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S A M Z O D H A N A – “J o u r n a l o f Ma n a g e me n t

Re s e a r c h ”
I S S N 2347-
2347- 4270
Vo l 3 I s s u e 1, O c t o b e r 2014
OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG WORKING WOMEN: AN EMPIRICAL
ANALYSIS
Dr. Anil Kumar, Professor & Meenakshi Yadav, Junior Research Fellow
Haryana School of Business, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science &Technology,
Hisar
Abstract
The paper endeavors to examine the occupational stress among working women in the
national capital region. A sample of 120 working women has been taken. Data has been
classified on the basis of age of working women. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) has
been used to find out significant difference; if any between age of working women and
various occupational related stress faced by working women. Analysis of data highlights that
there exists significant between these two variables. Working women in lower age groups
least feels that they are having lack of opportunities and infrastructure when compared with
other age groups. Working women from the age group 35-45 least feel that they are having
too much responsibility as compared to working women from other age groups. It was found
that working women above 55 years faces the problem of occupational stress more as
compared with other age groups. Training should be provided to working women so that
they may be able to perform their dutied more effectively and efficiently.
Key words:
Occupational stress, Age, Working Women, infrastsucture, opportunities
Introduction
Globalisation and liberalisation of the economy has increased the competition among
corporate sector. Managers attempt to outperform one another to reach the top .In this
process manager fails to achieve the targets and face the problem which in common
parlance termed as stress. It also emerges in human being as a result of pressures
emanating from several experiences or challenging situation. Organisational life is quite
stressful. Work pressures, tight schedules, meetings, unhelpful colleagues, critical bosses,
incompetent subordinates made the life of executives quite miserable. Individuals and
organisations have to pay economic and human cost due to these problems. Stress may be

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due to problematic relationship with superiors or co-workers such as conflicts, unfair
treatment, contradictory work demand, role overload, job stability, factors intrinsic to job,
role in organisation, organisational structure and climate. Stress at work is an increasing
problem resulting in enormous cost for individual employees as well as corporate
organisation including both men and women.
According to health and safety executive (HES) stress is defined as “the adverse reaction
people have to excessive pressures or other type of demand placed on them”.
According to Palmer, Cooper and Thomas “stress occurs when the perceived pressure
exceeds your perceived personality to cope”.
Occupational stress is defined as a response to chronic job-related stress, characterised by
physical and emotional exhaustion (Maslach and Jackson, 1996; Onder and Basim 2008).
Occupational stress refers to the process through employees perceive, appraise and
respond to adverse or challenging job demand at work (Freseand Zapf; 1988). Job stress is
still a major rising concern in most countries. Job stress was defined as the occurrence of
negative emotions that are evoked by demanding situation in the workplace. Job stress and
strain may damage mental and physical health. Whether people perceive conditions as
stressful or whether these perceptions of stress lead to psychological, physiological or
behavioural outcomes, however depends on individual and situational factors-conditioning
variables (House and Wells, 1978; House, 1981; LaRocco, House and French, Jr., 1980.)
Stress is a state of tension experienced by individuals facing extra ordinary demands,
constraints or opportunities.
Review of literature
The literature cites the various studies conducted in this area. The some of the studies
conducted in this area have been discussed in the following paragraphs:
Sveinsdottir et.al, (2005) compared the occupational stress, job satisfaction, working
environment, support from co-workers and opportunities to develop professional skills
among Iceland nurses. Occupational stress differs between cultures and countries and it
diminishes the nursing quality. A sample of 206 nurses was taken. Demographic
information, working conditions, job satisfaction, and occupational stress were included in
the questionnaire. SPSS was used for analysis. ANOVA, Chi-square test and Pearson

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correlation were used. It was found that demographics variables did not differ significantly.
Nurses were least satisfied with salary and opportunities for promotion. Shortage of staff
led to stress. Nurses outside hospital significantly received less support compared to
hospital nurses. It was suggested that preventive measures must be introduced to overcome
stress.
Narayan S.J. (2005) focussed on women in management and occupational stress. Women’s
are being called the managers of 21st century. A sample of 30 women managers from
Durban and surrounding areas was taken. Organisational policies, structure, culture, factors
intrinsic to job of management, quantitative and qualitative workload, leadership style,
career development and individual characterstics are the sources of stress in work place. It
was found that there is no significant variation in stressors experienced by women
managers in public and private sector. Female skills and attitudes should be developed by
brand managers. It was suggested that ecosystem approach should focus on individual,
organisational and societal interventions be implemented to minimise occupational stress
among working women.
Praveen N. (2009) investigated occupational stress experienced by working and non-
working women of Hyderabad city. A sample of 180 working women was taken out of which
90 were married and 90 were unmarried. These two groups were analyzed by organisational
stress scale. Five point likert scale was used and it was found that unmarried working
women experiences low stress as compared to married women. It was concluded that
household responsibilities, marital adjustment, child caring issues and family relationship
are the sources of stress for married working women.
Anotonious et.al, (2006) identified the sources of occupational stress and professional
burnout experienced by teachers in Greece primary and secondary schools. A sample of 493
teachers was taken out of which majority of the teachers were married. Six point likert scale
was used and three dimensions of professional burnout were assessed that were emotional
enthusiasm, depersonalisation and reduced personal accomplishment. The sources of stress
refer to problems while interacting with students, large number of pupils in classroom, lack
of interest from pupils and problem in handling students. Professional burnout was
examined by using bivariate and Univariate analysis of variance. Young teachers reported

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higher level of burnout as compared to older colleagues. It was found that female teachers
experienced more stress as compared to male teachers. It was suggested that a proper
student ration teacher ratio be adopted to overcome this problem.
Adeline Broadbridge (2000) identifies the sources of stress among female managers in retail
sector. A sample of 132 retail managers was taken. Five point Likert scale was used. Work
overload, time pressure and deadlines, insufficient staff, long working hours are found to be
sources of stress. It was suggested that female retail managers have to work harder to prove
themselves to top management. Educational programmes, career planning, assertiveness
training, confidence building and successful negotiation should be adopted to overcome
stress.
Barbara et.al, (1997) focused on the critical life of women. Face to face interview consisting
of demographic details, sources of pressure, motivators and mental health. A sample of 82
female doctors was taken for analysis. T-test, Cronbach’s alpha was utilized to test the
reliability. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the sources of pressure. It was
found that hospital doctors are living alone childless. Career development, long working
hours, organisational climate, job demands and external factors were found to be the main
sources of stress. It was concluded that stress leads to organisational deficiency, increased
anxiety and dissatisfaction. It was concluded that women must be given encouragement and
support from superiors in order to reduce stress.
Rosalie (1980) compared the occupational stress profile of male vs. female administrators.
A 35 item questionnaire was developed for measuring job stress. A sample of 1156 school
administrators was taken. To examine the relationship between stress and each of the four
factors of stress correlation analysis was performed. It was found that female administrators
compared low level of stress than that of males. It appears that female administrators are
well prepared to perform their functions and activities.
Esther et.al (2007) identified and compared the international and cultural differences in
nursing workplace stress and coping strategies. 328 NSW (New South Wales) and 190 New
Zealand volunteer acute care hospital nurses participated in the study. The two regions
were compared on the basic demographics and SF-36 using T-test to compare percentages.
It was found that stress is associated with negative health effects. It was suggested that

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providing nurses with greater workplace and professional autonomy could reduce
workplace stress. It was suggested that stress can be reduced by providing better health
benefits and through training in how best to cope with stress.
Orly et.al (2012) examined occupational stress among the nurses of the southern part of
Israel. The sample for the study was 36 registered nurses of 28 to 60 years of age and
consisted of two groups. A group study which participated in the CBI course and a control
group matched by age, education, marital status and hospital department. The data were
collected at two measuring points, at the beginning of the study and four months later upon
the completion of the study using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Seven-point
likert scale was used to which each of the 13 statements represented their attitude. Chi-
square test was carried out to examine differences between two groups on the categorical
demographic variables. T-test was used to examine differences in psychological variables
between the study group and control group. ANCOVA was used to test group effects on the
personality variables and transitory mood states.
Brenda et.al (2013) studied how nurses cope with occupational stress outside their
workplaces. A sample of 38 registered nurses in regional acute care hospital was taken. A
total of six focus groups were conducted to explore how nurses managed work-related
stress outside the hospital environment. From the focus groups 11 coping strategies
emerged including drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco, using staff social club, using social
networking websites, exercising, family activities, home based activities, outdoor activities,
avoiding people and displacing anger. It was suggested that health care organisations should
explore ways in which they could be encouraged to be more activeboth at work and during
their leisure time. The limitation of the study is that it is based on female nurses and sample
size is also very small.
Vedat (2004) determined job stress and coping strategies in health care professionals
working with cancer patients. The main aim of the study is to find out differences between
job stress scores of physicians and nurses. What are the important health problems arising
due to stress and what are the important variables causing differences between the stress
scores of physicians and nurses and what strategies should be used in order to reduce
stress. A sample of 109 health care professionals including 57 nurses and 52 physicians was

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taken. Self-reported questionnaire and job stress inventory was used to determine the
stress level of health care professionals. T-test was used to find out the relationship
between job stress scores, age and sex. Kruskall- Wallis Analysis was used to determine the
significance of relationship between marital and education status of job stress scores.
Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient was calculated to determine the significance of the
relationship between job stress scores, age and experience. It has been determined that
marital status, age and work experience have a significant relationship with job stress. Lack
of appreciation by superiors, unfairness in opportunities, imbalance between job and
authority, conflict with colleagues, role responsibilities, long and tiring work hours, lack of
adequate equipment’s, lack of time for family and social responsibilities and problems
experienced with patients and their relatives are the causes of stress among health care
professionals. It was found that there was no significant difference between nurses and
physicians in terms of overall score. Positive relationship with colleagues, loving ones job,
participating in socio-cultural activities together with their clinic member, earning money by
starting private practice, gaining the administration of superiors, patients and their relatives,
good dialog with the patient and communication with other staff, improvement of financial
status, attending dinners, going to movies, spending time with family, successful time
management, participating in meetings and conferences to develop oneself are the factors
that physicians. On the other hand increased social activities, music, tea breaks,
improvement in financial status, sharing problems with colleagues, harmonious team work,
and feeling of being productive and useful are the factors that are reducing stress among
the nurses. Headache, excessive nervousness, disturbances are the effects of stress on
health. It was suggested that mediating relationship between stressors experienced in
workplace and psychological morbidity are the coping resources used to reduce stress.
Nezhad et.al (2010) examined the occupational stress and family difficulties among working
female. A sample of 250 married working women with two or more children was taken.
Sources of work stress inventory consisting of sources of stress scale and general work scale
were used. Five point Likert scale was used. SPSS was used and data was analysed using
multivariate and correlation analysis. Family and difficulty are inter-related. Stress and work
family difficulty can make negative influence on individual mentality and health. Three

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hypothesis were assumed first was a positive relationship exists between occupational
stress and family difficulties, second was significant multiple relationship will exist between
sources of stress and the third was work home interface was best predictor for family
difficulties in working womenThe results supported the entire three hypotheses and it was
suggested that mothers with high level of stress experiences difficulty in family. It was
concluded that educational tools must be developed to reduce stress among working
women.
Gibbons and Gibbons (2007) examined the occupational stress experienced by chefs. A
sample of 40 Northern Ireland chef and cook association and Northern Ireland tourist board
hotel was taken. General health questionnaire was constructed to experience the factors
contributing to stress and experience of stress. Regression analysis was used to predict locus
of control and occupational stress. It was found that there is no significant difference in
locus of control and number of working conditions such as employment contract and job
description. It was found that when nature of work changes it becomes less boring. Lack of
feedback on performance and insufficient management will contribute to stress. It was
suggested that increased communication in kitchen with management and supportive
environment may reduce stress. Job rotation and work appraisal should be adopted to
reduce ill health.
Carr et.al (2011) focussed on strategies for promoting a healthier and productive
environment. Employees in organisation faces higher or much higher stress compared to
normal stress. Stress negatively effects health and performance of employees. Stress may
be due to job demands, individual differences and social demands. Symptoms of stress may
be mental, physical, behavioural and emotional. Stress results into high absenteeism,
increased turnover rates, low productivity and poor quality. Regular exercise, meditation,
yoga and peer support helped to reduce stress. It was suggested that management should
improve communication, appreciate workload and ensure fair treatment of employees in
order to reduce stress. Reduced stress improves into quality of work and high performance.
The above studies have touched the various aspects relating to oocupational stress among
working women, but none of the study seems to have touched the area relating to

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oocupational stress among working women at the regional or State level. The present study
proposes to fill the gap in existing literature.
Objectives and Research Methodology
The objective of the study was to study the major factors responsible for occupational stress
among working women. To achieve this objective the data was collected from 120 working
women. The survey was conducted in NCR region. The working women that formed the
sample were selected randomly keeping in mind the variation in age and type of occupation.
The survey was done with the help of a well-structured questionnaire based on Likert type
five point scale ranging from Never to Always”. Statistical tools like one way ANOVA, mean,
standard deviation are used to analyse the data.
Hypothesis of the study
The following hypotheses were framed and tested in respect of the factors causing
occupational stress among the working women
H1: There is no significant difference between age of working women and inability to give
time to family.
H2: There is no significant difference between age of working women and feeling of inability
to learn enough to take higher responsibility.
H3: There is no significant difference between ages of working women and feeling that
amount of work they have to do is more than it should be.
H4: There is no significant difference between age of working women and feeling that they
are having too much responsibility.
H5: There is no significant difference between age of working women and feeling that they
are having vague and unclear directions.
H6: There is no significant difference between age of working women and feeling that they
are having lack of opportunities.
H7: There is no significant difference between age of working women and feeling that they
are having lack of freedom.
H8: There is no significant difference between age of working women and feeling that they
are having lack of infrastructure and facilities.

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H9: There is no significant difference between age of working women and feeling that they
are having lack of support from colleagues.
Results and Discussion
Each table shows age-wise distribution of working women and their association with each
statement among different age groups. For analysis age is divided into five classes: less than
25 years, 25-35 years, 35-45 years, 45-55 years and above 55 years.Twenty of the
respondents belonged to the age group ‘less than 25’, while 60 belonged to ’‘25-35’ years of
age group,19 belonged to the age group ‘35-45’, 12 fell under the age group ‘45-55’, and 3
respondents were found to be more than 55 years of age.

TABLE1: Age of working women and inability to give time to family.


Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 2.90 1.20961 2.128, df=4
25-35 66 3.0303 .99181 (.082)
35-45 19 2.3684 1.3828
45-55 12 2.3333 1.4354
Above 55 03 3.6667 2.30940
Grand total 120 2.8500 1.19979
Source: Primary Survey
Table 1 shows opinion of working women towards their regards their inability to give time
family on the basis of age. Inability to give time to family is an important factor causing
stress among working women. However, among working women of different age groups,
the effect of this factors seems to vary. The overall mean score (2.8500) reveals that
working women sometimes unable to give time to their family. Working women in
the age group of 25-35 and above 55 are frequently unable to give time to their family.
Working women in the age group 35-45 more faces this problem relatively more as
compared to working women from 45-55 years of age. Working women from the age group
of 45-55 years least’s face this problem. Working women above 55 years of age more faces
this problem relatively more as compared to working women of other age groups.It may be

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because in the age group 25-35 mostly working women are having growing children and due
to work load they are unable to give time to their children and the women above 55 years
have excess work load because of their experience due to which they are not able to give
time to their family as a result they feel stress. The F-value found to be statistically
significant. The hypothesis of no significant difference between the two variables stands
rejected.
TABLE 2: Age of working women with feeling of their inability, to learn enough to take
higher responsibility.
Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 2.1500 1.46089 1.084,
25-35 66 2.0909 1.11944 df=4 (.368)
35-45 19 2.0000 .94281
45-55 12 1.4167 .51493
Above 55 03 2.3333 .57735
Grand total 120 2.0250 1.11115
Source:Primary Survey
Table 2 highlights the opinion of working women regarding their inability to learn enough to
take higher responsibility. The overall mean value of 2.0250 suggests that working women
are sometimes unable to learn enough to take higher responsibility. Working women below
25 years of age faces this problem more than working women in the age group 25-35 .
Working women in the age group of 45-55 years are occasionally unable to learn enough to
take higher responsibility. Working women in other age groups are sometimes unable learn
enough to take higher responsibility. While working women in the age group of above 55
years more faces this problem relatively more as compared to working women in other age
groups. It may be because they are unable to take challenging tasks the reason being they
are various office problems. It was suggested that more responsibilities should be given to
working women in 35-45 and45-55 age groups so that they can make best use of their
calibre and be able to learn enough to take higher responsibility. The F-value found to be
statistically insignificant. The hypothesis of no significant difference between the two
variables stands accepted.

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TABLE 3:Age of working women with feeling that the amount of work is more.
Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 2.1500 1.2258 0.259, df=4
25-35 66 2.1061 1.03966 (.904)
35-45 19 2.1579 .95819
45-55 12 1.8333 .83485
Above 55 03 2.3333 1.15470
Grand total 120 2.1000 1.03225
Source:Primary Survey
Table 3 highlights the opinion of working women towards the feeling that the amount of
work they have to do is more than it should be. The overall mean value 2.1000 suggests that
working women sometimes have to do more work. Working women in the age group of less
than 25 more feels that the amount of work they have to do is more than it should be.
Working women in the age group of 45-55 occasionally feels that the amount of work they
have to do is relatively more as compared to working women in the age group 25-35. While
working women in other age group sometimes face this problem. Working women above 55
years of age also feels that the amount of work they have to do is more than it should be as
compared to other age groups. It seems that organisations are imposing more
responsibilities on higher age groups and they are also having health problems due to which
they are not able to work more. Work overload is a major cause of occupational stress in
working women. The F-value found to be statistically insignificant. The hypothesis of no
significant difference between the two variables stands accepted.
TABLE 4: Age of working women with the feeling of having too much responsibility.
Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 2.5000 1.000 1.742
25-35 66 2.6970 1.13639 df=4,(.146)
35-45 19 2.4237 1.36352
45-55 12 2.6667 1.37069
Above 55 03 3.6667 2.30940

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Grand total 120 2.6500 1.18570
Source: Primary Survey

Table 4 highlights the age of working women and their opinion towards having too much
responsibility. Having too much responsibility is a major factor causing occupational stress
among working women. Overall mean value 2.6500 suggests that working women
sometimes feel that they are having too much responsibility. Working women above 55
years of age frequently feels that they are having too much responsibility. It may be because
they are having more responsibilities due to more experienced as compared to working
women of other age group. Working women from the age group 35-45 least’s faces this
problem. It is because they are more energetic and enthusiastic as compared to other
classes of age groups. It seems that working women in other age group might be having less
family responsibilities as compared to women above 55 years of age. The F-value found to
be statistically insignificant. The hypothesis of no significant difference between the two
variables stands accepted.
TABLE 5: Age of working women and having vague and unclear directions.
Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 2.000 1.25656 .757
25-35 66 2.4091 1.20227 df=4,(.556)
35-45 19 2.4211 1.30451
45-55 12 2.1667 1.33712
Above 55 03 3.000 1.73205
Grand total 120 2.333 1.24572
Source:Primary Survey
Table 5 highlights the age of working women and their opinion of having vague and unclear
directions. Having vague and unclear direction is a major cause of occupational stress. The
overall mean value 2.333 suggests that working women are sometimes facing vague and
unclear directions. It may be because they are not having proper guidance and authority
from their superiors to do their job. Working women from the age group 25-35, 35-45, 45-
55 and more feels that they have to work under vague and unclear directions as compared

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working women in the age group less than 25. On the othjer hand, working women above
55 years of age faces this problem more than other age groups . It is because they have to
face extra responsibilities, complex and heavy workload because of their experience due to
which they feel stress. The F-value found to be statistically insignificant. The hypothesis of
no significant difference between the two variables stands accepted.
TABLE 6 : Age of working women with feeling of having lack of opportunities.
Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 2.8500 .98809 0.704, df=4
25-35 66 3.2121 1.35323 (.591)
35-45 19 3.8421 1.30227
45-55 12 4.000 1.47100
Above 55 03 5.000 .000
Grand total 120 3.3750 1.34766
Source:Primary Survey
Table 6 highlights the age of working women and their feeling of lack of opportunities. The
overall mean score 3.3750 suggests that working women frequently feel lack of
opportunities in their profession. Working women from age group less than 25 sometimes
feel that they have lack of opportunities. Working women in the age group 25-35 years, 35-
45 years and 45-55years frequently feels that they are having lack of opportunities. Working
women in the age group 25-35 years, 35-45 years faces this problem relatively less as
compared to working women in higher age groups. The mean score in the former case
varies from 3.2121 from 3.8421 whereas in the latter case the mean score value varies from
4 to 5. The highest mean scoreof working women in the age group above 55 further shows
that opportunities available to them are limited. More opportunities should be made
available to working women in higher age groups in order to utilise their experience. From
the table it is clear that the feeling of having lack of responsibilities is increasing with
increase in age.It is because younger working women are more adventurous as compared to
working women from older age groups. The F-value found to be statistically insignificant.
The hypothesis of no significant difference between the two variables stands accepted.
TABLE-7 Age of working women and feeling of having lack of freedom.

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Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 3.5500 1.14593 2.089
25-35 66 3.1364 1.16205 df=4,(.087)
35-45 19 3.2105 .97633
45-55 12 3.3333 1.37069
Above 55 03 3.6667 .57735
Grand total 120 3.2500 1.13944
Source: Primary Survey
Table 7 highlights the age of working women and their feeling regarding lack of freedom.
Having lack of freedom is an important cause of occupational stress. Overall mean score
3.2500 suggests that working women frequently feels that they are having lack of freedom.
It may be due to pressure from superiors. Working women in the age group of 25-35 years
least’s faces this problem as compared to other age groups. While working women in the
age group of above 55 years faces this problem relatively more as compared to other age
groups. It seems that the organisations are still lacking confidence to give freedom to
working women in the higher age groups. The F-value found to be statistically significant.
The hypothesis of no significant difference between the two variables stands rejected.

TABLE-8 Age of working women and feeling of having lack of facilities and infrastructure.
Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 3.000 1.12390 2.293(.064)
25-35 66 2.8636 1.21385
35-45 19 3.4211 1.12130
45-55 12 2.1667 1.19342
Above 55 03 3.000 1.73205
Grand total 120 2.9083 1.21611
Source: Primary Survey
Table 8 highlights the age of working women and their feeling regarding lack of facilities and
infrastructure. Lack of facilities and infrastructure is an important factor causing

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occupational stress. Overall mean value 2.9083 suggests that working women sometimes
face the problem of lack of facilities and infrastructure. Working women in the age group
35-45 sometimes face this problem.The least value of standard deviation in this age group
points out that the feeling was higher in this group as compared to other classes of age
groups.While Working women in the age group less 25 years and above 55 years of age also
face this problem the reason being young working women need more infrastructure due to
less experience. On the other hand working women above 55 years of age face this problem
due to lack of ability to handle various day to day office problems. Working women in the
age group of 45-55 least’s faces this problem.The F-value found to be statistically significant.
The hypothesis of no significant difference between the two variables stands rejected.
TABLE-9:Age of working women and lack of support from colleagues.
Age in years N Mean SD F-value
Less than 25 20 3.1000 .71818 2.500(.046)
25-35 66 2.8636 1.21385
35-45 19 3.4211 1.2130
45-55 12 2.1677 1.19342
Above 55 03 3.000 1.73205
Grand total 120 2.9083 1.21611
Source: Primary Survey
Table 9 highlights the age of working women and their feeling regarding support from
colleagues. Lack of support from superior and colleagues is an important factor causing
occupational stress. Overall mean value 2.9083 suggests that working women sometimes
faces stress. Working women in the age group of less than 25 frequently faces stress. It may
because they are fresh and have less experience as compared to other classes of age groups
due to which they did not receive support from colleagues. Working women in the age
group of 35-45 years more frequently faces this problem as compared to other groups. It is
because due to heavy competition between the working women they did not receive
support from their colleagues. While working women in the age group of 45-55 years least’s
faces this problem as compared to other classes of age group. The F-value found to be

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statistically significant. The hypothesis of no significant difference between the two
variables stands rejected.
Conclusion
The foregoing analysis reveals that there exist significant variations between the age of
working women and various factors causing occupational stress. Working women in the
higher age groups face the problem of stress more than other age groups. The sources of
stress are household responsibilities, job demands, lack of support, lack of facilities and
infrastructure, having too much responsibility, inability to give time to family, inability to
learn enough to take higher responsibilities, having more work load, vague and unclear
directions. As the study was conducted in the NCR region a huge diversity was found
regarding the working women. It is the time to realise that working women significantly
contributes towards economic and social development of the country. The growth of the
working women should be looked upon from the perspective of family, state and national
development. In a comparable occupational setting, working women perceive higher level
of life stress and work stress It was suggested that working women must be provided with
peer support, favourable working environment, less working hours, proper supervision and
training, assistance with child care and developing zero tolerance policies to reduce stress.
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