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Name: Benedict A.

Bade Date Performed: November 21, 2017


Group Number: 4
Experiment No. 5
Hydrolysis Of Carbohydrates
I. Introduction
Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction of polysaccharide with H2O to split the polysaccharide into
two or more simple carbohydrates as elements of water will be added to polysaccharide. Not only
for polysaccharide, hydrolysis reaction can be employed for disaccharide (consists of two
monosaccharide units) too via heating with strong acids. One instance for disaccharide is sucrose
(also known as table sugar) which is produced from juice of sugar cane. The two monosaccharide
units present in sucrose molecule are glucose and fructose. Starch is abundant carbohydrate in
plants around the globe and comprising glucose monosaccharide units.
The general purposes of this experiment were to hydrolyze carbohydrate into its simple forms
and to test the products of hydrolysis.

II. Objectives
 To hydrolyze the carbohydrate into its monosaccharide unit.
 To test the products of hydrolysis.

III. Reagents and Materials


Reagents:
 Benedict’s reagent
 Seliwanoff’s reagent
 Iodine in KI
 3M HCl
 3M NaOH
 Distilled H2O
 Starch
 Sucrose
IV. Results

A. Starch
Tube Treatment Test
Benedict’s Iodine
A HCl, Heat Solution’s color Alteration of
varied from blue to colorless solution
orange into yellow
solution with
white precipitate
B H2O, Heat Color of the solution Resulting two-
remained blue layer mixture: top
layer – dark
violet and bottom
layer – white
C H2O, room From light blue Formation of
temperature solution into dark dark-blue layers
blue solution at the bottom of
the mixture.

B. Sucrose
Tube Treatment Test
Benedict’s Seliwanoff’s
A HCl, Heat Color of the solution Solution’s color
altered from blue to changed from
orange brown colorless into
maroon. Also, red
precipitate was
formed.
B H2O, Heat From blue solution Red solution was
into mahogany red formed with red
precipitate.
C H2O, room The blue solution Formation of red
temperature changed into solution
aquamarine solution
with brown
precipitate
V. Question

1. In which tube (A,B,C) have you observed hydrolysis of starch and sucrose? Prove your
answer.

 Starch – only the starch sample in tube A was hydrolyzed due to the blue-black color does
not appear in the product after iodine test, which indicates that simple sugars were formed
from polysaccharides, and also the formation of orange product in Benedict’s test, that
confirmed the presence of reducing sugars and means that the starch was broken down into
monosaccharides.

 Sucrose – the sucrose samples in three tubes were hydrolyzed. It was confirmed by the two
tests; in benedict’s test, tube A had orange brown result, tube B had mahogany red product
and tube C solution’s color turned into aquamarine with brown precipitate and the results
are indication of existence of monosaccharides and in seliwanoff’s test, all products in the
three tubes has red color which confirms the presence of fructose.

2. Write the equation involved in the hydrolysis of sucrose.

 The hydrolysis of sucrose (C12H22O11) produces glucose and fructose, which the two sugars
have the same formula (C6H12O6) but different form (which glucose is aldose while
fructose is ketose).

Step 1

C12H22O11 C6H12O6 + C6H10O5


(Fructose)

Step 2

C6H10O5 H2O + C6H12O6


(Glucose)
3. Give the stepwise hydrolysis of starch and its reaction to benedict’s and iodine test.

VI. Conclusion
The purposes of this experiment were to let students hydrolyze the polysaccharide and
disaccharide samples into simple sugars and to determine the products of hydrolysis.
Two samples were hydrolyzed, which were starch and sucrose, in the class experiment.
The experiment data showed that for hydrolysis of starch, the starch sample must be treated
with HCl and heating. It proven by the benedict’s test and iodine test. In benedict’s test, an
orange product was formed, a positive result for the presence of reducing agents which are
monosaccharides, and in iodine test, no blue-black color presence in the product that indicates
the polysaccharide was broken down into monosaccharides. The experiment data also showed
that sucrose can be hydrolyzed with HCl and heating, with H2O and heating and with H2O at
room temperature. In Benedict’s test, the tube A with treatment of HCl and heating had orange
brown product, tube B with treatment of H2O and heating had mahogany red product and the
tube C had aquamarine product with brown precipitate. All results in the sucrose-Benedict’s
test are positive results and means that monosaccharides were formed from sucrose. In
selinwanoff’s test, all tubes had red solution products that confirms the presence of fructose.
Therefore, starch and sucrose can produce glucose and are very significant in the industry.