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Criminal Investigation

Investigation - an inquiry, judicial or otherwise for the discovery and collection of facts concerning the ma
involved.
- it is the process of inquiring, eliciting, soliciting and getting vital information, facts, circum
in order to establish the truth.

Criminal Investigator - a public safety officer who is tasked to conduct the investigation of all criminal ca
provided for and embodied under the revised penal code, criminals laws and special laws which are crimin
nature.
- a well trained, disciplined and experienced professional in the field of criminal
investigation.

Custodial Investigation - investigation conducted by law enforcement officers after a person has been arre
deprived of his freedom of action.

Neighborhood Investigation - one of the most crucial steps in kidnap for ransom cases which is often ove
The objective is to identify and interview in person all individuals in the area where the victim was kidnapp
last known sighting area during the window of opportunity.(last time seen until the time discovered missin

Crime scene - a venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event has been committed.

Corpus delicti - (latin for the body of the crime) - used to describe the physical or material evidence that a
has been committed. ex. corpse of a murder victim.

Confession - is an express acknowledgement by the accused in a criminal prosecution of the truth of his gu
the offense charge.

Admission - refers to statement of facts not directly constituting an acknowledgement of guilt.

Organized criminal group - a structured group of three or more persons existing


for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crime or offenses

Organized crime - a combination of two or more persons who are engaged in a criminal or virtual crimina
activity on a continuing basis for the purpose of profit or power using gangland style to attain their purpose

Physical evidence - evidenced addressed to the senses of the court that are capable of being exhibited, exa
viewed by the court. This includes but not limited to fingerprints, body fluid, explosives, hazardous chemic
soil/burned debris, bombs, electronic parts used in the commission of the crime.

Victimology/victim profiling - a detailed account of the victims lifestyle and personality, assist in determi
nature of the disappearance, the risk level of the victim and the type of person who could have committed t
crime. Complete information regarding the victims physical description, normal behavior patterns, the fam
dynamics and known friends and acquintances should be obtained as soon as possible.

Miranda vs. Arizona - Ernesto Miranda had confessed to rape and kidnapping, after two hour interrogatio
Because the interrogators failed to inform Miranda of his right to counsel and remain silent, his conviction
overturned.

Waterboarding - refers to the practice of strapping a suspect to a board with his or her head lowered, then
is covered and water is poured over it causing the suspect to gag and experience the sensation of drowning

Chinese water torture - interrogation technique, repeatedly dripping water on the forehead of the suspect.
goal is to drive the suspect to near insanity thereby obtaining a confession.

Serial Killer - is someone who murders 3 or more people with "cooling off" periods in between.
Police Blotter - is an 18" x 12" logbook with hard bound cover that contains the daily register of all crime
reports, official summary of arrests and other significant events reported in a police station. A separate poli
blotter shall be maintained for offenses requiring confidentiality like violence against women and children
those cases involving a child in conflict with the law to protect their privacy pursuant to RA 9262 (anti vio
against women and children act of 2004) and RA 9344 ( juvenile justice and welfare act of 2006).

Actus Reus - proof that a criminal act has occurred.

Sketch - a rough drawing or painting, often made to assist in making a more finished picture.

Types of Sketches
1. Floor plan (Birds Eye View)
2. Elevation Drawing
3. Exploded View
4. Respective Drawings

Allan Pinkerton - a Scottish american detective who created the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, the
detective agency in the US.Pinkerton foiled a plot to assassinate President Lincoln.

Rouges Gallery - is a police collection of pictures or photographs of criminals and suspects kept for identi
purposes.A compilation of descriptions, methods of operation having places and names of criminal and the
associates.

Mugshot - is a photographic portrait taken after one is arrested.


Criminal investigation - it is the collection of facts in order to accomplish the three fold aims:

3 Fold Aims Of Criminal Investigation

1. To identify the guilty party


2. To locate the guilty party
3. To provide evidence of his guilt

6 Cardinal points of investigation

1. What specific offense was committed


2. How the offense was committed
3. Who committed it
4. Where the offense was committed
5. When it was committed
6. Why it was committed

Tools of an investigator in gathering facts

1. Information - data gathered by an investigator and other


person including the victim himself and from:
1. public records
2. private records
3. modus operandi file
2. Interview - skillful questioning of witness and
suspects.
3. Instrumentation - scientific examination of real
evidence, application of instruments and
method of physical sciences in detecting crime.
Phases of investigations

1.Phase 1 - identify the suspect through:


1. confession
2. eyewitness testimony
3. circumstantial evidence
4. associate evidence
2. Phase 2 - locate and apprehend suspect.
3. Phase 3 - gather and provide evidence to
establish the guilt of the accused.

Composition/Organization of an investigation team:

1. Team leader
2. Investigator/recorder
3. Photographer
4. Evidence Custodian
5. Composite illustrator/Artist

Equipment of an Investigator

1. Police line
2. Video camera
3. Voice recorder
4. Camera
5. Measuring device
6. Gloves
7. Flashlight
8. Fingerprint kit
9. Evidence bag
10. Evidence tag
11. Evidence bottles/vials
12. Investigators tickler

Investigators Tickler

1. Investigators checklist
2. Anatomical diagram form
3. Evidence Checklist
4. Turn-over receipt

Standard Methods of Recording Investigative Data:

1. Photographs
2. Sketching crime scenes
3. Written notes (what you have seen/observed)
4. Developing and lifting fingerprints found at the crime scene.
5. Gathering physical evidence
6. Plaster cast
7. Tape recording of sounds
8. Video tape recording of objects
9. Written statement of objects and witnesses.

2 Kinds of Information
1. Regular sources - ex. citizen, company records
2. Cultivated sources - ex. paid informant

 Interrogation or questioning witness or suspect who is reluctant to divulge or reveal information wi


goal of extracting a confession or obtaining information while an Interview is simple questioning o
person who cooperate with the investigator.

How the Suspect is Identified


1. Confession or Admission - is a declaration of an
accused acknowledging his guilt.
2. Eyewitness testimony
3. Circumstantial evidence

How circumstantial Evidence Obtained


1. Motive
2. Opportunity
3. Associative Evidence

Types of Interview
1. Informal (on the scene interview) - conducted by
police/investigator at the crime scene to get
description of criminal if seen.
2. Formal - interview conducted by the investigator
assigned to the case.

Types of Formal Interview


1. Normal - for willing or cooperative witness.
2. Group/Pretext Interview - for hostile witness or
witness who refuse to cooperate.
3. Follow Up - additional interview in addition to vital
points if necessary.

Qualifications of Interviewer
1. Salesman
2. Actor
3. Psychologist

Requisites of an Interview
1. Establish rapport
2. Forcefulness of personality
3. Breadth of interest

Setting of Interview
1. Background Interview - time and place of
interview are not a consideration except for busy
person.
2. Routine Criminal Cases - interview should be
carefully planned. Busy person can be interviewed
at night, privacy is important.
3. Important Criminal Cases - should be conducted in
places other than the subjects home/office to
prevent him/her feeling confident. Investigator
should get interviewees respect.
4. Appropriate Time - General rule - (ASAP) as soon
possible while facts are fresh in the memory of
interviewees.

Methods of Crime Scene Search


1. Strip method - the area is blocked out in the form
of a rectangle. The searchers (3 person is good)
proceed slowly at the same pace along paths
parallel to one side of the rectangle.
2. Double Strip Search Method - modification of the
strip search method. The rectangle is traversed
first parallel to the base then parallel to a side.
3. Spiral Search Method - The searchers (3 person is
good) follow each other along the path of a spiral
beginning on the outside and spiraling in towards
the center.
4. Zone Search Method - one searcher is assigned
to each subdivision of a quadrant and then each
quadrant is cut into another set of quadrants.
5. Wheel Search Method - the area is considered to
be approximately circular. The searchers gather at
the center and proceed outward along radii or
spokes. Procedure is repeated several times
depending on the size of the circle and the number
of searchers.