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UNIT-V: POWER FLOW CONTROLLERS

1. The Unified Power Flow Controller


 The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) concept was devised for the real-
time control and dynamic compensation of ac transmission systems, providing
multifunctional flexibility required to solve many of the problems facing the
power delivery industry.
 Within the framework of traditional power transmission concepts, the UPFC is
able to control, simultaneously or selectively, all the parameters affecting
power flow in the transmission line (i.e., voltage, impedance, and phase angle),
and this unique capability is signified by the adjective "unified" in its name.
 It can independently control both the real and reactive power flow in the line.
The reader should recall that, for all the Controllers discussed in the previous
chapters, the control of real power is associated with similar change in reactive
power, i.e., increased real power flow also resulted in increased reactive line
power.
2. Basic Operating Principles
 From the conceptual viewpoint, the UPFC is a generalized synchronous voltage
source (SVS), represented at the fundamental (power system) frequency by voltage
Phasor Vpq with controllable magnitude and angle ρ in series with the transmission
line, as illustrated for the usual elementary two machine system (or for two
independent systems with a transmission link intertie) in below Figure.

 In this functionally unrestricted operation, which clearly includes voltage and angle
regulation, the SVS generally exchanges both reactive and real power with the
transmission system. Since, as established previously, an SVS is able to generate only
the reactive power exchanged, the real power must be supplied to it, or absorbed from
it, by a suitable power supply or sink.
 In the UPFC arrangement the real power exchanged is provided by one of the end
buses (e.g., the sending-end bus), as indicated in above figure.

 The UPFC consists of two voltage sourced converters, as illustrated in Figure 8.4.
These back-to-back converters, labeled "Converter 1" and "Converter 2" in the figure,
are operated from a common dc link provided by a dc storage capacitor.
 As indicated before, this arrangement functions as an ideal ac-to-ac power converter
in which the real power can freely flow in either direction between the ac terminals of
the two converters, and each converter can independently generate (or absorb)
reactive power at its own ac output terminal.
 Converter 2 provides the main function of the UPFC by injecting a voltage Vpq with
controllable magnitude Vpq and phase angle p in series with the line via an insertion
transformer. This injected voltage acts essentially as a synchronous ac voltage source.
 The transmission line current flows through this voltage source resulting in reactive
and real power exchange between it and the ac system.
 The basic function of Converter 1 is to supply or absorb the real power demanded by
Converter 2 at the common dc link to support the real power exchange resulting from
the series voltage injection.
 This dc link power demand of Converter 2 is converted back to ac by Converter L and
coupled to the transmission line bus via a shunt connected transformer.
 Thus, Converter 1 can be operated at a unity power factor or be controlled to have a
reactive power exchange with the line independent of the reactive power exchanged
by Converter 2. Obviously, there can be no reactive power flow through the UPFC dc
link.
3. Conventional Transmission Control Capabilities
 Viewing the operation of the Unified Power Flow Controller from the standpoint of
traditional power transmission based on reactive shunt compensation, series
compensation, and phase angle regulation, the UPFC can fulfill all these functions
and thereby meet multiple control objectives by adding the injected voltage Vpq,
with appropriate amplitude and phase angle, to the (sending-end) terminal voltage.
 Voltage regulation with continuously variable in-phase/anti-phase voltage injection, is shown in
Figure 8.5(a) for voltage increments Vpq -

 Series reactive compensation is shown in Figure 8.5(b) where Vpq=Vq injected in quadrature with
line current I, functionally this is similar to series capacitive and inductive line
the
compensation attained by the SSSC. The injected series compensating voltage can be
kept constant, if desired, independent of line current variation, or can be varied in
proportion with the line current to imitate the compensation obtained with a series
capacitor or reactor.
 Phase angle regulation (phase shift) is shown in Figure 8.5(c) where Vpq=VΦ is
injected with an angular relationship with respect to Vs that achieves the desired Φ
phase shift (advance or retard) without any change in magnitude. Thus the UPFC can
function as a perfect Phase Angle Regulator, it can also supply the reactive power
involved with the transmission angle control by internal var generation.
4. Independent Real and Reactive Power Flow Control
 The capability of the UPFC to control real and reactive power flow in the transmission line,
refer to below figure. Let it first be assumed that the injected compensating voltage, Vpq, is
zero.

 Then the original elementary two machine (or two-bus ac intertie) system with sending-
end voltage Vs receiving-end voltage Vr, transmission angle δ and line impedance X is
restored.
 The relationship between real power P0(δ) and reactive power Q0r,(δ) can readily be
expressed as follows

 The above Equation describes a circle with a radius of 1.0 around the center defined by
coordinates P = 0 and Qr=-1 in a {Qr, P plane, as illustrated for positive values of P in
below Figure b.
5. Control Structure
 The superior operating characteristics of the UPFC are due to its unique ability to
inject an ac compensating voltage vector with arbitrary magnitude and angle in
series with the line upon command, subject only to equipment rating limits.
 With suitable electronic controls, the UPFC can cause the series-injected voltage
vector to vary rapidly and continuously in magnitude and/or angle as desired.
 Thus, it is not only able to establish an operating point within a wide range of
possible P, Q conditions on the line, but also has the inherent capability to
transition rapidly from one such achievable operating point to any other.

 The internal controls provide gating signals to the converter valves so that the
converter output voltages will properly respond to the internal reference variables,
IpRef, IqRef, and Vpq ref, in accordance with the basic control structure shown in
above Figure.
 An overall control structure, showing the internal, the functional operation, and
system optimization controls with the internal and external references is presented
in below Figure.
 the capability of unrestricted series voltage injection together with independently
controllable reactive power exchange offered by the circuit structure of two back-
to-back converters, facilitate several operating and control modes for the UPFC.
6. Basic Control System for P and Q Control
 This control mode utilizes most of the unique capabilities of the UPFC and it is
expected to be used as the basic mode in the majority of practical applications,
just as the shunt compensation is used normally for automatic voltage control.
Accordingly, block diagrams giving greater details of the control schemes are
show for the series converter in Figure 8.16(a) and for the shunt converter in
Figures 8.16(b) and (c) for operation in these modes.
 The control scheme shown in Figure 8.16(a) assumes that the series converter can
generate output voltage with controllable magnitude and angle at a given dc bus
voltage.
 As shown in Figure 8.16(a) the automatic power flow control for the series
converter is achieved by means of a vector control scheme that regulates the
transmission line current using a synchronous reference frame (established with
an appropriate phase locked loop producing reference angle 0) in which the
control quantities appear as dc signals in the steady state.

 The control scheme for the shunt converter shown in Figure 8.16(b) also assumes
that the converter can generate output voltage with controllable magnitude and
angle.

7. Dynamic Performance
 The dynamic performance of the UPFC is illustrated by real-time voltage and
current waveforms obtained in a representative TNA (Transient Network
Analyzer) hardware model shown schematically by a simplified single line
diagram in Figure 8.17.
 The simple, two-bus power system modeled includes the sending-end and
receiving-end generators with two parallel transmission lines which are
represented by lumped reactive impedances.
 One of the lines is controlled by a model UPFC. The converters and the
magnetic structure of the UPFC model accurately represent a 48-pulse structure
used in an actual transmission application (refer to Chapter 10). The UPFC
power circuit model is operated by the actual control used in the full scale
system.

8. The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)


 This capability of the UPFC is facilitated by its power circuit which is basically
an ac-to-ac power converter, usually implemented by two back-to-back dc-to-dc
converters with a common dc voltage link.
 The output of one converter is coupled in series, while the output of the other in
shunt with the transmission line. With this arrangement, the UPFC can inject a
fully controllable voltage (magnitude and angle) in series with the line and
support the resulting generalized real and reactive compensation by supplying the
real power required by the series converter through the shunt-connected converter
from the ac bus.
 The UPFC concept provides a powerful tool for the cost-effective utilization of
individual transmission lines by facilitating the independent control of both the
real and reactive power flow, and thus the maximization of real power transfer at
minimum losses, in the line.
 However, independent of their means of implementation, series reactive
compensators are unable to control the reactive power flow in, and thus the proper
load balancing of, the lines. This problem becomes particularly evident in those
cases where the ratio of reactive to resistive line impedance (X/R) is relatively
low.
 The IPFC can potentially provide a highly effective scheme for power
transmission management at a multiline substation.
9. Basic Operating Principles and Characteristics
 In its general form the Interline Power Flow Controller employs a number of dc-
to-ac converters each providing series compensation for a different line. In other
words, the IPFC comprises a number of Static Synchronous Series Compensators.
 However, within the general concept of the IPFC, the compensating converters are
linked together at their dc terminals, as illustrated in below Figure.

 With this scheme, in addition to providing series reactive compensation, any


converter can be controlled to supply real power to the common dc link from its
own transmission line.
 Thus, an overall surplus power can be made available from the under utilized
lines which then can be used by other lines for real power compensation.
 In this way, some of the converters, compensating overloaded lines or lines with a
heavy burden of reactive power flow, can be equipped with full two-dimensional,
reactive and real power control capability, similar to that offered by the UPFC.
 The IPFC is particularly advantageous when controlled series compensation or
other series power flow control (e.g., phase shifting) is contemplated' this is
because the IPFC simply combines the otherwise independent series
compensators (SSSCs), without any significant hardware addition, and affords
some of those a greatly enhanced functional capability. The increase functional
capability can be moved from one line to another, as system conditions may
dictate. In addition, the individual converters of the IPF can be decoupled and
operated as independent series reactive compensators without any hardware
change.
 Although converters with different dc voltage could be coupled via appropriate
d"-to-d" converters ("choppers"), the arrangement would be expensive with
relatively high operating losses. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a common
dc operating voltage for all converter-based Controllers used at one location,
which would facilitate their dc coupling and thereby an inexpensive extension of
their functional capabilities. Reasonably defined common dc operating voltage
should not impose significant restriction on the converter’ design, since at high
output power multiple parallel poles are normally employed. Apart from the
potential for dc coupling, common operating voltage would also be helpful for the
standardization of the converter type equipment used at one location, as well as
for the maintenance of spare Parts inventory.
 The operating regions of the individual converters of the IPFC can differ
significantly, depending on the voltage and power ratings of the individual lines
and on the amount of compensation desired. It is evident that a high voltage/high-
power line may supply the necessary real power for a low voltage/ low-power
capacity line to optimize its power transmission, without significantly affecting its
own transmission.
 The IPFC is an ideal solution to balance both the real and reactive power
flow in multiline and meshed systems.
 The prime converters of the IPFC can be controlled to provide totally different
operating functions, e.g., independent (P) and (e) control, phase shifting
(transmission angle regulation), transmission impedance control, etc. These
functions can be selected according to prevailing system operating requirements.

10. Generalized and Multifunctional FACTS Controllers.


 The UPFC can execute comprehensive compensation for a single line whereas the
IPFC can provide comprehensive reactive and real compensation for selected
lines of a multiline transmission system.
 However, there can be compensation requirements for particular multiline
transmission systems which would not be compatible with the basic constraint of
the IPFC, stipulating that the sum of real power exchanged with all the lines must
be zero.
 This constraint could be particularly restrictive under an emergency contingency
when those lines which were to support the "prime" lines would also be
overloaded.
 This potential problem can be solved by combining the UPFC and IPFC concepts
to realize a generalized Interline Power Flow Controller arrangement, in which a
shunt-connected converter is added to the number of converters providing series
compensation, as illustrated in below Figure.
 With this scheme the net power difference at the dc terminal is supplied or
absorbed by the shunt converter, and ultimately exchanged with the ac system at
the shunt bus.
 This arrangement can be economically attractive because the shunt converter has
to be rated only for the maximum real power difference anticipated for the whole
system.