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117 Talbot Lab.

University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois


Circular Series No. 64


A Historical Study

Eivind Hognestad


Circular Series No. 64


A Historical Study


R esearch Assistant Professor of

Th eoretical and Aj1plied M ec hanics

Price: ll'i/111 aem.

Published by th e Uni versity of Illinois, Urbana
Val- 41. 11~ SO; llarch. 1952.. Pubu.laed - timel moll ~ bF the Ulliftr-
• of lllfDa6e. - u ->nd...._ matter n-ber 11 1111, at the 11119& olllae _at
L~!. IlliDolll, UDller U. Aat of Aqufi M, 191J. 08lce of ~. 18 ~
1. Purpose of the Study 5
2. Acknowledgment 5
3. Notation 5
4. Horizontal Shear 8
5. Punching Shear 10
6. Diagonal Tension 11
7. Combined Shear, Bending and Axial Load 34
8. Punching of Slabs 34
9. Footings 35
10. Walls 35
11. Construction Joint;; 35
12. Theories of Failure 36


1. Free-Body Diagrams 13
2. German Specifications 18
3. American Specification s 25

l . Purpose of th e Study
A study of present American specifications for reinforced concrete
may give the impression, through a number of detailed design stipu-
lations, that the behavior and strength of reinforced concrete subject
to shearing forces are known in detail. The present German specifica-
tions, even though considerab ly less detailed, give a similar impression.
However, these two specifications are different in some important re-
spects, a fact which contradicts the impression that detailed knowledge
is avai lable.
The problems related to the resistance to shearing stresses of concrete
and reinforced concrete members have received considerable attention
in the li terature. A large number of field and laboratory investigations
containing well over 1000 beam tests have been reported, on the basis
of which qualitative as well as quantitative knowledge has been gained.
It is the primary purpose of the present review to study the historical
development of the basic concepts involved in specifications pertaining
to reinforced concrete subject to shear , in this country and elsewhere.
Such basic concepts have generally been related to an idealized behavior
referred to as the "truss analogy,'' although so me attempts have been
made to explain the actual mechani sm of failure in reinforced concrete
subject to shear. Such basic studies of the behavior of reinforced con -
crete are believed to be important indeed in improving present specifica-
tions and broadening our knowledge of this construction material.
2. Acknowledgment
The historical study presented in this circular was made in connec-
tion with an experimental investigation pertaining to shear in reinforced
concrete beams carried out in the Engineering Experiment Station in
cooperation with the United States Bureau of Public Roads and in coop-
eration also with the Reinforced Concrete Research Council of the En -
gineering Foundation.
3 . Notation
While the letter symbols used in the li terature discussed herein vary
considerably, the following notation is used throughout this circular:


A, = area of tension reinforcement

rl ,. = a rea of web reinfo rceme nt
a = a ngle between web bars and axis of beam
b = width of beam
{3 = angle between opposite faces of a beam wi th variable depth II. EARLY STUDIES OF RESISTANCE TO SHEAR
C = in te rnal co mpress ive fo rce in concrete
d = di stance from centroid of tension reinforcement to compression Like ma ny other enginee ring st rnctures, reinforced co ncrete struc-
face of bea m tures were built in con:-iderable numb ers befo re rat ional design pro-
f' c = compressive streng th of 6- by 12-in. concrete cy lind ers cedu res were developed. Thi s ea rly use of reinforced concrete was
!'cu = compressiv e streng t h of concrete cubes characte rized by a la rge number of patented "systems," the design
f't = tensile strength of concrete methods of whi ch were ge nerall y not brought to publi c atten tion. It
f v = allowable tensil e stress in web reinforcement is reasonable to be li eve, h owever, that the co ncepts of dowel action
fuv = yield point stress of web reinforcement formed the basis for ea rl y designs of web rein forcement.
I = moment of inertia It may be noted in t he hi sto ry of conc rete a nd reinfo rced concrete
jd = internal moment a rm that basic concepts were at times und erstood co rrectly, even though
K = (sin a + cos a) sin a in completely, by ea rly pioneers. Such correct co ncepts were occasionally
L = spa n length not generally und erstood by other engin ee rs of th e t ime and hence not
!YI = bending mom ent accepted. Th e develop ment of thought a nd prac ti ce t herefo re followed
n = modular ratio oth er t rends for a numb er of years until a red iscove ry was made, t hus
o = perimeter of reinforcing bar returning attenti on to the ea rly findings.
P = load The design of cen t ri call y lo aded rei nforced co ncrete columns is an
p = ratio A./ bd exa mpl e of such a development. Th e design eq uat ions used a bou t 1900
Q = first moment abo ut neutral axis considered allowable column loads as t he sum of a ll owable st resses in
R = reaction at support of bea m concrete a nd steel multiplied by t he respective a reas . As t he "standard
r =ratio A ,,j(bs sin a) straight-line th eo ry" was introduced, howeve r, the "transfo rmed sec-
S = force in one stirrup t ion" was used for many years un t il most spec ifi catio ns ret urn ed to
s = spaci ng of web bars along axis of beam t h e original conce pt, t he addition Jaw, fo ll owin g t he ACI Column
T = force in longitudin al tension reinforcement Investigation in t he 1930's.
t = total depth of beam Th e development of design procedures for web reinforcement fol-
V = shearing force lowed the same peculiar t rend . Th e first published study of web rein-
V' = excess sh earing force over t h at assumed carried by t h e concrete forcement known to th e wri ter appeared in 1899 C2 l *. In this paper
v W . Ri tter presented the "truss analogy" in a basically so und manner.
v = nominal shearing stress in concrete, generally = bjd H e suggested t hat vertical stirru ps be designed by means of t he equation
Vmax = ceiling value of n omin al shearing stress in beams wi th web
V = Av f ,. jd (1)
vp = shearing strength of concrete in punching s
v, = sh earing stress
in which Vis the sh earing force, A v is the a rea of one stirrup, f " is allow-
v., = nominal shearing stress at ultimate load
able tensile stress in stirrups, jd is the internal moment a rm , and s is
V11 p = nominal shearing stress at yielding of web reinforcement
the sp acing of stirrups along t h e beam axi s.
*Parenthesized superscripts refer to correspondingly numbered entries in the Bibliography.


Ritter made it completely clear that in hi s oprn1on the stirrups widely accepted in this country. Such outstanding early American in-
were stressed in tension, and f v above was presented as an allowable vestigators as A. N. Talbot and ~1. 0. Withey hardly even considered
ten;;;ile st ress. horizontal shear in their test reports. A few Am erican authors, how-
The well-known engineers of that time, however, soo n formed a ever, defended these European concepts. In 1903 E. Thacher <> claimed
different school of thought. At the turn of the century, schol a rs and that sti rrups and bent- up bars in reinforced concrete beams are "utterly
engineers were indeed familiar with the action of web-rivets in steel useless." C. F. Marsh , whose book (l 5 > largely is a translation of Chris-
girders and shear-keys in wood en beams. The shearing stresses in the top he(3), presented Christophe's recommendation s as quoted above.
cases mentioned were computed by means of the well-known equation In 1903, iVI. R. v. Thull ie <8l and L. A. Sanders <9> made theoretical
for the shearing stress in a homogeneous beam: st udies of the distribution of horizontal shear in reinforced concrete
beams. These studies, which were a lgebraically rather involved, were
(2) based on various flexural stress distribution s, and Sanders developed
v. = lb
the following formula for the maximum s hearing stress to be used for
This equation and the corresponding concept of horizon tal shear were ap- design purposes
1.5 l1
plied to reinforced concrete beams. An authority of that day, P . Chris- v = ---- (3)
tophe <~>, computed the horizontal shear by means of Eq . 2 and recom-
mended: " Thi s stress (horizon ta! s hear) divided by the sectional area in which tis the total depth of the beam. These authors also gave some
of the metal (in stirrups) gives the unit resistance of the reinforcement consideration to the resistance of stirrups and bent-up bars to hori-
which mu st be below its limit of resistance to shearing." At this same zontal shear. Simi lar studies were made by P. \ ¥eiske< 12 >, who arrived
time the views appeared that the concrete alone can safely resist low
at the following equation:
horizontal shea ring stresses a nd that concrete and steel act together 1.5 l1
v = (4)
for high er shearing st resses.
The first laboratory tests specifically dealing with sh ear in concrete
beams were repor ted by E. ~forsc h in 1902W. Th ese tests, which were The first official German s pecifications for reinforced concrete struc-
made with pl a in concrete speci mens , appear to have been inspired by tures appeared in 1904 <13 l . These s pecifications adopted the "standard
the school of thought concerned with horizont a l shear. Only one year straight-line" method of analysis. Nominal shearing st resses were com-
lat e r, however, ~Ii:irsch reported tests of four reinforced beams designed pu tee! as suggested by E. l\Ii:irsch <10 >, after the formula universally
to st udy the ac tion of vertical a nd inclined stirrups as well as inclined used today
bent-up bars <10 >. Thi s paper indicated diagonal tension as the cause l1
of s hea r failures in reinforced concrete beams, and presented the trnss v = bjd
analogy for the action of web reinforcement.
For nearly a decade horizontal s hear versus diagonal tension was These specifications avoided the question of horizontal shear versus
s ubject to considerable discussion. The literature indicates that the diagonal tension and stipulated a maximum v after Eq. 5 of 64 psi. If
spok es men for diagonal tension permitted the d efenders of horizontal web reinforcement was provided, this stress could be exceeded by 20
shear to change their opinions without directly admitting d efeat. About percent. H owever, no method for the design of such web reinforcement
1910 t he peculiar trend of development was complete: a return to was indicated.
Professor Ritter's pioneering conceptions had been made, though hori- S. Zipkes <18 > brought the studies of horizontal shear to a peak of
zontal shear reappeared periodically in the literature. development. For beams and slabs without web reinforcement he recom-
mended Eq. 5. For beams with web reinforcement, however, he de-
4. Horizontal Shear veloped t h e following equation :
The sc hool of thought asserting that horizontal shear is the cause of l1
shearing failures in reinforced concrete beams appears to have been v=------ (6)
founded and d eveloped in Europe. Its views seem n ever to have been bjd + n- - Av


strained 5-in. cylind e rs at the ~Iassachusctts In stitute of Technology < l


In this equation n is the ratio b e twee n the shear moduli , which Zipkes
assumed equal to 15. gave r-; hearing st rengt hs from 63 to 88 perce nt of the cube strength.
Equation 6 seems to have appealed s trongly to designers who Another series of punching tests on unres train ed beams was reported
blindly used tb c " tran sformed section ," and the equation was used in by ~f. Huclcloff a nd ~!. Gary in 1912<m . Shearing strengths from 16 to
many early German textbooks. Thi s erroneous concept of horizontal 68 percent of t h e cub e s trength we re found.
shear appeared as lat e as 1908 <34 l_ Then it gradually di sappeared, The writer b eli ev es that the most reliable valu es of the resistance
mainly because of the effo r ts of E. ~forsch. to punching sh ea r a rc indicated by the American tests on restrained
Theo;e concepto; reappeared in the literature about 1920 in the form specimc ni-;. Hence it may be concluded that the s hearing strength of
of di sc ussions by E. Godfrey, who presented the opinion <57 • 61 · 67 • 73 , 75, 1031 concrete subj ect to punching :;;hear is abo ut two-thirds of the com-
that vertical Rtirrups arc useless as web reinforcement. As late as 1949. pressive st rength.
in a Rt udy of " Plastic Th eo ri es in Reinforced Concrete Design " by ll sho uld be noted , however, that th e s trength of unrestrained
F. Gcba u e r<165 l, it was stated that "the purpose of st irrnps is simil ar ;. pecimcns m ay be as low as 15 percent of ih c compressive strength,
99 121 26
depending on the amount of bending involved in the (ests < • m, • 1 • 121 i.
to th e purpose of sh ear-k eys in composite \\·ood en beams, to resist a
rec iprocal movement of the compression and t he tension zon e. Hen ce, 6. Diagonal Tension
the st irrnps act in shear, a nd it is therefore nece,;sa ry to consid er the The li tcrat m e gives no clear indication of the origin of diagonal
shearing strength of s teel in sti rrnp design. " tcn:<ion as a criterion of s hear failur es in reinforced concret e members .
5. Punching Shear This is reaso na ble since th e early designe rs of r einforced concrete
A number of tests of mortars and concretes s ubj ect to "pure" shear s truct ures did not pub li s h their design meth ods.
True, in 1899 <2l \\' . Ritt er pointed out the concepts of diagonal
we re made as part of the v e ry early foltuclies of these m a terial s. Since
concrete a ppears to be weak e r in tension than in shear, the res ult s of tension, but hi ;; findings were soon forgotten in favor of horizontal shear.
In 1903 the American J. S. Sewell suggested th at te,;t s indicat ed a
such sh ear tests vari ed considerably according to the test method used ,
formatio n of cracks along the lin es of principal tensile s tress in rein-
as it is difficult indeed to produc e pme punching sh ear without d e-
veloping critical tcn,;i If' stresses. forced co ncrete hea ms <5l. He reques ted a rational met hod for d esign of
R. Feret's tests of 1897 0l were m ad e by o;h ea ring off a cantil evered ~ lirrn ps to resist these principal st re,;ses, which lat er become kno\\·n as
beam . High bearing press ures and so me tensile bending stresses 'yere diagonal tension.
probably present. Nevertheless , shearing strengths from 46 to 97 per- Three month s lal c r, J. \\". Schaub prese nted such a d es ign formula
ce nt of th e compressive strength were found. fo r uniformly loaded s impl e beams <7 l :
E. ~lorsch < rn and S. Zipke,; <18 l used unrestrained s impl e beam speci- 4A s 2.r + 1
mens. Th e tensi le s tresses clue to bending were prob a bly considerable, Av perft = - - (1
and r a ther low sh earing strengths we re found. The res ult s were in gen-
eral agree ment with a theory advanced by ~Iorsch to th e effec t that the in which A . per ft = st irrnp a rea
sh earing strength of concrete is the geometric m ean of its compressive A . = a rea of longitudinal reinforce men t
and tensile strength , Vv = Vf' cu f' i. This equation for the shearing L = s pa n, in fee t
s trength was defended by ~forsc h as late as 1928 <99 >. x = di stance from s upport , in feet
A ve ry comprehensive series of punching tests on plan e and recessed
plates as well as rest rained beams was reported by A. N. Talbot in Schaub's formula was based on the assumption that the force in the
1906<2 1l. Reinforced recessed plates were found to be th e mos t sati s- longitudinal tensi le r einforcem ent varies parabolically from midspan to
th e s upports. Thi s change in force was further assu m ed to be t rans-
factory s pecimens for punching tests. With such specimens a shearing
strength from 67 to 90 percent of the cube s trength was found , while ferred to the compress ion zone of the beam t hrough compressiv e web
the res trained beams gave 44 to 59 percent. Punching tests on re- s tresses inclined 45 deg to t he horizontal , the vertical t ensile component

of which mu st be canied by the st irrnps. Schaub's eq uation was recom- generally takes place at abo ut 60 percent of tho ultimate load. No ten-
mended in so me early American textbooks <16 • 39 >. A number of rein- si le stresses can ex ist ac ross tho crack, and h ence the free body mu st
forcing systems using Sewell's and Schaub's id eas also appeared in be in equilibri um und er the action of the forces V, C, and T. The ten-
these early years, of which the Kahn bar is an example <11 >. sile force. T , may be so mewhat inclined to the horizontal in accordance
:.\Iea nwhile E. Morsch prepared to defeat the concept of horizontal with the observed tearing failures. Since this inclination is small , how-
shear in Europe. His 1903 paper <10 > pointed out that if a pure shear ever, duo to the relatively small tensile strength of the concrete, the
state of st ress exists, in which equal horizontal and vertical shearing compressive force, C, must be considerably inclined. The final failure
st resses are present, then a tensile stress of equal magnitude must
exist on a 45-deg plane. Tests of reinforced concrete beams were
presented which showed a pat tern of diagonal cracks indicating diagonal
tension failures. Furthermore, Eq. 5 was developed on the basis of
the assumptions of the stand a rd straight-line theory.
t _______ f
_-- _-

- I

1 Oiaqoncrl
' '
TI I 11 11
' ' ' ' j

_ .I. __ l'.,. __'(__.J:: __

~ #tv:' '-1- -- --~ --1

5 Jd

v=I~~- -t----~:~~~~~~::~_1 1
Anoth er paper by :.\forsch a ppeared in 1906 <22>, as a discussion of I
'~ t "'

........., >--<>--¥-"Is
Zi pkes' Eq. 6. A clear picture of diagonal tension and several arguments
against horizontal shear wore presented. First, it was a rgu ed that values y Ix
1-------------T ----1.
~ .LS=V=R-ZP t
of the ultimate nominal sh earing st ress , v, determin ed from tests of
beams without web reinforcement by means of Eq. 5 wore close to (aJ (bJ
tho tensile st rength of tho concrete used , f' t, whereas tho shearing Fig . 1. Free-Body Diagrams
st rongth as determined from punching tests was over 3f't· Hence the
shear failure had to be duo io diagonal tension, not horizontal shear. of the beam may be caused by a failure of tho compression zone duo
Secondly, it was shown that sti rrnps acting in shear cannot transfer to the force C. Another mode of failure may be due to tho fact that
st ress to the concrete by bearing pressures. Th erefore, :.\f 6rsch argued , the horizontal component of T depends on the momen t at section :r- x,
s hea r can only be transferred to the concrete by bond. Finally, he not at y-y as was the case before formation of tho diagonal tension
showed t hat the sh earing st ress in tho steel, T , mu st he less than 1.5 crack. This redistribution of stress leads io increased bond stresses
times th e bond st rengt h, 11. Since t he observed effectiveness of such near the suppo rt , which may cause failure.
st irrups as web reinforce ment far surpasses that corresponding to Co nsidering a beam with sti rrups (Fig. lb ), equi librium is possible
T = 1.5 u, tho stirrups cannot act in horizontal shea r in a mann er with horizontal action of C and T due to tho tensile forces in the stirrups.
simil a r to keys in wood en beams.
Equilibrium of tho free body then gives
Tests by F. v. Empergor <23 l and E. Probst< 24 > wero in general agree-
ment with :.\forsch's findings. A paper by l\Iorsch published in 1907 jd AJ,.jd
V = L.S = S - = ---
presented further developments pertaining to diagonal tension <21 >. Very s s
simil a r concepts were presented in the English translation of hi s text-
book on reinforced concreto <40 >: which is Ritter's Eq. 1. Due to the presence of tho sti rrups, the tensile
(a) A st udy of stress trajectories indicated that diagonal tension is force T may also be smaller than the value corresponding to the moment
the cause of shear failures in reinforced concrete memb ers. at x-x, which means that the presence of the stirrnps reduces the danger
(b) Equation 5 was developed for computation of the nominal shear- of a premature bond failure. In later years a number of authors< 59 • 83 •
103, 141 • 152 • 15 3) have presented similar discussions.
ing stress as a measure of diagonal tension.
(c) It was shown, as indicated above, that stirrups cannot act in (e) The truss analogy for the design of bent-up bars was presented.
horizontal shear. (f) The spacing of web reinforcement according to the shear dia-
(cl) The action of a beam fai ling in diagonal tension was explained gram was indicated.
by means of free-body diagrams. In Fig. la the left part of a beam is (g) Formulas for computing nominal shearing strel'ses, v, in beams
considered after the formation of a diagonal tension crack, which with variable depth were developed:

streRse:;, t', a:; high as 600 psi were developed without the occurrence
M 29
of diagonal tc n;;ion failures . Later testR by Talhot < l indicated that
V +
- -d tan (3
the re:;istance of the concrete to diagonal tension increased from 68 to
v= - - - - - (8) 139 psi on the average as the mix ratio was improved from 1:5:10 to
1:2:4. These test;; also indicated that v decreased cons id erably with
If JV! increase,.; in numerical Yaluc as d increases, the minu,; sign ,;hou ld increasing span length of the beams.
be used ; othenvi;-;c the plus ,; ign. ;.I. 0. \Yith ey <30 · 33 1 introduced Ritter's Eq. 1 into the American
(h ) It was recommended that slir rnps should not he used alone lo lit eratu re . He found that this equation gave too high sti rrup stresses,
carry hca vy shear, hut al way,; t ogct her with bent-up longi tuclin al bars. and indicated that th e concrete of the comprcs,.,i on zone may carry con-
These recommendation;.; \rrre clear and complete inclrccl , considering siderable shear even after the wch below the neutral axis is cracked
the time at which they were ]Hcc;cntcd. :\[i:irsch's first tec;h on di agonal in diagon al tension . He also indicated a pos,.;ihlc dowel action of the
tension were concerned only with the etToncou,; concept of hori zontal longil udinal reinforcement.
shea r, hut it was neYer ncccc;;-;ary for him to changr hi s opinions again In 1909, Talbot presented a study of web strcs,.;e,.;, including tests
as more experimental eYidcncr appeared. of 188 heams <36 l . The conclu sions of this report arc indeed important:
The German sprcificalion:-: of 1907 <28 >, followed ::-Iorsch',; poin t,.; of A. Beams \Yithout web reinforcement.
vie,,- and eslah\i,;}1cd diagonal tcn;;i o n as a criterion of ;.;hear failures in 1. The nomin al shearing ;;trength v increase:; wi t h cement con-
rein forcrd concrete member,;. Gc rm~tn specifications con l in ucd to folio\\· tent.
the op ini ons of this great cngincrr until hi" death in 1950 , though - 2. It increases with the age of the concret e.
as will appear from Chaplrr Ill not without considerable discussi on. 3. It increa:-;cs with the amount of longitud inal reinforcement.
A la rge number of tes t,; 011 beams failing in diagonal tension were -±. It increases with decreasing :-;pan of beam for the same cross-
also mad e in the United Stale;; in these early year,;. One of the first section.
laboratory studies \Ya,; reported at the University of \\' isconsin in 5. The strength v is of the order of 6 perce nt of the compressive
1906 <17) . The author. E. A. ::-I o ritz , presented a bas ically ,;ound di,.; cu"- ,.;trcngth of 6-in. cubes.
s ion of " inclined tension failure,.;." The first study of diagonal tension B. Bea ms wi t h bent-up bars.
by A . N. Tai hot wa" abo prc,;cntrd in 1906 <20 1 . The oulc;t anding value It was found to be mos t advantageous lo carry so me b a rs s tra ight
of thi s report and o th r r:-; ,,·h ich followed was largely du r to the fact through the bea m ancl distribute th e bent-up b a rs over the
that the tests were planned "with a view to getting data bearing on region of high sh ear.
the establishment of principle,.;." Thus , as early a,; 1906, Talbot de- C . Beams with stirrups.
sc ri heel the variou,; mode,; of fail u rc of reinforced con crcle beam:-: 1. Stirrup ;;tres,;e;; computed by Eq. 1 appear to be too high.
" l. T ens ion of s teel; 2. Compression of concrete; 3. Shea ring of con- 2. It is recommended that sti rrnps ])(' dimensioned for two-
crete; 4. Bond or "lip of bars; 5. Diagonal ten sion of conc rete ; 6. ::-Iis- third s of the external shear, the rcmaininii; one- third being
ccllancous methods, like t hr s plit ting of bars away from the concrete, carried by the concrete in the comprc;.;,;ion zone.
the effect of bearings , etc." Because he had such an int erest in th e All Talbot's writings p ert a ining to diagonal tension includ ed a
basic beh avior of bea m,; , it is natural that Talbot saw from the begin- \Yarning <351 :
ning t he importance of diagonal t ension. H e d eveloped Eq. 5 and Diagona l tension weakness is part icularly undesirable because of t he po~si-
bility of sudden fa ilure and of injury after repeated applications of load. and
point ed out that the diagon a l tension stress equals the horizontal because of t he difficulty of detecting incipient fa ilure when the sides of t he
sh ea ring s tress if no ten,.;ion is taken by the concrete as ass umed in beam arc not available for inspection. Am ple safct~· aga inst these condi tions is
th e standard theory. important and means should be proYided to resist t he di agonal tension.
Further tes ts were reported by Talbot in 1907 <26 l . Nine T-beams These concepts of th e action of sheari ng stresses in reinforced con-
with s tirrups as web reinforcement were tested , a ll of which failed by crete m e mbers were recommended by the First Joint Committee C l .
yielding of the longitudin a l stee l. N ev e rtheless the test s indicated that Equations 1 and 5 were used , and for bars bent up at 45 deg the fol-
s tirrupR a re a very cffectivr web reinforcement: nomin a l s hea ring lowing formula was presented:

A vf v = 0.7 V s
J'd (9)

Th ese all owa bl e stresses were give n: f ,. = 16,000 psi ; horizontal bars
only, v ~ 40 psi ; so me ben t-u p bars, v ~ 60 psi ; wi t h stirrups and / or
b en t-up ba rs designed on t he ass ump tion t hat t he con crete takes one- 111. DEVELOPM ENT OF GERMAN SPECIFICATIONS
t hird of t he vertical ::; hear, Vin''"= 120 psi.
Thus by 1910, in t hi s co un t ry as well as in E urope, diagonal
tension was est a blished as th e cause of t he shear failures in normal German t hough L pert aining to di agonal te nsion a nd web reinforce-
reinforced concrete bea ms. \Y. Ri tte r's pi onee rin g v iews h ad been ment has been different in several resp ects fro m t he co rres ponding de-
generall y accep ted . velopments in t hi s co un t ry. Th e most imp ort a n t reason is probabl y
the difference in relat ive co:;ts of steel, con crete, a nd la bor. Th ese costs
will obvio usly have a decisive bearing on whi ch ty pes of stru ct ures can
be built with econo mi c success. Th e d etail s of such st ru ctures, h ow-
ever - amo ng th e m t he design of web rein fo rce ment - will also be
inAuenced. Ge rm a n develop men t fur t hermore h as p robably been con-
siderably affected by the fact th a t one of t he world 's greatest concrete
engineers, E. l\forsc h, devoted a li fe time to rein fo rced co ncrete in t h at
country. l\forsch was a brilli an t builder, t eac her, a nd scien tist wh ose
dynamic perso nali ty often carri ed hi s views to v icto ry even wh en he
stood almost alon e.
The early Ger man work on diagonal tension, most promin en t of
which '"ere t he stud ies of ::.lbrsch, h as been out lin ed in Cha pter II .
During the late r develop ments, atten t ion was foc u;;ec\ on t he investi-
gations cond ucted by t he Germ a n Co mm ittee on R ein fo rced Concrete,
the D eutscher Aussclwss fiir E isen beton. ::.r ost of t hese investigations
were planned by subco m mittees un de r ::.Hirsch 's chairm ans hi p a nd were
carried out by 0. Graf and C. Bach at th e St uttga rt In st it ute of T ech-
no logy.
At t he t ime t hese experim ents we re started t he Prussian Co de of
1907 was in effect< 28>. Th e Code specifications were con cern ed wi th a
structural concrete of a minimum cub e st rength, !'cu, a pproxim ately
1500 psi. In acco rdance wi t h E q . 5 a n omin al shearin g st ress of 64 psi
was allotted to t he conc rete. Any excess stress u p to t h e ceiling valu e
of 77 psi was p rovid ed fo r b y web reinforcement. This provision , whi ch
is simil a r to past a nd presen t Ameri can pract ice, is schematically in-
dicated in Fig. 2.
Th e first and second series of tests of the D eu tscher Ausschuss
E isenb eton (D .A.f.E.) concerning T -bea ms loaded at t he t hird points
of a 10-ft spa n were publish ed in 1911. Th e first seri es< 44 > of 69 b eams
was plann ed m ainl y to study t he act ion and effectiveness of stirrups.
Th e second seri es< 45 >, whi ch con tain ed 87 beams, was devo ted mainly



"i;j X en •rt heless, te;.;ts and st udi es were co ntinu ed. A se ri es of tests on

~ I-bea m:< and T-beams \\·it h thin web;; wa,.; presented by .:\I. Brunkhor,.;t

in 1917 rn~ 1 • The fourt h se ri es of tests conducted by the D.A.f.E., which
had a profound effect on later discussions, wa;.; reported in 1921 C71 1•
Thi ,.; ,.; cries consisted of five T-beams load ed al 16 points over an 18-ft
190? Web l?einf"orcement Concrete Alon .. sp an . All beams had a conc rete ;.;trength of about 4000 psi, and the
1916 sa nw a mount of longit udin al reinforceme nt at midspan. One beam was
madt' \\·ithout web reinforcement , and another wa,; cJe;.;igned after t he

1907 code with two 1-in. bar,.; bent up n ear eac h end. Both these beams
fail ed in diagonal tension at relatively low load s. A third bea m was

des igned after the 1916 code with fiv e 1-in. bent-up bars di st ribut ed
in ea ch half of the beam. Th e fourth and fifth beams were very si milar
ex cept that the fiv e bent-up bars were of ~ .i-in. a nd % -in. diameter
1925, 1932 resprctively. Of these t hree latte r beams, only the one with % -in. bcnt-
In 1943 v,.,, 0 ,,.. and v varied with t;,~ up hare; fai led in diagonal tension , which indi cated that the web rein-
forcement of 1-in. bars designed in accord ance with the 1916 code was
Fig . 2 . Germon Specifications
about twice as effect ive as necessa ry to produce a failure in bending.
The expe rim ent al ap proach of this invest igat ion is as significant as
Lo a study of bent-up bars. A third ;;erie;.; (481 of 51 T-IJC'ams lo aded a t t he results . .:\f ost ea rli er tests to d ete rmin e the effectiveness of web
8 points over a 13-ft length and containing stirrups as well as bent-up reinforcement had been made with beams heavi ly reinfo rc ed with longi-
bars followed in 1912.
tudinal stee l in ord er to sec ure diagonal te nsion failures. Du e to s uch
These three series of tests gave much evidence to the effect that heavy reinfo rcement, ma ny of t he earl y beams were not represen tative
sti rrups and ben1-up bars act essentially in accordance with the truss of practical design. Th is fourth se ries of t he D. A.f. E., on l he other
analogy. Another important conclusion was that a saving in steel weight hand , used beams with practical amounts of longitudin a l reinforcement,
as well as a high shearing strengt h was obtained by bending up and the amo unt of web reinforcemen t bei ng varied in order lo determine
anchoring most long i tu di nal bars in the compression zone. the percentage of web reinfo rce ment above whi ch diagonal tension
Another important series of 40 beams was reported by the Austrian fai lmes will not take plrtce at a ll.
R. Saliger in 1913 (49 ! , and some tests by A. l\:leinlogel (54l followed in Tests of 15 haun ch ed ;; impl c beams were repo rted by K .:\l orsc h in
1914. These tests verified the findings of the D.A.f.E. 1922C72 l . Th ese expe rim ents verified Eq. 8 for the red uced nomin a l s hear-
As a result of these experimental studies, the German specifications ing stress due to ha unch es which had been devel oped by ~Iorsc h in 1908.
of 1916 were considerably revised as far as web reinforcement is con- After a noth er study published in 1924 by 0. Hausen c7si , a rev ision
cerned ( S) . For struct m al concrete with f' cu = 2100 psi, the ceiling value of the German specifications appeared in 1925 <~ 1 · 10·11. Thi s r evi;.; ion
of t he nominal shearing stress was raised from 77 to 200 psi. The shear call ed for even heav ier web reinforcement than the 1916 code. If the
allotted to the concrete, however, was decreased from 64 to 57 psi, and nominal sh earing stress computed fro m Eq. 5 exceeded 57 psi, a ll shear
i t was stipulated that, wherever the nominal s hearing stress exceeded in t he corresponding h alf of t he span was to be carri ed by web rein-
57 psi, all shear was to be carried by web reinforcement alon e (Fig. 2). forcement a lon e, without any contribution by the concrete (Fig. 2).
Thi s specification gave no eq uation s for t he design of web reinforce- Though the 1916 specificat ions had been accepted sil ently, t hi s new
ment; the truss analogy see ms to have been taken for granted. restriction caused a sto rm of protest. So many outstanding engin eers
Though much st rict er t han the 1907 one, t he 1916 s pecification criticized the provi sion that it is rema rk able t hat it received a ma jori ty
seems to h ave been received with satisfaction by t he prnfession. At any vote by the Co mmittee, even t hough it wa;.; sponsored by an a u t hority
rate, no serious objections to the stric te r rul e for t he dimensioning of of Marsch 's standing.
web reinforcement appea r in the literat ure . Th e protests were started by L. D avid a nd H . Per1 cs 4 ) a nd were
continued by A. Troch ecs 5> as well as by A. Zcnn s, E. Probst, NL .:\f ayer,
A. Diagonal tension failures should n ever occur in reinforced con-
and E. Rau sch <B 7J. Th ese men a rgu ed that th e n ew specification was
too conservative and hence un economical. Th e results of the fourth crete
Minimum steel weight and economy are sy nonymou s t erms.
t es t se ries of the D.A.f.E.<7 1l (out lin ed on page 19) were quoted as proof The following conclusions were a mong those which he presented:
of such conse rvati ti m . 1. Stirrups or bent-up bars should never be used alone. A proper
E. ::.\forsc h a nswered this criticism in 1927 <88 !, indicating that he web reinforcement consists of a combination of th ese two elements.
was the major sponsor of the 1925 specifications. Hi s primary argu- 2. No reinforce ment should b e anchored in a region of tension.
ment was that web reinforce ment should be strong enough io prevent Hence the use of shor t b ent-up b ars anchored in the compression and
diagonal t ension fai lure from ever a ppearing. Beams should fail in
in the t en=-ion zone is no t safe practice.
b ending, since the latter type of fai lure is far more gradual and permits 3. No shear should be considered to be taken by the concrete except
a favorab le redi st ribution of stresses, the ben efits of which were con-
sidered wh en allowable fl ex ural stre,.,ses were stipul ated. Secondly, in some types of slabs.
4. The beneficial eff ect of h a unches in reducing sh earing stresses has
Morsch argued that th e concrete mus t crack before the web reinforce-
ment can transfer st resses of importance and that cracked concrete been estabfo;hed.
5. In continuous beams, web reinforcement strong enough to carry
cannot contribute to the shea ring st rength of beams. Thirdl y, Morsch the total shear is essential to develop the full strength of such beams
showed that the use of a great number of bent-up bars as demanded
through redistribution of moments.
by the 1925 specification leads to a red uced total steel weigh t , which in During the discussion following this paper 0 . Graf , who had con-
the German eco nomic environment of th e time was considered synony- ducted most of t he D .A.f.E. investigations, expressed agreement with
mou s with economy. With respect lo the fourth test series of t he Morsch. E. Probst, however, continued hi s part as the leader of the
D.A.f.E ., ::.\forsch cal led atte ntion to the fact that these beams were
made with a 4000-psi concrete, wh ereas the 1925 sp ecifications con- opposition, a rguing:
1. The 1907 and 1925 specifications are unsafe and uneconomical,
sidered a st ructural concrete with a minimum st reng th of about 1500 psi. respectively. Th e 1916 specifications, on the other hand, a re satisfactory
Th ese arguments, though very well presented, did not satisfy the
opposition; nin e more criticisms appearec1 <87 · 89 l . Only K. Schacchterle indeed.
2. Even though the specified minimum strength of structural con-
and A. Ritt er defended ::.\forsc h 's views <s 9 J. crete is about 1500 psi, such low-strength concrete should not be used .
In 1927 the only man in Europe who cou ld challenge i\Iorsch 's pro- H ence t he concrete will be able to contribute considerabl e sh earing
fess ion al standing , F. v. Emperger, indicated that uniform specifications
in Central Europe were desirable indeed. Even though uniformity was strength .
3. V1Theth er failure takes place in bending or in diagonal tension is
d esira bl e, t he Au st ri a n specificat ions adopted the German 1916 speci-
fication in 1927, wi t h Emperger's consent <92 l . The Austrian Commi ttee irrelevant.
4. Objections were raised to the stipul a tion that all T-b eams shall
could not accept the German 1925 specification. have so me stirrup reinforcement throughout their length regardl ess of
A year late r E. Probst <96 l presented the results set forth in Bulletin
the magnitude of shearing stresses.
166 of the University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station <93 l as The fifth investigation sponso red by the D .A.f .E. was reported by
evidence against t he 1925 specification. ::.\lOrsch answered that these 0. Graf and E. Morsch in 1928 <102 i . Four large T-beams were tested,
American tests were made on rectangular rath er than T-beams. Th e which were haunched and cantilevered at one encl to simulate the ac-
specimens, he asserted, were over-reinforced eith er in tension or in tion of continuous beams. In Morsch's interpretation of the tests,
diagonal tension. Finally he felt that the low web stresses found as failure of these beams by moment rather than diagonal tension was
compared to the truss analogy were clue to the fact that strains were possible only if the web reinforcement consisting of stirrups and b ent-up
measured over so me length rather than at a diagonal tension crack,
bars was d esigned for the total sh ear.
indicating that the local st resses at such cracks could have been much E. Probst <101 l , however, taking the point of view that failure in
larger than those observed. diagonal tension is no worse than failure by moment , used the 9 fifth
Morsch presented hi s views again in a brilliant paper read to the series of D .A.f.E. tests and University of Illinois Bulletin 175<7l to
Second Intern ational Congress for Bridge and Structural Engineering
argue in favor of the 1916 specifications.
in 1928 <99 l . He outlined two basic philosophi es:

The sixth edition of :\Ibrsch's Der Eisenbetonbau appeared in the late experiments in 1935 Cl27), and the German specifications of 1943 cu 6 J con-
twenties. This monumental work devoted 256 pages to tbc problems tain a r eference to Rau sch's Eq. 10.
related to web reinforccment C104 >, defending the author's points of view The 1925 specifications called for a radius of bend for bent-up bars
brilliantly. About the sa me time the fourth edition of Handbuch fiir of 10- 15 bar diameters. In 1933 this variable was subj ected to a seri es
Eisenbetonbau appeared, containing some 50 pages of discussion per- of testso 21 J which indicated that a radius of 5 diameters was sufficient.
taining to shear and web reinforcementc 108 >. 0 . Graf C105 > discussed and This latter value was recommended in the 1932 and 1943 speci fications.
re-evaluated the American tests C86 • 93 • 97 >. Though he agreed with most Th e 1929 edition of l\Iorsch's book ooo contains so m e study of
conclusions reached by the authors , he could not accept the measured diagonal tension in memb ers subject to combined bending and a xi a l
strain s in web reinforcement as proof that the stresses in such reinforce- load. As far as the writer knows, this study presents the results of the
ment in normal reinforced concrete beams are much less than the values only laboratory test ever reported regarding this problem. Some further
computed from the truss analogy. His reaso11 was that st rains were t heoretical studies were presented by F. DiscbingerCl-14 1, but no specifi-
m eas ured over so me length, 11ot locally at a crack. Furthermore, mos t ca tions have so far appeared.
beams were abnormal as compared to practical design. The German 1943 specifications0·161 again m aintained the basic con-
The sixth investigation by the D .A.f.E., reported in 1931 <ll6>, con- cepts of the 1925 specifications as far as web reinforcement is concerned .
tained nine T-beams wbich were made with the minimum concrete \Yhile earlier sp ecifications referred to only one grade of st rnctural con-
strength permitted for structural concrete in Germany at the time, crete, however, the 1943 specifications permit four qualities of concrete
about 1800 pr:;i. These tests showed very clearly that web reinforcement ranging from about 1700 to 4300 psi cube st rength . The corresponding
designed for the total shear was necessa ry to develop the full flexu ral ceiling valu es of nominal shearing stresses in beams as well as the
strength of the beams by failure clue to moment, and that such web stresses below which no web reinforcement is required in b eams range
reinforcement gave the lowest ratio between steel weight and ultim ate fro m 11.6 to 6.7 and from 3.3 to 2.7 percent of t he cube strength , re-
load. Th e tests also proved that several design methods wbich used :-;pectively, the percentage dec reasing with increasing concrete strength .
a nchorage of longitudinal or bent-up barfi in a region of concrete tension It may be concluded t hat present German specifications pertaining
led to reduced strength s. to diagonal ten sion and web reinforce ment are based on three fund a-
0. Graf wrote three papers (lo 5 • 107 • 112 > using these tests to justify mental concepts:
the 1925 specifications. By this time the extensive di sc ussion as to A. Any properly design ed reinforced concrete m emb er should fail
whether or not concrete s hould be counted on as resisting di agonal by moment r ather than by diagonal tension.
tension in bea ms seems to h ave reached an encl. Only E. Probst C111 > B. Stirrups or bent-up bars should n ever be used alone to carry
and K. Hager C110 > continued t he argument on the basis that the mini- heavy shear. The t wo elements of web reinforcement should be used
mum allowable concrete strength should not be used in practice. in co mbination, the b ent-up bars taking the major part of h eavy shear.
The German specifications for reinforced concrete were revi sed in C. In the German construction industry, beca use of the relative
1932<11 8 >; the essential features of the 1925 specifications pertaining to costs of steel, concrete and labor, minimum total weight of the rein-
shear and web reinforcement were maintained. forc ing steel is generally associated with economical design solutions.
Some details of web reinforcement were studied and analyzed in On t he basis of these concepts, the writer feels that the present
the 1930's. E. Rau sch mad e a st udy of web reinforcement in short canti- specifications calling for web reinforcement designed for the total shear
lever beams and beams loaded very near a support <74 • 113 l. He concluded are a logical a nd so und consequence. H e further feels that present
that stirrups are not effective in such cases and that bent-up bars American specifications could not s uccessfully be applied to German
should be designed for the full shear after the following formula: econo mic conditions and design practices. Whether so me German con-
cepts cou ld be successfully applied to American conditions, however, is a
v (10) question deserving careful study. .
A vf v = V 2
I t may finally be noted that most present European codes follow the
German 1916 code, according to which web reinforcement, wh en neces-
In accordance with tbese findings the 1932 specification s reco mmend ed sary, is designed to carry the total shear. Examples of such codes are the
"special precautions" in such cases. Rausch's findings were verifi ed by British crn 3 J, D ani sh <152 J, Norwegian <135 J, Spanish c166 l, and Swedish C164 l .

Chapter II, h ad a n important bea ring on the first progress report of

the first J oint Co mmittee <3sJ . This report clearly indicated the princi-
ples of diagonal tension, an d presented Eqs. 1, 5, a nd 9. These ceiling
values were given for the nomin al shearing st ress, v: horizontal ba rs
IV. THE DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES only, 0.02f'c ~ 40 psi; so me bent-up bars, 60 psi; st irrups a nd / or
Am erica n specification s pertaining to reinforced concrete h ave been bent-up bars design ed on the ass umption that the concrete res ists t wo-
prepared by two major bodies- Co mmitt ees of th e Am erica n Concrete thircls of the shear, 120 psi (Fig. 3).
Institute, an d the Joint Co mmitt ees. The second progress report of thi,., first J oint Co mmittee <46 l retained
Th e firs t Co mmi ttee of t he ACI , then th e National Associat ion of the th ree equ ations referred to above. Th e ceiling value of 40 psi was
Ce ment Userfi, was the Committee on Laws and Ordinances, which

spo nsored the NACU Standard No. 4 in 1910. Later a Co mmi ttee on
Reinforced Concrete a nd Building La ws was formed, i'i ponso ring ACI
Standard No. 23 in 1920. Committee E -1 followed, ;.; pon soring the
tentative regu lations E-1A-28T in 1928. Co mmi ttee 501 spon sored a
tentative standard 501-36T in 1936. Since about 1940, Co mmi ttee 318
has been in existen ce. c
! .'A. ii SIO'l?dO'rd No. 4, 1g10 J.C Pro9'res s li'2porl; 1909
Th e Join t Co mmittees have consisted of delegates from the ACI,
AIA, AREA, ASCE, AST::\f, a nd P CA. Th e first, second , an d third
J oint Co mmittees were organ ized in 1903, 1919, an d 1930 and s ubmit ted "-"
fin al repo rts in 1916, 1924, and 1940, respectively. !:<l
~ ~ ,.........
The work of t hese two bodies a nd that of t he various investigators Ii
have of course been int en ela tecl. It is t herefore convenient to di sc uss t he .,..'
various researc hes and co mmittee reports in chronological order.
A.Cl Report 1916 O'nd 191?
Th e first NA CU repo rt , which a ppea red in 1908 <32 l, was essenti ally
based on wh at h as later become known as Ultimate Load Design. Th e
various sect ions were dimensioned on a n ultim ate basis for a lo ad four

,, ~
times t he total working load. No formulas were presented for the de-
sign of web reinforcement. It was specifi ed, however, that "the shearing ~ ' 'l:i
11. ~",<0
strength of concrete, corresponding to a compressive strength of 2000
psi, shall be assumed as 200 psi" a nd that " wh en t he shearing stresses
~. ______:___
~ ':> \,..." ~/?>:.,'.

developed in any p ar t of a reinforced concrete constructed building

exceed, und er the multipli ed loads, the shearing strength as fixed in A.CI Report, 1919 A.Cf SIO'l?dard No. 23, 1920
2nd J.C. 1924
this section , a sufficient a mount of steel shall be in troduced in such
a position that the d eficiency in the resistance of the shear is overcome."

This report was revised in 1909 <37> a nd adopted as N ACU Standard
41 ~
No. 4 in 191Q < J. That code introduced the concepts of working stresses '<> , ~

as a design criterion and recommend ed : "In calculating web reinforce-
ment, the concrete shall be consid ered to carry 40 psi, the remaind er to
be provided for by mean s of web reinforcement in tension" (Fig. 3).
:, Normal Anchoroqe

V/////U'l//A I =:.....,,,
Talbot's important study of 1909 <36 >, which has been outlined in
3rd JC. 194 0
24 Fi g . 3 . American Specificat ions

removed from t he valu e v = 0.02 f ' c resisted by t he co ncrete, and t he psi were developed , an d And erson reco mm end ed t he use of Vmax = 240
max imum nominal shearin g stress for beams wi t h web reinforce ment ps i wh ere desired in design. IV . A. Slater C55 l discussed th e first res ult s
was ch a nged from 120 psi to 0.06f' c· of the Emergency Fleet Co rporation tes ts giving nomin a l shearing
F oll owing a paper by C. A. Gil chri st <53l a rguing in favo r of bent-up stresses at failure a;.; high as 2470 psi and poin ted out that a llowable
bars, the Co mmittee on R ein fo rced Concrete and Building La ws of the st resses "seldom exceeding 300 psi for beams ''"ith t he most effec tive
ACI sub mi tted a report in 1916<57 l which introduced a nomin al sh earin g web reinforcement" a rc very low.
stress v = 0.02 f' c to b e resisted by lhc concrete, while th e excess shear up Anoth er ACI r eport a pp ea red in 1919 C66 l, which departed radically
to a ceiling v alu e of 0.075f'c should be r esisted by web reinforcement fro m earlier reports . Th e a ll owable nomin al sh earing st ress for beams
(Fi g. 3). In th e di sc ussion of this report E. Godfrey i ni ti at eel a n a rgu - without web reinforce ment was maintained at 0.02f', a nd the ceiling
men t again st the u:sc of vertical stirrnps which was continued for man y valu e for beams with web reinforcem ent wa s m a in tain ed at 0.075f' c
yea rs with out a ny apparent effect o n the clcvelopmen t of spcci fi cat ions. provided that the longi tudin al b a rs were a nch o red. Equation 9, how-
Th e fin al report of t he first J oint Co mmit tee also a pp eared in 1916<60 l. ever, wa s changed to
Equ at ions 1 and 5 were m a int a in ed , hu t Eq. 9 was modified thus: 2 Vs
3 V's
A vf v = jd (9b )
f cA v = - - (9a)
4 jd fo r 30 deg <a < 90 deg, in which V is the total shear (Fig. 3). This
:-;tip ul ation was perh a ps in spired by t he Germ a n 1916 CodeC 5s l (Fig. 2).
in which V' is the exec;;:; sh ea r ove r that carried by the concrete. This
A "Special Committee on Unit Values for Yertical Shear in Rein-
equa ti on was valid for 20 deg < a < 45 deg. The benefi cial effects of
force d Concrete D es ign" reported to the ACI in 1920 <67 • 69 l . Th eir recom-
goo d a nchorage of the longit udin al a nd web reinforcem ent as well as
mrndation s were incorporated in "ACI Standard Spec ification No.
of low sl re1-;ses in the longitud in al steel in regions of high shear were
23" C68 ' . This second ACI Code permitt ed the following no min a l shearing
men t ioned. Th e following valu es of maximum nominal shearin g stre:;s
stre;.;ses: Bea ms without web reinforce ment , 0.02f'c; but 0.03f'c for
were given: no web reinforcement , 0.02f' c; vertical st irrnps or bcnt.-up
:;prcial an chorage of t h e longi t udin al r einforce ment. In beams with web
bar1-;, 0.045f'c; combined Ycrtical st irrups a nd be nt-up bars, 0.05j', ;
reinfo rcement dc:;igncd aft er t he formul a
web rci nfo rce ment sec urely at tach cd to t he longi t udina l rci nforcemcn t,
0.06f',. ·w eb reinforce men t should generall y be design ed for two-thirds V's
A~fv = - - sin a (9c)
of th e sh ear. For combined sti rrups a nd bent-up bars , h o weve r, the jd
contribution of t he bent-up b ars sh ould first be subtracted from the
total sh ea r ; then one-third of the rema ining shea r should be carried by thr conc rete was ass um ed to carry 0.025f'c up to a ceiling va lu e of the
t he concrete a nd two-thirds by t he stinups (Fig. 3). Thi s stipulation nominal shearing st ress of 0.06f' c· \Vi th a nchorage of the longitudinal
means that in the case of combined web reinforcemen t no shear is con- reinforce ment, the latter values were 0.03f' c and 0.12f'c res pectively
sid ered to be carried by t h e concrete as far as d esign of t he bent-up (Fig. 3). F or bars bent up in a single pl a ne, the following equation
bars is concerned. was specified:
Th e 1916 ACI report was submi tted unch anged in 1917 <61 l. Action A ,. f v - V ' sec a (11 )
was deferred , since the report differed from the 1916 Join t Committee
This specification represe nts a n almost compl ete development of Ameri-
R epo rt.
Th e 1916 J. C. Code reco mmended a ma ximum allowable nominal can design of web reinforcement. No basic changes were made after
this ti me, even though the majority of th e avail able experimental
shearing stress in beams wi th web reinforcement of 0.06f'c- G. M .
evidence was published later.
Beaune a nd C. C. l\1yers< 53 l reported tests of ten T-b ea ms carried out
primarily to show that nomin al sh earing stresses as high as 1300 psi The first progress report of the second Join t Co mmittee< 70 l essen-
tially fo llowed the ACI Specification No. 23. Equations 1, 5, 9c, and
may be developed wi th good supervi sion and efficient web reinforcement
wi th a concrete strength of 3000 psi. W. P . And erso n <64 l referred to 11 were used. For beams without web reinforce ment , v = 0.02f'c ;:;; 40
psi, an d 0.03f',., were specified without an d with special a nchorage ,
R. Saligcr's tests<49l, in which nomin al sh earing stres:;es as high as 1270

_____...______________________ ~

respectively. For beams with web reinforcement the concrete was as- less than those calculated by use of the full s hear." It was found that
sumed to carry 0.02f'c ~ 40 psi and 0.025f'c ~ 50 psi with ceiling relatively high web stresses may be predicted by the following formula
values of 0.06f'c and 0.12f'c respectively. The final report of the seco nd
Joint Committee appeared in 1924 <77 l . For beams without special an- v=Ci+rfv (15)
chorage a ceiling value of Vm ax = 0.06f'c was used and the following
The constant C1 was believed to depend on the quality of the concrete
design equations were presented:
as well as on the amounts of longitudinal and web reinforcement. For
V = 0.02J'c + f vA v for 45° ~ a ~ 90° (12)
lhe stresses at or near the maximum load, Richart also found a satis-
bs sin a facto ry agreement with Eq. 14, which for inclinations other than 45
and 90 deg was modified to
f vAv
v = 0.02f'c + - - (sin a+ cos a) for a < 45° (13) v = (0.005 + r) f v sin a (sin a + cos a) (14a)
The tentative ACI Standard E-1A-27T was revised in 1928 after a
For beams with special anchorage a value 0.03f'r replaced 0.02f'c in
cooperative study with the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute. This
the equations above, and a ceiling value Vmax = 0.12f' c was recommended.
new tentative standard was adopted with the designation E-1A-28T <95 >.
A preliminary draft of building regulations was s ubmitted by ACI
The ceiling value of the nomina l shearing st ress, v"'" x = 0.12f'r, was re-
Committee E-1 in 1925 <80 l . Equation 13 was used for all values of a
duced to 0.09f'c· Th e use of st resses greater than 0.09f'c but less than
with the same ceiling values and the same provisions for special an-
0.12f' c, was permitted , however, if the designer personally supervised
chorage as in the final report of the second Joint Committee. Thi s draf t
construction. For the design of web reinforcement, Eq. 13 was aban-
was r es ubmitted in 1927 and adopted as a tentative ACI Standard
E-1A-27T <90 l . doned and Eqs. 9c and 11 were rein stated .
In 1929, T. D. l\Iylrea presented a paper entitled "Studies of Shear
In 1926 W. A. Slater, A. R. Lord, and R. R. Zipproclt reported
in Reinforced Concrete Bea ms"< 103 >. It was pointed out that, at work-
tests of 172 beams, most of which were I-beams tested in order to
ing loads, stresses in bent-up bars will be about two times the stresses
establish a basis for design of concrete ships during World War I <86 >.
in vertical stirrups. At loads near ultimate , however , yielding will
It is important to note that "all beams were heavily reinforced for
occu r in the bent-up bars a nd both types of web reinforcement will
longitudinal tension and most of them for longitudinal compression.
finally become effective. Free-body diagrams simil a r to those used by
The effort in the design of the test specimens was to force failure to
E. i\Iorsch were also present ed and used in developing Eqs. 1 and 13.
occur in the web." According to F. E. Richart <158 > this investigati on
It was considered possibl e that web reinforcement must carry the total
" has had a profound effect upon the design method s now current."
shear, clue to creep in shear in the compression zone. Thi s discussion
l\luch important and detailed information was presented , most signifi-
of free-body diagrams met with so me opposition from cliscussors, who
cant of which was probably the following empirical equation for the
held the view that first cracking in diagonal tension and failure are
nominal shearing stress in beams with web reinforcement inclin ed 45
or 90 deg: synonymous. Finally, the probl em of s hear in wedged beams was out-
lined. In 1934, Mylrea presented tests of 5 T-beams<123 J with the Scott
V = (0.005 + r) f v (14) System of reinforcement, in which s mall-size longitudinal bars were
Tests of 139 beams at the University of Illinois were reported by bent across the web and back into the flanges. Nominal shearing stresses
F. E. Richart in 1927<93l . Most of the specimens were simple rectangular of the order of 1200 psi were developed.
beams failing by moment or in bond rather than in diagonal tension. In 1931, F. E . Richart and V. P . Jensen prese nted a study of Hay-
Another Illinois report< 97 l concerning 59 restrained beams followed in clite aggregates<u 4 J. The tests included 18 rectangular beams without
1928. These two reports presented extensive strain measurements, and web reinforcement which failed in diagonal tension.
much information relative to the effectiveness of web reinforcement in J . T. Thompson, T. F. Hubbard, and J. N. Fehrer reported tests
reinforced concrete beams was obtained even though the ma jority of of 24 beams with web reinforcement consisting of various types of solid
beams did not fail in diagonal tension. An observation of major im- and perforated plates< 130 l . All beams seem to have failed in diagonal
portance was that "measured stresses in the web steel are quite generally tension, though the sheet steel appeared to cause splitting of the beams,

al ti mes at lower loads t lrnn the ultimate strength of similar beams Th e ACI Code was revi sed in 1951 beca use of t he increased allowable
without any web reinforcement. bond st resses for modern deformed hars <111 l . This specification a.lso
D. \f. \lcC'ain presented in 1939 a st udy of "\Yclded Shear Rein- calb for hooks on all plain bars. Hence , ACI 318-51 di scontinu ed th e
forcing for Concrete Ream s" <135 l . All 16 beams tested failed by moment. distinction b et wee n allowable nominal s hearing st res::;es depending on
It neverthele,.;s appeared that inclined welded stirrups were stressed the presence or absence of special anchorage. Only members with s uch
faster than loose vertical stirrups, permitting less diagonal cracking. anchorage were considered. The remaining parts of the specifications
ACI Committee 501 replaced Committee E-1 in 193.J.. A revised were maintained essentially as prese nted in ACI 501-36T.
s tandard, ACI Standard .501-36T, was adopted in 1936 0 29 ! . It specified In conclusion it appea rs that American te;;ts pertaining to diagonal
that web reinforcement s hould ca rry the excess shear over 0.02 and tension and web reinforcement have been cha racterized by specimen s
0.03f'c up to ceilings of 0.06 and 0.12f' c for beams without and with so mewhat abnormal in shape as compared to normal construction prac-
.~pecial anchorage, respectively. Hence the special prnvision of 1928 for tice, or that specimenR wit b abnormally large percentages of longitu-
the u;;e of ::;tresses over 0.09f'r was discontinued. The equations for de- dinal and web reinforcement have been used. \leas ured ,.;t resse,.; in the
s ign of \\'eb reinforcement were again changed. For vertical s tirrnps, \Yeb reinforcement and ultimate nominal s hearing stresses in such s peci-
Eq. 1 was used with a ceiling valu e of Vm a x = 0.08f' ,.. Equation 11 was men s have been emphasized. As a result Am erican specifications are
recommended for bars bent up in a single plane with the ceiling V ' = characterized by the as;;umption that part of the shear is carried by
0.0.J.f' , bd. For a series of bent-up bars or inclined welded stirrups, the concrete, th e web reinforcement being d es igned for the remaining
Eq. 13 was used. A combination of web reinforcemenL types was per- shear. Only a few presentations departing from this practice appear in
mitLed, but no one type of s uch combined reinforcement s hould carry the literaturr c103 • 145 l , t hr major being the 1940 J. C. report <138 >. Another
more than % V ' . In the subse quent revisions of the ACI CodeCL 37 · 139 ), ACI- noteworthy featu re in the development of American specifications i::i
318-41 <149! ACI-318-47 <156 l , no major changes pertaining to shear and t he cyclic changes of th e design equations for we b reinforcement <79 · 11 5 1•
web remforcement appeared. The only foreign specification based on Lhe sa me principl es as th e
The third Joint Committee presented a final report in 19400 38 >. The American Codes is, as far as the writ er knows, th e Canadian NRC No.
values 0.02J' ci 0.03f' r· and 0.06f'c, 0.12f' c were mainta ined. Equation 1069 of 1941 c142 >.
13 \\' as used for design of all web reinforcem ent , vertical or inclin ed .
A ne \\· feature of this specification was that where v > 0.06f' c, the
web reinforcement should be designed for the total shear (Fig. 3). An
equation for the design of web rrinforcement in wedged bea ms similar
to Eq. 8 was also prese nted .
So far three inveRtigations pertaining to weh reinforcement carried
out al the University of Illin ois C36 · 93 · 97 i have !wen di sc ussed in this
circular. A fourth experimental study , reported by 0. \loretto in
19-15 C151 l dealt with tests of 44 beams which were rather heavily rein-
forced longitudinally in order to obtain diagonal t ension failures. It
was found that the nominal shearing stress at which yielding takes
pl ace in the web reinforcement can be expressed by the following equa-
ti on:
Vyp = K rfy p +
0.04f'c + 5000 p (16)

The nominal shearing st ress at failure was expressed as

v,, = J( rfvv + O.lOf'c + 5000 p (17)

TheRe equation s may be regard ed as further developments of F . E.

Richart's Eq . 15.

failure in diagonal tension increased with concrete st rength but was

so mewh at less than the tensile strength of t he concrete.
In 1935 R. H . Evans reported tests of beams without web rein-
forcement <125l. Through indirect meas urements of shearing st re;;ses h e
V. SOME BRITISH STUDIES found a relief of diagonal tensile st resses n ear concentrated loads. The
action of stirrups a nd bent-up ba rs was desc rib ed in the usual man ner,
The complaint has been made that the early users of reinforced and a n increase of the ultimate nomin al s hearin g st ress wi th the per-
concrete in Britain paid littl e attention to "scienti fic tests." Even centage of longitudin al reinforcement was noted .
though British scientists have made tremendous contributions to the An ot her se ri es of tc;;ts was presented by R . H. Evans in 19410 41 >,
physical and enginee ring sciences in general, t heir stud ies of reinforced indicating changes in beam action du e to the formation of di agon al
concrete, and web reinforcement in particular, have until recently been tension cracks and slip in bon d. H e reco mm ended bent-up bars as the
of rather limit ed importance. most efficient type of web reinforce ment.
A report of tests of 12 beams with various types of web reinforcement Several fac t ors that influence t he ultimate st rengt h of beams failing
appea red in 1910 < >. In 1915 J . Gilchrist <55 > wrote a study of web rein- in di agon a l tension were st udied in 1949 by A. Sunderlancl <161 >, such as
forcement in T-heams. On the basis of German tests <41 · 45 > he argued the percentage, strength and in clin ation of web reinforcemen t, the
that the resistances to shear of vertical stirrups and bent-up bars are ratio of shea r span to depth of beam, the percen tage of tensile and
not additive. He also maintained t hat web strengt h depends on the compressive reinforcement, a nd the concrete st rength . Unfortunately
spacing of stirrups for the same area pet· unit length, and he presented the repo rt is v ery brief, so that it is difficult to receive the full benefit of
the following empirical formula
the tests. Th e British specificat ions were considered to be too conserv-
jd 2::.o 1:0 ative, a nd those of the Am erica n 1940 J oint Co mmittee report were
V'= 130 (2 - - ) (18) preferred.
s s Th e present British Code of Pract ice for R einforced Conc rete< 168 l
0. Faber pre;;ented in 1916 a new theory of web action <59l. The is esse nti ally based on the German 1916 Code. Th e concrete is permitted
major elements of this t heory were consid erations of ultim ate loads to carry nominal shearing stresses of the orde r of 0.03 f' rn· In t hose
rather than working loads, inclined compressive stresses due to arch parts of me mb ers wh ere this value is exceeded, however, web rein-
action, and a slipp age of t he longitudin al bars over a ll t hei r length to forcement must be designed to ca rry t he total shear. The cei ling value
the hooks. This study is interesting indeed, because many sound con- of the nomin al shearin g stress is of the order of 0.12 f' cu ·
clu sions pertaining to web reinforcement were reached. The t heory is
h ard ly applicable to modern American design, however, sin ce with
modern deformed bars an extensive slip is impossible without the
occurrence of splitt ing failures.
E". W. Joh ansen presented a similar theory in D en mark in 1945 052 >,
also based on t he extensive type of slip mention ed above.
0. Faber presen ted hi s t heory again in a book, R einf arced Concrete
B eams in B ending and Shear, published in 1925 <83 >. T ests of 8 rectangu-
lar beams, 16 T-b eams, and 16 fram es were reported. Th e American
T . D. Mylrea, reviewing Faber's book, was rather critical regarding
the applicability of t he theory<81J.
In 1927 J. Gilchrist reported tests of so me small T -beams without
web rcinforcement< l. H e found t hat the nominal shearing st ress at


imperatiYe lhal pun ching br preve nt ed ev en afte r consiclrrable crac king

bas taken place, a nd qu a ntit at ive knowl edge p ert a ining to s uch punch-
ing failmr;.; beco m es highly import a nt.
VI. SPECIAL PROBLEMS Some invest igations have been devo t r cl prim a ril y lo the development
of quantitative inform a tion rega rding punching failmc;; (m, 155 >. Speci-
.:\lo;-;t ;.;t uclirs of wr h r einforcr ment act io n a ncl t he strrngth of rein- men;; in the;.;c tests we re generally over- rrinforced in bending, howcvrr,
forced con crete s ulijcct to shrar have hcrn d eYoted to licams . Studir;.; of and our kno wl edge rega rding th r effrct of th e presence of large fl exural
problems p ertaining to o thrr types of rnembrrs h ave been made, how- stre:-::-;e,; on the she a ring ,.;trenglh i;; ,.;till v e ry limitrd.
ever , ;.;omc of which a rc outlined b elo w. In recr nt years a typr of co ns truction grnerally refe r rrd lo a;.; fl at
7 . Combined Shear, Bending and Axial Load plat e floor;.; ha;.; been u;.;ed in lhi;.; co untry a nd in Europr. S ince this typ e
of floor d iffe r;.; from th e flat sla b in the r es pect that ca pi tals and drop
Thi;.; prnblcm ha" b ee n s ubj ect to some ;.;tuclic;.; ba;.;cd on the iclealizNI pa1wb are ab;.;ent , the shea rin g stre;.;ses may beco me import a nt and it
propertir;.; generally refcncd to a;.; t he strn ight-lin c thcory <JOi , 111 • J. m a~· hr unsafe to apply th e formula:-i d rvelo ped for fl at ;; /a h;.;. A,.; far as
As far a;.; the w rit er know,,, one s pec im en only h as been made and te;.;ted th e \\"ritr r knows, only three te;.;ts of clements of ;.; uch ;.; /ah,; have h crn
in order to o btain exp e rim ent a l evidence, and thi;.; s pecim en had no web reported <11;9 1, a nd l hi s inform ation is far from co n cl u;.; i ve.
rci11forccrncnt < J_ Hrncr our knowledge of this prnblc m is lim ited. In
d e;;;ign , thr pre.~en cr
of the ax ia l forcr;.; i;.; oftrn disregard ed, t he assump- 9. Footings
tion being maclr that this is on the safe ;.; idr. A ri g id fr a me tested at the Our prese nt design of reinforced concrete footings is based on the
Univer;.;ity of Illin oi;.; did , o n the other hand , fail violently in diagonal hrn major invest iga tions carried o u t at t he Univer;.;ity of Illinois <51 • 160 1.
tension at a nominal ;.;hraring st ress a;.; low a.~ 72 psi, ev en though the It has brcn found that t he no min a l shea ring ;.;trr,;s at a di sta nce d
conc rete st rength was abo ut 4000 p si <10 1J. arou nd columns o r wa ll s is a fa ril y goo d meas mc of the diagonal tension
8. Punch ing of Sla bs ;;tre,.;s. The design of fla t slabs i;.; ba;;ed on a ;.; imil a r concrpl om. So m e
forr ign codrs con;.;ider t hr shra ring st re;.;s at a distance % r/0 36 1 .
Punching failmr in slab;.; grnerally takrs pla ce by t he pun chi ng out
10. W a ll s
of a 1 runcat ccl con e directly und e r a concrntraled loa d . If s uch a load i;.;
clo.~c to a ;.; uppori , the failurr may diffe r somr wh at. At any ratr, ihr A s hea ring failure in deep beam;.; or lo a d-carry ing walb will ge nerally
fa ilure is genrrally caused by di ago n a l tens ion rather t ha n punchin g ap prar a;.; a ;.;p litting or a diagonal t ensio n fa ilure. In ea rl y st udi e;; a n
s hear. analysi;.; was gcnrrally maclr according to lhr t hrory of elast icit y,
A number of punching fa ilurrs arc rrpor trd in the lit erat ure, most of a;;;.; uming a n elastic homogeneou;; material, the reinforcement bei ng
which took place in tests ca rried out primarily in order to s tud y the placed according to the co rrr;.; ponding cli;.;tribution and m agn it ud e of
properties of s lab s in be ncling (56 • 101 • 132 • 133 • 154 • 157 J. In these test;.; a con clu- ie n;.; il r st re,.;;.;r;.; . L ate r ;.;tudie;.;(Izo, 1'34 1 and tests <143 • 147 • 15 ~ 1 haYc sho wn ,
;.;ion s imil a r to the followingo 33 J wa;.; often reached: " However, sin ce such howevrr , that ;.;uch a n app roac h may be un econo mi cal. Th e formation
;.;eco ndary failmrs (punching] came so lo ng a ft e r the yield po int of the of diagonal tensio n crac ks will cause a favorahlr red ist ributi on of
steel h a d been reached and cracking of the s lab h ad become gen eral, stresses. H . :Nylander and H. H o lst <153 1 therefore recommended t h at,
the s h earing st rrs;.;es a rc probab ly not significa nt. " Thi s is certainly a the cler;ign of such deep beams he b ased on the safety again st failure,
valid p oint of view wh en d eR ign is based on allowable stresses. If and the conditions a ft er crack formation hei ng considered in t h e design of
wh e n an ultim ate desig n of slabs becomes generally used , s uch as K . W. Rhear reinforce ment.
Joh a nsen 's Yield Line Th eo ry, the m atte r of punching must b e con- 11 . Construction Joints
sid e red in anot he r ligh t. Th e Yi eld Lin e Th eo ry assumes th at la rge A number of tests have been made in order to determin e to wh at
d e fl ect ion s a r e d eveloprd when the f'd abs ente r the in elas tic loa ding exte nt the resistance of conc rete to di ago na l tension or shea r is weak ened
range. In o rd e r to d evelop the u ltimat e fl exural s tre ngt h it becomes by the preRence of construction jo int s <50 · 52 • 109 • 117 • 128 J. It has generally
been ag rred that wcll- constructrd and wel l- placrd joi nts do not redu ce

the strength significantly. E. H a rboe <128 > has indicated , howeve r, that
b adly placed joints (in a region of high shear) may reduce the ultimate
s trength considerably. Accordingly, so me specifications <164 > require half
th e normal allowable nominal sh earing stresses in the region of such
constrnction joints. VII. CONCLUSION
1 2. Theories of Failure Two major groups of specifications appear in present design of rein-
Since the publication of ~Iohr 's paper on shear in concrete in force d concrete subject to sh ear. Th e differences between them are
1911 <·t:l), it has generally been agreed th at some type of maximum shear caused hy different views regarding basic concepts of design as well as
theo ry a pplies better to concrete t han the la ter theories , which h ave differences in th e econom ic structure of the nations involved.
been found to be in a ccord with the failure of ductile metal s. Shear is In Germany the concept of design was advanced by E. ~Hirsch that
therefore an important concept in theori es pertaining to the failure of diagonal tension fai lures should never occur in reinforced concrete
concrete. Even though much work h as been clone in thi s fi eld <91 • 9s , 100 • 12 4 . st ructures. Structures should be designed in such a ma nner that fai lure
140 159 163
• • • lioJ, this matter is considered beyond the scope of t h e present of flexural members will be du e to moment , not to shea r, thereby taking
discussion. advantage of the favorable redi stribution of moment s and forces often
possible in monolithic st ructures. Furthermore, German eco nomic condi-
tions were and are such that a saving in steel weight is synonymous with
economy, even if such conservation of steel is achi eved at the expense
of some additional labo r.
On the basis of these lwo considerations, test res ults were int er-
preted to the effect that web reinforcement should consist mainly of
bent-up bars, which should be designed for the total shear wh enever web
reinforcement was at all necessary . Thi s is accordingly the philosophy of
presen t German design a nd spccificatio1rn . A major part of the world is
su bj ect to similar econo mic conditions \Yi th respect to con;;truction
work , and the German type of specifications is therefore very common in
Europe and elsewh ere.
In the United States and Canada, on the other hand , the basic view
pertaining to the design of web reinforcement !ms been that of allow able
stresses and working loads. Th e economic conditions in t h e construction
industries of these countries are such that a saving in steel consump-
tion is relatively less important as far as construction cost is concern ed
than a saving in labo r and construction time through a considerable
degree of standa rdization.
As a result of these different considerations, tests have been planned,
conducted and interpreted to the effect that web reinforcement may be
designed only for the excess shear over that assumed to be carried by
t h e concrete.
The writer feels that no justification exists for seeking the introduc-
tion of American practice in present-day Europe. It is possible, however,


that, future economic changrs a nd advances in construction tcchnics may

create s uch justi fications .
It is felt, on the oth e r hand , that it should be seriously considered
wh eth e r o r not the Ame ri ca n construction indu st ry m ay be nefi t by
th e int rocluct ion of strict e r specifications for the d es ign of web rein- VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY
t Indicates a test r eport tt Inclieates a spPcification
The wrilcr beli eves that fai lure by diagonal tens ion is possibl e in
l.t F eret, R .: " 1'.;tudcs sur la co nstitution inti me des morti ers hnl rauliqu c," Bulleti n
many st ructural element s design ed afte r the present Am e ri ca n speci- 1897 dP la Soci6t6 d 'Encourage nwn t pour l'Indust ri e :\al iona le, SeriPS 5, Vol. 2, Paris,
fic al ions , espec ially in mono! it hi c s tructures. From the point of vie\\· 1897, p. 1591.
of design by a ll o wable stresses, ;;uch a pos;;ibility is not of decisive 2. Hi tte r, \\ .. : " Die l3a uwPisc H ennebique, " Sclrn·eizcri sche Ba uzcit ung, Vol. 33,
importance provided th at a rca;;ona blc "fac tor of sa fe t y" i,.; present. 1899 :\o. 7, Zuri ch, Feb. 1899, p p. 59-61.
3. C hri sto phe, P . : " Le b6lon ar m6 et ses a pplicat ions," 2 Pd it ion, Librairie P oly-
If a nd wh en reinforced conc ret e ;; tructures a re cl e,.; igncd on an ulti-
1902 technique, P a ri s, 1902, 7.55 pp. See pp. 5-H -52.
mate basis, however. con,.;idering the increa,.;ed st rength a nd lou g hn cs,.; '1 .t :--liirsch, E.: " Die Sc lrnhfcst igkeit d es B etons,"· Bcton uncl E isen, Yol. 1, :\o. 5,
of a monolithic s tructure clu e to redi st ribution of moments and force,; 1902 Berlin, Oct. 1902, pp. ll-12.
in the inelastic loading range, t h e n thi ;; tendency to fa il in diagonal 5.t i-ic\\·cll, J. S.: " A :\eglcctcd P oint in thC' Th C'o ry of Co ncrelc-Stccl," Engineering
tension becomes important. In be a m;; a nd simp le fram es th e ultim ate 1903 :\C'\\·s, \'ol. 49, :\o . .'), :\ e\\· York, Jan. 190:3, pp. ll2-1 :3.
6. Thacher, E.: " Arc Encl Stirrups an Adva nt agl' in C'oncretc-SlC'el 13m ms?"
flexural capacit y will be relatively liltl e higher than th e ca pac ity at 1903 EngineC'r in g :'\ews, Yo!. .+9, :\o. 13, :\ ew York, :\ larch l!lO::l, pp. 278-79.
first y ieldin g. Th e formation of fl exural crack,; and ;;o-call cd pl ast ic 7. Schaub, J. \\·.: " Slrl'SSt'S in Concrete-Steel BPa ms," E ngineering ~ews, \"ol. .t9,
hinges will , on the other ha nd , reduce tl1e abi lity of th e concrete to 1903 :\ o. 16, :\e\\· York, :\pril 1\J03, p. 3~8.
carry shear as as;;umed in present American design , a d es ign la rgely 8. v . Thullie, :-I. H .: ''DiP Se huhspa nnun ge n in Betoncisc nlriigcrn, " Beton und
based on lest;; of over-reinforced spec im ens. It is also un ce rtain ho\\· 1903 Eisen, \'ol. 2, .:\o. 2, Berlin, April 190:3, pp. 117-22.
9. Sanders, L . .·\.: " DiP Sclrnhspannungcn in Bet on- uncl Betonc iscnlragern," B elo n
the ab ili ty of the con cret e to ca rry s hear "·ill reac t to th e actions of
1903 uncl Eisen, Yo!. 2, :\o. :3, Berlin, Jul~· 190:3, pp . 20.t-207.
repeat cd load,; a ml of ,.;uclden loads ;;uch as se ismic a nd blast effe ct,; . 10. t :- Hirsch, E.: " \"crsuehc l'1hcr Schuhspannungen in Bdoneise ntriigern," Be ton
In the case of multi-indeterminate me mb ers ;; uch as ,.;onw ty pe,; of 1903 uncl Eisen, Yo!. 2, :\o . .+, Berlin, Oct. 190:3, pp. 2G\l-7'1.
s lab,;, th e ultim ate fl ex ural capac it y as computed by ultimate load 11.t .1 \:ahn, ,]. : ".\n ew system of concrete re-cnforcenll'nl, clt's igncd to resist vertical
theo ri e,.; a nd obse rYed in te,.;ls m ay he co nsid erab ly high e r than th e 1\10:3 shear," Belon und E isen, \'ol. 2, :\o. 5, B erlin , D ee. l\l(J:3, pp. 329-3 1.
12 . \\'eiske, P .: " Crnphoslalischc l-ntersuchung dcr Schuhs pa nnun ge n in 13Pton-
capac it y at first y ielding. Tests have n.lso s hom1 conclusive ly th at the l!l0'1 um! B et onc isc n trilgern," " Bcton und Eisen, \'ol. :3, :\os. 1-2, Berlin, F cb.-.\pr .
pre;;ence of lo cal yielding may reduce th e resi sta nce again,;[ punching 1\104, pp. ::l2-:3() a nd 10.5-107.
fai lure quite considerably. Under th ese circum stance,.; it beco mes impor- " Bestimmungcn ffir die Ausfl'1hrung von l\:onstrn kti onen :ws E iscnbcton,,. Zcn-
t a nt indeed to sec ure th e pun ching s trength if it i,.; de,.; ired to maintain 1904 tralblatt dcr Bauwnrnltun g, Vol. 24, );° o. 40, BNlin, :\[n,· 190.t, pp. 253-:")8.
lo!. t :-- liirsch, E.: " Schub- uncl Schcrfcstigkeit des Bctons,., Sclrn·cizeri schc B auzei-
the e ntire fl exural toughness an d st rength of such slabs a,.; a rese rve
190± tung, Yol. H, :\os. 26-27, Zo ri ch, D ec. 190'1, pp. 29.'J-97 and 307-10.
load capacity. Such a co ntrol of punching st rength , for inst ance in fl at 15. :--Iarsh, C. F . : "Rei nforced Concrete,"' D . Yan :\ostrancl Co., X e"· Y ork, 190'1,
plate floors , is not possible with our present knowledge. 190'1 5'15 pp. Sec pp. 3'15-56.
Th e writer will by n o m eans at the present stage of hi s st udi es imply 16. Ta~·lor, F. \\' ., and Thompson, S. E.: "Concret e Plain and Reinforced,". J ohn
that the present American specifications rega rding shear and diagonal 1905 \\"iley and Sons, :\cw Y ork, Feb. 1905, 58.5 pp. Sec pp. 320-21.
te1rn ion a rc un safe or un eco nomica l from t he point of view of presen t 17.t :--Ioritz, E. A.: " T ests on R einforced Conc rete Beams, " Bullet in of the L"ni-
1906 versity of Wi sco nsin , Engineering Series, \'ol. 3, :\o. 4, J an. 1906, pp. 319-94.
d esign philosophy . If and wh en t h e concepts of ultimat e load design 18. t Zi pkes, S.: " Die Sc her- und Schubfestigkeit d es Eisenbetons," Beto n und Eisen,
are introduced into specificat ion s, h owever, it is s trongly recommended 1906 Vol. 5, _;-.\os. 1-4, Berlin, J an. -Apr. 1906, pp. 15-17, .t0-42, 70-H and 96-99.
that th e present concepts of web reinforcement design be c ri t ically and 19.t Harding, J . J.: "'frsts of llcinforced Concrete Beams, C hi cago, "i\lilwa ukec and
t ho roughly re-exa mined. 1906 St. P a ul H.ailwa~-," wi t h di scussion b~· A.:\. T a lbot, Engin eering ~ews, Vol. .55,
Xo. 7, .:\ew Y ork , Feb. 1906, pp. 168-H.

1906 Talbot, A. X.: " Tests of R einforced Concrete Bea ms, Series of 1905," L"n iversity
of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Bu ll etin 4, April 1906, 84 pp. 42.t "Tests on Reinforced Co ncrete Conducted in Great Bri tain, " Concrete and Con-
21.t structio na l Engineering, \'ol. 5, :'\o. 4, London, .\ pril 1910, pp. 256-60.
1906 Ta lbot, A. ?\.: " Tests of Concrete: I. Shear; II. Bond, " L"nivcrsity of Illinois 1910
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1940 forced Concrete, R eport of J oint Co mmi t tee," Published by A.Cl, Jun e 1940, " Bcstimmungc n des D eutscl1C'n Aussc husses for EisC'nbcto n 1932," Beto n-
1932 l\:a lendcr 1934, \\"ilhC'lm Ernst und Sohn, BC'rlin, Oct. 1933, 547 pp. HO pp. " Proposed Building R egul ations for R einforced Co ncrete Prese nted b.v ACI
119. Lose r, B .: " Bestimmung der Balken-SchubsichC'rung a us dcr Schubkra ftlini e," 1940 Co mmittee 318," ACI Journ al, X ov. 1940, Proceedings Vol. 37, pp. 77-139
1932 Beto n und E ise n, Vol. 31, Xo. 5, Berlin, :\larch 1932, pp. 77-79.
Discussion pp. 140-1 t o 15.
120. Disc hinger, F .: " Die E rmi ttlung dcr Eiseneinlagen in \\"a ndart igcn Triigern , ., 140.t Smi t h, F. C., a nd Brown, R. Q. : " The Shearing Strengt h of Cement ::\Iortar, "
1933 Beton und Eisen, Vol. 32, .:'\o. 15, Berlin, Aug. 1933, pp. 237-39. 1941 U niversity of Washin gton Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin 106, F eb .
121.t Graf, 0. : " Versuche Uber die Wid ersta nclsfahi gkcit vo n E iscnbctonplattcn un ter
1941, 32 pp.
1933 konzen tri erter Last na he einem Auflagcr, und Versuchc Uber die \Yidcrstanclsfii- 141.t Evans, R.H.: " Influence of Shear Cracks on t he Bond Slip in R einforced Con-
higkcit des Betons a n den Abbi cgestellen der sc hief a bgebogencn Eisen in Eise n- 1941 crete Beams," The Structural Engineer, Vol. 19, London, July 1941, pp . 119-25. " :National Building Code," N ational R esearch Coun cil of Canada, ~.R.C. ~o.
bctonbalken, " D eutsc her Ausschuss for Eisenbeto n, H eft 73, Berlin , 1933, 28 pp.
122. Ertl, II. : " Schubwidcrstand uncl Schubsicherung im Eisenbeto nbau," Publica-
1934 tions, Interna tional Association for Bridge- and Structural E nginee ring, Vol. 2, 1941 1068, Otta wa, N ov. 1941, 422 pp.
143.t Klingroth, H.: " Versuche an Stahlbetontragwandcn und deren Auswert ung, "
1933-34, pp. 145-66.
1942 Beton und Eisen, Vol. 41, Nos. 9/ 10, 11 / 12 and 13/ 14, Berlin, ?-lay-July 1942,
123. t l\1 ylrea, T. D . : " Tests of Reinforced Concrete T-Beams," ACI Journ al, l\Iay-
1934 June 1934, Proceedings, Vol. 30, pp. 448-64. pp. 91-97, 108-15, and 130-36.
144. Dischinger, F.: " Kritische Betrachtungen zu den D eutschen Bestimmungen fiir
124. Leon, A. : "Ueber die Scherfestigkeit des Betons," Beton und Eisen, Vol. 34, Xo. 1942 Stahlbeton b ezi.iglich der Bercchnung der H aft-, Schub- und Scherspannungen, "
1935 8, Berlin, Apr. 1935, pp. 130-35. D er Bauingenieur, Vol. 23, No. 35/ 36, Berlin, Sept. 1942, pp. 259-64. Discussion
125. t Evans, R. H . : "Stresses in the Steel R einforce ment of R einforced Concrete in E cton und Eisen, Vol. 42, 1943, pp. 25-39, 71-74 and 99-100.
1935 Stru ctures," The Structu ral Engineer, Vol. 13, London, Sept . 1935, pp. 354-69.
l(i(j. tt " Inst rncc i6n para cl pro~·ecto de obras de honnig6n , ·• :\I ad rid, 1949, 6-! pp.
H.5. Boase, A. J., and :\lorga n, C. E.: " Balanced Design for R l' inforC'ed ConnPte"
1943 ACI Journal, Feb. 1943, Proceedings Vol. :39, pp. 277-9G. ' 1940
l\,7. t Thompson, J . :i\., imd Ferguson, P. '.\I. : " Shear R esistance of Tile-Concret e " Bcstimmungen des DPutsc hen ..\ussc husses fi_ir Stah lbeton, Ausgabe 194:3 . D.I.X. 1%0 J oists, " ACI J ourn a l, :'\ov. 1950, Proceedings \'ol. 47, pp. 229-36.
19,1:3 104.5, " Zcntralhlalt der B[tuvenrnltung, Vol. 63, :\o. l-l / 17, Bl'rlin , 1\pr. Hl43, Flcott, W. L., Glanville,\\' . IL, and Thomas, F. G.: " Explanatory Handbook on
pp. 177-203. 1950 the B.S. Co de of PraclieP for Reinforced Concrete," Connetc Publi cations Ltd.,
147. t C:raf, 0., Brenner, E., :md Ba.'" TT.: " VPrsuche mit einern \\'a nd a rt ig<'n Triigrr London, 1950, 119 pp.
1943 a us StahlJJPton," D eut sC' her .\u ssC' huss fiir StahlllPton, Hrft 99, Bl' rlin , 19-!:3. 169. t " LPs pl anchers-dalles sans ehampignons," Ann ales de l'Inst itut T echnique du
148 . Bensroter, S. U., and Logan, S. T.: " ShPa r and Bond StrPsses in R einforcC'd 19.51 Bil.timPnt et des Trnvaux Publics, ~o. 167, Ecton, 136ton .-\nnc, Xo. 16, P ari s,
19-1-1 Concretp," Proceedings .\SC I<;, :\l ar<'h 19-H , Transaetions ASC E, Vol. 110, l!l4.5, J a n. 1951, 44 pp.
pp. 1590-606. Disc ussion G07-32. 170. C hamlmud, H..: " R esistance du B6ton aux Contraintcs Tri ax iales," Annales de
149. tt " :\CI Standard :3 18-41. Standard Building Jlc•gulations for R e inforC'ed ConerdC', " 1951 l'lnstitut Technique du Bfttimenl et des Trnva ux Publics, :'\o. 17:3, :\lanud du
194.5 .-\ CI Journal, June 19-!.5, ProC'eedings Vol. 41, pp. 559-Gl9. Bcton .-\rm<\ Xo. 20, Paris, Feh. 1951, 14 pp.
150. Sali ger, R . : " Dic 1wue Theori<' des Slaldhcton s," Franz Dcutick<', \\'i en, .\ ug. " ACI Standard :318-51. Standrtrd Building Code R equirements for R einforced
1945 194.5, 110 pp. 1951 Co nrrelc," ACI Journ a l, April 1951, Proceedings Vol. 47 , pp ..589-652 .
151.t i\lorclto, 0.: " :\n JnVC'st igalion of thP Stre ngth of \\'eld<'Cl Fltirrnps in R ein forced
1945 C'oncrde BPams," .\ CI .Journal, :\ov. 194.5, ProcePdings, Vol. 42, pp. 141-62. The follo\\'ing test reports appeared during the printing of thi s eirl'ubr:
152. Johan se n, h. \\'.: " 13crc•gning af J ernhctonhj:Plkl'r, " B.'·gningsstati ske :\Iedclel- 172.t \Yilh~-, C. B.: " Th e Stn·ngth of 11.Pinforl'ed Conc re te Beams in Slwar, " i\! agazi ne
194.5 elser, Vol. lG, :\o. 2, Copenhage n, 194.5, pp. 3.5-li:3. 1951 of Conncte R esearl'h, Xo. 7, London , .-\ug. 1951 , pp. 22-:30.
15:3. t :\.dandcr, H., and Hois l , II.: " :\ ag rn un ckrsii knin gar roran d e s kivor och hoga 1/:3. t C la rk, .-\. P.: " Diagonal TPns ion in R einforced Co ncrete Beams," ACI J ournal,
1946 ba lkar av a rmernd hctong, " Transactions of the Ho:rnl Technical l -niversity, :\o. 1951 Oct. 1951, Proceedings Vol. 48, pp. H.5-5G.
2, Stockholm, .Jan. 1946, 66 pp.
1.54. t Newmark, :"J. :\1., Sicss, C. P., and P enman, R. R.: " Studies of Slab and Beam
1946 High\\' a~· Bridges, P a rt I ," l'ni ve rs it.'· of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station,
Bulletin 3(i:J, :\larch 194G, 1:30 pp.
1.55. t Forsse ll, C., a nd Holmberg , A.: "Stiimpdlast pa plat tor av beto ng, " Beto ng, Vol.
1946 31, :'.\/ o. 2, Stockholm, 1946, pp. \).5-12:3 . " ACI Standard 318-47. Standard Building Code Requireme nts for R einforced
19H Co nercte," ACI Journal , Sept. 19-17, Proce<•dings Vol. 44, pp. 1-64.
157. t :\Pl\· ma rk, X. i\l., SiPss, C. P., a nd Peek man, \\'. i\l.: " Studies of Slab and Beam
1948 High\\'a.'· !fridges, Part II," l . niVC'rsit.'· of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station,
Bullclin 37.5, .Jan. 19-18, GO pp.
158 . Richart, F . E.: " Advan ces in RPinforl'C'd Co ncrC'te During the Pas t Qua rter of
1948 a Cenlur.,-, " AC'I Journal , April 1948, Prol'cedings Vol. 44, pp. 720-31.
159. t :\IcH e nr~-, D.: " The Effect of Gplift Pre3su rc on t he Shc'.tring Strength of Con-
1948 C'l'cte," Trnns::ict ions, Third Congress on L ::i rge Dams, Vol. I, R . 48, Inte rn ational
Co mmi ssion on Large D a ms, Stoekholm, June 1948, 17 pp.
160.t Ri cha rt, F. E.: " R einforce d Concrete W a ll a nd Column Footings," ACI Journ a l,
1948 Oct.-Xov. 1948, Proceedings Vol. 45, pp. 97-128 a nd 237-60.
161. t Sunderland, A.: " Th e Strength of R einforced Co ncrete Beams in Shear," :\Iaga-
1949 zine of Concrete Research, Vol. 1, Xo. 1, London, J a n. 1949, pp. 3-8.
162. tt " D a nsk Ingeni orfore nings :\ormer for Bygnings-Konstruktioner. 2. Beton- og
1949 je rnbcto n-kon struktion er. D.S. 411, " Co penhagen, June 1949, 60 pp.
163. t Ba lm er, G.: "Shearing Strength of Concrete under High Triaxia l Stress -
1949 Computation of i\lohr's Envelope as a Curve," U. S. Bureau of R ecla mation,
Structural R esearch L a borato ry R e port :\o. SP-23, Oct. 1949, 13 pp. "Statliga Betongbestiimmelser. D el 1, i\Iate ri a ldelen, " Statens Offentliga Utred-
1949 ningar 1949:64, Stockholm, D ec. 1949, 72 pp.
165. Gebauer, F.: " Die Plastizitiitstheo rie im Stahlbetonbau," Georg Fromme, 'Wien,
1949 1949, 179 pp.

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