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WHAT IS DIFFUSION?

D iffusion is the chemical process when molecules from


a material move from an area of high concentration
(where there are lots of molecules) to an area of low
concentration (where there are fewer molecules).

It describes the constant movement of particles in all liquids


and gases. These particles move in all directions bumping into
each other. Diffusion may be also referred as the process by
which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy
of random motion. The diffusion process continues until a
homogenous solution is obtained.
The diffusion of solute into solvent is, in fact, a bilateral
process. The characteristics are as follows:

 Solute molecules moving up into the solvent.


 The solvent molecules moving down into the solution.

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This inter-mixing of solute and solvent molecules is a
continuous process and ultimately a solution of uniform
concentration is formed.
Diffusion takes place very rapidly in case of gases, to a
lesser extent in case of liquids, and not at all in the case of
solids. However, diffusion of solids in liquids does take place,
albeit at a very slow rate.

If a solid is kept in contact with excess of solvent in which it is


soluble, some portion of the solid gets dissolved. This process
is known as dissolution of a solid in liquid, and it takes place
due to the diffusion of solid particles into liquid medium.
Molecules of solute are in constant random motion due to the
collision between molecules of solute and that of the solvent.

Also as the temperature is raised, kinetic energy of molecules


increases which thereby increases the number of collisions.
Particles of different substances move at different rates
e.g.,

when different colored inks are placed in water at constant


temperature, they diffuse at different rates. The speed of the
movement of solid particles depends upon
(a) Temperature
(b) Size of the particles
(c) Mass of the particle.

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Objective
To demonstrate that rate of diffusion depends upon the
following
factors:

 Temperature: As temperature increases, the kinetic


energy of the particles increases. Thus, the speed of
particles also increases, which in turn
increases the rate of diffusion.

 Size of the particle: As the size of


particle increases, rate of diffusion decreases. This is
because the particles become less mobile in the solvent.

 Mass of the particle: As the mass of the particle


increases, the rate of diffusion decreases; as the particle
becomes less mobile.

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EXPERIMENT 1:
To study diffusion when copper sulphate is brought in contact
with
water (liquid).

Requirements:
Copper sulphate (CuSO4) crystals, 100 mL beaker

Procedure:
 Take about 2g of copper sulphate crystals in 100ml
beaker.
 Add about 50ml of water and allow it to stand for few
minutes.
 Note the development of blue colour in water.
 Allow to stand further till it is observed that all copper
sulphate disappears.
 Note the violet colour change in water.
 Repeat the above steps in another beaker with the same
amount of COPPER SULPHATE but stir the solution for
sometime till a homogenous mixture is obtained.
 Note the time taken for the solid to get diffuse in both
the different cases under a constant temperature.

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OBSERVATIONS:

BEAKER NO. TREATMENT TIME TAKEN


GIVEN FOR COMPLETE
DISSOLUTION
1. UNDISTURBED

2. STIRRED

DISCUSSION: Stirring facilitates the diffusion of the


copper sulphate in water. This is probably due to increase in
the kinetic energy i.e., randomness of the molecules of solid
particles by both stirring and increase in temperature of the
system.

CONCLUSION: When solids such as copper sulphate,


potassium permanganate are brought in contact with liquids
such as water, intermixing of substances, i.e. diffusion takes
place. Also the rate of diffusion of a solid in a liquid increases
on stirring

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EXPERIMENT 2:
AIM: To study the rate of diffusion of solids in a liquid is
dependent on the molecular mass of the solids.

REQUIREMENTS:
Two 250 mL beakers, measuring cylinder, stop watch

CHEMICALS:
Potassium dichromate, copper sulphate and distilled water.

PROCEDURE:
1. Powder potassium dichromate and copper sulphate well in
a clean pestle and mortar, weigh 2 g of each.
2. Take 100 mL of distilled water in a clean beaker with the
help of a measuring cylinder.
3. Add 2 g of potassium dichromate into it and immediately
start a stop watch. Note the time for complete dissolution of
the dichromate.
4. Similarly, find out three times for complete dissolution of
2 g of the powdered copper sulphate in 100 mL of water.

OBSERVATION:
Room temperature = 27°C
Weight of the solid taken = 2 g

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Volume of distilled water taken each time = 100 mL
Molecular mass of CuSO4 = 249.5 g/mol
Molecular mass of K2Cr2O7 = 294 g/mol
Molecular mass of Cu ion =63.5 g/mol
Molecular mass of Cr2O7 ion =216 g/mol
Time for complete dissolution of K2Cr2O7 = _ _
Time for complete dissolution of CuSO4 =_ _

DISCUSSION:
It is observed that time taken for complete dissolution of
CuSO4 is less as compared to the time taken for complete
dissolution of the same amount of potassium dichromate.
Thus, it can be said that rate of diffusion of a solid in a liquid
depends upon the nature of the solid and their molecular
masses, other conditions remaining same. Diffusion rate of
potassium dichromate having higher molecular mass than
copper sulphate is slower as compared to copper sulphate.
That is rate of diffusion of solids in liquids is inversely
proportional to the molecular mass of the solid, if other
conditions are same.

CONCLUSION:
Rate of diffusion of a solid in a liquid depends upon molecular
mass of the solid.

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Experiment 3:

AIM: To study the effect of temperature on the rate of


diffusion of solids in liquids

REQUIREMENTS: Copper sulphate crystals, 200ml beaker,


watch glass, wire gauge, burner, tripod stand, thermometer
and stop watch.

PROCEDURE:
 Take 5g of copper sulphate each in three beakers.
 Pour 100ml of distilled water slowly in one of the
beakers.
 Cover this beaker with a watch glass.
 Pour 100ml of cold water in a second beaker slowly.
 Place a third beaker containing 100ml of water on a
tripod stand for heating.
 Observe the diffusion process which begins in all the
beakers.
 Record the time taken for the dissolution of copper
sulphate in all the three cases.

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OBSERVATIONS:

CONCLUSION: The Rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in


water is in the order of Beaker 3 > Beaker 1 > Beaker 2. Thus,
the rate of diffusion varies directly with temperature.

H2O (27 C) H2O(12 C) H2O(55 C)

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Result:

 Solid particles and undergo diffusion when they come in


contact with liquids.
 Small particles undergo diffusion more quickly than
bigger particles.

 When solids such as copper sulphate, potassium


permanganate are brought in contact with liquid such as
water, intermixing of the substances, i.e. diffusion takes
place.

 The rate of diffusion varies directly with temperature.

Conclusion:

The rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in water is in the


order as
given below:
Beaker 3 > Beaker 2 > Beaker 1
Thus, the rate of diffusion varies directly with temperature.

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Experiment 4:
Aim:
To study the effect of size of particles on the rate of diffusion
of solids in liquids.

Requirements:
Graduated 100 mL measuring cylinders, copper sulphate
(CuSO4) crystals of different sizes, stop watch.

Procedure:
 Add 50 mL of water to each of the three cylinders.
 Take five gram each of big size, medium size, small size
crystals of copper sulphate, and add them separately in
three cylinders.
 Allow to them to stand for sometime.
 Note the time taken for blue colour to reach any fixed
mark in each of the cylinders and note the observations.

Observations:

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Conclusion:
The rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in water is in the
order as
given below:
Beaker 3 > Beaker 2 > Beaker 1
Thus, smaller particles undergo diffusion more quickly than
bigger

RESULT:
 When solids such as copper sulphate are brought in
contact
with liquids such as water, intermingling of substances, i.e.,
diffusion takes place.
 The rate of diffusion varies directly with temperature.
 Small particles undergo diffusion more quickly than
bigger particles.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

 http://www.cbseportal.com
 NCERT chemistry Textbook
 Diffusionmag.com

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Investigatory
project on diffusion
of solids in liquids
INDEX
S.NO TOPIC PG.NO
01 INTRODUCTION 01
02 OBJECTIVE 03
03 EXPERIMENT 1 04
04 EXPERIMENT 2 06
05 EXPERIMENT 3 08
06 EXPERIMENT 4 11
07 BIBLIOGRAPHY 12

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