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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Telephone is a communication device with the basic function of allowing two people

separated by large distances to communicate with each other. It is one of the most remarkable

devicesever invented in the world, and has been considered essential and helpful may it be for

personal and household uses, to business matters and governments use . The word "telephone"

has been recognized and being widely used around the world.

The primary parts of a telephone are the microphone for the user to speak into, an

earphone to listen to- where the voice of the person speaking on the other line is heard, a ringer

that creates a sound to notify the user of the incoming call, and a dial pad printed with numbers

from 0 to 9, letters from A to Z and symbols such as asterisk (*) and nummber sign (#). The

microphone and earphone may be separated or built into a single handset, depending on the

telephone type and design held up to the face to talk and listen to. The keypad may also be part

of the handset for some telephone designs but the common location of the keypad is on the bas

A telephone can either be connected with wires to the telephone network or cordless

which has a portable handset and can only be used within a specific limited range of the base

station being set by the maker or producer of the handset.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The main purpose for this proposal is to establish a local subscriber loop design that will

be employed in San Juan City, Manila with considerations to the characteristics of materials and

location, and the elements of the said local community.

OBJECTIVES

General Objective

The main objective is to devise a subscriber loop system that will connect the subscribers

to the proposed Central office in San Juan City, Manila.

Specific Objective

 To create a subscriber loop system that is inexpensive and stable.

 To support a reasonable number of subscribers in the said city.

 To establish a more reliable communication through subscriber loop design in San

Juan City, Manila.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The local subscriber loop system design to be developed will be essential to provide the

future subscribers a reliable, stable, affordable and efficient communication system. The quality

of the design can highly contribute to the betterment of the telephone industry of the location.

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CHAPTER 2
DESIGN CONCEPTS AND STANDARDS

The telephone, as we know it today, began with the collaboration of two widely known

men: Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson. Bell was born in 1847 in Edinburgh,

Scotland. He migrated to Ontario, Canada, in 1870 where he lived for only six months before

moving to Boston, Massachusetts, while Watson was born in a livery stable owned by his father

in Salem, Massachusetts. The two met in 1874 and invented the telephone in 1876. On March 10,

1876, one week after his patent was allowed, Bell first succeeded in transmitting speech in his

laboratory at 5 Exeter Place in Boston. At the time, Bell was 29 years old and Watson only 22.

Bell's patent, number 174,465, has been called the most valuable ever issued.

The basic telephone set is a simple analog transceiver designed with the primary purpose

of converting speech or acoustical signals to electrical signals and in recent years, new features

are added such as multiple-line selection, hold, caller ID; speakerphones have been incorporated

into telephone sets to create a more elaborate and complicated device.

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Basic Principles and Operation

The simplest and most straightforward form of telephone service is called Plain Old

Telephone Service (POTS). It involves subscribers accessing the Public Telephone Network

(PTN) through a pair of wires called the local subscriber loop (or simply local loop). The local

loop is the most fundamental component of a telephone circuit, it is simply an unshielded twisted

pair transmission line (cable pair), consisting of two insulated conductors twisted together. The

insulating material is generally a polyethylene plastic coating, and the conductor is most likely a

pair of 116- to 26-gauge copper wire. A subscriber loop is generally comprised of several lengths

of copper wire interconnected at junction and cross-connect boxes located in manholes, back

alleys, or telephone equipment rooms within large buildings and building complexes. The

subscriber loop provides the means to connect a telephone set at a subscriber’s location to the

closest telephone office, which is commonly called an end office, local exchange office, or

central office. Once in the central office, the subscriber loop is connected to an electronic

switching system (ESS), which enables the subscriber to access the public telephone network.

Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL)

DSL is a family of technologies that provide internet access by transmitting digital data

over the wires of a local telephone network. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is

widely understood to mean Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most commonly

installed DSL technology. DSL service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone

service on the same telephone line. This is possible because DSL uses higher frequency

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bands for data separated by filtering. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each outlet

removes the high frequency interference, to enable simultaneous use of the telephone and data.

Demand for digital services was initially confined to business end users and Symmetric

DSL systems delivering around 2 Megabits per second (Mbps) upstream - from the end user to

the exchange - and downstream - from the exchange to the end user - were used to provide

digital connectivity over the copper network. The use of DSL systems provided a means of not

just for delivering data services whilst the economics of deploying fibre networks were being

developed, but also of deferring the high capital expenditure required to in order to overlay the

copper network with an optic fibre or hybrid fibre/copper infrastructure.

Early demand for Internet access was met by using dial-up connections over the Public

Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) but these calls soon reached volumes that could not be

efficiently handled by the switching units. It also became apparent that end users needed faster

connections and this could only be provided using digital links. To meet this demand, Integrated

Services Digital Network (ISDN) connections were deployed in significant numbers but the

bandwidth was still limited to a maximum of 128 kilobits per second (kbps).

The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers has the capability

of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 kHz upper limit of POTS. Depending on the length

and quality of the loop, the upper limit can be tens of megahertz. DSL takes advantage of this

unused bandwidth of the local loop by creating 4312.5 Hz wide channels starting between 10 and

100 kHz, depending on how the system is configured. Allocation of channels continues at higher

and higher frequencies (up to 1.1 MHz for ADSL) until new channels are deemed unusable.

Each channel is evaluated for usability in much the same way an analog modem would on a

POTS connection. More usable channels equates to more available bandwidth, which is why

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distance and line quality are a factor (the higher frequencies used by DSL travel only short

distances). The pool of usable channels is then split into two different frequency bands

for upstream and downstream traffic, based on a preconfigured ratio. This segregation reduces

interference. Once the channel groups have been established, the

individual channels are bonded into a pair of virtual circuits, one in each direction. Like analog

modems, DSL transceivers constantly monitor the quality of each channel and will add or

remove them from service depending on whether they are usable.

In practice, however, these technologies remain reliant upon copper cables in the access

network which were originally specified for the transmission of narrowband frequencies used by

analogue voice services, these ranging from around 30 kHz to 400 kHz. Broadband services use

frequencies that range from 0.1 MHz to 30 MHz and the electrical characteristics that cause the

transmitted signal to deteriorate increase with the length of the cable. As a result, the bandwidth

that a DSL system can deliver over a copper pair decreases with the length of the pair, so

imposing a limit on the bandwidths that the copper network can support. The relationship

between DSL technology performance and the length of a copper cable connection is illustrated

in the following graph:

Similarly, because copper access cables were never designed to support the high

operational frequencies used in DSL transmissions, there is also an effective limit on the number

of circuits carrying broadband services that a copper cable can support. Beyond this point,

interaction and interference between the DSL systems begins to degrade quality of services being

provided on other pairs.

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Positioning the Subscriber Loop Network for Digital Services

The need to enhance the digital transmission capability of the local loop network to

provide for new services is widely recognized in the telecommunications industry. Companies

around the world have been working towards this goal and plan to use digital loop carrier (DLC)

to meet this demand. Although this approach is generally accepted, there has been little

information presented on how to plan for the evolution of the local plant. To address these

pressing issues, the Bell System is introducing a concept called fundamental subscriber carrier

planning (FSCP). This paper discusses the impact that digital services will have on the subscriber

loop network, including loop plant design requirements necessary to position the network for up

to 64 kbit/s digital services. Existing cable plant has the capability to support most digital

services, but there are specific design requirements that are quite different from those required

for the "typical" analog voiceband service. This paper reviews the need to position the loop for

digital services, and substantiates the major conclusion that digital loop carrier technology offers

a significant advantage when provisioning for digital services.

Public Switched Telephone Network

The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the world's

public circuit-switched telephone networks. It consists of telephone lines, fiber optic

cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea

telephone cables, all inter-connected by switching centers, thus allowing any telephone in the

world to communicate with any other. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone

systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core and includes mobile as well

as fixed telephones.

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Telecommunication engineering has traditionally been broken down into two basic

segments: transmission and switching. This division was most apparent in conventional

telephony. Transmission deals with the delivery of a quality electrical signal from point X to

point Y . Let us say that switching connects X to Y , rather than to Z. When the first edition of

this book was published, transmission and switching were two very distinct disciplines. Today,

that distinction has disappeared, particularly in the enterprise network. As we proceed through

the development of this text, we must deal with both disciplines and show in later chapters how

the dividing line separating them has completely disappeared.

These networks, whether mobile or fixed, have traditionally been based on speech

operations. Meanwhile, another network type has lately gained great importance in the scheme of

things. This is the enterprise network. Such a network supports the business enterprise. It can just

as well support the government “enterprise” as a private business. Its most common

configuration is a local area network (LAN) and is optimized for data communications, The

enterprise network also has a long-distance counterpart, called a WAN or wide area network.

The U.S. Department of Defense developed a special breed of WAN where the original concept

was for resource sharing among U.S. and allied universities. Since its inception around 1987, it

has taken on a very large life of its own, having been opened to the public worldwide. It is the

internet. Its appeal is universal, serving its original intent as a resource-sharing medium

extending way beyond the boundaries of universities and now including a universal messaging

service called email (electronic mail).Some may argue that telecommunications with all its

possible facets is the world’s largest business. We do not take sides on this issue. What we do

wish to do is to impart to the reader a technical knowledge and appreciation of

telecommunication networks from a system viewpoint. By system we mean how one discipline

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can interact with another to reach a certain end objective. If we do it right, that interaction will be

synergistic and will work for us; if not, it may work against us in reaching our goal. Therefore, a

primary concern of this book is to describe the development of the PSTN and enterprise network

and discuss why they are built the way they are and how they are evolving. The basic

underpinning of the industry was telephone service. That has now changed. The greater portion

of the traffic carried today is data traffic, and all traffic is in a digital format of one form or

another. We include wireless/cellular and “broadband” as adjuncts of the PSTN.

Telephony

Telephony is the technology associated with the electronic transmission of voice, fax, or

other information between distant parties using systems historically associated with the

telephone, a handheld device containing both a speaker or transmitter and a receiver.

Encompasses the general use of equipment to provide voice communication over distances,

specifically by connecting telephones to each other.With the arrival of computers and the

transmittal of digital information over telephone systems and the use of radio to transmit

telephone signals, the distinction between telephony and telecommunication has become difficult

to make.

Telecommunications is the transmission of information over significant distances to

communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as

beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio

messages via coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, or sent by loud whistles, for example. In the

modern age of electricity and electronics, telecommunications now also includes the use of

electrical devices such as telegraphs, telephones, and teleprinters, the use of radio and microwave

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communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plus the use of the

orbiting satellites and the Internet.

The common telephone as we know it today is a device connected to the outside world by

a pair of wires. It consists of a handset and its cradle with a signaling device, consisting of either

a dial or push buttons. The handset is made up of two electro acoustic transducers, the earpiece

or receiver and the mouthpiece or transmitter. There is also a sidetone circuit that allows some of

the transmitted energy to be fed back to the receiver. The transmitter or mouthpiece converts

acoustic energy into electric energy by means of a carbon granule transmitter. The transmitter

requires a direct-current (dc) potential, usually on the order of 3–5 V, across its electrodes. We

call this the talk battery, and in modern telephone systems it is supplied over the line (central

battery) from the switching center and has been standardized at −48 V dc. Current from the

battery flows through the carbon granules or grains when the telephone is lifted from its cradle or

goes “off hook.” The opposite action of “off hook” is “on hook”—that is, placing the telephone

back in its cradle, thereby terminating a connection. On the diaphragm of the transmitter,

variations of air pressure are transferred to the carbon, and the resistance of the electrical path

through the carbon changes in proportion to the pressure. A pulsating direct current results. The

typical receiver consists of a diaphragm of magnetic material, often soft iron alloy, placed in a

steady magnetic field supplied by a permanent magnet, and a varying magnetic field caused by

voice currents flowing through the voice coils. Such voice currents are alternating (ac) in nature

and originate at the farend telephone transmitter. These currents cause the magnetic field of the

receiver to alternately increase and decrease, making the diaphragm move and respond to the

variations. Thus an acoustic pressure wave is set up, more or less exactly reproducing the

original sound wave from the distant telephone transmitter. The telephone receiver, as a

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converter of electrical energy to acoustic energy, has a comparatively low efficiency, on the

order of 2–3%. Sidetone is the sound of the talker’s voice heard in his (or her) own receiver.

Sidetone level must be controlled. When the level is high, the natural human reaction is for the

talker to lower his or her voice. Thus by regulating sidetone, talker levels can be regulated. If

too much sidetone is fed back to the receiver, the output level of the transmitter is reduced as a

result of the talker lowering his or her voice, thereby reducing the level (voice volume) at the

distant receiver and deteriorating performance. To develop our discussion, let us connect two

telephone handsets by a pair of wires, and at mid distance between the handsets a battery is

connected to provide that all-important talk battery. Distance D is the overall separation of the

two handsets and is the sum of distances d1 and d2; d1 and d2 are the distances from each

handset to the central battery supply. The exercise is to extend the distance D to determine

limiting factors given a fixed battery voltage, say, 48 V dc. We find that there are two limiting

factors to the extension of the wire pair between the handsets. These are the IR drop, limiting the

voltage across the handset transmitter, and the attenuation. For 19-gauge wire, the limiting

distance is about 30 km, depending on the efficiency of the handsets. If the limiting characteristic

is attenuation and we desire to extend the pair farther, amplifiers could be used in the line. If the

battery voltage is limiting, then the battery voltage could be increased. With the telephone

system only two people can communicate. As soon as we add a third person, some difficulties

begin to arise. The simplest approach would be to provide each person with two handsets.

Telephones were originally connected directly together in pairs. Each user had separate

telephones wired to the various places he might wish to reach. This became inconvenient when

people wanted to talk to many other telephones, so the telephone exchange was invented. Each

telephone could then be connected to other local ones, thus inventing the local loop and the

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telephone call. Soon, nearby exchanges were connected by trunk lines, and eventually distant

ones were as well.

In modern times, most telephones are plugged into telephone jacks. The jacks are

connected by inside wiring to a drop wire which connects the building to a cable. Cables usually

bring a large number of drop wires from all over a district access network to one wire center or

telephone exchange. When the user of a telephone wants to make a telephone call, equipment at

the exchange examines the dialed telephone number and connects that telephone line to another

in the same wire center, or to a trunk to a distant exchange. Most of the exchanges in the world

are connected to each other, forming the public switched telephone network (PSTN). By the end

of the 20th century almost all were stored program control exchanges.

Local Loop

In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a subscriber line) is the physical link or

circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the

carrier or telecommunications service provider's network. At the edge of the carrier access

network in a traditional PSTN (public switched telephone network) scenario, the local loop

terminates in a circuit switch housed in an ILEC (Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier) CO

(Central Office).

Traditionally, the local loop was wireline in nature from customer to central office,

specifically in the form of an electrical circuit (i.e. loop) provisioned as a single twisted pair in

support of voice communications. Where the number of local loops was restricted, different

customers could share the same loop, known as a party line. Modern implementations may

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include a digital loop carrier system segment or fiber optic transmission system known as fiber-

in-the-loop. The local loop may terminate at a circuit switch owned by a CLEC (Competitive

Local Exchange Carrier) and housed in a point of presence (POP), which typically is either an

ILEC CO or a "carrier hotel". A local loop may be provisioned to support data communications

applications, or combined voice and data:

 analog voice and signaling used in traditional POTS

 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

 variants of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Many owners of local loops are public utilities that hold a natural monopoly. To prevent the

owner from using this natural monopoly to monopolize other fields of trade, some jurisdictions

require utilities to unbundle the local loop, that is, make the local loop available to their

competitors.

The term "local loop" is sometimes used for any "last mile" connection to the customer,

regardless of technology or intended purpose. Hence the phrase "wireless local loop". Local loop

connections in this sense include:

 Electric power line local loop: PLT or PLC

 Optical local loop: Fiber Optics services such as FiOS

 Satellite local loop: communications satellite and cosmos Internet connections of satellite

television (DVB-S)

 Cable local loop: Cablemodem

 Wireless local loop (WLL): LMDS, WiMAX, GPRS, HSDPA, DECT

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Trunk line

A trunk line is a circuit connecting telephone switchboards (or other switching

equipment), as distinguished from local loop circuit which extends from telephone exchange

switching equipment to individual telephones or information origination/termination equipment.

When dealing with a private branch exchange (PBX), trunk lines are the phone lines

coming into the PBX from the telephone provider. This differentiates these incoming lines from

extension lines that connect the PBX to (usually) individual phone sets. Trunking saves cost,

because there are usually fewer trunk lines than extension lines, since it is unusual in most

offices to have all extension lines in use for external calls at once. Trunk lines transmit voice and

data in formats such as analog, T1, E1, ISDN or PRI. The dial tone lines for outgoing calls are

called DDCO (Direct Dial Central Office) trunks.

RF transmission line

Radio Frequency transmission lines and antennas is designed to transfer RF energy from

your rig to your antenna when transmitting and from your antenna to rig when receiving. And,

following that an antenna is the device that is on the opposite end of your transmission line from

your rig. Its purpose is to radiate RF energy or to receive RF energy that has been radiated. The

efficient transfer of energy, with it’s superimposed intelligence, from your rig to a distant rig and

the reverse for someone you are attempting to communicate with makes amateur radio possible.

As has been frequently said any antenna is better than no antenna. It is better to get an antenna

and transmission line up and working than to try and spend days, weeks and maybe months

trying to find and install the perfect system. Every system has compromises, some can be

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mitigated with little effort and some are impossible to overcome. Most fall somewhere in

between. This somewhere in between makes antenna systems fun and challenging to deal with.

One fundamental fact about transmission lines and antennas that seems to be forgotten

from time to time is that a complete circuit back to it’s source is required for radiation of RF

energy. If that return path is not provided as you learned in electronic fundamentals the result is

that your antenna system will not function as intended. RF as opposed to direct current most

likely will make it’s own path if one is not provided. When that happens some grotesque things

can and do happen to your signal and perhaps to your equipment or to you. We will discuss this

in more detail later.

Transmission lines:

Types of transmissions: Over the years, transmission lines and antennas have taken many

different shapes and sizes. Today transmission lines are composed of three different types.

1. Coax cables. These are the most common today and are the round cable that most of us are

familiar with that goes from our rig to our antenna. These have one conductor in the middle

surrounded by an insulator which is surrounded by an outer braid which is surrounded by outside

insulation. Coax cables are considered to be unbalanced as the outer conductor is intended to be

held at ground potential and the inner conductor carries the RF energy. Of course, the inner

conductor is at a potential other than ground.

2. Parallel wire lines. These are usually flat cables with two wires running parallel to each other

from your rig to your antenna. These are less common than coax cables but due to their

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efficiency they are popular with some users. Parallel wire lines are balanced because both

conductors have the same voltage and current relationships with respect to ground.

3. Waveguides. These are hollow and flat metal transmission devices that RF energy simply

radiates through from one end to the other. These are used primarily for the upper end of the

UHF band and for super high frequencies such as microwaves. These are used by hams when

operating on frequencies near one Giga hertz and higher. For our series of discussions here we

will not address waveguides as those using them are normally well versed in their use and

theory.

In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable

designed to carry alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high

enough that its wave nature must be taken into account. Transmission lines are used for purposes

such as connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, distributing cable

television signals, and computer network connections.

Ordinary electrical cables suffice to carry low frequency AC, such as mains power, which

reverses direction 100 to 120 times per second (cycling 50 to 60 times per second). However,

they cannot be used to carry currents in the radio frequency range or higher, which reverse

direction millions to billions of times per second, because the energy tends to radiate off the

cable as radio waves, causing power losses. Radio frequency currents also tend to reflect from

discontinuities in the cable such as connectors, and travel back down the cable toward the source.

These reflections act as bottlenecks, preventing the power from reaching the destination.

Transmission lines use specialized construction such as precise conductor dimensions and

spacing, and impedance matching, to carry electromagnetic signals with minimal reflections and

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power losses. Types of transmission line include ladder line, coaxial cable, dielectric slabs,

stripline, optical fiber, and waveguides. The higher the frequency, the shorter are the waves in a

transmission medium. Transmission lines must be used when the frequency is high enough that

the wavelength of the waves begins to approach the length of the cable used. To conduct energy

at frequencies above the radio range, such as millimeter waves, infrared, and light, the waves

become much smaller than the dimensions of the structures used to guide them, so transmission

line techniques become inadequate and the methods of optics are used.

In many electric circuits, the length of the wires connecting the components can for the

most part be ignored. That is, the voltage on the wire at a given time can be assumed to be the

same at all points. However, when the voltage changes in a time interval comparable to the time

it takes for the signal to travel down the wire, the length becomes important and the wire must be

treated as a transmission line. Stated another way, the length of the wire is important when the

signal includes frequency components with corresponding wavelengths comparable to or less

than the length of the wire.

A common rule of thumb is that the cable or wire should be treated as a transmission line

if the length is greater than 1/10 of the wavelength. At this length the phase delay and the

interference of any reflections on the line become important and can lead to unpredictable

behavior in systems which have not been carefully designed using transmission line theory.

The four terminal model transmission line

For the purposes of analysis, an electrical transmission line can be modelled as a two-port

network (also called a quadrupole network), In the simplest case, the network is assumed to be

linear (i.e. the complex voltage across either port is proportional to the complex current flowing

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into it when there are no reflections), and the two ports are assumed to be interchangeable. If the

transmission line is uniform along its length, then its behaviour is largely described by a single

parameter called the characteristic impedance, symbol Z0. This is the ratio of the complex

voltage of a given wave to the complex current of the same wave at any point on the line.

Typical values of Z0 are 50 or 75 ohms for a coaxial cable, about 100 ohms for a twisted pair of

wires, and about 300 ohms for a common type of untwisted pair used in radio transmission.

When sending power down a transmission line, it is usually desirable that as much power

as possible will be absorbed by the load and as little as possible will be reflected back to the

source. This can be ensured by making the load impedance equal to Z0, in which case the

transmission line is said to be matched.

Some of the power that is fed into a transmission line is lost because of its resistance.

This effect is called ohmic or resistive loss (see ohmic heating). At high frequencies, another

effect called dielectric loss becomes significant, adding to the losses caused by resistance.

Dielectric loss is caused when the insulating material inside the transmission line absorbs energy

from the alternating electric field and converts it to heat (see dielectric heating). The

Transmission Line is modeled with a Resistance(R) and Inductance(L) in Series with a

Capacitance(C) and Conductance(G) in Parallel. The Resistance and Conductance contributes to

the loss of the Transmission Line.

The total loss of power in a transmission line is often specified in decibels per metre

(dB/m), and usually depends on the frequency of the signal. The manufacturer often supplies a

chart showing the loss in dB/m at a range of frequencies. A loss of 3 dB corresponds

approximately to a halving of the power.

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High-frequency transmission lines can be defined as those designed to carry

electromagnetic waves whose wavelengths are shorter than or comparable to the length of the

line. Under these conditions, the approximations useful for calculations at lower frequencies are

no longer accurate. This often occurs with radio, microwave and optical signals, metal mesh

optical filters, and with the signals found in high-speed digital circuits.

Digital telephony

Digital telephony is the use of digital electronics in the provision of digital telephone

services and systems. Since the 1960s a digital core network has almost entirely replaced the old

analog system, and much of the access network has also been digitized. Digital telephony is the

use of digital electronics in the provision of digital telephone services and systems. Since the

1960s a digital core network has almost entirely replaced the old analog system, and much of the

access network has also been digitized. Digital telephony was introduced to provide voice

services at lower cost, but was then found to be of great value to new network services such as

ISDN that could use digital facilities to transfer data speedily over telephone lines.

Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a family of technologies that provides digital data

transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital

subscriber loop. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology.

DSL service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone

line. This is possible because DSL uses higher frequency bands for data separated by filtering.

On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each outlet removes the high frequency interference,

to enable simultaneous use of the telephone and data.

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The data bit rate of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to 40 Mbit/s

in the direction to the customer (downstream), depending on DSL technology, line conditions,

and service-level implementation. In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction, (the

direction to the service provider) is lower, hence the designation of asymmetric service. In

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) services, the downstream and upstream data rates are

equal.

Electric Power Transmission Line

Electricity is generated as it is used. Unlike other commodities, there is very little ability

to store electricity. Because of the instantaneous nature of the electric system, constant

adjustments must be made to assure that the generation of power matches the consumption of

power. The electric system we’ve grown to depend on is very complex and dynamic, ever

adjusting to meet changing needs. The amount of power on a line at any given moment depends

on generation production and dispatch, customer use, the status of other transmission lines and

their associated equipment, and even the weather. The transmission system must accommodate

changing electricity supply and demand conditions, unexpected outages, planned shutdowns of

generators or transmission equipment for maintenance, weather extremes, fuel shortages, and

other challenges.

Electric-power transmission lines carry power from generating plants to the distribution

systems that feed electricity to domestic, commercial and industrial users. Transmission lines

vary from a few kilometers long in an urban environment to over 1000 km for lines carrying

power from remote hydroelectric plants. They may differ greatly in the amount of power carried.

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Because requirements vary, many technical, economic and environmental factors must be

considered when new lines are planned. The basic modes of transmission are direct current (DC)

and alternating current (AC). In direct current, the current flows in one direction only; in

alternating current it reverses its direction many times per second. It is difficult to transform

direct current from one voltage to another; hence, initially DC had to be transmitted at the low

voltage at which it was generated and used. This fact limited its applicability: if transmission of

large amounts of electricity or transmission over long distances was required, the cost of the

conductor (copper wire) was prohibitive. Alternating current may be generated at a low voltage,

boosted to a higher voltage by a transformer, transmitted and converted back to a lower voltage

before use. Consequently, following the development of the transformer in the 1890s, most

electricity was transmitted as AC.

However, DC transmission has a number of advantages and is being more widely used.

For example, a DC line, requiring only 2 conductors instead of the 3 needed for an AC line, costs

about two-thirds as much. Further, in DC transmission the effective voltage is equal to the peak

voltage, while in AC transmission the peak voltage is 40% higher. Since radio interference

increases with the peak voltage and decreases as the conductor size is increased, the DC system

can carry a higher effective voltage than an AC line of equivalent size and still maintain an

acceptable radio interference level. Thus, in some long lines carrying bulk power from remote

generating sites, power is generated as AC, boosted to a high voltage, converted to DC for

transmission, then reconverted to AC and transformed to a lower voltage for use. The cost of the

converter stations at either end is offset by the lower cost of the line. An example of DC

transmission is Manitoba's Nelson River line, which carries power from generating plants on the

Nelson River to Winnipeg, almost 1000 km south. DC transmission is also advantageous for

21
transmitting power through submarine cables, such as the line from the British Columbia

mainland to Vancouver Island.

AC and DC can be transmitted in overhead lines or underground cables. The cost of

underground cables is much greater than that of overhead lines, but this increase may be

acceptable in urban areas where space for overhead lines is lacking or where aesthetics are a

major concern. Transmission across bodies of water also requires the use of cables if the distance

is too great to span with overhead lines.

Overhead power lines have 3 major components: support structure, insulation and

conductors. Support structures can be wooden poles, free-standing steel towers or guyed towers

of steel or aluminum. Glass or porcelain suspension insulators have traditionally separated the

live conductors from the grounded towers. Each insulator consists of a metal cap on top and a

metal pin underneath separated by the glass or porcelain insulation. These units are used to form

insulator strings which vary in length depending on the voltage level and application. Several

strings may be used in parallel to carry the weight of the conductors. For 735 kV about 30

insulators are used. New types of insulators have been developed using polymers; field testing

and full-scale use became more prevalent during the 1980s. In the early days of electrical

transmission, copper was used extensively as a conductor, but now virtually all conductors are

aluminum. Each conductor is made of many strands (1-5 mm in diameter) combined to give an

overall diameter of 4-50 mm. In most conductors, steel or a high-strength aluminum alloy is used

for the core strands to give the conductor added strength. In a transmission line, up to 4

conductors may be used in parallel to form a conductor bundle.

22
Transmission voltages can vary considerably. Early in this century, Canada's fledgling

power industry transmitted a few 10s of kilowatts (kW) of power over transmission lines

operating at a few 10s of kilovolts (kV). Today one of HYDRO-QUÉBEC's James Bay

transmission lines may carry over 2000 megawatts (MW) of power more than 1000 km at 735

kV. As the amount of power carried and the distances increased, it was necessary to increase the

voltage to reduce losses and permit more power to be carried on a single line. Losses are

proportional to distance and to the square of the current. Thus, for the same amount of power, if

the voltage is doubled, the current is halved and the distance can be quadrupled for the same

losses. Unfortunately, as voltages increase, so do costs: virtually everything must be larger and

insulation problems become more complex. Electric power is generated at relatively low

voltages, 25 kV or less. It must be transformed to a higher voltage for transmission, then

transformed down to the distribution voltage, typically less than 25 kV. As the cost of the

transformers also increases with voltage, the optimum voltage must be chosen carefully. For

complex technical reasons, the use of higher transmission voltages is beneficial to the stability of

the power system. Because of the long transmission distances in this country, Canadian

Electrical Utilitieshave often been pioneers in the field of transmission technology. As of 1982,

Manitoba Hydro's Nelson River system, which began service in 1972, was the largest high-

voltage DC transmission system in the world. In 1965 Hydro-Québec inaugurated its 735 kV

Manicouagan line, thus becoming the first utility to go above 500 kV AC for transmission. Since

even higher voltages will probably be needed in the future, the utilities are supporting the design

into transmission at voltages in excess of 1000 kV.

The electrical transmission system is more complex and dynamic than other utility

systems, such as water or natural gas. Electricity flows from power plants, through transformers

23
and transmission lines, to substations, distribution lines, and then finally to the electricity

consumer. The electric system is highly interconnected. The interconnectedness of the system

means that the transmission grid functions as one entity. Power entering the system flows along

all available paths, not just from Point A to Point B. The system does not recognize divisions

between service areas, counties, states, or even countries. The current transmission grid includes

not only transmission lines that run from power plants to load centers, but also from transmission

line to transmission line, providing a redundant system that helps assure the smooth flow of

power. If a transmission line is taken out of service in one part of the power grid, thepower

normally reroutes itself through other power lines to continue delivering power to the customer.

In essence, the electricity from many power plants is “pooled” in the transmission system and

each distribution system draws from this pool. This networked system helps to achieve a high

reliability for power delivery since any one power plant only constitutes a fraction of the power

being delivered by the power grid to meet the instantaneous demand requirements.

Power plants generate three-phase alternating current (AC). This means that there is a

wire for each phase coming out of every plant and down the transmission lines. On a

transmission structure, the three large wires are called conductors and carry the electric power.

They are usually about an inch in diameter. There is also a smaller wire at the top of the

structure, called a shield wire. The shield wire is designed to protect the power line from

lightning and may also contain fiber optic communication cables. Poles with two sets of three

wires (conductors) are called double-circuit poles.

Sometimes a distribution line is strung under the transmission lines, reducing the need for

additional power poles. Electricity is transferred from the power plant to the users through the

electric grid. The grid consists of two separate infrastructures: the higher voltage transmission

24
system and the lower voltage distribution system. Transmission lines in Wisconsin range from 69

to 345 kilovolts (kV) and are used to minimize electrical losses over hundreds of miles. Extra

high voltage lines, such as 500 and 765 kV lines have to-date not been constructed in Wisconsin

but are in use in other Midwest states. The lower voltage distribution system draws electricity

from the transmission lines and distributes it to individual customers. Distribution lines range

from 12 to 24 kV. The voltage that connects to your house is even lower, at 120 or 240 volts.

The interface between different voltage transmission lines and the distribution system is the

electrical substation. Substations use transformers to “step down” voltages from the higher

transmission voltages to the lower distribution system voltages. Transformers located along

distribution lines further step down the line voltages for household usage with appliances at 120

and 240 volts.

The electric lines that generate the most public interest are high-voltage transmission

lines. These are the largest and most visible electric lines. Most large cities require several

transmission lines for reliable electric service. Example of this is the two 345-kV double-

circuited transmission structures sharing the same right-of-way (ROW). Double-circuited means

that the transmission structure is carrying two sets of

Transmission lines, each with three conductors. Transmission lines are larger than the more

common distribution lines that exist along rural roads and city streets. Transmission line poles or

structures are between 60 and 140 feet tall. Distribution line structures are approximately 40 feet

tall. There are several different kinds of transmission structures. Transmission structures can be

constructed of metal or wood.

They can be single-poled or multi-poled. They can be single-circuited, carrying one set of

transmission lines or double-circuited with two sets of lines.

25
Electric power transmission or high-voltage electric transmission is the bulk transfer of

electrical energy, from generating power plants to substations located near population centers.

This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is

typically referred to as electric power distribution. Transmission lines, when interconnected with

each other, become high-voltage transmission networks. In the US, these are typically referred to

as power grids or just the grid, while in the UK the network is known as the national grid. North

America has three major grids: The Western Interconnection; The Eastern Interconnection and

the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (or ERCOT) grid.

Historically, transmission and distribution lines were owned by the same company, but

over the last decade or so many countries have liberalized the electricity market in ways that

have led to the separation of the electricity transmission business from the distribution business.

Transmission lines mostly use three-phasealternating current (AC), although single phase AC is

sometimes used in railway electrification systems. High-voltage direct-current (HVDC)

technology is used only for very long distances (typically greater than 400 miles, or 600 km);

submarine power cables (typically longer than 30 miles, or 50 km); or for connecting two AC

networks that are not synchronized.

Electricity is transmitted at high voltages (110 kV or above) to reduce the energy lost in

long distance transmission. Power is usually transmitted through overhead power lines.

Underground power transmission has a significantly higher cost and greater operational

limitations but is sometimes used in urban areas or sensitive locations. A key limitation in the

distribution of electricity is that, with minor exceptions, electrical energy cannot be stored, and

therefore must be generated as needed. A sophisticated system of control is therefore required to

26
ensure electric generation very closely matches the demand. If supply and demand are not in

balance, generation plants and transmission equipment can shut down which, in the worst cases,

can lead to a major regional blackout, such as occurred in the US Northeast blackouts of 1965,

1977, 1996, 2003, and the Great Blackout of 2011. To reduce the risk of such failures, electric

transmission networks are interconnected into regional, national or continental wide networks

thereby providing multiple redundant alternate routes for power to flow should (weather or

equipment) failures occur. Much analysis is done by transmission companies to determine the

maximum reliable capacity of each line (ordinarily less than its physical or thermal limit) to

ensure spare capacity is available should there be any such failure in another part of the network.

Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN)

The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the world's public

circuit-switchedtelephone networks. It consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables, microwave

transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables,

all inter-connected by switching centers, thus allowing any telephone in the world to

communicate with any other. Originally a network of fixed-lineanalog telephone systems, the

PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core and includes mobile as well as fixed telephones.

The technical operation of the PSTN utilizes standards created by the ITU-T. These standards

allow different networks in different countries to interconnect seamlessly. There is also a single

global address space for telephone numbers based on the E.163 and E.164 standards. The

combination of the interconnected networks and the single numbering plan make it possible for

any phone in the world to dial any other phone.

27
Integrated Services Digital Network

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communications standards for

simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the

traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the

CCITT red book. Prior to ISDN, the telephone system was viewed as a way to transport voice,

with some special services available for data. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech

and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone

system. There are several kinds of access interfaces to ISDN defined as Basic Rate Interface

(BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN).

ISDN is a circuit-switchedtelephonenetwork system, which also provides access to

packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary

telephone copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can

provide. It offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data), and packet-switched

connections (for data), in increments of 64 kilobit/s. A major market application for ISDN in

some countries is Internet access, where ISDN typically provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s in

both upstream and downstream directions. Channel bonding can achieve a greater data rate;

typically the ISDN B-channels of 3 or 4 BRIs (6 to 8 64 kbit/s channels) are bonded.

ISDN should not be mistaken for its use with a specific protocol, such as Q.931 whereby

ISDN is employed as the network, data-link and physical layers in the context of the OSI model.

In a broad sense ISDN can be considered a suite of digital services existing on layers 1, 2, and 3

of the OSI model. ISDN is designed to provide access to voice and data services simultaneously.

28
However, common use reduced ISDN to be limited to Q.931 and related protocols, which

are a set of protocols for establishing and breaking circuit switched connections, and for

advanced call features for the user. They were introduced in 1986. In a videoconference, ISDN

provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop

videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems.

Internet telephony

Telephony is the technology associated with the electronic transmission of voice, fax, or

other information between distant parties using systems historically associated with the

telephone, a handheld device containing both a speaker or transmitter and a

receiver.Encompasses the general use of equipment to provide voice communication over

distances, specifically by connecting telephones to each other.With the arrival of computers and

the transmittal of digital information over telephone systems and the use of radio to transmit

telephone signals, the distinction between telephony and telecommunication has become difficult

to make.

Internet telephony is the use of the Internet rather than the traditional telephone company

infrastructure and rate structure to exchange spoken or other telephone information. Since access

to the Internet is available at local phone connection rates, an international or other long-distance

call will be much less expensive than through the traditional call arrangement.

Internet telephony refers to communications services such as voice, fax, SMS, and or

voice-messaging applications that are transported via the Internet, rather than the public switched

telephone network (PSTN). The steps involved in originating a VoIP telephone call are signaling

29
and media channel setup, digitization of the analog voice signal, encoding, packetization, and

transmission as Internet Protocol (IP) packets over a packet-switched network. On the receiving

side, similar steps such as reception of the IP packets, decoding of the packets and digital-to-

analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream. Even though IP Telephony and VoIP are

terms that are used interchangeably, they are actually different; IP telephony has to do with

digital telephony systems that use IP protocols for voice communication while VoIP is actually a

subset of IP Telephony. VoIP is a technology used by IP telephony as a means of transporting

phone calls.

VoIP systems employ session control protocols to control the set-up and tear-down of

calls as well as audio codec’s which encode speech allowing transmission over an IP network as

digital audio via an audio stream. The codec used is varied between different implementations of

VoIP, some implementations rely on narrowband and compressed speech, while others support

high fidelitystereo codec’s.

There are three types of VoIP tools that are commonly used; IP Phones, Software VoIP

and Mobile and Integrated VoIP. The IP Phones are the most institutionally established but still

the least obvious of the VoIP tools. The use of software VoIP has increased during the global

recession of 2008-2010, as many persons, looking for ways to cut costs have turned to these tools

for free or inexpensive calling or video conferencing applications. Software VoIP can be further

broken down into three classes or subcategories; Web Calling, Voice and Video Instant

Messaging and Web Conferencing. Mobile and Integrated VoIP is just another example of the

adaptability of VoIP. VoIP is available on many Smartphone’s and internet devices so even the

users of portable devices that are not phones can still make calls or send SMS text messages over

30
3G or Wi-Fi.Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP, VoIP) is a family of technologies,

methodologies, communication protocols, and transmission techniques for the delivery of voice

communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the

Internet. Other terms frequently encountered and often used synonymously with VoIP are IP

telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and

broadband phone.

A major development that started in 2004 was the introduction of mass-market VoIP

services that utilize existing broadband Internet access, by which subscribers place and receive

telephone calls in much the same manner as they would via the public switched telephone

network (PSTN). Full-service VoIP phone companies provide inbound and outbound service

with Direct Inbound Dialing. Many offer unlimited domestic calling for a flat monthly

subscription fee. This sometimes includes international calls to certain countries. Phone calls

between subscribers of the same provider are usually free when flat-fee service is not available A

VoIP phone is necessary to connect to a VoIP service provider. This can be implemented in

several ways:

 Dedicated VoIP phones connect directly to the IP network using technologies such as

wired Ethernet or wireless Wi-Fi. They are typically designed in the style of traditional

digital business telephones.

 An analog telephone adapter is a device that connects to the network and implements the

electronics and firmware to operate a conventional analog telephone attached through a

modular phone jack. Some residential Internet gateways and cable modems have this

function built in.

31
 A soft phone is application software installed on a networked computer that is equipped

with a microphone and speaker, or headset. The application typically presents a dial pad

and display field to the user to operate the application by mouse clicks or keyboard input.

32
CHAPTER 3

SITE PROFILE

Figure 1. Dipolog City Seal and Landmarks

Dipolog City is situated in the Northwestern part of the Province of Zamboanga del

Norte. Philippines. Bounded on the North by Dapitan City, on the East by the municipality of

Polanco, on the South by the municipality of Katipunan and on the West by the Sulu Sea with an

area of 13,628 hectares.

Originally, the territory of Dipolog City, was very wide and expansive. Pursuant to Act

No. 302 of the Legislative Council, as modified by Department Order No. 22 series of 1914, of

the Honorable Secretary of the Interior, and further modified by Executive Order No. 14, series

of 1925, of His Excellency, the Governor General of the Philippines, the municipality of

Dipolog, in the Province of Zamboanga comprised the territory technically described as follows:

“Beginning at the center of the mouth of Sicayab River, thence in a South easternly direction to

the primary station No. 143 of Dipolog Cadastre No. 85, Extension; thence to the peak of Mt.

Limones; thence in a straight line to the intersection of the parallel 8 25’ North Latitude, with

33
the meridian 123 30’ East Longitude; thence of Misamis and Zamboanga; thence South along

said boundary to the crest of the mountain range which forms the watershed of the Dipolog and

Dicayas Rivers on the North and the Salug and

Lintugop Rivers on the South; thence in a westernly direction along the crest of said mountain

range to the line drawn due Southest from the headwaters of Lubungan River; thence Northeast

along said line and along said River to its mouth; thence North along the seashore to the point of

beginning, (Adm. Code Department of Mindanao and Sulu), with an approximate area of

248,587 hectares. (Dipolog Cadastre).

However, with the promulgation of Executive Order No. 467, dated August 22, 1951, of

the President of the Philippines, organizing the two big barrios of Dipolog into two

municipalities Polanco and New Piñan – the area of Dipolog was greatly reduced to 13,628

hectares more or less, technically described as follows:

From the intersection of Longitude One Hundred Twenty Three (123) Degrees and Twenty

Eight (28’) Minutes and Latitude Eight (8) Degrees Thirteen (13) Minutes due West following

said Latitude until it intersects Longitude One Hundred Twenty Three (123) Degrees and

Twenty (20) Minutes; thence due North following the said longitude until it intersects Latitude

eight (8) degrees and Twenty two (22’) Minutes; thence due East following said Latitude until

it intersects Longitude One Hundred Twenty Three (123) Degrees and Twenty Two (22’)

minutes; thence due North following the said Longitude until it intersects the middle course of

Diwan River; thence following downstream the river to a point exactly North of Diwan School

Building; thence in a straight line to the confluence of Gusawan Creek and Layawan River;

thence following downstream of said river to a point exactly East of school building of

34
Sangkol; thence in a straight line to the sitio of Ginotolan; thence Northeast in a straight line

crossing Dipolog River to the sitio of Balimbing; thence Northeast again in a straight line to

M.M.M. No. 6 of Dipolog-Dapitan Boundary”.

The City of Dipolog (Filipino: Lungsod ng Dipolog, Cebuano: Dakbayan sa

Dipolog, Spanish/Chavacano: Ciudad de Dipolog) (Subanen:Gembagel G'benwa

Dipuleg/Bagbenwa Dipuleg) is a 1st class city and the capital of the province of Zamboanga del

Norte on the southern Philippine island of Mindanao. Geographically, the city is surrounded by

rolling hills to the southeast and the Sulu Sea to the north.

Dipolog is known for its wild orchids and its sardine industry which stems from the rich

fishing area off its shores. It is known as the "Gateway to Western Mindanao" through

the Western Nautical Highway and has also been called the "Bottled Sardines Capital of the

Philippines."

Dipolog can be reached by plane via Dipolog Airport or by ferry at the nearby Pulauan

Port in Dapitan City. The construction of a Roll-on Roll-off facility at Barangay Galas will allow

for the eventual transfer of the service to Dipolog while retaining inter-island operations at

Pulauan, which is soon to become a base port.

In 2006, a study by the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB) found Dipolog

City to be the wealthiest city per capita in the Zamboanga Peninsula. Within Dipolog, 23.15% of

the population was estimated to be living below the poverty line (households with a per capita

expenditure of under $1 a day). In comparison, the NCSB estimated Zamboanga

City and Pagadian City as having poverty incidences of 23.81% and 27.15%, respectively. In

35
startling contrast, the poverty rate for the entire province of Zamboanga del Norte (with

individuals in both rural and urban settings) was estimated to be 40.36%. Zamboanga del Norte

is one of the Philippines's poorest provinces with a poverty incidence rate of 64.6% in 2003, an

increase from 47% in the 2000 statistical figures.

A popular city attraction is the foreshore boulevard which, though still in its second phase

of construction, has become a popular haven for exercise and leisure. It is also the site for

various celebrations and festivals in the city. In the third phase of the project, the length of the

boulevard will be extended to reach the seaport in Barangay Galas.

36
LIST OF BARANGAYS

Barangay Area
Cogon 1157.7892
Dicayas 600
Diwan 3,704.57
Galas 703.477
Gulayon 503.0084
Lugdungan 907.3758
Minaog 312.2394
Olingan 711.7561
Estaca 80.4895
Biasong (Pob.) 32.0856
Barra (Pob.) 32.5337
Central (Pob.) 38.764
Miputak (Pob.) 711.7561
Punta 44638546
San Jose 657.038
Sangkol 355.1486
Santa Filomena 220.2277
Sicayab 537.6301
Sinaman 495.245
Turno 592.7318
Santa Isabel 125.1852

Table 1. List of Barangays

37
CHAPTER 4
DESIGN COMPUTATIONS
Tables And Formulas
The values provided below where based on the National Transmission Plan for North

America which was entitled the BOC Notes on LEC. To calculate the dc loop resistance for

copper conductors, the following formula is applicable:

0.1095
Rdc =
𝑑2

where Rdc= loop resistance (Ω/mi) and d = diameter of the conductor in inches. A guide in the

design for effective subset operation dictates that for a 10 Ω per mile loop a 1300-Ω was set. The

Long Route Design (LRD) was used in the whole design of the subscriber loop.

For every Cabinet:

 dB/km = 1.27 (constant) dB: constant x measured distance in km

 Ω/km = 168.5 (constant) Ω : constant x measured distance in km

 Km : distance from the central office to the cabinet (measured)

 D= distance measured in cm to km (0.1)

 Ω= D x 168.5 (constant in Ω for #24 AWG)

 TL= D x 1.27 (constant in dB for #24 AWG)

 CL= TL x 12%

 Rdc= (0.1095/ d2)

38
Table 2. Properties of Cable Conductors

The long route design procedure was used corresponding to ranges of resistances of 1300

ohms. Each loop should be able to carry out the supervisory signaling function and design to

meet the 8-dB maximum loop attenuation rule (North America). The LRD provides the design

specific combination of electronic range extenders and or fixed-gain devices to meet the loss

criteria.

39
Table 3. Loss per unit length of subscriber cable

Table 4. Loop Resistance of subscriber cable

40
For every Cabinet:

 dB/km = 1.27 (constant) dB:constant x measured distance in km

 Ω/km = 168.5 (constant) Ω : constant x measured distance in km

 Km : distance from the central office to the cabinet (measured)

 TL- Transmission Loss


 CL- Connection Loss

AREA 1

Cabinet Distance(km dB= Sum of dB and its


Number ) Ω = 433 2.03 12 % of dB 12%
A1 1.3 562.9 2.639 0.31668 2.95568
A2 1.41 610.53 2.8623 0.343476 3.205776
A3 1.07 463.31 2.1721 0.260652 2.432752
A4 1.07 463.31 2.1721 0.260652 2.432752
A5 0.88 381.04 1.7864 0.214368 2.000768
A6 0.7 303.1 1.421 0.17052 1.59152
A7 0.32 138.56 0.6496 0.077952 0.727552

Table 5. Telephone Cabinet for Main Line A

AREA 2

B1 0.27 116.91 0.5481 0.065772 0.613872


B2 0.19 82.27 0.3857 0.046284 0.431984
B3 0.18 77.94 0.3654 0.043848 0.409248
B4 0.16 69.28 0.3248 0.038976 0.363776
B5 0.2 86.6 0.406 0.04872 0.45472
B6 0.43 186.19 0.8729 0.104748 0.977648
B7 0.63 272.79 1.2789 0.153468 1.432368
B8 0.83 359.39 1.6849 0.202188 1.887088
B9 0.64 277.12 1.2992 0.155904 1.455104
B10 0.81 350.73 1.6443 0.197316 1.841616
B11 0.65 281.45 1.3195 0.15834 1.47784

41
B12 0.5 216.5 1.015 0.1218 1.1368
B13 1.51 653.83 3.0653 0.367836 3.433136
B14 0.99 428.67 2.0097 0.241164 2.250864
B15 1.41 610.53 2.8623 0.343476 3.205776
B16 1.48 640.84 3.0044 0.360528 3.364928
B17 1.9 822.7 3.857 0.46284 4.31984

Table 6. Telephone Cabinet for Main Line B

AREA 3

C1 0.55 238.15 1.1165 0.13398 1.25048


C2 0.6 259.8 1.218 0.14616 1.36416
C3 0.32 138.56 0.6496 0.077952 0.727552
C4 0.64 277.12 1.2992 0.155904 1.455104
C5 0.74 320.42 1.5022 0.180264 1.682464
C6 1.47 636.51 2.9841 0.358092 3.342192
C7 1.34 580.22 2.7202 0.326424 3.046624
C8 1.74 753.42 3.5322 0.423864 3.956064
C9 1.26 545.58 2.5578 0.306936 2.864736
C10 0.62 268.46 1.2586 0.151032 1.409632
C11 0.63 272.79 1.2789 0.153468 1.432368
C12 0.83 359.39 1.6849 0.202188 1.887088
C13 2.51 1086.83 5.0953 0.611436 5.706736
C14 1.26 545.58 2.5578 0.306936 2.864736
C15 1.78 770.74 3.6134 0.433608 4.047008
C16 1.26 545.58 2.5578 0.306936 2.864736
C17 2.74 1186.42 5.5622 0.667464 6.229664
C18 2.79 1208.07 5.6637 0.679644 6.343344
C19 1.94 840.02 3.9382 0.472584 4.410784
C20 1.98 857.34 4.0194 0.482328 4.501728
C21 3.26 1411.58 6.6178 0.794136 7.411936
C22 3.05 1320.65 6.1915 0.74298 6.93448
C23 3.34 1446.22 6.7802 0.813624 7.593824

Table 7. Telephone Cabinet for Main Line C

42
POPULATION DENSITY

SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 2. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2007

43
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 3. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2008

44
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 4. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2009

45
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 5. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2010

46
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 6. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2011

47
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 7. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2012

48
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 8. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2013

49
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 9. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2014

50
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 10. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2015

51
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 11. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2016

52
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 12. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2017

53
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 13. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2018

54
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 14. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2019

55
SICAYAB
DICAYAS

MINAOG

POBLACION
TURNO LUGDUNGAN
STA.ISABEL
STA.FILOMENA
GULAYON
GALAS

OLINGAN

PUNTA SINAMAN

SAN
SANGCOL
JOSE

COGON

DIWAN

Figure 15. Population Density of Dipolog City for 2020

56
A B C D E F G H I J
1 12 19 31

2
7 10 17 24

3
12 21 33 81

4
72 148 28 248 329

5
49 74 46 169 548

6
12 21 17 50 620

7
10 14 10 28 62 697

8
19 19 35 14 87 697

9
5 10 17 5 19 56 753

10
28 21 17 14 10 5 95 848

11
14 21 28 26 7 96 944

12
10 5 14 3 34 978

13 7
5 12 990

14
7 7 997

15
5 5 1002

10 26 80 59 82 197 341 207

36 116 175 257 454 795 1002

LOCATION OF THEORETICAL CENTER

57
Distribution Points

Area A

Figure 16. Distribution Point for Area A

Area B

Figure 17. Distribution Point for Area B

58
Area C

Figure 18. Distribution Point for Area C

59
Engineering Forecast Design

Area A

A1
GA km Ω dB A2
#28 1.3 563 2.64 GA km Ω dB
A6
0.32 #28 1.41 611 2.86
GA km Ω dB
12 1.3 563 2.96 0.34
#28 0.7 303 1.42
19 1.41 611 3.21
0.17
21 0.7 303 1.59
A3
A4
GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB
#28 1.07 463 2.17
#28 1.07 463 2.17
0.26
0.26
7 1.07 463 2.43
12 1.07 463 2.43

A5 A7
GA km Ω dB GA km Ω dB
#28 0.88 381 1.79 #28 0.32 139 0.65
0.21 0.08
16 0.88 381 2 28 0.32 139 0.73

Figure 19. Engineering Forecast Desgn for Area A

60
Area B

B1
GA km dB B2
Ω
#28 0.27 117 0.55 GA km Ω dB
0.07 #28 0.19 82.3 0.39
36 0.27 117 0.61 0.05
36 0.19 82.3 0.43

B3
B4
GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB
#28 0.18 77.9 0.37
#28 0.16 69.3 0.32
0.04
0.04
49 0.18 77.9 0.41
49 0.16 69.3 0.36

B5
B6 GA km Ω dB
GA km dB #28 0.2 86.6 0.41 B8
Ω
#28 0.43 186 0.87 0.05 GA km Ω dB
0.1 50 0.2 86.6 0.45 #28 0.83 359 1.68
24 0.43 186 0.98 0.2
12 0.83 359 1.89

B7
GA km Ω dB
#28 0.63 273 1.28
0.15
25 0.63 273 1.43

Figure 20. Engineering Forecast Desgn for Area B

61
B9
B10
GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB
#28 0.64 277 1.3
#28 0.81 351 1.64
0.16
0.2
23 0.64 277 1.46
23 0.81 351 1.84

B12
GA km Ω dB B11
#28 0.5 217 1.02 GA km Ω dB
0.12 #28 0.65 281 1.32
37 0.5 217 1.14 0.16
37 0.65 281 1.48

B13
GA km Ω dB
#28 1.51 654 3.07
0.37 B14
B16
14 1.51 654 3.43 GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB
#28 0.99 429 2.01
#28 1.48 641 3
B15 0.24
0.36
GA km dB 21 0.99 429 2.25
Ω 28 1.48 641 3.36
#28 1.41 611 2.86
0.34
B17
17 1.41 611 3.21
GA km Ω dB
#28 1.9 823 3.86
0.46
10 1.9 823 4.32

Figure 20. Engineering Forecast Desgn for Area B

62
Area C

C2
C1
GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB #28 0.6 260 1.22
#28 0.55 238 1.12 0.15
0.13 19 0.6 260 1.36
14 0.55 238 1.25

C3 C4
GA km Ω dB GA km Ω dB
#28 0.32 139 0.65 #28 0.64 277 1.3
0.08 0.16
19 0.32 139 0.73 19 0.64 277 1.46

C5 C12
GA km Ω dB GA km Ω dB
#28 0.74 320 1.5 #28 0.83 359 1.68
0.18 0.2
17 0.74 320 1.68 19 0.83 359 1.89
C10
GA km Ω dB
#28 0.62 268 1.26
0.15
19 0.62 268 1.41

C11
GA km Ω dB
#28 0.63 273 1.28
0.15
16 0.63 273 1.43

Figure 21. Engineering Forecast Desgn for Area C

63
C6
C7
GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB
#28 1.47 637 2.98
#28 1.34 580 2.72
0.36
0.33
10 1.47 637 3.34
21 1.34 580 3.05

C8 C9
GA km Ω dB GA km dB
Ω
#28 1.74 753 3.53 #28 1.26 546 2.56
0.42 0.31
28 1.74 753 3.96 17 1.26 546 2.86

C16
GA km Ω dB
C15 #28 1.26 546 2.56
GA km Ω dB 0.31
#28 1.78 771 3.61 14 1.26 546 2.86
0.43
10 1.78 771 4.05

Figure 21. Engineering Forecast Desgn for Area C

64
C19
GA km Ω dB
C20
#28 1.94 840 3.94
GA km Ω dB
0.47
#28 1.98 857 4.02
28 1.94 840 4.41
0.48
26 1.98 857 4.5

C14 C13
GA km Ω dB GA km Ω dB
#28 1.26 546 2.56 #28 2.51 1087 5.1
0.31 0.61
21 1.26 546 2.86 5 2.51 1087 5.71

C17
C18
GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB
#28 2.74 1186 5.56
#28 2.79 1208 5.66
0.67
0.68
14 2.74 1186 6.23
5 2.79 1208 6.34

C21
C22
GA km Ω dB
GA km Ω dB
#28 3.26 1412 6.62
#28 3.05 1321 6.19
0.79
0.74
7 3.26 1412 7.41
7 3.05 1321 6.93

C23
GA km Ω dB
#28 3.34 1446 6.78
0.81
7 3.34 1446 7.59

Figure 21. Engineering Forecast Desgn for Area C

65
DESIGN COMPUTATIONS

 Computing for the American Gauge Wire:

Distance of main station from point A to point B (Main Line A):

D= 14.1cm x .1 = 1.41 km
1.41km = .876 miles

1300
( ) = 1483.79
. 876

Rdc = (0.1095/ d2)


FORMULAS:
1483.79= (0.1095/ d2) D= distance measured in cm to km (0.1)
d= 0.013 inches ` Ω= D x 433 (constant in Ω for #28 AWG)
d= 0.033 cm TL= D x 2.03 (constant in dB for #28 AWG)
CL= TL x 12%
0.00859 cm x (10mm/1cm)
d= 0.218mm ( #28 AWG)

Gauge of the wire: #28

Distance of main station from point A to point B (Main Line B):

D= 19cm x .1 = 1.9 km
1.9km = 1.181 miles

1300
( ) = 1100.762
1.181

66
Rdc = (0.1095/ d2)
FORMULAS:
1100.762= (0.1095/ d2) D= distance measured in cm to km (0.1)
d= 0.00997 inches ` Ω= D x 433 (constant in Ω for #28 AWG)
d= 0.0253 cm TL= D x 2.03 (constant in dB for #28 AWG)
CL= TL x 12%
0.00253 cm x (10mm/1cm)
d= 0. 253 mm (#28 AWG)

Gauge of the wire : #28

Distance of main station from point A to point B (Main Line B):

D= 33.4cm x .1 = 3.34 km
3.34km = 2.075miles

1300
( ) = 626.39
2.075

Rdc = (0.1095/ d2)


FORMULAS:
626.39= (0.1095/ d2) D= distance measured in cm to km (0.1)
d= 0.0132inches ` Ω= D x 433 (constant in Ω for #28 AWG)
d= 0.0336 cm TL= D x 2.03 (constant in dB for #28 AWG)
CL= TL x 12%
0.0336 cm x (10mm/1cm)
d= 0. 336mm (#28 AWG)

Gauge of the wire : #28

67
AREA 1
 CABINET A1

D= 13 cm x 0.1= 1.3 km
Ω = 1.3 km x 433= 562.9 Ω
TL= 1.3 km x 2.03 = 2.639 dB
CL = 2.639 x 12% = 0.31668 dB
 CABINET A2

D= 14.1 cm x 0.1= 1.41 km


Ω = 1.41 km x 433 = 610.53 Ω
TL= 1.41 km x 1.27. = 2.8623 dB
CL = 2.8623 x 12% = 0.343476 dB
 CABINET A3

D= 10.7 cm x 0.1= 1.07 km


Ω = 1.07 km x 433 = 463.31 Ω
TL= 1.07 km x 1.27. = 2.1721 dB
CL = 2.1721x 12% = 0.260652 dB
 CABINET A4

D= 10.7 cm x 0.1= 1.07 km


Ω = 1.07 km x 433 = 463.31 Ω
TL= 1.07 km x 1.27. = 2.1721 dB
CL = 2.1721 x 12% = 0.260652 dB
 CABINET A5

D= 8.8 cm x 0.1= 0.88 km


Ω = 0.88 km x 433 = 381.04 Ω
TL= 0.88 km x 1.27. = 1.7864 dB
CL= 1.7864 x 12% = 0.214368 dB

 CABINET A6

D= 7 cm x 0.1= 0.7 km
Ω = 0.7 km x 433 = 303.1 Ω
TL= 0.7 km x 1.27. = 1.421 dB
CL = 1.421 x 12% = 0.17052 dB

68
 CABINET A7

D= 3.2 cm x 0.1= 0.32 km


Ω = 0.32 km x 433 = 138.56 Ω
TL= 0.32 km x 1.27. = 0.6496 dB
CL = 0.6496 x 12% = 0.077952 dB

AREA 2

 CABINET B1

D= 2.7 cm x 0.1= 0.27 km


Ω = 0.27 km x 433 = 116.91 Ω
TL= 0.27 km x 1.27. = 0.5481 dB
CL = 0.5481 x 12% = 0.065772 dB
 CABINET B2

D= 1.9 cm x 0.1= 0.19 km


Ω = 0.19 km x 433 = 82.27 Ω
TL= 0.19 km x 1.27. = 0.3857 dB
CL = 0.3857 x 12% = 0.046284 dB
 CABINET B3

D= 1.8 cm x 0.1= 0.18 km


Ω = 0.18 km x 433 = 77.94 Ω
TL= 0.18 km x 1.27. = 0.3654 dB
CL = 0.3654 x 12% = 0.043848 dB
 CABINET B4

D= 1.6 cm x 0.1= 0.16 km


Ω = 0.16 km x 433 = 69.28 Ω
TL= 0.16 km x 1.27. = 0.3248 dB
CL = 0.3248 x 12% = 0.038976 dB
 CABINET B5

D= 2 cm x 0.1= 0.2 km
Ω = 0.2 km x 433 = 86.6 Ω
TL= 0.2 km x 1.27. = 0.406 dB
CL = 0.406 x 12% = 0.04872 dB

 CABINET B6

69
D= 4.3 cm x 0.1= 0.43 km
Ω = 0.43 km x 433 = 186.19 Ω
TL= 0.43 km x 1.27. = 0.8729 dB
CL = 0.8729 x 12% = 0.104748 dB

 CABINET B7

D= 6.3 cm x 0.1= 0.63 km


Ω = 0.63 km x 433 = 272.79 Ω
TL= 0.63 km x 1.27. = 1.2789 dB
CL = 1.2789 x 12% = 0.153468 dB

 CABINET B8

D= 8.3 cm x 0.1= 0.83 km


Ω = 0.83 km x 433 = 359.39 Ω
TL= 0.83 km x 1.27. = 1.6849 dB
CL = 1.6849 x 12% = 0.202188 dB

 CABINET B9

D= 6.4 cm x 0.1= 0.64 km


Ω = 0.64 km x 433 = 277.12 Ω
TL= 0.64 km x 1.27. = 1.2992 dB
CL = 1.2992 x 12% = 0.155904 dB

 CABINET B10

D= 8.1 cm x 0.1= 0.81 km


Ω = 0.81 km x 433 = 350.73 Ω
TL= 0.81 km x 1.27. = 1.6443 dB
CL = 1.6443 x 12% = 0.197316 dB

 CABINET B11

D= 6.5 cm x 0.1= 0.65 km


Ω = 0.65 km x 433 = 281.45 Ω
TL= 0.65 km x 1.27. = 1.3195 dB
CL = 1.3195 x 12% = 0.15834 dB

70
 CABINET B12

D= 5 cm x 0.1= 0.5 km
Ω = 0.5 km x 433 = 216.5 Ω
TL= 0.5 km x 1.27. = 1.015 dB
CL = 1.015 x 12% = .0.1218 dB

 CABINET B13

D= 15.1 cm x 0.1= 1.51 km


Ω = 1.51 km x 433 = 653.83 Ω
TL= 1.51 km x 1.27. = 3.0653 dB
CL = 3.0653 x 12% = 0.367836 dB

 CABINET B14

D= 9.9 cm x 0.1= 0.99 km


Ω = 0.99 km x 433 = 428.67 Ω
TL= 0.99km x 1.27. = 2.0097 dB
CL = 2.0097 x 12% = 0.241164 dB

 CABINET B15

D= 14.1 cm x 0.1= 1.41 km


Ω = 1.41 km x 433 = 610.53 Ω
TL= 1.41 km x 1.27. = 2.8623 dB
CL = 2.8623 x 12% = 0.343476 dB

 CABINET B16

D= 14.8cm x 0.1= 1.48 km


Ω = 1.48 km x 433 = 640.84 Ω
TL= 1.48 km x 1.27. = 3.0044 dB
CL = 3.0044 x 12% = 0.360528 dB

 CABINET B17

D= 19 cm x 0.1= 1.9 km
Ω = 1.9 km x 433 = 822.7 Ω
TL= 1.9 km x 1.27. = 3.857 dB
CL = 3.857 x 12% = 0.46284 dB

71
AREA 3

 CABINET C1

D= 5.5 cm x 0.1= 0.55 km


Ω = 0.55km x 433 = 238.15 Ω
TL= 0.55km x 1.27. = 1.1165 dB
CL = 1.1165 x 12% = 0.13398 dB

 CABINET C2

D= 6 cm x 0.1= 0.6 km
Ω = 0.6 km x 433 = 259.8 Ω
TL= 0.6 km x 1.27. = 1.218 dB
CL = 1.218 x 12% = 0.14616 dB

 CABINET C3

D= 3.2 cm x 0.1= 0.32 km


Ω = 0.32 km x 433 = 138.56 Ω
TL= 0.32 km x 1.27. = 0.6496 dB
CL = 0.6496 x 12% = 0.077952 dB

 CABINET C4

D= 6.4 cm x 0.1= 0.64 km


Ω = 0.64 km x 433 = 277.12 Ω
TL= 0.64 km x 1.27. = 1.2992 dB
CL = 1.2992 x 12% = 0.155904 dB

 CABINET C5

D= 7.4 cm x 0.1= 0.74 km


Ω = 0.74 km x 433 = 320.42 Ω
TL= 0.74 km x 1.27. = 1.5022 dB
CL = 1.5022 x 12% = 0.180264 dB

 CABINET C6
D= 14.7 cm x 0.1= 1.47 km
Ω = 1.47 km x 433 = 636.51 Ω
TL= 1.47 km x 1.27. = 2.9841 dB
CL = 2.9841 x 12% = 0.358092 dB

72
 CABINET C7

D= 13.4 cm x 0.1= 1.34 km


Ω = 1.34 km x 433 = 580.22Ω
TL= 1.34 km x 1.27. = 2.7202 dB
CL = 2.7202 x 12% = 0.326424 dB

 CABINET C8

D= 17.4 cm x 0.1= 1.74 km


Ω = 1.74 km x 433 = 753.42 Ω
TL= 1.74 km x 1.27. = 3.5322 dB
CL = 3.5322 x 12% = 0.423864 dB

 CABINET C9

D= 12.6 cm x 0.1= 1.26 km


Ω = 1.26 km x 433 = 545.58 Ω
TL= 1.25 km x 1.27. = 2.5578 dB
CL = 2.5578 x 12% = 0.306936 dB

 CABINET C10

D= 6.2 cm x 0.1= 0.62 km


Ω = 0.62 km x 433 = 268.46 Ω
TL= 0.62 km x 1.27. = 1.2586 dB
CL = 1.2586 x 12% = 0.151032 dB

 CABINET C11
D= 6.3 cm x 0.1= 0.63 km
Ω = 0.63 km x 433 = 272.79 Ω
TL= 0.63 km x 1.27. = 1.2789 dB
CL = 1.2789 x 12% = 0.153468 dB

 CABINET C12
D= 8.3 cm x 0.1= 0.83 km
Ω = 0.83 km x 433 = 359.39 Ω
TL= 0.83 km x 1.27. = 1.6849 dB
CL = 1.6849 x 12% = 0.202188 dB
 CABINET C13

73
D= 25.1 cm x 0.1= 2.51 km
Ω = 2.51 km x 433 = 1086.83 Ω
TL= 2.51 km x 1.27. = 5.0953 dB
CL = 5.0953 x 12% = 0.611436 dB

 CABINET C14

D= 12.6 cm x 0.1= 1.26 km


Ω = 1.26 km x 433 = 545.58 Ω
TL= 1.26 km x 1.27. = 2.5578 dB
CL = 2.5578 x 12% = 0.306936 dB

 CABINET C15

D= 17.8 cm x 0.1= 1.78 km


Ω = 1.78 km x 433 = 770.74 Ω
TL= 1.78 km x 1.27. = 3.6134 dB
CL = 3.6134 x 12% = 0.433608 dB

 CABINET C16

D= 12.6 cm x 0.1= 1.26 km


Ω = 1.26 km x 433 = 545.58 Ω
TL= 1.26 km x 1.27. = 2.5578 dB
CL = 2.5578 x 12% = 0.306936 dB

 CABINET C17

D= 27.4 cm x 0.1= 2.74 km


Ω = 2.74 km x 433 = 1186.42 Ω
TL= 2.74 km x 1.27. = 5.5622 dB
CL = 5.5622 x 12% = 0.667464 dB

 CABINET C18

D= 27.9 cm x 0.1= 2.79 km

74
Ω = 2.79 km x 433 = 1208.07 Ω
TL= 2.79 km x 1.27. = 5.6637 dB
CL = 5.6637 x 12% = 0.679644 dB

 CABINET C19

D= 19.4 cm x 0.1= 1.94 km


Ω = 1.94 km x 433 = 840.02 Ω
TL= 1.94 km x 1.27. = 3.9382 dB
CL = 3.9382 x 12% = 0.472584 dB

 CABINET C20

D= 19.8 cm x 0.1= 1.98 km


Ω = 1.98 km x 433 = 857.34 Ω
TL= 1.98 km x 1.27. = 4.0194 dB
CL = 4.0194 x 12% = 0.482328 dB

 CABINET C21

D= 32.6 cm x 0.1= 3.26 km


Ω = 3.26 km x 433 = 1411.58 Ω
TL= 3.26 km x 1.27. = 6.6178 dB
CL = 6.6178 x 12% = 0.794136 dB

 CABINET C22

D= 30.5 cm x 0.1= 3.05 km


Ω = 3.05 km x 433 = 1320.65 Ω
TL= 3.05 km x 1.27. = 6.1915 dB
CL = 6.1915 x 12% = 0.74298 dB

 CABINET C23

D= 33.4 cm x 0.1= 3.34 km

75
Ω = 3.34 km x 433 = 1446.22 Ω
TL= 3.34 km x 1.27. = 6.7802 dB
CL = 6.7802 x 12% = 0.813624 dB

SUMMARY OF DATA

Cabinet dB= Sum of dB and its


Number Distance(km) Ω = 433 2.03 12 % of dB 12%
A1 1.3 562.9 2.639 0.31668 2.95568
A2 1.41 610.53 2.8623 0.343476 3.205776
A3 1.07 463.31 2.1721 0.260652 2.432752
A4 1.07 463.31 2.1721 0.260652 2.432752
A5 0.88 381.04 1.7864 0.214368 2.000768
A6 0.7 303.1 1.421 0.17052 1.59152
A7 0.32 138.56 0.6496 0.077952 0.727552
B1 0.27 116.91 0.5481 0.065772 0.613872
B2 0.19 82.27 0.3857 0.046284 0.431984
B3 0.18 77.94 0.3654 0.043848 0.409248
B4 0.16 69.28 0.3248 0.038976 0.363776
B5 0.2 86.6 0.406 0.04872 0.45472
B6 0.43 186.19 0.8729 0.104748 0.977648
B7 0.63 272.79 1.2789 0.153468 1.432368
B8 0.83 359.39 1.6849 0.202188 1.887088
B9 0.64 277.12 1.2992 0.155904 1.455104
B10 0.81 350.73 1.6443 0.197316 1.841616
B11 0.65 281.45 1.3195 0.15834 1.47784
B12 0.5 216.5 1.015 0.1218 1.1368
B13 1.51 653.83 3.0653 0.367836 3.433136
B14 0.99 428.67 2.0097 0.241164 2.250864
B15 1.41 610.53 2.8623 0.343476 3.205776
B16 1.48 640.84 3.0044 0.360528 3.364928
B17 1.9 822.7 3.857 0.46284 4.31984
C1 0.55 238.15 1.1165 0.13398 1.25048
C2 0.6 259.8 1.218 0.14616 1.36416
C3 0.32 138.56 0.6496 0.077952 0.727552
C4 0.64 277.12 1.2992 0.155904 1.455104
C5 0.74 320.42 1.5022 0.180264 1.682464
C6 1.47 636.51 2.9841 0.358092 3.342192
C7 1.34 580.22 2.7202 0.326424 3.046624
C8 1.74 753.42 3.5322 0.423864 3.956064

76
C9 1.26 545.58 2.5578 0.306936 2.864736
C10 0.62 268.46 1.2586 0.151032 1.409632
C11 0.63 272.79 1.2789 0.153468 1.432368
C12 0.83 359.39 1.6849 0.202188 1.887088
C13 2.51 1086.83 5.0953 0.611436 5.706736
C14 1.26 545.58 2.5578 0.306936 2.864736
C15 1.78 770.74 3.6134 0.433608 4.047008
C16 1.26 545.58 2.5578 0.306936 2.864736
C17 2.74 1186.42 5.5622 0.667464 6.229664
C18 2.79 1208.07 5.6637 0.679644 6.343344
C19 1.94 840.02 3.9382 0.472584 4.410784
C20 1.98 857.34 4.0194 0.482328 4.501728
C21 3.26 1411.58 6.6178 0.794136 7.411936
C22 3.05 1320.65 6.1915 0.74298 6.93448
C23 3.34 1446.22 6.7802 0.813624 7.593824

Table 8. Summary of Results

COMPUTATION OF COST

Cabinet Length of Price of Total


No. No. Of Pairs Cable(m) cable/m Cost(Php)
A1 20 1300 370 481000
A2 15 1410 277.5 391275
A3 15 1070 277.5 296925
A4 25 1070 462.5 494875
A5 25 880 462.5 407000
A6 22 700 407 284900
A7 28 320 518 165760
TOTAL 2521735
B1 50 2700 925 2497500
B2 50 1900 925 1757500
B3 50 1800 925 1665000
B4 50 1600 925 1480000
B5 50 2000 925 1850000
B6 25 4300 462.5 1988750
B7 25 6300 462.5 2913750
B8 50 8300 925 7677500
B9 25 6400 462.5 2960000
B10 25 8100 462.5 3746250
B11 50 6500 925 6012500

77
B12 50 5000 925 4625000
B13 14 15100 259 3910900
B14 30 9900 555 5494500
B15 20 14100 370 6521250
B16 30 14800 555 3285600
B17 20 1900 370 1757500
TOTAL 60143500
C1 25 5500 462.5 2543750
C2 25 6000 462.5 2775000
C3 25 3200 462.5 1480000
C4 25 6400 462.5 2960000
C5 25 7400 462.5 3422500
C6 25 14700 462.5 6798750
C7 22 13400 407 5453800
C8 28 17400 518 9013200
C9 20 12600 370 4662000
C10 19 6200 351.5 2179300
C11 63 6300 1165.5 7342650
C12 50 8300 925 7677500
C13 10 25100 185 4643500
C14 25 12600 462.5 5827500
C15 10 17800 185 3293000
C16 20 12600 370 4662000
C17 15 27400 277.5 7603500
C18 12 27400 222 6082800
C19 50 19400 925 17945000
C20 50 19800 925 18315000
C21 12 32600 222 7237200
C22 13 30500 240.5 7335250
C23 13 33400 240.5 8032700
TOTAL 147285900
OVERALL 209951135

Table 9. Computation of Cost

78
CHAPTER 5
MULTIPLE CONSTRAINTS
Design Constraints

One of the most important constraint implementation issues is the wide range of potential

configuration overlap and interference. Effective design constraint implementation requires a

solid knowledge and understanding of both the system requirements and the current design

implementation approach. Even with solid knowledge of the design, there are a broad range of

design constraint combinations that can be applied to the design. Complex interrelationships can

and do occur between the different constraint types.One of the most important constraint

implementation issues is the wide range of potential configuration overlap and interference.

Effective design constraint implementation requires a solid knowledge and understanding of both

the system requirements and the current design implementation approach. Even with solid

knowledge of the design, there are a broad range of design constraint combinations that can be

applied to the design. Complex interrelationships can and do occur between the different

constraint types.

Pareto Analysis
For Main Line A, B, & C

AWG 22
Constraints Percent of Total Cumulative Percent Horizontal Line Value
Installation 50 50 80
Development Cost 35 85 80
Human Error 7 92 80
Ensurement of Safety 7 99 80
Reliability 1 100 80

Table 10. Data for Pareto Analysis for AWG 22

79
120

100

80

60

40 Percent of Total

20 Cumulative Percent
Horizontal Line Value
0

Figure 22. Pareto Analysis for AWG 22

The Pareto Analysis was used to separate the important causes or constraint on the left and less

important to the right. The important causes using American Wire Gauge 22, the installation cost

was high together with its development cost. The probability of having human error was low

which puts the whole subscriber loop at risk. Therefore, giving it low reliability. The less

important causes determined where the following development cost, human error, ensurement of

safety and the reliability.

AWG 24
Constraints Percent of Total Cumulative Percent Horizontal Line Value
Installation 35 35 80
Reliability 25 60 80
Human Error 20 80 80
Ensurement of Safety 15 95 80
Development Cost 5 100 80

Table 11. Data for Pareto Analysis for AWG 24

80
120

100

80

60

40 Percent of Total

20 Cumulative Percent
Horizontal Line Value
0

Figure 23. Pareto Analysis for AWG 24

The important causes using American Wire Gauge 24 using the 80/20 principle of the Pareto

Analysis were the following: the installation cost, development cost and human error. The

probability of having human error was still high which still puts the whole subscriber loop at

risk. Therefore, giving it a better reliability. The less important causes determined where the

following: human error, ensurement of safety and development cost.

AWG 28
Constraints Percent of Total Cumulative Percent Horizontal Line Value
Installation 40 40 80
Reliability 20 60 80
Ensurement of Safety 15 75 80
Human Error 15 90 80
Development Cost 10 100 80

Table 11. Data for Pareto Analysis for AWG 28

81
120

100

80

60

40 Percent of Total

20 Cumulative Percent
Horizontal Line Value
0

Figure 24. Pareto Analysis for AWG 28

The Pareto Principle has 80/20 rule which is statistical technique on decision making to

determine the overall effect. Itwas shown that by following the design computations only the

human error and development cost were the less important constraints.

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The resulting design has showed that the proponents had designed a subscriber loop

design according the the computations, considerations and estimation of the wire gauge, the

length of the wire and the number of cabinet that will be present in the City of Dipolog.

Therefore by suggesting the design computations which was based on the North American Plan

which was the RRD method we had been able to prove that the American Wire Gauge 28 was

the one suitable to use.

Setting up a subscriber loop design requires careful planning and it must acheive all the

given parameters to satisfy all the given conditions. The project can be used as a reference

whenever telephone lines will be used in Dipolog City. Learning is a process we will experience

through out every people. We must experience all kind of things so that we can be capable of

doing things in our own way.

83