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A definition of petrophysics

• The study of pore liquids and gases lies in the scope of hydrology
and petroleum engineering. Petrophysics, the study of the physical
properties of pores, lies on the boundary between these disciplines
and sedimentary geology.
• Selley, 1988

• There is a need for a term to express the physics of rocks. It should be

related to petrology much as geophysics is related to geology.
“Petrophysics” is suggested as the term pertaining to the physics of
particular rock types, whereas geophysics pertains to the physics of larger
rock systems composing the earth.
• Archie, 1950

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What is Petrophysics?
– Using:
• Mud logs
• Cores
• Open hole and cased hole logs
• Production test

– We can determine:
• Fluid properties such as saturations and contacts
• Rock properties such as porosity, permeability and lithology
• Production information like cement integrity, fluid flow

1-6 UTC
Petrophysics in integrated GGR
Geophysics Geology Petrophysics

Well data preparation – well data collation; log data editing, environmental corrections, and normalisation; core data preparation

Geophysics Geology Petrophysics

Link between geology and Link between geology and Link between petrophysics
•Time-depth geophysics through •Geological facies petrophysics through •Petrophysical and reservoir engineering •Formation tester
calibration relationship between analysis relationship between rock type analysis through fluid distribution analysis
•Synthetics physical characteristics •Borehole image geological and petrophysical •Lithology, consistent with reservoir •Pressure gradient
•Fluid substitution interpretation rock types porosity, and properties and pressure analysis
•Rock physics •Structural saturation distribution •Fluid contact and
modelling interpretation •Saturation height distribution
•Structural •Sedimentological functions determination
interpretation interpretation •Permeability •Well test analysis
•Attribute analysis •Fracture analysis
interpretation •Pay

1-7 UTC
The petrophysics “big picture”


Tool response


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A conceptual framework for reservoir
petrophysics studies

Regional-Petroleum system

Study Basin and detail lithology

Formation Evaluation  Reservoir


Seismic Model  Production Data

Geostatistic Models  Reservoir

1-9 UTC
Summary of the Petroleum System

Our industry is prospecting

Seal Rock
Reservoir Rock for Hydrocarbon FIELDS
Overburden Rock that are within these basins
Source Rock that are formed, filled, and deformed
From: Basin and Petroleum System Modeling,
Oilfield Review, Summer 2009: Mobarek Al-Hajeri etal.

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Variety of Basin Fill Rocks
Source rocks
- reducing conditions in the sediments
- lacustine environments
- restricted marine (lagoons, pelagic)
- peat swamps
Special Case (unconventional) : Source and Reservoir are the same
Reservoir rocks
Coal Bed Methane (CBM)
- Fluvial systems
Shale gas
- Carbonate Reefs
Fractured basement
- Beach deposits
- Eolian deposits (sand dunes)

Seal rocks
- Salt (Anhydrite or Sylvite)
- Basalt/Ash beds
- Cemented Carbonates beds
- Marine/Lacustrine shales
From: Basin Analysis and Basin Modeling: From Input to Output
By Dr. Daniel Palmowski, IES GmbH, Germany 02/2010
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Big Picture - why we log
• Lithology (reservoir rock?)
• Resistivity (HC,water,both?)
• Porosity (how much HC?)
• What type of HC

• Formation mech. properties

• Permeability / cap pressure
• Shape of the structure
• Geological information
• Geothermal
• Unconventional applications

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A Well Log
Why Interpret Well Logs?

• The principal objective of well log interpretation

is to determine whether there is oil or gas in the
penetrated borehole and if any, how much can
be recovered and how much water will be
 To answer: is the well profitable for our client?
• Some of these basic questions may be answered
with Archie’s equation.
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Big Picture - Why We Log
• In simple words:
– Where is it? (the hydrocarbon)
– What is it? (oil or gas) How much is there?
– How extensive is it?
– How fast and how long can it be produced?
• All these can be answered through the formation
property estimation from logs
What are the key parameters that help us quantify the reserves?

1 - 14 UTC
Exploration’s Challenge
Interpreting the Unseen
Surface Geology
- Aerial photos
- Geologic maps

Subsurface Analysis
- Gravity
- Magnetics
- Seismic
- Well logging

Silicon Graphics
Schlumberger Oilfield Services

Geomechanics Geology
Drilling Eng.

Project Mgmt. Information Eng.

Reservoir Eng. Production Eng.
Completion Eng.
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The Reservoir & Petroleum System

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Requirements of a HC reservoir

• To form a hydrocarbon reservoir we need

• source of organic material (terrestrial or marine)
• a suitable combination of heat, pressure and time
• an oxygen free environment
(to avoid degradation of OM)
• a suitable basin.

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Petroleum formation, migration &

20 TJN
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Petroleum System Elements
Petroleum System Elements

Anticlinal T rap
Top Seal Rock
Reservoir Rock

Migration Route
Source Rock
(Organic Rich)


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Drilling During the Field Lifecycle

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Reservoir elements

What are the major elements of a reservoir?

• permeable rock : stores the hydrocarbon

• source rock: produces hydrocarbon
• impermeable rock: seals or traps hydrocarbon
• trap: captures fluids
• migration: transport of hydrocarbon into reservoir

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To be continued to next sessions ……
(Logging –Live of Well)

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