© All Rights Reserved

5 tayangan

© All Rights Reserved

- dynseg[1]
- hhh
- Seminar Objective Paper_A
- Cellular Expert Brochure
- Esripress Catalog 2012
- 54-ICCPM2011A10028(BIM)
- Poster Badut Lbs
- p1208
- Practice Article
- Download
- Landslides and Erosion
- Journal Review - Probabilistic landslide hazards and risk mapping on Penang Island
- Assignment 1
- Chap_3_Fore_p3
- The Use of Gis Technology in Cultural Heritage
- A Novel Approach for Georeferenced Data Analysis Using Hard Clustering Algorithm
- Geographic Information System
- A Step by Step Guide to Making Maps of Vegetation Carbon Stocks _ Deforestationwatch
- Stability Analysis
- workshopexercises-only.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 16

loess slide size within different slip surfaces

Haijun Qiu, Peng Cui, Amar Deep Regmi, Yanmin Wang & Sheng Hu

To cite this article: Haijun Qiu, Peng Cui, Amar Deep Regmi, Yanmin Wang & Sheng Hu (2017)

Slope height and slope gradient controls on the loess slide size within different slip surfaces,

Physical Geography, 38:4, 303-317, DOI: 10.1080/02723646.2017.1284581

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tphy20

Download by: [Gadjah Mada University] Date: 10 January 2018, At: 19:52

Physical Geography, 2017

VOL. 38, NO. 4, 303–317

https://doi.org/10.1080/02723646.2017.1284581

size within different slip surfaces

Haijun Qiua,b, Peng Cuib, Amar Deep Regmib, Yanmin Wangc and Sheng Hua

a

College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, China; bInstitute of Mountain

Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China; cSchool of Chemistry and

Environmental Science, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, China

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Based on intensive landslide surveys and interpretation of remote Received 20 March 2016

sensing images, we established a loess slide inventory map of the Accepted 17 January 2017

Yan’an region in northern Shaanxi province, China. According to their KEYWORDS

slip surfaces, we grouped loess slides into three categories: landslides Landslide; landside size

in loess, red clay contact landslides, and bedrock contact landslides. distribution; slip surface;

Results indicate an obvious power law relationship among loess slope height; slope gradient

slide length, area, and volume. Moreover, landslide size depends

remarkably on the slip surface. The average area and length of red

clay contact landslides are 5.52 and 2.45 times larger than those

of landslides in loess. Intermediate-slope relative height and slope

gradient have a prominent role in landslide formation. The size

distribution of loess slides was examined with respect to the slope

height and slope gradient. The analysis revealed that slope height

and slope gradient were the most dominant controlling factors for

loess slide size. The loess slide became larger with the increasing

relative height of the slope, and there is an obvious linear or power

law relationship between loess slide size and slope relative height. On

the contrary, landslide size gradually decreases as the slope gradient

increases at a certain level.

Introduction

Landslides, one of the recurrent problems that occur completely beyond human control

in steep mountains, account for enormous casualty and property damage in many parts

of the world (Dai & Lee, 2002; Larsen & Torres-Sánchez, 1998). Landslide frequency has

commonly been increasing throughout the world in recent years due to the increase in

population density accompanied by logging, mining, and excavation of slopes for road cuts,

uncontrolled urban sprawl, and unplanned settlement development (Aleotti & Chowdhury,

1999; Greco, Giorgio, Capparelli, & Versace, 2013; Guthrie, 2002).

In China, loess mantles an area of approximately 631,000 km2, which is about 6.6% of

the total area of China (Liu, 1985). It is an aeolian sediment formed by the accumulation

of w ind-blown dust, which leads to high porosities and low values of bulk density

© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

304 H. QIU ET AL.

(Derbyshire, 2001; Derbyshire et al., 1991). The well-developed vertical joints in loess

significantly influence the hydrological process (Derbyshire, 2001). The characteristic of

collapsibility of loess indicates that it is very sensitive to water (Derbyshire, 2001; Liu, 1985)

and very prone to mass movement processes (Wang, Liang, Zhang, Wu, & Lin, 2014).

Furthermore, with the economic development and increased intensity of human activities

along the Loess Plateau, loess slides have become more frequent in these areas (Derbyshire,

2001; Xu et al., 2014). The loess landslide, which threatens lives and infrastructure, is a major

engineering problem in many loess-covered terrains (Derbyshire, 2001).

Correct characterization of size distribution and frequency of landslides within a given

geographic area plays an increasingly important role in determining landslide susceptibility,

hazard, risk, long-term occurrence of landslides of particular sizes, and the process of geo-

morphic evolution dominated by slope movement (Guthrie & Evans, 2004; Guzzetti et al.,

2008; Harmon & Doe, 2001; Hovius, Stark, & Allen, 1997; Korup, 2005a, 2005b; Soeters &

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

van Westen, 1996; Varnes & IAEG Commission on Landslides and other Mass-Movements,

1984). Thus, it is necessary to quantify landslide size distribution relationships by reliable

and accurate methods in many different geological environments (Guzzetti, 2006).

It is well known that various exogenic and endogenic factors, including climatologic,

hydrologic, geologic, and geomorphic conditions, fundamentally contribute to the size

distribution, occurrence, and frequency of landslides (Larsen & Torres-Sánchez, 1998).

Thus, understanding these controlling factors is extremely important for regional l andslide

assessment. However, it is very difficult to correctly identify the factors, as the relationship

between the distribution of landslides and natural conditions varies spatially and tem-

porally (Guzzetti et al., 2008; Weng, Wu, Ning, & Jou, 2011; Zhou, Lee, Li, & Xu, 2002).

Slope gradient and slope relative height are generally considered to be fundamental

causative factors that have major control on landslide occurrence, and they are treated

as fundamental factors for GIS-based landslide susceptibility assessment in mountainous

terrain (Broothaerts et al., 2012; Dai & Lee, 2002; Timilsina, Bhandary, Dahal, & Yatabe,

2014; Zhou et al., 2002). However, few studies have focused on different size distributions

of loess slides within different slip surfaces. Especially, little attention has been paid to the

quantitative relationships among landslide size, slope relative height, and slope gradient.

Initially, we established a loess slide inventory through the interpretation of remote

sensing images and a series of intensive field investigations. In addition, we have described

a catalog of 155 loess slides in the loess area of China for which geometrical measurements

are available. The main objectives of this paper are (1) to study the quantitative relationships

between regional loess slide size, slope relative height, and slope gradient, (2) to examine

different loess slide distribution rules involving number and area of slides, and (3) to com-

pare the different size distributions of three types of loess slides with different slip surfaces.

Study area

The study area lies in Yan’an, which is located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River in

Shaanxi province (Figure 1). It covers an area of ~36,712 km2 and lies between 35°21′–37°30′N

and 107°40′–110°33′E longitude and latitude, respectively. Elevation in the area ranges from

351 to 1795 m, with an average value of 1238.29 m and a standard deviation of 211.63 m.

Loess terrain is extremely steep, and terrain gradients computed from a 25 m × 25 m DEM

range from 0° to 78.24°, with a mean value of 16.03° (standard deviation = 9.19°; Figure 2).

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 305

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Note: Red polygon denotes the study area.

The area lies within the semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau, which is characterized by the

typical temperate continental monsoon climate with an average rainfall of 500 mm yr−1,

average evaporation of 1000 mm yr−1, and average air temperature of 9.2 °C yr−1. The area

receives more than 50% of its precipitation in three months, i.e. from June to August. Loess

slides are typically related to precipitation events.

Coupled with intermittent tectonic uplift of the Loess Plateau since the middle Pleistocene,

this area has experienced serious soil erosion, which has resulted in a highly fragmented

topography (Zhang, Pei, Chen, Liu, & Liang, 2014). The surface of the loess is severely

incised by the dendritic drainage pattern (Zhao, Sun, Gmo, Wang, & Zhou, 2000). The

resultant landscape is one of fragmented topography, with steep hills and incised valleys

(Derbyshire, Van Asch, Billard, & Meng, 1995; Zhao et al., 2000). The vertical lithological

profile from bottom to top can be categorized into five units. The bottom is Mesozoic

306 H. QIU ET AL.

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Figure 2. Slope gradient map of the study area derived from 25-m grid DEMs.

bedrock, mainly consisting of mudstone and sandy mudstone. Red clay (Late Pliocene)

overlies a Pre-Tertiary basement. The oldest. Wucheng Loess (Early Pleistocene), is on the

top of the red clay and has high bulk densities (>1.7 kg/m3) (Wang et al., 2014). The Lishi

loess (Middle Quaternary) lies between the Wucheng loess and the Malan loess (Upper

Quaternary). The upper layer is composed of Malan loess, whose bulk densities are low

(<1.45 kg/m3) (Derbyshire et al., 1995).

Landslide data

Landslide inventory helps to document the landslide phenomena in an area, as well as to

study landslide type, size, occurrence, distribution, and frequency to determine landslide

susceptibility, hazard, vulnerability, and risk, and to investigate the evolution of landscapes

dominated by slope failure processes (Guzzetti et al., 2012). Meanwhile, landslide inventories

are simple and effective, understandable forms for experts, including geomorphologists and

geologists, and non-experts, such as planners and decision makers as well as local com-

munities and local administrations (Galli, Ardizzone, Cardinali, Guzzetti, & Reichenbach,

2008). So landslide inventory is becoming more and more popular as a spatial database

(Korup, 2005b).

In this work, a landslide inventory was prepared as a preliminary step so that loess

landslide data could be the basis for statistical analysis. Loess landslides are widespread and

play a crucial role in the modern landscape evolution of the Loess Plateau. Translational

types of slides predominate the loess landslides in the study area (Cruden & Varnes, 1996;

Varnes, 1978). Loess slides were identified through interpretation of high-resolution remote

sensing images and 1:10,000-scale color aerial photographs (from 2010 to 2014). Google

Earth images were also widely used for accurate detection of loess slides. Furthermore, we

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 307

have used previously published and unpublished reports for gathering historical information

about loess slides. A series of intensive field investigations in 2015 were used to validate the

inventory maps, check the loess slide sizes and shapes, and identify the types of slip surfaces.

During the field survey, we observed several loess slides and some important geomor-

phologic characteristics that were not visible on aerial photographs. However, our field trip

was limited since only areas along major and minor roads were accessible. In the present

research, we have focused on recent loess slides, which are active or inactive. Active loess

slides are currently moving or reactivated old slides, while inactive loess slides have shown

distinct features of movements within the past 30 yr although they did not show any sign

of movement during the investigation period. Most of the recent loess slides observed on

high-resolution images have a distinctive light tone, which is usually bare or with less veg-

etation. However, field investigation is crucial to check the visual similarity between bare

soils and loess slides. There are several reactive loess slides, but we could not detect any

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

During this regional reconnaissance, a total number of 155 loess slides were identified

and subsequently mapped for further analysis (Figure 3). A handheld-GPS was used to

map loess slides as polygons. A handheld laser was used to accurately measure loess slide

length and width. Although we tried our best to map all of the loess slides, the inventory is

incomplete because features of loess slides may not be recognized due to erosion, vegetation,

and anthropic activities. Computations of loess slide areas are possible and straightforward

when loess slides are transferred to a GIS system. Thus, all the loess slides and other the-

matic information layers were mapped and transformed into a GIS database (ArcGIS by

Esri) in both vector and raster format. A digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution

Note: The sizes of white dots represent the log-transformed loess slide areas.

308 H. QIU ET AL.

of 25 m × 25 m was developed from 1:25,000 scale topographic maps. Drainage lines were

automatically obtained from the DEM using the hydrological tool in ArcGIS.

As shown in Figure 3, the loess slides are not evenly distributed, and the spatial dis-

tribution of loess slides is related to the drainage system, as the majority of loess slides

appear to occur in proximity to a river. In order to minimize errors, two geomorphologists

independently identified and mapped loess slides. These two inventories were critically

reviewed and merged. Several landslide geometrical and geomorphic characteristics, includ-

ing geographical location, slip surface, volume, area, length, slope relative height, and slope

gradient, were recorded and listed as the attribute table in Arc GIS. We calculated the loess

slide volume as the product of the area and estimated mean depth depending on the available

data. A statistical analysis was carried out on the loess slide inventory to explore the loess

slide size-frequency distribution, as well as to investigate the relationships between loess

slide size with respect to slope height and slope gradient.

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Results

Landslide types and size

We grouped the loess slides into three classes by slip surface: landslide in loess (LL; Figure

4(A)), red clay contact landslide (RCL; Figure 4(B)), and bedrock contact landslide (BL;

Figure 4(C)). We recorded 155 individual landslides with their detailed information. The

Figure 4. Three loess slides with different slip surfaces: (A) Landslide in loess (LL), (B) Red clay contact

landslide (RCL), and (C) Bedrock contact landslide (BL).

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 309

Figure 5. Box plots showing length (A) and area (B) of three loess slides with different slip surfaces.

Note: Mean length and area are shown by a small square, the median by a middle line.

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

majority of loess slides were RCLs and BLs, which make up 39.35 and 45.16% of total loess

slides, respectively. LLs account for 11.61% of total loess slides. As shown in Figure 5, the

average size of three loess slide classes follows as RCL > BL > LL. Average areas and lengths

of the three classes are RCL 96,794.39 m2 and 232.67 m, BL 58,648.97 m2 and 191.00 m, and

LL 17,539.68 m2 and 94.96 m, respectively. The average area and length of RCL are 5.52 and

2.45 times larger than those dimensions of LL. Further inspection of Figure 5 reveals that the

numbers of RCL, BL, and LL with lengths < 200 m account for 55.56, 54.10, and 87.32% of

those classes, respectively. Similarly, the numbers of RCL, BL, and LL with areas < 105 m2 are

66.67, 80.33, and 98.59%, respectively. Large (106–107 m3), medium (105–106 m3), and small

(<105 m3) loess slides account for 22.22, 55.56, and 22.22% respectively in RCLs. Similarly,

large, medium, and small loess slides account for 4.22, 47.89, and 47.89%, respectively in

LLs. The percentage of large loess slides of RCLs is 5.26 times larger than that of LLs.

We adopted a robust linear fitting method to fit the power law relationship (an equation of

the form VL = ε × ALα, where ε and α are constants) in log-log coordinates between land-

slides volume (VL) and area (AL) (Figure 6(A)). Although the area and volume span multiple

orders of magnitude, visual inspection of Figure 6(A) indicates an obvious, distinct, linear

(in log–log coordinates) relationship between volume and area of loess slides. This suggests

that there is a self-similar behavior between landslide area and volume. The relationship

accords with VLL = 0.5829ALL1.2996 (R² = 0.8838, p < 0.01) for LLs, VBL = 0.7115ABL1.2287

(R² = 0.8985, p < 0.01) for BLs, and VRCL = 1.3662ARCL1.1372 (R² = 0.9148, p < 0.01) for RCLs,

respectively. In addition, the relationship between area and length fits ALL = 31.389LLL1.3412

(R² = 0.7328, p < 0.01) for LLs, ABL = 2.9968LBL1.8358 (R² = 0.8506, p < 0.01) for BLs, and

ARCL = 5.0158LRCL1.7556 (R² = 0.9424, p < 0.01) for RCLs.

Distribution of loess slides with slope relative height and slope gradient

Loess slide distributions against slope relative height and slope gradient were investigated

in detail (Figure 7). Slope relative height values were divided into 25-m class intervals. The

percentage of landslide numbers and areas greatly increases with a subsequent decline at

all slope relative heights from 9 to 200 m (Figure 7(A)). About 67.10% of the loess slides

310 H. QIU ET AL.

Figure 6. Interdependent relationships among parameters of loess slides: (A) volume and area, (B) area

and length.

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Figure 7. Number and area distribution of loess slide with slope relative height and slope gradient: (A)

distribution percentage against slope relative height, (B) distribution percentage against slope gradient.

occur on slopes with relative heights of 25–100 m. The number and the area of loess slides

peak where slope relative heights are 75 and 100 m, and 100 and 125 m, respectively. Where

slope relative heights < 75 m, the percentage of loess slides is greater than that of the loess

slide area, but the percentage of the number of loess slides is less than that of the loess slide

area where slope relative height > 75 m.

Similarly, as shown in Figure 7(B), slope gradient is divided into 10o intervals. About

81.58% of the loess slides occur within slope gradients of 20°–50°. The numbers and areas

of loess slides are skewed towards lower slope gradients, with two peaks, at 20°–30° and

30°–40°. The percentage of loess slides is less than the percentage of loess slide area within

the slope gradient < 30°. But, the percentage of the number of loess slides becomes higher

than the percentage of loess slide area at the slope gradient > 30°.

Relationship between loess slide size distribution and slope relative height

As shown in Figure 8(A), the loess slide length becomes larger with increasing slope relative

height. There are obvious linear relationships between RCL length (LRCL) and slope relative

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 311

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Figure 8. Relation between landslide length and slope relative height: (A) Red clay contact landslide (RCL),

(B) Bedrock contact landslide (BL), and (C) Landslide in loess (LL).

height (SHRCL) which can be modeled by linear function: LRCL = 4.4257 SHRCL −138.11

(R2 = 0.8532, p < 0.01). Figure 8(B) illustrates the significant linear correlation between

BL length (LBL) and slope relative height (SHBL): LBL = 2.1725 SHBL−11.795 (R2 = 0.5988,

p < 0.01). Figure 8(C) shows that there is a power law relationship between LL length (LLL)

and slope relative height (SHLL): LLL = 1.9734 SHLL0.8717 (R2 = 0.2996, p < 0.01).

Similarly, the loess slide area markedly increases with the increase in slope relative height.

The loess slide area and slope relative height relations agree with the power law correlation

(Figure 9(A–C). Figure 9(A) shows the curves of RCL area (LRCL) against slope relative height

(SHRCL): ARCL = 0.091 SHRCL2.9953 with R2 = 0.7611 and p < 0.01. Figure 9(B) indicates that

there is an obvious distinct linear (in log–log coordinates) relationship between BL area

(ABL) and slope relative height (SHBL): ABL = 1.2905SHBL2.2827 with R2 = 0.6083 and p < 0.01.

The LL area (ALL) and slope relative height (SHLL) can be approximated by a power law

(ALL = 29.034SHLL1.4162 with R2 = 0.322 and p < 0.01) (Figure 9(C)).

Different from the highly significant relationship between loess slide size and slope rel-

ative height, the loess slide size appears to be roughly associated with slope gradient.

No statistically significant correlation was observed between LL size and slope gradient.

312 H. QIU ET AL.

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Figure 9. Relation between landslide area and slope relative height: (A) Red clay contact landslide (RCL),

(B) Bedrock contact landslide (BL), and (C) Landslide in loess (LL).

Figure 10. Relation between landslide length and slope: (A) Red clay contact landslide (RCL) and (B)

Bedrock contact landslide (BL).

However, RCL and BL sizes are more likely to be related to slope gradient at a certain level

of significance. The loess slide size gradually decreases with as slope gradient increases.

As illustrated in Figure 10(A) and (B), linear relationships are found between slope

gradient and both RCL and BL lengths, as (LRCL = −16.266SRCL + 730.6 with R² = 0.2223

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 313

Figure 11. Relation between landslide area and slope: (A) Red clay contact landslide (RCL), and (B) Bedrock

contact landslide (BL).

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

relationship is also observed between slope gradient and both the RCL and BL area, as

(ARCL = −9021.4SRCL + 372,950 with R² = 0.1913 and p < 0.1, ABL = −2984.1SBL + 153,992 with

R² = 0.2198 and p < 0.01) (Figure 11 (A and B)).

Discussion

In this study, we have shown that the average size of three classes of loess slides followed

the order: RCL > BL > LL. The overwhelming majority of loess slides in the Yan’an region

are small and their size (e.g. length, area) varies greatly. Slide length and area vary from few

meters to several hundred of meters and from < 102 to 105 m2, respectively. Although loess

slide sizes span multiple orders of magnitude, we found an obvious power law relationship

among loess slide length, area, and volume, which suggests that there is self-similar behavior

for loess slide size. The percentages of loess slide number and area greatly increase with

a subsequent decline at all slope gradient and slope relative heights. However, there are

different distribution rules for the loess slide number and area (Figure 7). Further analysis

reveals that the size of loess slides becomes larger as slope relative height increases, and there

exists an obvious linear or power law relationship between loess slide size and slope relative

height. On the contrary, despite considerable data scatter, the trend of the plot of length and

area of loess slides against slope gradient shows that loess slide size gradually decreases with

an increase in slope gradient at a certain level of significance (Figures 10 and 11).

The present research shows a significant difference in the loess slide size distribution

within different slip surfaces. The average area and length of RCL are 5.52 and 2.45 times

larger than those dimensions of LL. This implies that landslide size depends on the charac-

teristics of the study area and landslide types (Conforti, Pascale, Robustelli, & Sdao, 2014;

Glade, Anderson, & Crozier, 2005). In accordance with most of the published literature

(Guzzetti, Ardizzone, Cardinali, Rossi, & Valigi, 2009), three relationships between the

volume and area of landslides exhibit a similar trend, but scaling exponents, which are

1.2996, 1.2287, and 1.1372 for LL, BL, and RCL, respectively, are obviously different. The

relationships between landslide size distribution and both the slope relative height and

314 H. QIU ET AL.

slope gradient also differ from each other. This implies that we should consider different

results from different slip surfaces when a model is proposed to determine landslide hazard.

Slope relative height is an important factor that limits the magnitude and spatial extent

of landslides (Ayalew & Yamagishi, 2005; Qiu et al., 2016). In this paper, the loess slide fre-

quency-slope height distribution is unimodal. The loess slide frequency is highest within

slope height ranging between 75 and 100 m, and the frequency of landslides is lower at

high and low slope relative heights. Furthermore, we found that loess slide area and length

markedly increased with an increase in slope relative height, which show an obvious linear

or power law relationship. This indicates that slope relative height has a striking effect on

landslide size and frequency; as a result, it can be utilized as an important predisposing factor

in landslide prediction and assessment in the future (Conforti et al., 2014; Dai & Lee, 2002).

Slope gradient is significantly correlated with the susceptibility of a slope to sliding

(Ayalew & Yamagishi, 2005). High gradients are associated with high shear stresses on

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

hillslope materials. Thus, it is seen that steep slopes are usually expected to be more unstable

and more prone to sliding than gentle slopes (Borgomeo, Hebditch, Whittaker, & Lonergan,

2014; Nagarajan, Roy, Kumar, Mukherjee, & Khire, 2000). However, in the present research,

we found that the loess slide frequency- slope gradient distribution is unimodal, and that

approximately 81.58% of the loess slides occurred in areas with slope gradients between

20° and 50°. Similar landslide frequency-slope gradient distributions have been obtained

by previous researchers (Dai & Lee, 2002; Frattini & Crosta, 2013; Goswami, Mitchell, &

Brocklehurst, 2011). This suggests that landslide occurrence is dependent on several geo-

morphic characteristics, including the slope gradient (Borgomeo et al., 2014). In addition,

the gentler the slope gradient, the thicker the soil cover (Nagarajan et al., 2000). Ayalew

and Yamagishi (2005) even pointed out that deep-seated landslides occur when the slope

gradient is in the range of 10°–35°. Moreover, we found the regional RCL and BL size

(length and area) more likely to be related to slope gradient at a certain significance level

in this research. Loess slide size gradually decreases as slope gradient increases. This result

is similar to the result of Chen, Liu, Chang, and Zhou (2015), who found that the landslide

size decreases with increasing slope gradient for a given material strength, but differs from

that of Katz, Morgan, Aharonov, and Dugan (2014), who found that large landslides are

associated with higher slope gradients. In previous studies, many authors considered slope

gradient as an important factor for GIS-based regional landslide susceptibility assessment

because it controls regional hydraulic continuity at the macro-scale and affects moisture

and pore pressure (Ayalew & Yamagishi, 2005; Broothaerts et al., 2012; Dai & Lee, 2002;

Timilsina et al., 2014; Zhou et al., 2002). However, little attention has been paid to the

relationship between landslide size and slope gradient.

It should be noted that this study examined only slope relative height and slope gradient

due to limitations of data and the length of the paper. In future, we will further study the

relationship between loess slide size and other causative factors. Moreover, we will apply

the results of the present study to improve the approach of regional landslide susceptibility

assessment.

Conclusions

The overwhelming majority of loess slides in the Yan’an region are small and their size (e.g.

length, area) varies greatly. Although loess slide size spans multiple orders of magnitude,

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 315

there exists an obvious power law relationships and self-similar behavior among loess slide

length, area, and volume. Moreover, landslide size depends on the slip surface. The average

area and length of red clay contact landslides are 5.52 and 2.45 times larger than those

dimensions of landslides in loess. Intermediate slope relative heights and slope gradients

are more prone to landslides. However, there are different distribution rules for the loess

slide number and area. The size distribution of loess slides was examined with respect to

the slope height and slope gradient. The analysis revealed that the loess slide size becomes

larger as slope relative height increases, and that an obvious linear or power law relation-

ship occurs between loess slide size and slope relative height. On the contrary, loess slide

size gradually decreases with an increase in slope gradient at a certain level of significance.

The results of this work provides new insight into the understanding of the roles of slope

height and slope gradient in controlling landslide size, which may prove useful for regional

landslide susceptibility assessment.

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the editor and anonymous reviewers for helpful and fruitful com-

ments which greatly improved the quality of the manuscript.

Disclosure statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number

41401602]; International Partership Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences [grant number

131551KYSB20160002]; Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China [pro-

gram number 2014JQ2-4021].

References

Aleotti, P., & Chowdhury, R. (1999). Landslide hazard assessment: Summary review and new

perspectives. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 58, 21–44.

Ayalew, L., & Yamagishi, H. (2005). The application of GIS-based logistic regression for landslide

susceptibility mapping in the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains, Central Japan. Geomorphology, 65, 15–31.

Borgomeo, E., Hebditch, K. V., Whittaker, A. C., & Lonergan, L. (2014). Characterising the

spatial distribution, frequency and geomorphic controls on landslide occurrence, Molise, Italy.

Geomorphology, 226, 148–161.

Broothaerts, N., Kissi, E., Poesen, J., Van Rompaey, A., Getahun, K., Van Ranst, E., & Diels, J. (2012).

Spatial patterns, causes and consequences of landslides in the Gilgel Gibe catchment, SW Ethiopia.

Catena, 97, 127–136.

Chen, X. L., Liu, C. G., Chang, Z. F., & Zhou, Q. (2015). The relationship between the slope angle

and the landslide size derived from limit equilibrium simulations. Geomorphology, 253, 547–550.

Conforti, M., Pascale, S., Robustelli, G., & Sdao, F. (2014). Evaluation of prediction capability of the

artificial neural networks for mapping landslide susceptibility in the Turbolo River catchment

(northern Calabria, Italy). Catena, 113, 236–250.

Cruden, D. M., & Varnes, D. J. (1996). Landslide types and processes. In A. K. Turner & R. L. Schuster

(Eds.), Landslides, investigation and mitigation. Special Report 247 (pp. 36–75). Washington, DC:

Transportation Research Board, National Research Council.

316 H. QIU ET AL.

Dai, F. C., & Lee, C. F. (2002). Landslide characteristics and slope instability modeling using GIS,

Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology, 42, 213–228.

Derbyshire, E. (2001). Geological hazards in loess terrain, with particular reference to the loess regions

of China. Earth-Science Reviews, 54, 231–260.

Derbyshire, E., Van Asch, T., Billard, A., & Meng, X. (1995). Modelling the erosional susceptibility

of landslide catchments in thick loess: Chinese variations on a theme by Jan de Ploey. Catena, 25,

315–331.

Derbyshire, E., Wang, J., Jin, Z., Billard, A., Egels, Y., Kasser, M., … Owen, L. (1991). Landslides in

the Gansu loess of China. Catena Supplement, 20, 119–145.

Frattini, P., & Crosta, G. B. (2013). The role of material properties and landscape morphology on

landslide size distributions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 361, 310–319.

Galli, M., Ardizzone, F., Cardinali, M., Guzzetti, F., & Reichenbach, P. (2008). Comparing landslide

inventory maps. Geomorphology, 94, 268–289.

Glade, T., Anderson, M., & Crozier, M. J. (Eds.). (2005). Landslide hazard and risk. New York, NY:

Wiley.

Goswami, R., Mitchell, N. C., & Brocklehurst, S. H. (2011). Distribution and causes of landslides in

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

the eastern Peloritani of NE Sicily and western Aspromonte of SW Calabria, Italy. Geomorphology,

132, 111–122.

Greco, R., Giorgio, M., Capparelli, G., & Versace, P. (2013). Early warning of rainfall-induced

landslides based on empirical mobility function predictor. Engineering Geology, 153, 68–79.

Guthrie, R. H. (2002). The effects of logging on frequency and distribution of landslides in three

watersheds on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Geomorphology, 43, 273–292.

Guthrie, R. H., & Evans, S. G. (2004). Magnitude and frequency of landslides triggered by a storm

event, Loughborough Inlet, British Columbia. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 4, 475–

483.

Guzzetti, F. (2006). Landslide hazard and risk assessment (PhD thesis). University of Bonn. Bonn.

Guzzetti, F., Ardizzone, F., Cardinali, M., Galli, M., Reichenbach, P., & Rossi, M. (2008). Distribution

of landslides in the Upper Tiber River basin, central Italy. Geomorphology, 96, 105–122.

Guzzetti, F., Ardizzone, F., Cardinali, M., Rossi, M., & Valigi, D. (2009). Landslide volumes and

landslide mobilization rates in Umbria, central Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 279,

222–229.

Guzzetti, F., Mondini, A. C., Cardinali, M., Fiorucci, F., Santangelo, M., & Chang, K. T. (2012).

Landslide inventory maps: New tools for an old problem. Earth-Science Reviews, 112, 42–66.

Harmon, R. S., & Doe, W. W., III (2001). Landscape erosion and evolution modeling. Springer-

Verlag. New York.

Hovius, N., Stark, C. P., & Allen, P. A. (1997). Sediment flux from a mountain belt derived by landslide

mapping. Geology, 25, 231–234.

Katz, O., Morgan, J. K., Aharonov, E., & Dugan, B. (2014). Controls on the size and geometry of

landslides: Insights from discrete element numerical simulations. Geomorphology, 220, 104–113.

Korup, O. (2005a). Geomorphic imprint of landslides on alpine river systems, southwest New Zealand.

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 30, 783–800.

Korup, O. (2005b). Distribution of landslides in southwest New Zealand. Landslides, 2, 43–51.

Larsen, M. C., & Torres-Sánchez, A. J. (1998). The frequency and distribution of recent landslides in

three montane tropical regions of Puerto Rico. Geomorphology, 24, 309–331.

Liu, T. S. (1985). Loess and environment. Beijing: China Ocean Press.

Nagarajan, R., Roy, A., Kumar, R. V., Mukherjee, A., & Khire, M. V. (2000). Landslide hazard

susceptibility mapping based on terrain and climatic factors for tropical monsoon regions. Bulletin

of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 58, 275–287.

Qiu, H., Regmi, A. D., Cui, P., Cao, M., Lee, J., & Zhu, X. (2016). Size distribution of loess slides in

relation to local slope height within different slope morphologies. Catena, 145, 155–163.

Soeters, R., & van Westen, C. J. (1996). Slope instability recognition, analysis and zonation. In A. K.

Turner & R. L. Schuster (Eds.), Landslide investigation and mitigation. Transportation Research

Board Special Report (Vol. 247, pp. 129–177). Washington, DC: National Research Council.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 317

Timilsina, M., Bhandary, N. P., Dahal, R. K., & Yatabe, R. (2014). Distribution probability of large-

scale landslides in central Nepal. Geomorphology, 226, 236–248.

Varnes, D. J. (1978). Slope movement types and processes. In A. K. Turner & R. L. Schuster (Eds.),

Landslide investigation and mitigation. Transportation Research Board Special Report (Vol. 247,

pp. 11–33). Washington, DC: National Research Council.

Varnes, D. J., & IAEG Commission on Landslides and other Mass-Movements. (1984). Landslide

hazard zonation: A review of principles and practice. Paris: The UNESCO Press.

Wang, J. J., Liang, Y., Zhang, H. P., Wu, Y., & Lin, X. (2014). A loess landslide induced by excavation

and rainfall. Landslides, 11, 141–152.

Weng, M. C., Wu, M. H., Ning, S. K., & Jou, Y. W. (2011). Evaluating triggering and causative factors

of landslides in Lawnon River Basin, Taiwan. Engineering Geology, 123, 72–82.

Xu, L., Dai, F., Tu, X., Tham, L. G., Zhou, Y., & Iqbal, J. (2014). Landslides in a loess platform, North-

West China. Landslides, 11, 993–1005.

Zhang, F., Pei, X., Chen, W., Liu, G., & Liang, S. (2014). Spatial variation in geotechnical properties

and topographic attributes on the different types of shallow landslides in a loess catchment, China.

European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 18, 470–488.

Downloaded by [Gadjah Mada University] at 19:52 10 January 2018

Zhao, T., Sun, B., Gmo, S., Wang, X., & Zhou, J. (2000). Loess landslide in China and its mechanism.

The Science Bulletin of The Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, 47, 113–121.

Zhou, C. H., Lee, C. F., Li, J., & Xu, Z. W. (2002). On the spatial relationship between landslides and

causative factors on Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology, 43, 197–207.

- dynseg[1]Diunggah olehgmorales_castro
- hhhDiunggah olehhishamaam
- Seminar Objective Paper_ADiunggah olehabhi22math
- Cellular Expert BrochureDiunggah olehmod_abo_hashish
- Esripress Catalog 2012Diunggah olehv10rel
- 54-ICCPM2011A10028(BIM)Diunggah olehEngr. Amjad Ali Ikram,PMP,MPM,FIE(Pak),MCMAA(USA),MAACEI(USA)
- Poster Badut LbsDiunggah olehMarcu Adrian
- p1208Diunggah olehAniruddh Naga
- Practice ArticleDiunggah olehMFc 'Kelfen
- DownloadDiunggah olehPatricio Castillo Manquecoy
- Landslides and ErosionDiunggah olehJanu Widayatno
- Journal Review - Probabilistic landslide hazards and risk mapping on Penang IslandDiunggah olehMukhammad Arief
- Assignment 1Diunggah olehmira0604
- Chap_3_Fore_p3Diunggah olehmohammadyunus1992
- The Use of Gis Technology in Cultural HeritageDiunggah olehRanya Mohammed
- A Novel Approach for Georeferenced Data Analysis Using Hard Clustering AlgorithmDiunggah olehesatjournals
- Geographic Information SystemDiunggah olehJupiter Bacuado
- A Step by Step Guide to Making Maps of Vegetation Carbon Stocks _ DeforestationwatchDiunggah olehNimas Anggarini
- Stability AnalysisDiunggah olehMahmood Mufti
- workshopexercises-only.pdfDiunggah olehgamus
- Siebert1984_large Volcanic Debris AvalanchesDiunggah olehdamasM1
- PM2082-14d-3Diunggah olehGrevys Aosa
- Scheevel_mines_0052N_11273.pdfDiunggah olehGisber Mamani Colca
- SlopeStabilityDiunggah olehshiva
- report(1).pdfDiunggah olehkrishnawijaya
- Fall 2006 Gis SylDiunggah olehAhmed Mohamed Saqr
- SUG3553_Chapter2aDiunggah olehJousie C. Amin
- lecture4 (1)-gia.pdfDiunggah olehRohit Vardhan
- A multi-annual landslide inventory for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility – Two test cases in Vorarlberg, AustriaDiunggah olehGabriel alexis Santa Ramírez
- JOURNAL 2.pdfDiunggah olehDave Robert Hasibuan

- A NEW BARE-SOIL INDEX FOR RAPID MAPPING DEVELOPING AREAS USING LANDSAT 8 DATADiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- 13508-31526-1-SMDiunggah olehAzalea Fiction Azalea
- Shallow Landslides Susceptibility Assessment in Different EnvironmentsDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Three Dimensional Slope Stability Analysis Using Laser Scanning and Numerical SimulationDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Lahar Hazard Micro-zonation and Risk AssDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- An Integrated Approach for Disaster Risk Reduction Using Spplanning SdiDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Geological Society, London, Special Publications-2013-Pyle-1-13.pdfDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Smith_Kilburn_Forecasting Eruptions_JVGR_2010.pdfDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Lahar Hazard Micro-zonation and Risk Assessment in Yogyakarta City, IndonesiaDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Aleotti_2004_Engineering_Geology.pdfDiunggah olehscaldasole
- Floods and Climate Emerging Perspectives for Flood Risk AssessmentDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Solana et al_Hazard Perception_Vesuvius_JVGR_2008.pdfDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Smith Kilburn Forecasting Eruptions JVGR 2010Diunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- AtlasDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Spatial Thinking in Planning Practice- An Introduction to GISDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Modeling and Mapping Wildfire Ignition Risk in PortugalDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- Plate TectonicsDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti
- VolcanismDiunggah olehMagfirah Ismayanti

- 126798Diunggah olehSubbarao Chamarthi
- Larkana ji MosamDiunggah olehZubair Ahmed
- Lab ManualDiunggah olehNeer Sh
- DPMiDiunggah olehIeronim Nicolae
- 5140 service.pdfDiunggah olehbehzad
- 17 Sudhir Badami - Setting the Right Priorities for Mumbai TransportationDiunggah olehpepsia8036
- Camco Na b Rdm 082009Diunggah olehLucas Mauricio
- Copper (Cu) Nanoparticles Properties ApplicationsDiunggah olehwprongmanee
- Tractors in IndiaDiunggah olehNaveen Shanmugam
- Zetkin Wall Thickness CalculationsDiunggah olehKarthik Channamsetty
- Time Series DatabasesDiunggah olehSai Swaroop
- Bootstraop Demo Source CodeDiunggah olehalihassan1116
- itec blogsDiunggah olehapi-346732314
- 3DICDiunggah olehnoorev
- Segmental Bridge ConstructionDiunggah olehDenizhan Uluğtekin
- REM610_TRM_752263_ENh_IECDiunggah olehscribdkhatn
- BWLA - Spontaneous Potential - Gamma RayDiunggah olehmiranti nuraini
- docoutputDiunggah olehilter79
- inheritanceDiunggah olehUshasree Jakilinki
- Hengtai TyreDiunggah olehd258759
- IEEE 802.11ahDiunggah olehteste_download
- Kodak Case asbmDiunggah olehnitinchilli
- Zainur Budi Akbari CVDiunggah olehArie Zainur B Akbari
- al2o3 (2)Diunggah olehKarnalPreeth
- usbdevsDiunggah olehdobmk62
- 1-s2.0-S0378377416304589-main.pdfDiunggah olehULFI KHADJIBAH
- ISO/IEC 20000 and ITILDiunggah olehShaunak Sontakke
- [BureauVeritas] Design Calculation ChecklistDiunggah olehSadDecember
- Digital Performer BasicsDiunggah olehkankucho78
- White Paper-Network Infrastructure SecurityDiunggah olehRahul Sharma

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.