CNC GEAR HOBBING MACHINE

Automatic work cycle electro-hydraulic machines rely on electrically controlled
and hydraulically or mechanically performed functions with proximity
switches, cams, etc. With programmable logic controller, only cycle
programming is done through console and electro-mechanical programming
device. CNC control brought the real revolution of built-in flexibility.
The machine has 6 axes and separate driving systems for motion across
separate axes. The axes are:

## X axis - Variable radial feed, easy setting of depth of cut, precise

positioning, close loop control of centre distance of hob and
gear and thus over pin size.
Y axis - Hob shifting rate and limits, memory function of the last
position of hob before opening other set- up, with position shifts
possible to use multiple hobs to cut several kinds of gears
Z axis - Variable axial feed.
A axis - Hob head swivel positioning.
B axis - Hob spindle variable speed and positioning for automatic hob
change
C axis - Table rotation speed variable and gear synchronized for
accurate generation.

## CNC accredits to the enhancement of the efficiency of the conventional gear

hobbing machine to a great extent. CNC machine has improved feed
mechanisms, better machining abilities and various other productivity
 Crowning or taper
 Skip hobbing
 Relief hobbing
 Single indexing
 Oblique hobbing
 Double helical gear hobbing in single setup
 Multiple gears (or splines) with varying pitch, helix angle and number of
teeth
 Hobbing of non circular gears

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CNC GEAR

HOBBING MACHINE I
 Model – S250
 Make – Samputensi, Germany
 Cost – 1.61 Cr
 Control system - Siemens
 Module – 6 [a,b,c,d,z,w](dp42)
 Swivel angle – -45o to 45o
 Work piece diameter – 250 mm (maximum)
 Radial feed – 0.1 to 5 mm/min
 Axial feed – 0.1 to 5 mm/min
 Axial motion – differential change in gears due to increase or decrease in
the no. of slits
 Hobbing of spur &helical gears in one or multiple cut technology using
HSS or carbide hobs
 Hobbing of cylindrical, crowned or tapered gears
 Hobbing of worm gears
 Single indexing method
 Auto adjustment of swivel angle
 Pitch circle diameter- 5.518 to 5.463mm
 Root diameter – 113.5 to 112.8mm
 Run out of tooth profile with respect to axis of centre- 0.05mm
 Deviation in the direction of tooth with respect to central axis- 0.02mm
 Permissible error of profile with respect to centre to axis- 0.04mm
 Undercut of the fillet-0.28 to 0.32mm

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC GEAR

HOBBING MACHINE II
 Model – P254
 Make – PAL, Pune
 Cost – 0.44 Cr
 Module – 6
 No. of teeth – 3 (min)
 Work piece dia – 300 mm (max)
 Max hobbing length – 242 mm
 Centre distance between 2 work pieces – 10 mm – 12 mm
 Cutting various types of gears – spur, helical, worm etc
 High cutting speed
 Automatic feed through CNC program
 Auto compensation for taper adjustment through CNC program

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC INTERNAL

GRINDING MACHINE
 Make – ROBBI, Italy
 Raw material – Forged material with allowance
 Sequence of steps : Turning, Allowance removal, Grinding
 2 types of grinding can be done – rough grinding, surface grinding
 Grinding of the inner surface
 The dimensions of the outer surface with respect to the inner surface are
maintained.
 Better accuracy and surface finish.
 Abrasive materials used for grinding – 2 types Carbon and SiC
 Job fitted on quill and quill is fixed on mandrel
 Tool fitted on fixture
 Servo coolant cooled (10 parts of water with 1 part oil)

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC OUTER

GRINDING MACHINE
 Make – Jones & Shipman
 OD & group grinding
 Servo coolant (1 part oil in 10 parts of water) cooled

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC TURNING

MACHINE
 Make – Gildemaster
 Model – CTX 510/400
 Accuracy-6 micron
 Spindle power/capacity-28 Kw/534nm
 Max. turning diameter-560 mm
 Max. turning length- 1560 mm
 Max. spindle RPM-3200
 Turret-12 station S BTP (12 OPERATIONS)
 Axis-2(X,Z)M
 Extra C axis- for extra attachment (grinding, milling, drilling, cutting,
grooving, undercut attachments)
 Machine power capacity (V)-45 KvA
 Servo coolant cooled

##  Make-PROTECK CNC PVT. LIMITED

 Country-India
 Model-PL 500U
 Quanatity-1
 Accuracy-5 micron
 Spindle power/capacity-11 Kw/220 nm
 Max. turning diameter-500 nm
 Max. turning length-700 mm
 Max. spindle RPM-4000
 Turret-8 station S BPT TURRET
 CNC controllers-SIEMENS 840D
 Cost-69 lakh
 Year of commission-2006
 Operation-semi automatic lathe
 Axis-2(X,Z)

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC LATHE

 Make – HMT, India
 Model – SBCNC-35
 Year -2001
 MC no – 16 N 0006H
 Swing max load – 610 mm
 Distance between centers – 1000 mm
 Turret posts – 12
 Position accuracy – 0.01 mm
 Motor power – 24 kW

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CO-ORDINATE

MEASURING MACHINE
 Model – Prismo Navigator
 Make – Carl Zeiss
 Software – Calypso
 Cost – Rs. 2.5 Cr
 Year of purchase – 2005
 measuring Range [ X axis – 700 mm, Y axis – 900 mm, Z axis – 500 mm]
 Noise level < 70 Dba
 Travel speed range – 0.3 mm/s
 Open bridge design with stationary table
 Height of table – 750 mm
 Thermo-isolating table base
 Used for measuring intricate and precision aircraft components

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF THE SPIRAL

BEVEL GEAR GRINDING MACHINE
 Model – Phoenix 450G
 Make – Gleason, USA
 Control system – Fanuc 160i-MB
 Year of commissioning – 2005
 Cost – 6.5 Cr
 Full depth (Max.) – 25.4 mm
 Face width (Max.) – 60.0 mm
 Range of tooth number – 5 to 200
 Maximum wheel diameter – 304.80 mm
 Maximum Gear pitch diameter – 450.00 mm
 Profile grinding of spiral bevel gear, hypoid gears and zerol bevel gears
 Auto dressing using diamond type gear dresser
 Facility for machining corrections through CMM

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF SINGLE PLANK

CONTACT ROLLING TESTER
 Model – PSKE 900
 Make – Kringlenberg, Germany
 Software – PEW
 Cost – 2 Cr
 Year of installation – 2007
 Centre distance for cylindrical gear – 0-900 mm
 Maximum bevel gear diameter – 425 mm
 Mounting distance for bevel pinion – 90 – 400 mm
 Mounting distance for bevel gear – 55-300 mm
 Drive speed – 30 rpm [max]
 Suitable for checking parallel axis gear with all shaft angle and other
gear elements such as coupling, belt drive and also for coupling
assembled gear box
 Checking the composite errors
 Checking for gear tooth contact pattern for maintaining gear
 Checking for vibration level for a pair of maintaining gear in rotation
 Evaluation and quality determination according to DIN standard

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS FOR CNC GEAR

GRINDING MACHINE
 Make – Kapp Niles, Germany
 Model – ZE 400
 Max tip diameter – 400 mm
 Module Range – 20 mm
 Max face tip – 400 mm
 Max helix angle - -45 to 120 degrees
 Control software – Siemens Sinumerik 840D
 Can handle heavy job pieces

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC TURNMILL

CENTRE
 Make – Jyoti Automation, India
 Model – TMC 200
 Swing over bed – 800 mm
 Std turning dia – 550 mm
 Max turning dia – 555 mm
 X axis – 360 mm, Z axis – 1000 mm
 Spindle motor power – 25.5/18.5 kW
 Spindle Bore – 80 mm
 No. of tool station – 12
 Quill diameter – 130 mm
 Quill travel – 150 mm

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC GEAR TESTER

 Model – 350 GMS
 Make – Gleason, USA
 Year of Commissioning – 2012
 Cost – 2.4 Cr
 Max work piece dia – 350 mm
 Max center height – 1000 mm
 Probe used – Renishaw Probe
 Feasible to use check all types of gears of accuracy level upto DIN 2
standard
 Feasible to check parameters of spiral bevel gears like topography, pitch,
error and profile run out
 Feasible to check profile error, pitch error of spin, helical, straight bevel
gears, screw and work gears
 Feasible to check parameters of hob and shaping cutters
 Checking of internal spline parameters

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF NC LATHE

 Make – Maxmuller, WG
 Cost – 55 lakhs
 Installation – May, 1983
 Control System – Hinumerik 2000
 Swing over bed – 730 mm
 Over carriage – 540 mm
 Distance between bed centers – 1230 mm
 Tool magazine – 13
 POS accuracy – 0.013 mm
 Motor power – 32 kW

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CNC JIG

BORING MACHINE
 Make – SIP, Switzerland
 Model – SIP 5000
 Accuracy – 0.006 mm
 Cost – 6.1 Cr
 Axis traverse [ X axis – 1000 mm, Y axis – 1000 mm, Z axis – 1000 mm, B
– 0 to 90 deg, C axis – indexable, 360 deg]
 Tool magazine -60
 CNC controller – Fanuc 16iMB
 Year – 2005
 PLC [Programmable Logical Control]
 Hydraulic and pneumatic control
 Controlling unit – inter cooler compressor
 AC servo motor

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF THE MIKRON

MILLING MACHINE
 Make – Mikron, Switzerland
 Model – WF41C
 Accuracy – 0.01 mm
 Axis traverse [X axis – 630 mm, Y axis – 500 mm, Z axis – 460 mm]
 Tool change – Manual
 CNC controller – Sinumerik 300
 Year – 1968

## MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS OF THE VMC 850

 Machine Name – Vertical Machining Center
 Type – CNC
 Make – Jyoti CNC Automation, India
 Model – VMC 850
 Controller – Siemens 840D SLC
 No of axes – 4
 Cost – 1.06 Cr
 Year – 2014
 Traverse – X axis – 800 mm, Y axis – 520 mm, Z axis – 500 mm
 Rotary – A – 360 degrees
 No of tools – 20
CASE HARDENING

## Case hardening is the change of surface composition under the combined

action of Chemical and heat thermal treatments. Example - carburization,
nitriding, cyaniding, carbo-nitiding etc.

CARBURIZATION
Carburization of steel involves a heat treatment o the metallic surface using a
source of carbon. Early carburization used a direct application of a charcoal
packed into the metal (initially referred to as case hardening), but modern
techniques apply carbon bearing gases or plasma (such as carbon dioxide or
methane). The process depends primarily upon ambient gas composition and
furnace temperature, which must be carefully controlled, as the heat may also
impact the microstructure of the rest of the material. The application where
great control of over gas composition is desired carburization may take place in
a very low pressure in a vacuum chamber.
The carbon content of case hardening steel is low, usually about 0.15 to 0.20
%. Case hardening steel also contains Ni, Cr, Mo, Mn, etc. It is suitable for
carburizing and quenching.
For such hardening the process followed is as follows
CARBURIZINGQUENCHINGCLEANING
TEMPERINGSHOT BLASTINSPECTION.
Case hardened steel is usually formed by diffusion of carbon (carburizing) into
the outer layer of the steel at high temperature. And putting carbon into the
surface of steel makes it high-carbon steel like S45C, which can be hardened by
heat treatment.
Surface hardness is about 55~60 HRC.
Depth of surface hardening is about 1.0 mm.
Carburizing and quenching produces a hard, wear resistant surface over a
strong tough core. Some special purpose steel gears are case hardened by
either carbo-nitriding or nitriding. Other special purpose gears, such as those
used in chemical or food processing equipment, are made of stainless steel or
nickel based alloy or carburized because of their corrosion resistance, their
ability to satisfy sanitary standards or both.
HARDENING
Hardening consists of heating the steel to proper austenitising temperature,
soaking of this temperature to get fine–grained and homogenous austenite,
and then cooling the steel at a rate faster than its critical cooling rate. Such
cooling is called quenching. Normally, carbon steels are quenched in water,
alloy steels in oil (as critical cooling rate of alloy steels is much less), etc.

OBJECTIVE OF HARDENING
Hardening is done to all tools, heavy – duty carbon steel machine parts and
almost all machine parts made of alloy steels.
1. Main aim of hardening tools is to induce high hardness. The cutting
property of the tool is directly proportional to the hardness of the steel.
2. Many machine parts and all tools are also hardened to achieve high
wear resistance. Higher is the hardness, higher is the wear and abrasion
resistance. For example, spindles, gears, shafts, cams, etc.
3. Develop high yield strength with good toughness and ductility, so that
higher working stresses are allowed.

TEMPERING

DEFINITION
Heating the steel to a tempering up to lower critical, soaking followed by slow
cooling. Temperature of tempering is decided by final required hardness and
type of steel.

As quenched steels have very limited applications due to the following
reasons:
1. Martensite, generally a hard phase but very brittle
2. Possesses high internal stresses, relieve of internal stresses during use
may develop distortion and cracking
3. Martensite and retained austenite both unstable, decompose in to
stable phases, dimensional instability
Tempering is done to address these limitations of as quenched steels.

OBJECTIVE
1. To relieve internal stresses
2. To restore ductility and toughness, however there is loss of strength
3. To stabilize dimension
4. To improve magnetic properties, as austenite is non-magnetic.

## PROBLEMS IN GEAR MANUFACTURING

PROCESS
Every process has its own merits and demerits. But this doesn’t last long. The
only thing is its efficiency doesn’t reach up to the mark. Thus it is important to
know the main drawbacks on the process and eradicate out.
They are as follows-
 Profile error
 Profile run out
 Poor surface finishing and leaning marks on teeth
 Incomplete teeth cutting
 Maximum time consumption
 Variation in teeth number
ANALYSIS OF CAUSES
 Improper retting of job will produce run out of the job leading to profile
error and pitch circle diameter.
 Improper indexing by choosing wrong ret of indexing gears will cause
variation in number of teeth.
 If stroke length of the job is more than the tooth width then the time
consumption to cut the gear flank will be more if it is less than
incomplete tooth cutting will occur.
 If the indexing gears are not properly meshed with each other due to
variation in center distance than lash error will be produced which
results in variation in tooth thickness.
 If proper cutting fluid in sufficient amount is not given during hobbing
and grinding then rough surfaces will be generated and also due to high
temperature the cutting point may be blunt give tearing mark.

 They give the positive drives and sufficient speed ratio without any
slippage.
 The drive is very compact due to short centre distance used in such
drives.
 They have very high efficiency, reliable service and simple operation.
 They are capable of driving loads subjected to shock at speeds up to 20
m/s.
 If properly lubricated and operated, gear drives have the largest service
life as compared to other mechanical drives.
 Gear drives can be used where precise timing is desired.
 Gear drives can be used for much heavier loads than other drives due to
their designed sizes.
 Gear drives can be used for a wide range of transmitting power.

DISAVANTAGES
 Manufacturing of gear is complex.
 Special tools and equipments are needed to manufacture them.
 In cases of errors or inaccuracy in manufacturing in manufacturing it
would create vibrations at high speed.
 It is suitable for large center distance.
 If profile of the job is not perfect, then the involutes profile can’t be
obtained even grinding it leads to profile error. Any error in pitch of the
job causes pitch error in a gear.
 Pressure angles are generally given to the job cutting edges. So if is not
perfect, then pressure angle in the gear will change which will make it
unsuitable for the required application
 If the contact pattern doesn’t correspond to the tooth profile then it
shows that the job is defective.
 If grinding allowance is more than the carbon deposit of the hardened
portion of the gear gets removed and results of in breakdown of gear.

## CHECKING AND INSPECTION OF GEARS

Inspection is a very crucial and mandatory procedure carried out during gear
manufacturing.
There are various ways of inspections done.

##  MAGNETIC INSPECTIONS- Here the job is magnetically charged and

powdered metal is poured over it. The powdered metal flows over the
surface of the product and penetrates over the crack. Thereby the cracks
are identified. Suck type of methods are useful in identifying cracks at a
laminar or surface profile.

##  DYE CHECKING- It is a very important method for understanding the

points of gear engagement and pressure which is applied to the teethes.
Here we have a gear for testing which is covered in a dye. The product to
be tested in engaged to gear in a condition similar to that of the working
condition. The engagement of teethes shows the points or area of
contact and the pressure distribution. If any fault is found during contact
or the color is not transmitted then the error is found.
 VISUAL- It is one of the basic ways of inspecting the product. Simply by
visual checking of the gear the major discrepancies of the gear can be
sought out and relieved. It is done after every process to ensure the
process is going in a right direction.