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Neraca Panas Di Sekitar Evaporator (EV-01, EV-02)

Tujuan : menghitung kondisi operasi masing-masing effect, menghitung kebutuhan fresh


steam pada effect 1 dan menghitung beban panas pada evaporator.
Fungsi : memekatkan sirup glukosa hingga konsentrasi 50% berat.
Keterangan :
F : Umpan masuk evaporator L1 : Larutan hasil pemekatan effect 1
S : Fresh Steam L2 : Larutan hasil pemekatan effect 2
V1 : Uap keluaran effect 1 C1 : Kondensat effect 1
V2 : Uap keluaran effect 2 C2 : Kondensat effect 2

Input (kg/jam) Output (kg/jam)


Komponen
Arus 12 Arus 14
Air 3.808,712 1.893,939
Maltotriosa 36,425 36,425
Maltosa 83,015 83,015
Glukosa 1.774,500 1.774,500

 Data-data yang diketahui


Feed: xF = 0,332 Effect 3: P2 = 25,01 kPa
tF = 80oC t2 = 65oC
F = 5.702,652 kg/jam L2 = 3.787,879 kg/jam
x2 = 0,5
Steam: P = 143,27 kPa
ts = 110oC
λs = 2.230,0 kJ/kg
 Neraca massa overall
F = C2 + V 2 + L 2
= V1 + V2 + L2
= Vtot + L2
Vtot = F – L2
= 5.702,652 kg/jam – 3.787,879 kg/jam
= 1.914,773 kg/jam
Asumsi V1 = V2 = V3 = 1/3 Vtot = 1/3 (1.914,773 kg/jam) = 957,387 kg/jam

 Neraca massa solute


- Effect 1
F = V1 + L1
L1 = F – V1
= 5.702,652 kg/jam – 957,387 kg/jam = 4.745,265 kg/jam
F xF = L1 xL1

x1 = = 0,399

- Effect 2
x2 = 0,5 (spesifikasi yang diinginkan)

 BPR masing-masing effect


BPR = 1,78 (xi) + 6,22 (xi2)
(Geankoplis, 1993, hal. 507)
- BPR1 = 1,78 (0,399) + 6,22 (0,3992) = 1,701
- BPR2 = 1,78 (0,5) + 6,22 (0,52) = 2,445
 Cp masing-masing liquid
Cp = 4,19 – 2,35xi
(Geankoplis, 1993, hal. 507)
- CpF = 4,19 – 2,35 (0,332) = 3,410 kJ/kg.K
- Cp1 = 4,19 – 2,35 (0,399) = 3,252 kJ/kg.K
- Cp2 = 4,19 – 2,35 (0,5) = 3,015 kJ/kg.K

 Kondisi operasi dan data-data eltalpi masing-masing effect


Menebak harga: P1 = 57,8 kPa
P2 = 25,01 kPa
- Effect 1
P1 = 57,8 kPa, maka t1’ = 85oC
H1’ = 2.652,0 kJ/kg
h1’ = 355,9 kJ/kg
t1 = t1’ + BPR1 = 85oC + 1,701 = 65,701oC
H1 = H1’ + Cp1 (BPR1)
= 2.652,0 kJ/kg + 3,252 kJ/kg.K (1,701 K) = 2.657,5 kJ/kg
h1 = h1’ + Cp1 (BPR1)
= 355,9 kJ/kg + 3,252 kJ/kg.K (1,701 K) = 361,4 kJ/kg
∆Teff1 = tS – t1 = 110oC – 103.661oC = 23,299oC
- Effect 2
P2 = 25,01 kPa, maka t2’ = 65oC
H2’ = 2.648,4 kJ/kg
h2’ = 272,0 kJ/kg
t2 = t2’ + BPR2 = 65 C + 2,445 = 67,445oC
o

H2 = H2’ + Cp2 (BPR2)


= 2.648,4 kJ/kg + 3,015 kJ/kg.K (2,445 K) = 2.655,8 kJ/kg
h2 = h2’ + Cp2 (BPR2)
= 272,0 kJ/kg + 3,015 kJ/kg.K (2,445 K) = 279,4 kJ/kg
∆Teff2 = t1’ – t2 = 85oC – 67,445oC = 17,555oC

 Neraca panas
- Effect 1
F hF + S HS = L1 h1 + V1 H1 + S hC1
F CpF (tF – 0) + S λS = (F – V1) h1 + V1 H1
(5.702,652) (3,410) (80) + S (2.230,0) = (5.702,652 – V1) (361,4) + V1 (2.657,5)
2.230,0 S – 2.296,1 V1 = 505.656,257 … (1)
- Effect 2
L1 h1 + V1 H1 = L2 h2 + V2 H2 + V1 hC2
(F – V1) h1 + V1 H1 = L2 h2 + (Vtot – V1) H2 + V1 h1’
(5.702,652 – V1) (361,4) + V1 (2.657,5) = (3.787,879) (279,4) + (1.914,773 - V 1)
(2.655,8) + V1 (355,9)
4.596,0 V1 = 4.082.301,880 …(2)

Dari persamaan (1) dan (2) didapat:


V1 = 888,235 kg/jam
V2 = 1.026,538 kg/jam
S = 1.141,315 kg/jam

 Luas masing-maing effect


Diketahui, U1 = 3.123 W/m2.K
U2 = 1.987 W/m2.K
(Geankoplis, 1993, hal. 507)

A1 = = 34,979 m2
A2 = = 58,609 m2

Untuk mengetahui apakah trial berhasil atau tidak, maka harus dilakukan
evaluasi luas masing-masing effect terhadap luas rata-rata (AM)

AM =

AM = = 45,133 m2

Maka, penyimpangan luas masinng-masing effect dihitung dengan rumus

Ai = x 100%

A1 = x 100% = 22,498%

A2 = x 100% = 29,859%

Karena penyimpangan > 10% maka trial harus diulang

 ∆Teff revisi
∆Teff1 (rev) = ∆Teff1 (A1/AM) = 23,299 (34,979/45,133) = 18,057
∆Teff2 (rev) = ∆Teff2 (A2/AM) = 17,555 (58,609/45,133) = 22,797
Rencanakan : ∆Teff1 = 18,057 oC, ∆Teff2 = 22,797 oC

Maka trial P dilakukan pada harga t1’ = 90,242 oC dan t2’ = 65 oC


Untuk t1’= 97,374oC, pada steam table:
t (oC) P (kPa) h (kJ/kg) H (kJ/kg)
90 70,11 376,9 2.660,1
90,242 P1 h1’ H1’
91 72,81 381,1 2.661,7
Dengan interpolasi, didapat:
P1 = 70,76 kPa
h1’ = 377,9 kJ/kg
H1’ = 2.660,5 kJ/kg

Untuk t2’= 65oC, didapat:


P2 = 25,01 kPa
h2’ = 272,0 kJ/kg
H2’ = 2.648,4 kJ/kg
 Neraca massa solute
Pada tahap ini data-data yang digunakan sama seperti perhitugan sebelumnya, yaitu:
V1 = V2 = 1/2 Vtot = 957,387 kg/jam
L1 = 4.745,265 kg/jam, x1 = 0,399
L2 = 3.787,879 kg/jam, x3 = 0,5

 Kondisi operasi dan data-data entalpi masing-masing effect


- Effect 1
P1 = 70,76 kPa, maka t1’ = 90,242oC
H1’ = 2.660,5 kJ/kg
h1’ = 377,9 kJ/kg
t1 = t1’ + BPR1 = 90,242 C + 1,701 = 91,943oC
o

H1 = H1’ + Cp1 (BPR1)


= 2.660,5 kJ/kg + 3,252 kJ/kg.K (1,701 K) = 2.666,0 kJ/kg
h1 = h1’ + Cp1 (BPR1)
= 377,9 kJ/kg + 3,252 kJ/kg.K (1,701 K) = 383,4 kJ/kg
∆Teff1 = tS – t1 = 110oC – 91,943oC = 18,057oC
- Effect 2
P2 = 25,01 kPa, maka t2’ = 65oC
H2’ = 2.648,4 kJ/kg
h2’ = 272,0 kJ/kg
t2 = t2’ + BPR2 = 65oC + 2,445 = 67,445oC
H2 = H2’ + Cp2 (BPR2)
= 2.648,4 kJ/kg + 3,015 kJ/kg.K (2,445 K) = 2.655,8 kJ/kg
h2 = h2’ + Cp2 (BPR2)
= 272,0 kJ/kg + 3,015 kJ/kg.K (2,445 K) = 279,4 kJ/kg
∆Teff2 = t1’ – t2 = 90,242oC – 67,445oC = 22,797oC

 Neraca panas
- Effect 1
F hF + S HS = L1 h1 + V1 H1 + S hC1
F CpF (tF – 0) + S λS = (F – V1) h1 + V1 H1
(5.702,652) (3,410) (80) + S (2.230,0) = (5.702,652 – V1) (383,4) + V1 (2.666,0)
2.230,0 S – 2.282,6 V1 = 631.201,963 … (3)

- Effect 2
L1 h1 + V1 H1 = L2 h2 + V2 H2 + V1 hC2
(F – V1) h1 + V1 H1 = L2 h2 + (Vtot – V1) H2 + V1 h1’
(5.702,652 – V1) (383,4) + V1 (2.666,0) = (3.787,879) (279,4) + (1.914,773 - V 1)
(2.655,8) + V1 (377,9)
4.560,4 V1 = 3.956.756,174 …(4)

Dari persamaan (3) dan (4) didapat:


V1 = 867,628 kg/jam
V2 = 1.047,145 kg/jam
S = 1.171,133 kg/jam

 Luas masing-masing effect

A1 = = 46,312 m2

A2 = = 43,827 m2

Untuk mengetahui apakah trial berhasil atau tidak, maka harus dilakukan evaluasi
luas masing-masing effect terhadap luas rata-rata (AM)

AM =

AM = = 44,925 m2

Maka, penyimpangan luas masinng-masing effect dihitung dengan rumus

Ai = x 100%

A1 = x 100% = 3,087%

A2 = x 100% = 2,445%

Karena penyimpangan < 10% maka trial dianggap berhasil


 Ekonomi evaporator (Steam economy)

η= = 1,635

 Neraca panas total


Q masuk = Q keluar
QF + QS = QC2 + QL2 + QV2
- QF
QF = F CpF ΔTF
= (5.702,652 kg/jam) (3,410 kJ/kg.K) (80 – 0) K
= 1.555.468,341 kJ/jam
- QS
QS = S λS
= (1.171,133 kg/jam) (2.230,0 kJ/kg)
= 2.611.625,533 kJ/jam
- QC2
QC2 = V1 h1’
= (867,628 kg/jam) (377,9 kJ/kg)
= 327.890,021 kJ/jam
- QL2
QL2 = L2 h2
= (3.787,879 kg/jam) (279,4 kJ/kg)
= 1.058.226,042 kJ/jam
- QV2
QV2 = V2 H2
= (1.047,145 kg/jam) (2.655,8 kJ/kg)
= 2.780.977,812 kJ/jam

NERACA PANAS EV-01, EV-02, EV-03


Input (kJ/jam) Output (kJ/jam)
QF 1.555.468,341
QS 2.611.625,533
QC2 327.890,021
QL2 1.058.226,042
QV2 2.780.977,812
Total 4.167.093,874 4.167.093,874

Neraca Panas Di Sekitar Barometric Condensor (BC-01)

Tujuan : menentukan kebutuhan air pendingin yang digunakan


Fungsi : sebagai system vakum yang bekerja dengan cara menyedot vapor dari EV-02
kemudian mengkondensasikannya
Neraca panas di BC-01:
Qin = Qout
QV2 + QW = QC
V2 H2 + W hW = (V3 + W) hCamp
Diketahui:
V2 = 1.047,145 kg/jam
H2 = 2.655,8 kJ/kg
tW = Suhu air pendingin masuk, 30oC
hW = 125,7 kJ/kg
tC amp = Suhu campuran kondensat dan air pendingin, 45oC
hCamp = 188,4 kJ/kg

QCamp = QV2 + QW
Maka, kebutuhan air pendingin:

Maka,
QCamp = (V2 + W) hCamp
= (1.047,145 kg/jam + 41.207,268 kg/jam) 188,4 kJ/kg
= 7.960.731,410

NERACA PANAS BC-01


Input (kJ/jam) Output (kJ/jam)
QV2 2.780.977,812
QW 5.179.753,599
QCamp 7.960.731,410
Total 7.960.731,410 7.960.731,410