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BONDING

PRESENT FUTURE
PAST PRESENT FUTURE
COMPOSITE RESIN

BONDING AGENT

TOOTH
COMPOSITE RESIN

BONDING AGENT
ETCHING
TOOTH
Adhesion

The state in which two surfaces are held together by 
interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces 
or interlocking forces or both

Adhesion is the latin word which means – ‘’To stick to’’

Adhesive is a material, frequently a viscous liquid, that 
joins two surfaces together and solidifies, and 
therefore is able to transfer a load from one surface 
to the other. 
Dentin Bonding or adhesion 

Micromechanical coupling or union of 
restorative materials to dentin, particularly 
composites, via an intermediary adhesive 
resin layer.

Allow more conservative cavity preparation 
since reliance on traditional retentive features 
is reduced.
Dentin bonding agents

Difunctional or multifunctional organic 
molecules that contain reactive group which 
interacts with dentin and the monomer of the 
restorative resin.
mechanisms of adhesion.

1. Mechanical : Interlocking of the adhesive with 
irregularities on the surface of the substrate or 
adherend.

2. Adsorption adhesion : Chemical bonding between the 
adhesive and the adherend.Forces may be primary 
(ionc and covalent ) ,secondary (hydrogen, diple 
interaction) and vanderwaal’s valence forces.  
3. Diffusion adhesion : Interlocking between mobile 
molecules such as adhesion of two polymers.

4. Electrostatic adhesion :An electrical double layer at 
the interface of a metal with a polymer that is part of 
the total bonding mechanism.
CLINICAL USES OF DENTIN BONDING SYSTEMS:
1. Bonding of directly placed resin based restorative
materials.

2. Bonding of indirectly placed restorative materials.

3. Bonding of ceramic restorations.

4. Bonding of amalgam restorations.

5. Bonding of prefabricated and cast posts.

6. Bonding orthodontic brackets.

7. Bonding periodontal splints


8. Repair existing restorations.

9. Sealing of pits and fissures of posterior teeth.

10.Treatment of cervical sensitive dentine.

11. Reattachment of fractured tooth fragments.

12. Pulp capping.

13. Reinforce fragile roots internally.

14. Seal apical restorations placed during endodontic surgery.
IDEAL REQUIREMENTS OF DENTIN BONDING
AGENTS

1961 Phillips and Ryge:

High bond strength to dentin .

Biocompatibility to dental tissue including the pulp.

Minimize microleakage at the margins of the restorations.

Prevent recurrent caries and marginal staining.


Easy to use and minimally technique sensitive.

Good shelf life.

Be compatible with a wide range of resins.

Non toxic and non sensitizing to the operators or 
patients.

Bonding agents should seal the tooth surfaces from 
oral fluids.
HISTORY OF DENTINAL
BONDING
Oscar Hagger( 1951): GPADMA.

Buonocore: (1955): Acid etching technique

Bowen ( 1957) : Development of BISGMA.

Schmidt and Purrmann( 1958) P Cadurit.


Causton( 1965) :how primers work.

Gwinnet and Silverstone( 1975) described three


patterns of etching of enamel.
Nakabayashi et al( 1982) Hybrid layer
Fusayama ( 1987) Concept of total etching and
bonding.
John Kanca ( 1990s) Wet bonding technique
Ferrari et al( 1997- 2003) Development of one bottle
bonding systems.

Sixth and Seventh generation bonding systems.


Steps in Forming Good Adhesion

(1) Clean adherend

(2) Good wetting

(3) Intimate adaptation

(4) Bonding

(5) Good curing


Requirements of good bonding

1.Good Wetting; degree of spreading of a liquid drop on a solid surface 

Low contact angle : Good High contact angle : Poor wetting


wetting
2. Surface energy
Adhesive: Low surface energy
Adherend: High surface energy
Hydroxyapatite and glass ionomer cement :High
surface energy
Collagen and composite :low energy surfaces
3. Surfaces joined should be clean
4.Good penetration
Liquid with low viscosity, low surface tension, low
contact angle
Acid etching

1955‐ Michael Buonocore
Effects of acid etching
Increases surface area and energy
Irregularities, depressions‐25 µm
Exposes proteinaceous material
ETCHING PATTERNS

Type I: Dissolution of prism cores without 
dissolution of prism peripheries.
Type II: Dissolution of peripheral enamel 
without dissolution of prism cores.
Type III: Mixed pattern.
SUBSTANCES USED
PHOSPHORIC ACID
Citric acid ‐10%
Polyacrylic acid‐40%
Maleic acid
Nitric acid‐2.5%

With ferric oxalate

With aluminium oxalate

Pyruvic acid + glycine

Hydrochloric acid

Lactic acid

Monohydroxy carboxylic acid

α‐ketocarboxylic acid
Phosphoric acid as an etchant
Buonocore :acid etching with 85% phosphoric acid for 30 sec
50 % phosphoric acid for 60 seconds
Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate precipitate (prevents further
dissolution)
Concentrations below 25%
Dicalcium phosphate monohydrate precipitate ( can not be
removed)
Concentrations above 40%
Dissolve less calcium and etch patterns with poorer definitions

37% for 15 sec is considered appropriate.


DENTIN BONDING

SMEAR LAYER

TOTAL ETCH

SELF ETCH
SMEAR LAYER

Produced by
instrumentation 
Composition
cut dentin debris
Bacteria
hydroxyappatite and 
altered denatured collagen.
Reduces dentin 
permeability 86%
Smear Layer

• Thickness
– 0.5 ‐ 5.0 microns 
• Will not wash off
• Weak bond to tooth
– 2 – 3 MPa
• Very soluble 
– weak acids

Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,


Fund Oper Dent 2001
TOTAL ETCH
SELF ETCH
Dynamics of Dentin Bonding

The key element for adhesion is the intimate bond that 
develops b/w the adhesive & the substrate.

↓ ↓ surface energy    _    ↓ ↓ wetting

etching of dentin

↓surface free energy
(exposure of collagen fibres)

less wettability of adhesives
And the difficulty we face is,

Dentin  ‐ Hydrophilic
Resin  ‐ Hydrophobic

PRIMER
Primer

Increases the surface energy of the 
substrate

Better wettability of  adhesive resin
In addition to primer the other important component 
is the  SOLVENT  that helps to carry the primer to the 
dentin

this solvent can be

‐acetone 
‐alcohol (ethanol)
‐water
Primer 

• Hydrophilic monomers
– dissolved in acetone, alcohol, or water
• Displaces water        
• Promotes infiltration into collagen
• Lightly air dry
– drive off solvents, water
• Transforms hydrophilic to hydrophobic
Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,
Fund Oper Dent 2001
Primer 

• Bifunctional monomer
– Link
• hydrophilic collagen
• hydrophobic resin
– Example CH3
• HEMA H2C=C-C-O-CH2-CH2-OH

O
Adhesive Resin

• Unfilled or lightly‐filled monomers
– Bis‐GMA, UDMA, TEGDMA
• Stabilize the hybrid layer
– fills up remaining pores
• Resin tags 
• Links primer to composite resin

Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,


Fund Oper Dent 2001
Dentin Bonding

• Development
– seven generations
– chronologic
• Classification 
First Generation
(1950‐1970’s)

• Hydrophobic monomers 
• Very low bond strengths
– 2 to 3 MPa
• First commercial dentinal adhesive
• Cervident ‐ SS White (1965)
– claimed chemical bond to calcium
– retention only 50% at 6 months
• Class 5

Harris, J Prosthet Dent 1974


Second Generation 
(late 70’s to mid 80’s)
´Phosphorous‐ester monomers 
« enhanced surface wetting
« claimed chemical bond to calcium
« smear layer predominately intact 
² fear of etching dentin
´Low bond strengths
«5 to 6 MPa
´Retention 70% at 1 year
«Class 5
Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,
Fund Oper Dent 2001
Third Generation
(mid‐80’s)

• Mechanism of action
– mildly acidic hydrophilic monomer
– modified/altered smear layer
• Moderate bond strengths
• Improved short / long term success

Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,


Fund Oper Dent 2001
Fourth Generation
(early 1990’s)

• Multi‐step 
– condition dentin
• remove smear layer
– primer
– adhesive
• High bond strengths
– Retention 98 to 100 % at 3 yrs
• Class 5
Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,
Fund Oper Dent 2001
Fifth Generation
(late 1990’s)

• Attempt to simplify
– reduce number of bottles
• combined primer and adhesive 
• High bond strengths

Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,


Fund Oper Dent 2001
Sixth Generation
(late 1990’s)

• Combined conditioner and primer
– moderate bond strengths 
Seventh Generation
(most recent)

• “All‐in‐one” adhesives
– combined conditioner, 
primer and adhesive
– one‐step 
• No mixing
• Low bond strengths

Van Meerbeek, Oper Dent 2003


Click here for abstract
Currently Available Generations
• Fourth Generation
– Three‐step Etch & rinse
• Fifth Generation
– Two‐step Etch & rinse
• Sixth Generation
– Two‐step Self‐etch

• Seventh Generation
– One‐step Self‐etch
• no mix 
Adhesive Categories

• Etch & Rinse
– Three‐Step
• conditioner, primer, adhesive
– Two‐Step
• conditioner, (primer & adhesive)
• Self‐Etch
– Two‐Step
• (conditioner & primer), adhesive
– One‐Step
• (conditioner & primer & adhesive)
Pros/Cons of Etch & Rinse

• Separate acid etch
• Potential to over‐etch dentin
• Post‐conditioning rinse necessary
• Multiple long‐term clinical studies available
Pros/Cons of Self‐Etch

• Good dentin conditioning
• Possible reduction in post‐op sensitivity??
• No post‐conditioning rinse
• Reduced application time
Pros/Cons of Self‐Etch

• Limited clinical indications
• Limited clinical data 
• Relatively lower bond strengths
• Many require refrigeration
Dentin Wetness
Etch & Rinse

• After conditioning dentin
– dentin must be wet
• prevent collagen collapse
• Too little water
– collagen collapse
• Ineffective resin penetration
• Leads to nanoleakage
Wet Bonding

• Acetone and ethanol based primers
– displace remaining water
– carry monomers into collagen
– gently air‐dried
• leaving monomers behind
• Examples
– One‐Step
– Prime & Bond NT
Dry Bonding

´Water‐based primers
«effective on wet or dry dentin
²self‐rewetting effect 
²re‐expand collapsed collagen
´Permits check of “frosted”
enamel
´Examples
«Scotchbond Multi‐Purpose
«Optibond

Van Meerbeek in: Summitt,


Fund Oper Dent 2001