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A cast is: "A reproduction of the surface form of oral or facial tissues obtained from an
impression".(Source: British Standards Glossary of Dental Terms. BS 4492 1983).

The preliminary cast has two components:

 the base
- 2 cm thick
- can be rounded or geometric shaped: pentagon
(maxilary), trapezoidal (mandible)
 the model itself
Roles of the preliminary cast
- Case assessment and treatment plan
- Forensic document
- making the custom tray
MATERIAL –model plaster

The Preliminary Model is obtained by pouring the Preliminary Impression

Materials and devices
- Preliminary impression
- Mixing rubber bowl
- Plaster spatula
- Model plaster
- water (room temperature)
- Lab Vibrator
- Model trimmer
- Model base former

Pouring the preliminary impression. Steps:

1. Disinfection of the preliminary impression
2. Checking of the accuracy of preliminary impression
3. Preparing the plaster
4. Pouring

5. The base of the preliminary cast

Place the remainder of the plaster on the table. Invert the previously poured impression in this
mass and depress it to develop a cast base thickness of 2cm and allow the material to exceed
beyond the fold slightly. Remove the excess with a spatula and than allow plaster to set for 40 to
45 minutes
- The base can also be done by pouring the plaster into a model base former
6. Setting reaction – phenomenon by which a material passes from a plastic state into a non-
plastic state. It is an exothermic reaction (40°C) and has two stages:
- immediate (15 minutes)
- final (45 minutes)

7. RECOVER the cast

Use a knife to gently separate the impression from the cast and pull slowly the tray handle.
8. Finishing the base- Using a model trimmer. The base of the cast is trimmed so that the
edentulous ridge lies approximately in the same plane as it would in the mouth. The sides of the
base are trimmed to within 3mm of the maximum convexity of the sulcus.

CUSTOM IMPRESSION TRAY (Special, individual impression tray)

Definition- A Custom Tray is an individualized tray made on the preliminary cast. It is
used in making a final (master) impression.
The custom tray has two COMPONENTS:
1. The BASE
 handle
 pressure buttons (only for mandibular tray)
 reinforcement elements
 occlusion rims (rare)

The BASE – must be:

- thick enough to resist (1,5-2mm) forces
- strong
- stable
- rigid
If there is a torus then the tray must be relieved in that area, otherwise you may have a pressure

The margins must be smooth and rounded, 2mm thick. The result will be an impression that has
an optimum denture border width. If the tray borders are too long then the denture will be
The tray may (meaning, it is permissible to) be overextended posteriorly. On the maxilla, this will
ensure that you will have the hamular notch on the master cast. A long cast does not mean the
denture will be too long. When you do the posterior palatal seal you will determine the proper
length of the denture.

The handle is placed on the midline, on the crest of the ridge

- dimensions: length = 1 maxillary central incisor
width = 2 maxillary central incisor
- parallelepiped shape, with concave lateral surfaces

Pressure buttons
- used only on mandibular custom tray
- placed on the middle of the crest, corresponding premolars,
- parallelepiped shape
- dimensions:
 Length=10-15 mm,
 width= 4-6mm,
 height = 5-7 mm
- Height and width usually correlates with that of the residual ridges
ROLE – even pressure during the final impression
Reinforcement elements
– metal plates or wires in the lingual slope of the mandibular custom tray
Roles: increase the mechanical resistance of the shellac custom tray

Shellac Baseplate custom tray

Shellac Baseplate- features:
- used especially for maxilary custom trays
- trapezoidal shaped (maxilary) or V-shaped (mandibula)
- 1,5 mm thick
- are thermoplastic materials (melted with the torch)

- easy to work with
- low cost
- low resistance
- the material is very brittle and breaks easily
- on high temperature deform

Material and devices:

- shellac baseplates
- preliminary cast
- insulating
- gas burner
- air pomp
- scissors
- wax spatula
- marker
- wire for reinforcement

Technical steps
- Outline tray borders on preliminary casts
- Block out undercuts
- isolating the cast
- The baseplate is heated and then gently pressed into place on the cast with care taken to maintain
a uniform thickness. The borders are reduced to approximately 2 mm from the extended borders
of the cast as recorded by the preliminary impression (with a sharp spatula or a scissors). Care is
taken to ensure that the areas of any fraenum are adequately reduced as these areas are usually
under-recorded by an alginate impression.
- the reinforcement element is heated and insert in the tray material
- Excess material can be shaped into a tray handle and placed onto the front of the tray in the
-The handle should be positioned just lingual to the crest of the ridge, in the midline and so that it
will not interfere with the lip or with border molding.
- adaptation and formation of the pressure buttons –
- finishing the tray with acrylic burs –

Materials and devices:
- final impression
- mixing bowl
- plaster spatula
- type III dental stone (Moldano)
- water (room temperature)
- Lab Vibrator
- Model trimmer
- Model base former

1. Disinfection of the final impression
2. Checking of the accuracy of final impression
3. Preparing the impression – beading and boxing
AIM: to preserve the mucobuccal fold on the master cast
 Place 1 strip of periphery wax (4mm) around the entire edge of the impression, about 2-3 mm
below the height of the impression. Be certain that, when viewed occlusally, the beading wax
can be seen around the entire impression.
 The mandibular impression must also be filled with a sheet of wax in the lingual/tongue area
because the mandibular casts have a full base
 The beading creates the "land" of the cast and preserves the outer portion of the mucobuccal
fold or border area.
BOXING = shaping the master cast base
 Use a strip of boxing wax (15-20mm width) and long enough to surround the impression.
Place the boxing wax strip about the beading wax

4. Pouring the final impression

- prepare a proper amount of dental stone in a plaster bowl
(following the manufacturer directions).
- Turn on the vibrator and hold the boxed impression in one
hand with one corner slightly higher than the rest of the
- Flow the stone into one posterior corner of the impression
from the tip of the spatula, allowing the stone to flow slowly
over the interior of the impression guarding against the
entrapment of air bubbles.
- The entire interior of the impression should be filled in this manner until the stone reaches
the top of the boxing wax.
5. Setting reaction
6. RECOVER the cast
Use a knife to gently separate the impression from the cast and pull slowly the tray handle.
7. Finishing the base - Using a model trimmer

Roles of the master cast :

- to make baseplates and occlusion rims
- to make the denture wax-up (trial denture)
- will be a part of the mould cavity



1. THE RECORD BASE is very similar to the base of custom tray. It is made by the same
techniques and .materials (shellac baseplates, heat-cured resins, Cold cured resins, Light cured

Requirements of a stable record base:

1. It should be rigid.
2. It should be accurately adapted to the cast with proper
3. It should be dimensionally stable during its use.
4. It should be relieved from any undercuts to avoid scrapping
the cast during insertion and removal.

Construction of a stable record base

• Outline the borders on preliminary casts
• Block out undercuts
• Apply isolating agent on the cast
• The baseplate is heated and gently pressed into place on the cast with care taken to maintain a
uniform thickness.
• The borders are reduced with a sharp spatula or a scissors.
• On the crest of the ridge can be done some retentions for wax rims

Materials: wax (different colors)

- shape - arch
- dimensions – frontal: h = 10 mm, w = 6 mm; lateral: h = 6-8 mm, w = 8-10 mm
- the posterior limits correspond to distal surface of M1 and are cut oblique (45°) to prevent
pressure spots between the occlusion rims during the relationship registration

- Are placed on the crest of the ridge, except the maxillary frontal rim, that is placed more
labially – esthetic reason!
- When the labial surface of the rim is improperly formed, the anterior teeth will be
malpositioned resulting in a non-esthetic denture.
Occlusion rims can be obtained by 3 methods:
- introducing melted wax into a silicon former
- rolling a heated baseplate wax
- preformed rims
Fabrication of wax occlusion rims
• A sheet of baseplate wax is warmed and softened over the Bunsen burner flame.
• The wax is rolled after heating to make a log of wax.
• The soft log of wax is bent and placed on the baseplate, centered over the crest of the ridge
and fixed in place with a hot spatula and melted wax.
• While wax is still soft the cast should be inverted onto the table to flatten the occlusal
• A broad wax spatula is used to flatten the facial, buccal and occlusal surfaces of the
occlusion rim.
• The final smoothing and finishing will be done with the torch flame

The roles of the occlusion rims

1. Maxillomandibular relationship records
2. Establishing the Midline, High Lip Line and Cuspid Line – important guide marks for selecting
and setting the artificial teeth

Articulators are prosthetic devices designed to reproduce the relationship between maxilla
and the mandible, and to simulate mandible movements.

Types of articulators
Articulators are classified according to the instrument capability and record acceptance into:
1. Simple hinge articulators.
2. Mean value or fixed condylar path articulators (non-adjustable or average)
3. Adjustable condylar path articulators:
a. Semi-adjustable articulators.
b. Fully adjustable articulators.

Mounting is defined as: The laboratory procedure of attaching a cast to an



1. the occlusal plane has to be parallel to an horizontal plane
2. the medio-sagittal plane of the master casts&occlusion
rims must be identical with the medio-sagittal plane of the
3. The distance between hinge axis and the interincisive point
(located at the intersection between midline and the occlusal plane)
has to be 9-10 cm.

After the mandibulomaxillary relationship record, the record base & occlusion rims will be
joined together and placed again on their master casts and sent to the dental laboratory, to be
mounted in the simulator.

Check to see that the relationship is stable, and that there is sufficient clearance for mounting
plaster between the maxillary cast base and the superior arm of the simulator
Mark the midline of the maxillary cast base with a pencil.
On the master cast bases should be make some retention ditches about 1.5-2 mm deep
The master cast bases will be joined together by 3 match sticks, placed one frontal and 2
The master casts must be hydrate in order to prevent the plaster (gypsum) to instantly set
(due to the absorption of water by dry casts)


- prepare the plaster
- Apply an amount of plaster on the table and insert the inferior arm of the simulator
- Set the master casts& occlusion rims on the plaster, according to the rules
- Trim and smooth mounting plaster with a spatula
- Allow plaster to set
Check to see that there is sufficient clearance for mounting plaster between the maxillary
cast base and the superior arm of the simulator minim 5 mm
- Prepare another amount of plaster
- Apply the plaster on the maxillary base, close the simulator and apply again plaster on top,
which will be given a hemispherical shape

After setting reaction models landmarks are transferred on the casts:

- Midline
- Cuspid Line
- High Lip Line -


Unlike mounting in simply hinge, the mounting in an articulator begins with the maxillary
cast. Another difference lies in the fact that theocclusion rims are not interlocked to each other,
because the two casts will be mounted separately.

1. Casts preparation
Mark the midline of the maxillary cast base with a pencil.
The master casts have to be hydrate 3-4 minute in order to prevent the plaster (gypsum) to
instantly set (due to the absorption of water by dry casts)
2. Occlusion rims preparation
Trace some landmarks in the lateral edges of the occlusion rims in order to put them back in
the same position (after being separated for mounting) and separate them with a spatula
3. Mounting of maxillary master cast
- Soak the upper cast in water 3-5 minutes
- Place soaked and notched maxillary master cast and the occlusion rim on the mounting
platform so that the middle line of the cast coincides with the middle line of the upper arm and the
interincisiv point contacts the horizontal rod tip sliding on vertical incisal pin
- Check for adequate clearance of master cast superiorly.
- The incisal pin should touch the incisal table!
- fix the occlusion rim with melted wax on the mounting platform
- Prepare plaster paste and apply it on the cast base
- Attach maxillary cast to articulator with mounting plaster.
- Trim and smooth mounting plaster when set.
4. Mounting of mandibular master cast
- Remove the mounting platform
- Reverse the articulator
- Affix the mandibular master cast and occlusion rim on the
maxillary cast and occlusion rim, in the same position they
were in the beginning, using the landmarks marked previously;
- Interlock the occlusion rims one to each other with melted wax
- Prepare plaster paste and apply it on the mandibular cast base
- Attach mandibular cast to articulator with mounting plaster.
- Trim and smooth mounting plaster when set.


Steps: - master cast relief

- posterior palatal seal
- setting the teeth


Definition: Relief is the elimination or reduction of undesirable forces or pressure from specific
area under the denture base.
Functions of relief:
1. Compensate for bone resorption. Since resorption occurs in the alveolar process, therefore relief
of hard areas in the middle of the palate would enhance denture stability for a long period of time.
2. Compensate for technical discrepancies.
3. Comfort for the patient.

Areas to be relieved:
I- Hard bony areas.
II- Sensitive areas.

1) Hard areas to be relieved:

Since the mucous membrane overlying denture bearing area is not uniform in thickness, softness
and resiliency, there is a tendency for a finished denture to rock upon hard areas under biting
force. This can be compensated through relief of hard areas. Hard areas are located in the patient's
mouth by inspection and palpation.
In the maxilla, median palatine raphe and torus palatinus are hard areas to be relieved. In the
mandible, torus mandibularis, prominent genial tubercle, sharp mylohyoid ridge are hard areas to
be relieved.
2) Sensitive areas to be relieved:
Sensitive areas are mainly relieved for patient's comfort.
In the maxilla, incisive papilla, prominent tuberosities and rugae are sensitive areas to be relieved.
In the mandible, mental foramen and thin wiry ridge are sensitive areas to be relieved.

Denture Tooth Arrangement


1. Every tooth has two antagonists (exceptions: Mandibular Central Incisor and the last
maxillary molar – who have only one antagonist)
2. The denture teeth are set-up on the crest of the ridge (exception: the maxillary frontal teeth,
placed more buccally for esthetics)
3. Denture teeth meet on a plane named occlusal plane, which has three curves: incisal, saggittal
and transversal.


The maxillary denture teeth are set-up starting from the midline

Central Incisors: Labial surface is perpendicular to the horizontal and to the midline based on the
frenum, filtrum and the center of the face. Incisal edge on occlusal plane. Neck slightly

Lateral Incisors Incisal edge 0-2mm above the occlusal plane (this will vary according to the
age of the patient; older patients would not normally be expected to have a ‘youthful’ step
between their centrals and laterals, due to wear of the centrals and canines.). Neck slightly
The centrals and laterals should have their incisal edges placed more anteriorly than their necks to
support the lips in a slightly prominent and natural position.

Canines: Incisal edge touches the occlusal plane. The canines should be positioned to show their
mesial aspects when viewed from the front. The distal aspect should link into the
posterior teeth and create a natural looking buccal corridor. The neck of the canine
should be prominent and more anteriorly placed than the incisal edge to emphasize the
canine eminence and to support the lips.

The upper posterior teeth are set over or slightly buccal to the ridge, such that their occlusal
surfaces lie slightly buccal to the lower ridge. The teeth are positioned to create a compensating
curve. The curve of Spee, antero-posterior curve of the posterior teeth, should match the condylar
angle to maintain contact between the teeth in protrusive excursions.

The upper first premolar is positioned with buccal cusp contacting the occlusal plane and the
palatal cusp lifted slightly off the occlusal plane by 0.5–1 mm. The long axis of the tooth is
vertical when observed from the buccal aspect.

The second premolar is positioned with a vertical long axis when viewed buccally, with palatal
and buccal cusps contacting the occlusal plane.

The first molar tooth is positioned with the mesiopalatal cusp contacting the occlusal surface and
the remaining cusps lifted to continue the compensating curve started by the second premolar. The
mesio-palatal cusp is the nearest to the occlusal plane and the disto-buccal cusp the furthest away.

The second molar teeth should only be placed if there is room

The lower first molar tooth is positioned to occlude with the upper such that the mesiopalatal
cusp of the upper tooth occludes with the central fossae of the lower tooth.

The lower canine is placed to occlude with the upper lateral incisor and canine

The lower central incisor is placed to occlude only with the upper central incisor
The lower lateral incisor is placed to occlude with the upper central and lateral incisors
The first premolars are placed to occlude with the upper first premolar and the distal aspect of
the canine.
The lower second premolar is placed to occlude with the upper second and first premolars.
The second molar teeth should only be placed if there is room to do so without placing them over
the sloping parts of the ridges, which would cause denture instability.


This procedure is defined as the contouring of the wax base of a trial denture into the
desired form.

OBJECTIVE - To simulate natural gingival contours on a complete denture by waxing or

festooning the gingival portion.


1. Palate of maxillary denture should be even in thinness, provide room for the tongue, and not
interfere with speech. The palate may be completely smooth or have rugae in the anterior portion.
2. The denture must be self-cleaning. Holes or rough areas provide food traps. Interdental papillae
must be smooth and flat or slightly convex.
3. Lingual flange of mandibular denture may be slightly concave but not so much as to cause
dislodgment of the denture by the tongue.
4. The denture must replace lost bony structure; therefore the canine eminence at the corner of
the mouth and the gingival bulge on the buccal are very important.
7. The denture base must be uniform in outer thickness. Lumps and bumps are very
uncomfortable, draw attraction to their presence and provide a site for debris accumulation.
8. The waxed denture is exactly duplicated. Care must be taken to wax the denture exactly as you
wish the final denture to appear.
9. The posterior palatal seal helps retain the denture and must be performed before the denture is
sealed down and processed.

Sulcus - Filling the sulcus with the denture base provides the optimal seal around the denture,
adding retention. The denture base should be extended fully into the sulcus to achieve a good seal
between the denture periphery and the tissues.

Palate- The palate should generally be smooth and extend to the junction of the hard and soft
palate. The shape of the anterior palate can have a significant effect on speech and this should be
assessed and modified at the try-in stage by the clinician and technician. Artificial rugae may be
provided relatively easily using a silicone impression of the patient’s own rugae to aid in sculpting
the wax. Smooth dentures are easier to clean, and some patients who have worn smooth palate
dentures for a long time may find such features an irritant. However, they may be worth
considering if difficulty is being experienced with phonetics. The undulating surfaces may allow a
more natural contact with the tongue and aid word formation. The formed rugae should be smooth
so they do not irritate the tongue, collect food debris or encourage plaque accumulation.

Contour Facial and Buccal

The contour of the buccal and lingual flanges, or the ‘polished surfaces’ of the denture, can have a
major effect on denture stability. A good appreciation of the actions of the muscles of mastication
is essential when contouring the polished surfaces of the dentures.
Flow thin layer of wax around the necks of the teeth. Adapt a softened roll of wax along the facial
surface of the baseplate. Contour the wax to form fullness or convexity above the anterior teeth to
simulate attached gingiva. Contour prominent canine root eminence that stops short of the
border. Contour root eminence over centrals (not as prominent as canines). Prepare slight
depressions/fossae between the roots of the frontals.
Contour "gingival bulge". Bulge is almost nonexistent above the 1st bicuspid. Starts over the 2nd
bicuspid and widens as it travels to the distal of the 2nd molar. Place a slight depression in the
premolar area. This is the canine fossa and is important if normal facial expression is to be
obtained. Place a slight concavity along the buccal between the gingival bulge and the peripheral


Wax the posterior lingual flanges from the teeth to the peripheral roll making an incline plane that
slopes toward the tongue and is not convex. It may be slightly concave but not so much as to
cause the tongue to dislodge the denture. Flame and smooth with torch.

Labial and Buccal

Wax a small gingival bulge just below the gingival margins of the four incisors (similar to the
bulge on the maxillary). Wax canine eminences (not as prominent as on the maxillary).
Posterior gingival bulge should be convex with no root prominence. Place concavity between
gingival bulge and peripheral roll. Carve gingival margin and remove all excess wax from teeth.
Contour interdental papilla. Flame to smooth. Use sharp instrument to remove any wax around
gingival margins of each tooth.


PURPOSE: To produce an acrylic resin denture base containing teeth.


1. Upper and lower investing and processing flasks

2. Plaster bowl and spatula
3. Waxed denture on master casts.
4. Glass jar and metal spatula
5. Acrylic resin - monomer and polymer
6. Measuring vials
7. Plaster shears and plaster saw
8. Brush
9. Tin foil substitutes
10. Acrylic trimmers - burs and stones
11. Rag wheel
12. Felt wheel
13. Pumice and green polishing compound
14. Flask press

- Flasking.
- Wax elimination.
- Packing of acrylic resin.
- Processing and curing
- Deflasking
- Finishing and polishing.

1. Investing (flasking)
The investing procedure is the placing of the waxed denture bases and teeth
in suitable investing media in preparation for wax elimination and packing
of acrylic resin in its place. Plaster and stone, contained within a split metal
flask, are the investing materials because of their hardness and ability to
reproduce surface detail.
The processing flasks contain a lid, an upper and lower component (divided
according to whether it is used for an upper or lower denture) and a bottom
knock out disc.

Before beginning:
-ALL wax must be removed from the clinical crowns of denture teeth.
-Seal the waxed-up dentures to cast around the entire periphery
- immerse the cast in water for 5 minutes
Prepare the appropriate flask by lubricating internal surfaces and the cast.

Each denture is first invested in the lower half of the respective flask. Make a mix of plaster and
place it into the flask. Position the cast into the plaster allowing the excess plaster to squeeze
upward around the periphery. Trim off excess plaster and clear of the flask lip. The depth to which
the cast is placed into the plaster is determined by the height of the teeth in relation to the top of
the flask. Therefore it is advisable to place the upper half on the flask, without the lid, to make this
determination. A minimum of one half inch clearance from the top of the flask to the teeth is
essential. No difficulty will be experienced if the cast thickness is correct as described in the
procedure for pouring and trimming the master cast. The cast may be further pressed into the
plaster until the correct height is achieved. This must be accomplished while the plaster is still soft
and all excess should be removed after each manipulation. Allow plaster to set a minimum of 20
minutes. Trim and smooth all paste surfaces. Remove excess plaster edges so that the halves of the
flask can be placed in opposition (there should be metal-to-metal contact).

Apply a separating agent to the exposed plaster and stone surfaces. The separator is painted on
with a brush until a shiny surface is attained. Allow the separator to dry. Place the upper half of
the flask in place without the lid. Make a mix of plaster and vibrate it into the flask. Place the lid
on and press completely to place, allowing excess stone to squeeze out of the lid holes. Clear
excess stone and place the flask in a press under light pressure. Artificial stone is used over the
teeth because its greater strength will better resist pressures against the teeth during packing.
Allow the stone to set for 45 minutes.

2. Wax Elimination:

Immerse the flask in boiling water for 5-6 minutes to soften the wax. Remove from water and
carefully open the flask halves. Peel away the baseplate and unmelted portions of wax. Note that
the teeth are retained in the upper half of the flask. Clear all traces of wax from all surfaces and
teeth by flushing repeatedly with clean boiling water.

3. Packing of acrylic resin

Allow the flasks to cool to room temperature and paint all surfaces EXCEPT THE TEETH, with
tin foil substitute (a separating agent) until shiny.
Prepare a mix of acrylic resin sufficient for a denture (30 gr polymer to 30 cc monomer is enough
for the average case). Follow manufacturers' directions for proper mixing and packing
consistency. The resin should be mixed in a clean jar and packed when it reaches the dough
Acrylic is placed into the flask in slight excess and a sheet of plastic is placed between the halves
before closure. The flask is slowly compressed in a (pneumatic) press allowing excess acrylic to
slowly squeeze out between flask halves. The flask is opened and excess acrylic can be added if
necessary and the process repeated until complete closure is achieved. The final closure will not
contain the plastic sheet. When applying the acrylic to the molds, care should be exercised so that
the teeth are not lifted or moved. The packing pressure should be moderate and applied gradually
as the excess acrylic escapes. Great pressure can be directed at the teeth during closure which can
displace or intrude them into the investing material.

4. Curing:

The flasks should remain under pressure for at least 15 minutes. The manufacturer's should be
followed for curing. The flasks are removed and allowed to bench cool. Bench cool is very
important as separating the denture while is to hot may cause fracture.

5. Deflasking

Open the flask and dislodge the investment from the flask. Using
plaster shears or nippers, chip the plaster from around the
periphery of the stone cast until the base is exposed. Using plaster
saw and shears remove al plaster until the denture is exposed. The
plaster should be removed in small increments so that the acrylic,
the cast nor the teeth are fractured. You should recover a processed
denture base containing teeth attached to a stone master cast.

6. Finishing

Trim all gross excess acrylic down to the original waxed denture form, being careful not to
remove the following:
- Buccal, facial and lingual fold contour
- Post-dam area
- Gingival festooning around the teeth
- Surface contour and root eminences
Minor alteration of these areas may be made with acrylic buts, small burs and stone
- Inspect the tissue side of the dentures for small blebs due to voids in the casts. Remove these
with burs
- Finish the external surface and peripheral fold with rubber wheels to remove gross defects and to
impart final contour
- Using a wet rag wheel mounted on a lather, polish the external surfaces up to the peripheral
fold with medium pumice followed by fine flour of pumice until all scratches are removed. It is
advisable to use the low speed on the lathe in order to better control the amount of polish.
Maneuver the denture so that the depressed or concave areas are polished. Maintain the surface
contour during this procedure. Final impart a high shine on the same areas using a felt wheel and
green compound. Note that the basal seat surfaces are not altered or shined!.