Anda di halaman 1dari 17

E.

BRAUN, SMITH*

AND

A. STOLTE**

Center for
National -· uw-&.B:IJIN

Washington, D. C.

Received June 1982


Revised November 30, 1982

ABSTRACT: The cigaretteoinitiated smoldering behavior of six upholstered


chairs in a small, closed test room was analyzed in detail. The CO, CO:h and
total hydrocarbon concentrations, oxygen depletion, temperature rise,
smoke obscuration, and weight loss were recorded. All chairs were covered
with medium to weight, cellulosic (cotton or rayon) fabric. Two chairs
were commercial, varying in fabric construction, filling materials, and con-
figuration. Four experimental chairs were constructed for this project. They
had identical cover fabrics and configurations, but varied widely in filling
materials.
Potentially hazardous conditions caused by poor visibility and high ·cono
centration of pyrolysis products occurred in all six chair burns, regardless of
whether the chairs only smoldered during the test period or whether they first
smoldered and then burst into flames. Smoke development which would
make escape difficult generally occurred before the flaming of the chairs and
before the maximum CO and COa concentrations, oxygen depletion, and
temperature were reached.
The chairs which smoldered only contained polyester batting under the
cover fabric in the area where the cigarette was placed, those which first
smoldered and then burst into flames contained polyurethane foam or cotton
batting. The rate of pyrolysis product release was lower during smoldering of
the chairs which eventually burst into flames than that of the chairs which
smoldered during the whole test period. However, this rate increased rapidly
when flaming occurred.

Keywords: cigarettes; cotton batting; fabrics; flammability; ignition; polyester batting; poly
urethane foam; pyrolysis products; smoldering; toxicity; upholstered furniture.

*Dr. Smith was a Research Associate at NBS. Present address: B.F. Goodrich Chemical Group,
Technical Center, Avon lake, OH 44012.
**Present address: Anesthesiology Department, George Washington University Medical Center,
Washington, DC 20037. ·
Note: This work was funded by the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission at the National
Bureau of Standards; it is not subject to copyright.
Journal of Consumer Product Flammability, Vol. 9 (December 1982), p. 167
0362-16nia2/04 0167-17 $04.50/0
©1982 Technomic Publishing Inc.
E. Braun, J. Krasny, D. Peacock, M. Paabo, A. Stolte

HE OBJECTIVE of this work was to nn,g:l!onlo


havior of chairs '\Hlllllf"'.HUII"'iiri!

after cigarette
toxicity deleterious affects contemporary"
II

compared to a chair filled with "historic" Contemporary here refers


14
. to polyurethane foam and other manmade materials, historic" to untreated
cotton batting, the standard filling material .20 or 30 years Another
question was smoldering of the cover fabric
ment of the filling material (technical failure**) II

conditions. Six chairs construction were testea


built to our specifications to provide these variations; two
porary, commercial products.
chair was placed into a one cig-
arette. loss, tem-
perature, smoke obscuration were results are described in
detail in a report to the Consumer Product Safety Commission by N
During four of the chair burns, personnel from the
Health of the University of Pittsburgh to ""'nll''ll'il'!!:llll'lf'UIFil!!:ll'll'~~l"t
from the burn room, observed rate, signs
mortality. (Animals were treated in accordance
Care and Use of laboratory Animals-
sonnet also exposed mice the pyrolysis products
materials contained in the chairs, such as fabrics, foam,
work will be described in a separate publication [2].
The discussion of the present work is largely based on comparing the rate of
smoke and pyrolysis product production during smoldering flaming, if
any, of the six chairs. The following may aid in the evaluation of the reported
results,. in the form of their· biological consequences.
Packham lists surviveable exposures of humans as varying from 1500
ppm for 30 minutes, to 1000 to 5000 ppm for minutes [3]. Other tox.acoloa~tsts
prefer to express exposure in terms of both concentration and time, as ppm-
min. For conditions in which CO was believed to be the major toxicant, Lieu
al. give a lC-50 (concentration of pyrolysis products which causes percent
the animal population to die in a specified amount of time) for rats 70,000
to 145,000 ppm-min [4]. levin independently arrived at a value approx-
imately 150,000ppm-min in 30 minute exposures where CO was the only con-

*This work was sponsored by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission to obtain answers to
specific questions raised by the upholstered furniture industry and CPSC staff.
**The term "technical failure" was introduced because such assemblies fail tests .based on char
length measured on the fabric surface but were believed to have low injury potential, because
of non-involvement of the filling materials.

168
Cigarette Ignition of Upholstered

taminant [5]. A C02 level of 40,000 ppm is reported [6] to be capable of caus-
ing increased respiration rate, headache and weakness in man. Total hydro-
carbon concentration has not been related to physiological response.
Jin studied the effect of smoke obscuration on escape potential of humans
[7 ,8]. He found that humans would be slowed down to a walking speed below
that of a blindfolded person in a smoke free environment by an optical density
level of 0.5 OD/m for non-irritating smoke and 0.2 00/m for irritating smoke.

The layout of the burn room is shown in figure 1. The dimensions were
3 x 3 x 2.4 m (approximately 10 x 10 x 8 ft). The walls and ceiling con-
sisted of two layers of gypsum board. The door was closed during all tests, but
had a 25 mm ( 1 in) high opening at the bottom of the door.
Sampling ports for the gas analysis equipment were located at 2.3, 1.7, 0.8,
and 0.3 m (7'9", 5'6", 30'', and 12'1 above the floor. sampling lines were
heated, except the one at 0.8 m, and provided with cold traps and filters. Ther-
mocouples were located at the same positions except at 0.8 m, and smoke

V=21.6m3

3.0m

CLG\'J
OUT 2.4m
PAIJEl

TC - thermocouples
A,B,C - ports
Figure 1. Configuration of test room.

169
E. Braun, J. F. Krasny, R. D. Peacock, M. A. Stolte

meters at 1. 7 and 0.8 m above the floor. m ( B in figure


1) was used to sample room air for inhalation experiments involving mice dur-
ing four of the six chair tests. The rate sample the room
was 20 L/ min. The total amount of air used in the experiments, in-
cluding the fresh air used for dilution, was roturnod to the room at Port C. The
amount of air returned to the room in excess of the withdrawn volume was 60
l/min, or about 0.3 percent per minute the total of the room. In the
tests in which no inhalation experiments were B and C were
closed.
CO and C02 concentrations were measured infrared
analysis. Total hydrocarbons were determined by a detector,
and oxygen depletion with an electrolytic cell. For these measure-
ments, gases were sampled in sequence for 30 seconds at each of the four
sampling ports, so that results were obtained 2 minutes.
Samples for gas chromatographic HCN determination were by hand at
appropriate times.
Tempersture measurements at three locations, measurements at
two locations, and weight were recorded seconds. chair weight
was constantly displayed on a video screen. of the chair
was clearly indicated a sharp increase in the
chair burns were made, but the thick smoke usefulness.
The chairs were conditioned and testing was at to °C and 40
to 55 percent relative humidity. A lighted, nonfilter cigarette was placed into
the crevice formed by the seat cushion and right so the non burn-
ing end of the cigarette was approximately mm inches) from the corner
formed by the side and back. The cigarette was covered a piece of cotton
sheeting, as is the practice in most cigarette ignition tests [9-12].
The major materials of chair construction are shown 1. Chairs 1 and
2 were commercial products and had UFAC labels 2 had a rounded
cushion and back (barrel chair); all others had square cushions. Both were
covered with rayon velvet but they differed in materials.
Chairs 3 to 6 were constructed specially this provide system-
atic variations in filling materials. All used the same type wood frame. The
common cover fabric was an undyed, un~leached,
ton" type fabric, with backcoating, approximately
fabric was chosen because C?ne of the objectives of was to
"technical failure", i.e., chairs in which only the fabric would smolder, uuaYnna
involvement of the filling material. This fabric was the only one of a number of
fabrics which were pretested and produced this phenomenon.
Chair 3 was constructed to Upholstered Furniture Action Council (UFAC)
requirements [9]. The cellulosic cover fabric was Class II; such fabrics
are required (by UFAC) to have a barrier material between polyurethane foam
in the seat cushion and the seat cover fabric. kg/m 3 (1.21bs/ft3 )

170
Table 1. Smolder/ Burn Behavior of Six Upholstered Chairs
Chair

1 2 3 4 6 8

Fabric construction velvet velvet Haitian Haitian Haitian Haitian


cotton cotton cotton cotton

Fiber content rayon rayon cotton cotton cotton cotton

Weight (g/ sq m) .450 540 120 120 120 720

Seat cushion foam w. foam res. treated PE batting PE batting PE batting cotton
topper PE batting over foam batting
over foam

Sides mixed fiber shredded PE batting PE batting PE batting cotton


batting foam batting

Back PE batting foam foam PE batting PE batting cotton


over foam batting

Air circulation a> 1/min 60 1/min none none 60 1/min 60 1/min


added added added added

Test period (min) 140 90 100 115 105 55


Time to ignition (min) 65 58 none* none none 22
Time (min) to reach:
Weight lom·Hg)
250 70 59 53 46 31 28
73 61 72 i 85 62 39
1000
2000 - 63 - - 100
Pyrolysis products at 1.7 m
CO (ppm)
2000 - 63 65 55 - 29
-
~

-...!
4000 - 63 79 95 - 33
-
-....!
N
Table 1. (Continued)
Chair

1 2 3 4 6 8

CO (ppm-min)
20,000 - 63 57 51 - 31
40,000 - 65 69 61 - 35
60,000 - 67 75 69 - 39
80,000 - 69 81 75 - 41
100,000 - 73 85 83 - 43
150,000 - 78 93 95 - 58
C02 (ppm)
10,000 - 63 71 63 52 29
20,000 - 63 97 105 91 33
Total HC (ppm)
1,000 - 53 47 43 39 29
2,000 - 59 61 n 56 35
Oa (%)
18 - 61 87 95 69 33

Temperature ( °C)
40 - 59 75 80 60 26
60 - 60
Optical density (00/m)
at 1.7 m-0.2 29 30 18 14 23 12
-0.5 40 39 23 25 26 18
at 0.8 m-0~2 45 41 22 17 26 21
-0.5 50 46 31 39 29 23

*Chair ignited as soon as fresh air entered the room.


Cigarette Ignition

spring covers on the


chair

ature,
function
obtained
generally
The initial """"""'~nr.!31fl'~
After the " 1
'"'!:!11r'.ell"l:lli

thick smoke,
and 6 occurred corner 'II'II"U''II'nil:•n

ignition occur during the


3 flamed purging of the room was
chair. Appearance a flame glow visible
sharp increase in weight loss (figure 2).
minutes, indicating smaller flames nrr•h!:!~hlu
ever, the weight loss curves remained linear after
As shown in table 1, the test period was extended Sometime after flame
ignition for chairs 1, 2, and 6. This permitted r.nRII"'•n the pyrolysis product
fl'OIF• ....

concentrations the smoldering as well as ignition periods.


Tests 3, 4 and 5 were stopped when rate was fairly constant,

173
E. Braun, J. F. Krasny, R. D. Peacock, M. Paabo, G. F. Smith and A. Stolte

25 ~--------~,----------~.----------r-,---------,r---------.
-----, ~~1
' - - CHA:~ e
', ·······•···· CHA:R 3
·- · - · - ·--. , - · - · - · - CHA:~ 4 -
23 - • --"-) -·-·-CHA:'< 5

,_.._
t:n
c.
....._----:- • - -

·-- ...__
- - - - - CIIA~l (j

·--- ·-- ·--


(f)
(f)
0
_j
21
:..:.: .::.;:: :..:..:..- ..:..::.:..--..:..::::..:. - .
~-\~~-·-·-·-·-·-.
·--·-- ·--·- -

t-
:r.: 19
0
-
··························
. ··········....
..
-·-·- .. -
w \_·=··..- - -
3

17 r- -

15 ~-----------~'----------~'----------._---------'~-------~
1

0 30 60 90 120 150
TIME (rnln)

Figure 2. Smoldering chair tests, weight loss.

10000~------~.~------~~------~.---------T,--------~
// I I
I ..--·-·-

8000 f-
// I / __,.
E
c.
8 / I //
z
~
<(
6000 r-
/ I ·1/
0::
t-
z
w
:
I
I
I
I
.. /,
.
~ 4000-
6
u / I . .r .,. /..,.
(/)
<(
2000 - I
I
r. .-...::.·', • =·=· ~~ ~
-·-·-·-CHAIR 4
.,...·".· .. : .
(!) -·-·-CHAIR 5
I -----CHAIR 6
I ,. 1
/ .~·:.::;.·:;;-·-·
// .... ~,-; ..• ·__.. I I I
0~----~~~~----~b-------~--------~--------~
0 30 60 90 120 150
TIME (min)

Figure 3. Smoldering chair tests, carbon monoxide concentration at 168 em.

174
Cigarette Ignition of Upholstered Chairs

---CHAIR :1.
--CHAIR 2
............ CHAIR 3
'2 I
-·-·-·-CHAlK 4

~
- - - - - CHAIR 6
300000 - I
E
0.
I
..._,
0. I
I
z I /
0
·t=: I /
< 200000 /
0:: I
1- I
z
UJ I
0
z
0
I
I
(.) 100000 I
(./)
<( I
(.!) I
I
/

30 60 ·go 120 150


TIME (min)
Figure 4. Smoldering chair tests, cumulative carbon monoxide concentrations at 168 em.

---CHJI.iR :1.
--CHAIR e
•••••••••••• CHAAR 3
- · - · - · - CHAiR 4
80000 -·-·-CHAIR 5
'E
0.
-----CHAIR 6
a
z
0
;:: 60000 -
<
0::
1-
z
w
0
z 40000 -
0
0
(./)
<(
(.!)
20000

30 60 go 120 150
TIME (min)

Figure 5. Smoldering chair tests, carbon dioxide concentration at 168 em.

175
E. Braun, J. Krasny, R. D. Peacock, M. A. Stolte

and the oxygen concentration was about 1 ignition ap-


pea red unlikely.

Chairs
Chairs 1 and 2 were contemporary, commercial chairs, carrying UFAC
labels; experimental chair 3 was built with had the
same cover fabric and configuration as chairs 4, 5
chairs ( 1 and were covered rayon velvets
and construction, and contained considerable
foam. They mainly in the filling material
rounded cushion (barrel chair), the other had a
Considering these differences, the behavior of chairs 1
and flaming was remarkably similar. Rates of '"'' 10
'Rd"''llr'!IT

product development (figures 3 to 6), oxygen depletion


(figure 8) and optical density (figure 9) were ..., ... "', .......~
41
longer Start-up" period, and time to flame
Smoke levels which may make escape difficult, as discussed
tion, were reached before flaming ignition density
started increasing at about 15 minutes (first involvement of foam 7) with
another, sharper increase at 35 to minutes. Pyrolysis product concentra-
tions were not measured after flaming ignition 1,
tion reached 150,000 ppm-min about 20 minutes after
2. HCN concentration was found to be approximately
and 85 to 90 ppm in chair test 1 soon after flaming. It ao[:»ears
might be threatened soon after flame ignition on basis
concentrations.
Oxygen concentration dropped rapidly after flame .f'l'n. Similarly, air
DA"fifl"!!l'il'
4

temperatures reached 200 ° to 300 °C in both chair 2 after flaming


ignition. '
Chair 3 also contained contemporary materials. major difference from
chair 2 was the use of a much heavier, unsecured, cellulosic cover fabric which
could be expected to increase smoldering tendency [13, and use of poly-
ester batting in the sides as wall as a wrap for which should
decrease it. This chair did not flame during the test
curred after the recording equipment was turned off was brought
into the room. The values shown in table 1 for this chair were all obtained
ing smoldering.
All measured parameters increased at a faster rate during chair test 3 than
during the smoldering phase of chair tests 1 and This holds particularly
the optical density.' Most of these rates increased somewhat about 50 minutes
after placement of the cigarette. Involvement of an additional part (perhaps
the decking) of the chair can be suspected but this cannot be seen on the
videotape.

176
Cigarette Ignition of Upholstered Chairs

5000--------~--------~~------~--------~------~
I
I
I
I
,...... 4000 I
E
0.. I
8 I
z
0
I
3000 I
t=
<(
~
I
t- I
z
w I
z 2000
(.)
I
0 I
(.)

(/)
..:(
(!')
1000 lI

0~--------~--------~--------~--------~--------~
0 30 60 90 120 150
TIME (min)
! ' I ;, .

Figure 6. Smoldering chair tests, to(!J{h'!drocarbon concentra'(ion at 168 em.


' . .

21

18
,......
~ 15
z
0
;:::
<(
~
12
t-
z
w
(.)
z 9 -
0
c.>
---CHAIR 1
(/) 6 - - - CHA!R e
<(
(.!)
............ cw..:R :;
-·-·-·- CHJ.:K 4
-·-·-Ct!Jj~ 5

3 - - - - -CttJ.JR 6

0
0 30 60 90 120 150
TIME (min)
Figure Z Smoldering chair tests, oxygen concentration at 168 em.

177
E. Braun, J. F. Krasny, R. D. Peacock, M. Paabo, G. Smith and A. Stolte

300
---CHA!r11
- - CtlAii~ 2
••••••••.••• O.i;..:=< 3
250 - · - · - · - CHA!K 4
-·-·-CHAL=< 5
-----CHAL~ 6

,.......
~
...._, 200
w
0:
:::::>
t- 150
<C
0:
w
0..
~
w 100
t-

50

0
0 30 60 90 120 150
TIME (min)
Figure 8. Smoldering chair tests, temperature at 168 em.

Chair 6 had the same configuration and cover fabric as chair 3, but its filling
material consisted entirely of cotton batting (except springs in the cushion). In
this manner, the burn characteristics of chair 6 constructed of materials
popular 20 to 30 years ago could be compared with the polyurethane foam and
polyester batting filling type of construction commonly used today.
Flaming ignition occurred at about 22 min, much earlier than in the two
commercial chairs which flamed, chairs 1 and 2. Consequently, the various
product levels listed in table 1 were reached much earlier in chair 6 than in any
of the other chairs. However, no HCN was detected. After flaming ignition,
the rates of increase for weight loss, CO and C02 concentration, and oxygen
depletion were lower for chair 6 than the same rates for the urethane-contain-
ing chairs 1 and 2. Similarly, the highest temperature measured was con-
siderably below that found for the other flaming chairs. This is in accordance
with earlier findings [ 15].

unaull!:l,o+•.:~~~• Batting Chairs


These chairs were constructed to investigate the conditions encountered
when only the cover fabric smolders, without involvement of the filling ma-
terial. This phenomenon is called "technical failure" because the char length,
the pass-fail criterion used in many upholstery cigarette ignition tests [9-12] in
such cases may be large, but relatively little fuel may be consumed. This ap-

178
Cigarette Ignition of Upholstered Chairs

J •
---CHAlR 1
!I •J --CHAIR f
........... • Ct';..R 3
-·-·-·- CHJ..~~ 4
4
~
;/ --·-·MCII,',;,( ti
- - - - - CHAlK 6
.......
a
0
.._, .,n·
>- 3 I;
t:
(/)
z
w ( /
}······x····· .
0
....J2
~
t-
n..
0 1 / :.ifi ...
I ·;·

•\
,,.
I ::
~·::d.
':"'.

0 ."'
0 30 60 90 120
TIME (min)
Figure 9. Smoldering chair tests, optical density at 168 em.

parently occurs rarely- no technical failure was observed in cigarette ignition


experiments with 78 commercial chairs [16]. (This information was, however,
not available during the planning of the work.)
The filling material in both chairs was polyester batting which generally
shrinks away from the cover fabrics, with the upper layer melting but not char-
ring. In both these chairs, fabric smoldering extended over most of the chair
surfaces, including the bottom side of the pillow and the decking cover (the
fabric under the pillow, which was the "Haitian cotton" used elsewhere in the
chair).
Chair 4 was tested without return of air withdrawn from the room, while 60
L per minute of air (approximately 0.3 percent of room volume) were added
during chair test 5. Neither chair went into flaming, even when the door was
opened.
In spite of the differences in ventilation, the chairs performed similarly. Chair
test 5 had slightly higher rates of weight loss, C02 and total hydrocarbon build-
up, and oxygen depletion indicating perhaps slightly faster smoldering.
perature and optical density curves were very similar. The weight loss rate ac-
celerated somewhat after 40 minutes in chair test 4 and after about 30 minutes
in chair test 5.

as a Function
. The above discussion was based mostly on time from placement of the

179
E. Braun, J. F. Krasny, R. D. Peacock, M. Paabo, G. F. Smith and A. Stolte

cigarette on the chairs. Table 2 shows the values the various parameters at
250 g weight loss. All chairs were fully involved in smoldering or burning at this
point. It was reached in 31 to 53 minutes in the chairs which only smoldered,
and 28 to 70 minutes, i.e., after flaming ignition, in the others. Footnotes in
the tabla indicate whether the 250 g weight loss occurred during a rapid in-
crease of the measured property.
Table 2 shows that no chair was consistently better or worse than the otr.ers
in all of the measured properties when compared in this manner; e.g., this
weight loss occurred about 6 minutes after ignition in chair 6, and it produced
a relatively high (and rapidly increasing) CO concentration, as well as relatively
high temperature. On the other hand, the OD (smoke) values and C02 and
total . hydrocarbon concentrations were relatively low. Oxygen depletion
results for all chairs were similar, as were temperatures for those chairs which
did not flame before 250 g weight loss.

Potentially life threatening conditions, i.e., low visibility and high pyrolysis

2. Pyrolysis Product Concentrations at the Time g Weight Loss


Six Upholstered Chairs
Chair

1 2 3 4 5 16

Weight loss of 70 59 53 46 31 28
260 g reached
in min.
Ignition time 65 58 none none none 22
(min.)
Pyrolysis products
at 1.7 m
CO (ppm) 1,0701 1,025 1,145 1,63()2
Co (ppm~min) 10,3201 14,530 13,350 11,390
C02 (ppm) 3,450' 4,600 4,935 2,995 1,4352
Total HC (ppm) 2,0151 1,335 950 665 35()2
02 (%) 191 20 28 20 20
Temperature ( °C) 8()2 271 30 34 30 652
Optical density
(00/m)
at 1.7 m 2.42 3.03 2.44 5.()3 1.53 0.34
at .am 2.()2 2.53 2.84 1.6 3 1.2 3 1.12
1
Flame ignition and rapid increase occurred about 1 min. later.
2
Rapid increase at this time (after flame ignition).
3Rapid increase in OD at this time, independent of flame ignition.
4
00 leveled out or decreased before this time.

180
product lf"nl"-f/"'II.:lln+ra.+·iinru:~
cigarette RRII"'l,ft'li'ld"';ll"'l
chairs were fr'IIM>II.OI!i:JA!F ....nl

contained a

not.
time
chairs IIADII"llBII"'ft TH!:I!lii'Y'lJCI,,;

smoldered li".tl!:ll!CU'•II"ll•.a.d""''

The present answered one of the OU19Stloras nif'iRiif'U:liDilu DCJS81!l: 'li'll:ll.f'OII"\lll"\lB.f'O!:I!S


failure, i.e., smoldering of only the cover '11'6lii"~IP~"' \AII'Ii'll"\lna
ing material, can lead to potentially life 'thll''ll:ll!:li1'A"•"~"'~~ ,.,.,"l!l'ta1~anr!!C!
now appears that the question is less important
technical failure is probably a very rare occurrence.
The question of whether contemporary a Rrg:•!:JI'fl'll:.r "~:::1!7ll:lllrn

181
E. Braun, J. and Stolte

than the all-cotton construction Cotton


fabric-cotton constructions were found to density,
heat flux and concentrations of gaseous contem-
porary chairs with folded present
cigarette ignition experiments, the all-cotton chair changed smoldering
to flaming much earlier than the commercial contemporary Conditions
tended to be similar or less severe for the aU-cotton chair than for
the contemporary chairs. Its contemporary counterpart, containing poly-
urethane and batting under the same cover fabric, did not
flame while room was closed but flamed immediately after air flow was in-
creased. It polyester may have to an increased
smoldering rate, have prevented flaming Flame ignition ap-
pears to be more likely to occur where cellulosic are in direct contact
with foam or cotton hQiHHil"'',,...
The present results that all-cotton upholstered can be
more hazardous than contemporary no categorical state-
ment as to hazards of historic or construction can
be made because of the very large number of possible combinations of cover
fabrics and filling materials.

This was sponsored by the U.S. Consumer Safety Cqmmis-


sion. It was performed in the Fire Research Facility the cooperation of
its staff, especially Mr. W. Bailey and Mr. R. Triplett, is acknowledged.
Miss Allen and Mr. R. Meade helped in plotting the graphs.

1. Braun, E., Peaoock, R., Smith, G., and Stolte, Cigarette Ignition of Upholstered
Chairs, letter report by the Center for Fire Research, National Bureau of Standards, to the U.S.
Consumer Product Safety Commission (1981).
2. Alarie, Y.C., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, in preiparl!lltton.
3. Packham, S.C., Toxic Gas Tenability limits in Fire Environments, Annual Progress Report to the
National Bureau of Standards (August 1980).
4. Lieu, Magill, J.H., and Alarie, Y.C., Toxicity of the Degradation Prod4cts from
Polyphosphazene Copolymers, J. Combustion Toxicology, 7, 143-156 1980).
5. Levin, B.C., Center for Fire Research, National Bureau of Standards, personal communication.
6. Packham, S.C., Flammability and Toxicological Aspects Pertaining to the Combustion of
Douglas Fir, Flammability Research Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
(1975).
1. Jin, T., Visibility Through Fire Smoke. Part 2, Report of Fire Research Institute of Japan, 33,
31-48 (1971). Part 5, Report of Fire Research Institute of Japan, 42, 12-18 (1975).
8. Jin, T., Vmibility through' Fire Smoke. In: Main Reports on Production, Movement and Control
of Smoke in Buildings, 100-153, Japanese Association of Fire Science and Engineering (1974).
9. UFAC (Upholstered Furniture Action Council) Program Participant Guide, UFAC Central, High
Point, North Carolina 27261.

182
Cigarette Ignition of Upholstered Chairs

10. State of California, Department of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Home Furnishing, Flammability
Information Package (Jan. 1980).
11. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association First Generation Voluntary
Upholstered Furniture Flammability Standard for Business and Institutional Markets, BIFMA,
2335 Burton, S.E., Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506 (May 22, 1978).
12. Loftus, J.J., Bock-up Roport for tho Proposod Stundurd for tho Flummubitity (Ciourutto lonition
Resistance) of Upholstered Furniture, PFF 6-76 appendix C, NBSIR 78-1438, Center for Fire
research, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 20234 (June 1978).
13. McCarter, R.J., Smoldering Combustion of Cotton and Rayon, J. Consumer Product Flam-
mability, 4, 346-354 (December 19n).
14. Damant, G.H., Krasny, J.F., and Williams, S.S., Cigarette Ignition Behavior of Commercial
Upholstery Cover Fabrics, J. Consumer Product Flammability, in preparation.
15. Babrauskas, V., Full-scale Burning Behavior of Upholstered Chairs, Technical Note 1103, Na-
tional Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (1979).
16. Pressler, P.l. and Oakley, M.S., Upholstered Furniture Flammability· Tests- Methods and Data
Summary, Engineering laboratory Division, Consumer Product Safety Commission,
Washington, D.C.

183