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Chapter 12

STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS : AN OVERVIEW

Nirjhar Dhang

Department of Civil Engineering,

IIT, Kharagpur.

1. INTRODUCTION

The earthquake loading is dynamic in nature and the analysis of structure due to earthquake excitation

is one of the important steps in the structural design procedure. Generally, the static solution of the

structural system is more than sufficient, however, computation of earthquake loading in the static

analysis is based on certain dynamic analysis of structure. Therefore, a preliminary exposure to

structural dynamics is required for better understanding of the earthquake engineering.

In the case of loading, which varies over time, a dynamic analysis is required. Fig. 1 shows some

examples of structures, which may be represented for dynamic analysis as single degree of freedom

system. These one degree of freedom systems are described as a mechanical model as shown in Fig.

2(a) . This simple mechanical system has four elements (a) inertia element, m representing mass, (b)

a spring element k, representing stiffness which is used as a restoring force, (c) a damping element c,

representing the frictional

characteristics and energy loss of the structure, (d) an excitation force F(t) representing the external

forces acting on the structural system. The free body diagram of the system is shown in Fig. 2(b).

Using D’Alembert’s Principle, the corresponding differential equation is written as

Chapter 12 – SE101

In the above equation (1), the mass element, m and the stiffness element, k are key parameters in the

dynamic analysis. But the damping element c, and the excitation f(t) are also the governing factors in

the analysis. When a system is vibrating in absence of external excitation, it is called free vibration.

When the system is considered ignoring damping term and without external excitation, it is called

undamped free vibration. So the vibration of a structure can be classified as (a) Without loading, i.e.

free vibration and (b) With loading , i.e. forced vibration. Considering the presence of damping

element, the system can be classified in the following four categories :

(a) Undamped free vibration

(b) Damped free vibration

(c) Undamped forced vibration

(d) Damped forced vibration.

m&y& + ky = 0 (2)

which is a linear second order differential equation. The general solution for this second order

differential equation,

y = A cos ωt + B sin ωt (3)

The expression for velocity is found simply by differentiating equation (3) with respect to time,

A = y0 (5)

The initial condition is at t = 0, y = yo and y=vo. Putting this into equation (3) and (4) the constants of

integration, A and B are found as

and

B = vo / ω (6)

So final expression of the displacement y as a function of the time variable t,

It means that the a structure with a single degree of freedom system is nothing but a simple undamped

y = y o cos ωt + (vo / ω ) sin ωt (7)

oscillator. This equation is harmonic and the period T of the motion is determined from

or

Example : A cantelever beam of span, L is vibrating with a tip mass of M. Ignoring mass of the beam

ωT = 2π (8)

and considering flexural rigidity of beam as EI, the natural frequency of the beam can be computed as

T = 2π ω

/ ω= K / M (9) (10)

where K is the stiffness of the beam. The deflection at the tip of the cantelever beam acted upon by a

static force P is

PL3

∆= (11)

3EI

and the stiffness of the beam is computed as

Chapter 12 – SE101

P 3EI

K= = 3 (12)

∆ L

So the natural frequency of the beam,

3EI

ω= (13)

ML3

2.1 Damped Free Vibration

m&y& + cy& + ky = 0 (14)

y = Ce pt (15)

Substitution of this function into equation (14) results in the equation

The equation reduces to

mp 2 + cp + k = 0 (17)

The roots of this equation are

2

c ⎛ c ⎞ k

p1 , p 2 = − ± ⎜ ⎟ − (18)

2m ⎝ 2m ⎠ m

Thus the general solution of eq. 14 is given by the superposition of the two possible solutions, namely

where C1 and C2 are constants of integration to be determined from the initial conditions. The final

form of the equation depends on the sign of the expression under the radical in eq. Three distinct

cases may occur : the quantity under the radical, say,

2

⎛ c ⎞ k

R=⎜ ⎟ − (20)

⎝ 2m ⎠ m

may either be zero, positive or negative.

2

⎛ ccr ⎞ k

⎜ ⎟ − =0 (21)

⎝ 2m ⎠ m

or

ccr = 2 km = 2mω = 2k / ω (22)

where ccr designates the critical damping value. In a critically damped system, the roots of the

characteristic equation are equal and they are

ccr

p1 = p 2 = − (23)

2m

NPCBEERM, MHA (DM) 3

Chapter 12 – SE101

Case B : R > 0, that is, overdamped system.

In this case, the damping coefficient is greater than the value for critical damping, namely,

c > c cr (25)

y (t ) = (C1 + C 2 t )e − ( ccr / 2 m ) t (24)

and the two roots of the characteristic equation are real and distinct. The solution is same as equation

For the overdamped or the critically damped system, the resulting motion is not oscillatory.

In this case, the value of the damping coefficient is less than the critical value (c < ccr), the roots of the

characteristic eq. are complex conjugates, so that

2

c k ⎛ c ⎞

p1 , p 2 = − ±i −⎜ ⎟ (27)

2m m ⎝ 2m ⎠

The general solution of the underdamped system :

ωD = ω 1−ξ 2 (29)

where the damping ratio of the system

c

ξ= (30)

ccr

With the initial conditions of displacement, yo and velocity vo, at time t = 0, the equation becomes

The value of the damping coefficient for real structure is much less than the critical damping

coefficient and usually ranges between 2 to 20% of the critical damping value.

vo + y oξω

y (t ) = e −( c / 2 m ) t ( y o cos ω D t + sin ω D t ) (31)

ωD

F (t ) = Fo sin β t (32)

The equation of motion will be

Fo / k

y (t ) = A cos ω t + B sin ω t + sin β t (33)

1− r2

where r = β/ω.

If the initial conditions at time t = 0 are taken as zero, the constants of integration determined are

Chapter 12 – SE101

rFo / k

A = 0, B = − (34)

1− r2

After substitution, the equation becomes

Fo / k

y (t ) = (sin β t − r sin ω t ) (35)

1− r2

( Fo / k ) sin( β t − θ )

y (t ) = e −ξ ω t ( A cos ω D t + B sin ω D t ) + (36)

(1 − r 2 ) 2 + (2rξ ) 2

where,

2ξ r

tan θ = (37)

1− r2

The constants of integration has to be found out considering initial conditions.

The above procedure can further be applied to general loading. Any loading can be represented by it

Fourier series. When the transient is omitted, the response of an undamped system to any sine term

of the series is given by

bn / k

y n (t ) = sin nβ t (38)

1 − rn

2

an / k

y n (t ) = cos nβ t (39)

1 − rn

2

The total response of an undamped, single degree-of-freedom system may then be expressed as the

superposition of the responses to all the force terms of the series, including the steady-state response,

ao/k to the constant force ao. Hence, the total response

∞

ao 1 an bn

y (t ) = +

k 1 − rn 2

∑( k

n =1

cos nβ t −

k

sin nβ t ) (40)

Another way, the solution can be done by Duhamel’s integral. The loading history is regarded as a

series of short impulses at successive incremental times dτ, each producing it own differential

response at time t of the form given by

Chapter 12 – SE101

F (τ )dτ

dy (t ) = sin ω(t − τ ) (41)

mω

So, the total displacement at time t due to the continuous action of the force F(τ) is given by the

summation or integral of the differential displacements dy(t) from time t = 0 to time t, that is,

t

1

mω ∫0

y (t ) = F (τ ) sin ω(t − τ )dτ (42)

Structures are continuous systems and an infinite number of degrees of freedom are possessed by a

structure. However, depending on the behaviour of the structure, a simplified model can be made. One

of such model is shear building. In a framed structure, it is noted the lateral

displacement is predominant. The columns are considered mass less and floors are considered as a

lumped mass. A three storeyed shear building is shown in Fig. 3(a) and its corresponding idealised

model is shown in Fig. 3(b). For a uniform column with the two ends fixed against rotation, the spring

constant is given by

12 EI

k= (43)

L3

and for a column with one end fixed and the other pinned by

3EI

k= (44)

L3

where E is the material modulus of elasticity, I the cross-sectional moment of inertia and L, the height

of the storey.

The kinetic energy of the system,

1

T= (m1 y&1 + m2 y& 2 + m3 y& 3 )

2 2 2

(45)

2

and, the potential energy,

1 1 1

V = k1 y1 + k 2 ( y1 − y 2 ) 2 + k 3 ( y 2 − y 3 ) 2

2

(46)

2 2 2

NPCBEERM, MHA (DM) 6

Chapter 12 – SE101

where, q is the generalised displacement and here, y1,y2 and y3 are generalised displacements.

The equation of motion derived can written in a matrix form as follwows

d ⎛ ∂L ⎞ ∂L

⎜ ⎟− = F (t ) (47)

dt ⎜⎝ ∂q& ⎟⎠ ∂q

⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎢ m2 0 ⎥⎥ ⎨ &y&2 ⎬ + ⎢⎢ − k 2 k 2 + k3 − k 3 ⎥⎥ ⎨ y 2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 (t )⎬ (48)

⎢⎣ 0 0 m3 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩ &y&3 ⎪⎭ ⎢⎣ 0 − k3 k 3 ⎥⎦ ⎪⎩ y 3 ⎪ ⎪ F (t ) ⎪

⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭

The mass and stiffness properties of structures can be determined accurately using standard

measurement and analysis techniques, whereas, the determination of the damping in a structure is

more complicated and the damping values are only assumed during the design process. Damping is a

material property. A structure is constructed with different kind materials and the elements of the

structure are connected in various ways. In the case of small amplitude oscillations, the strain level in

the structure is within the low level of elastic zone. The material damping is an essential component of

the overall building damping. For a medium amplitude oscillations, small inelastic deformation may

start and this introduces additional damping, while the overall response of the structure may still be

linear. For a large amplitude oscillations, significant material nonlinear, inelastic response occurs

resulting the additional damping. Thus the level of damping increases with increasing response

amplitude.

The most popular method of finding eigen values is the Jacobi method. The mass matrix is

decomposed by Cholesky decomposition so that the symmetry of the matrix can be maintained.

Sometimes, mass matrix becomes singular, in that case, the stiffness matrix is decomposed. So for

the first case, actual eigen value gives the actual natural frequency of the system whereas in the

second method of solution, the computed eigen values give the inverse of the natural frequency. At

any instant, a structure vibrates with a particular natural frequency, so the relative position of nodes

maintain a particular shape of the structure, which is called the mode shape of the structure at that

frequency. The mode shape changes with the natural frequency. So for a N degrees of freedom

system, N different mode shapes with corresponding natural frequency are available.

The eigen values and vectors are required for various different analysis. It is used to covert the

equations of motion to n independent equations of motion which are exactly the same form as the

single degree of freedom equation of motion. The multi degree of freedom equations of motion are

transformed to the modal coordinate system. The solution of these uncoupled equations and

superposing the modal contribution is referred to as the modal superposition method.

As mentioned above, in the modal method, the MDOF system becomes n independent uncoupled

SDOF system in modal coordinate system. The ground acceleration due to earthquake is converted to

corresponding loading and the response of each mode could be computed by solving each SDOF

system. The complete displacement of the structure at a desired time is obtained by superposing the

contribution of all modes evaluated at this time. Typically, the modes with the lowest natural

Chapter 12 – SE101

frequencies contribute most to the overall response. It is because of the fact that the participation

factors of these modes for earthquake excitation are high in comparison to those of the higher modes.

It is also due to the presence of ω in the denominator of the Duhamel integral. Therefore, an adequate

approximation of the response is obtained by including a number of lowest modes only.

The response spectrum is a representation of the maximum value of a response parameter, such as

acceleration, or displacement, over the duration of earthquake loading as a function of frequency for a

given earthquake and damping level. This response spectrum concept and the modal superposition

method are used to find an approximate determination of the maximum response of an MDOF system

without performing a time history analysis. Response spectrum analysis consists of three steps:

a) Determination of the natural frequencies of the natural modes of vibration and the

associated frequencies.

b) Determination of the maximum response in each mode, may be called as modal

response.

c) Combination of the modal responses to obtain approximate maximum response.

The step by step numerical integration schemes are derived by expressing the relationships between

displacement and its time derivatives, velocity and acceleration. The most commonly used one such

method is the Newmark method. The time step in the integration scheme plays an important role in

solution process. The time step should be selected based on the period of the highest natural mode

of the system. But in most seismic analyses of building structures, the low modes dominate the

response, high modes contribute negligibly to element forces. Therefore, time steps chosen for

integration are bigger than the time period of the highest mode.

Linear analysis implies that the properties of the system – stiffness, damping and mass, are not

dependent on the response variables of displacement, velocity or acceleration. Consequently, the

coefficient matrices are constant. As the level of loading and response increase, at some point the

assumption of system properties remaining constant is no longer valid. The stiffness properties may

change as a result of material strains growing large enough to cause yielding. Therefore, the

superposition principle is not valid for nonlinear systems. To enable the proper consideration of the

changing properties during the solution of a nonlinear problem, the solution is performed in small

incremental steps adjusting the properties at the beginning of each step based on the deformation and

stress in the beginning of each step.

The nature of the earthquake problem for structures is to be recognized first and then, it is required to

be cope up with the design procedure. The lateral forces representing the earthquake loading are

computed based on certain codal provision. But the actual forces may be as much as several times

the code specified forces during several earthquake demand. The magnitude of earthquake forces

applied on a structure is involved on compound probabilities of the earthquake characteristics:

earthquake location relative to the structure, earthquake energy, depth of the earthquake focus, media

of the source, the propagation path, duration of shaking, frequency composition of the disturbing

waves. If demand exceeds structural capacity, the failure occurs. The reinforced concrete structure

may be essentially brittle or they have great inelastic energy capacity, depending upon the amount

and the disposition of the reinforcing steel. Design procedures are required to ensure ductility and

energy dissipation. The lateral force resisting systems for structural steel buildings and structures can

Chapter 12 – SE101

generally be categorized into one of three broad classes : braced frames, unbraced or motion-resisting

frames, dual systems composed of a combination of the two systems, designed to act in unison. In

braced frames, lateral stability of the structure is provided primarily through the presence of diagonal

braces. Unbraced frames rely on the flexural rigidity of their beams, columns and beam-column

connections for lateral force resistance and stability. Seismic design of masonry is based on the

premise that reinforced masonry structures can perform well in earthquakes provided they have

engineered lateral force-resisting systems or their load-displacement characteristics under cyclic

reversed loading is consistent with the assumptions used to develop their design loadings. Analysis of

masonry structures for lateral loads alone or in combination with gravity loads, must address the

following issues : elastic vs. inelastic behaviour, selection of earthquake input, load modelling, material

modelling, structural element modelling, flexural cracking, soil foundation flexibility, floor diaphragm

flexibility.

5. SUMMARY

Earthquakes are a major problem for mankind. Design of earthquake resistant structures is a major

contribution in the disaster mitigation and management. The knowledge of structural dynamics is

required to find proper earthquake loading and analysis. Reinforced concrete, structural steel and

masonry are primarily used as construction materials. Each of them has its own behaviour and the

proper representation of each of the material with the structural system used do resist the earthquake.

Different numerical examples will be demonstrated at the time of presentation.

6. EXERCISE

2. In a spring-mass system, the rising time to reach the static load, P is T. Find the response of the

spring-mass system in terms of displacement.

7. REFERENCES

1. Structural Dynamics : Mario Paz, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 1985

2. Vibrations, Dynamics and Structural Systems : M. Mukhopadhyay, Oxford&IBH, New Delhi, 1989

3. Dynamics of Structures : A. K. Chopra, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1996

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